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CAP Airports, Airways & Electronics (1956)

CAP Airports, Airways & Electronics (1956)

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AND

Errolo Sheet

YS s

AIRPORTS, AIRWAYS,

AND EITCIROI{KS
Poge I 4, porogroph l, third sentence should reod, By meons of rodio, oirplone

pilots ore given toke-off qnd londing
instructions.

Poge I 7, losl porogroph continued on pog.e 18, should reod: "Following Edison's observofion, on Englishmon nomed Fleming discovered thot if he ploced o filoment (o loop of very fine wirel ond o metolplote within o vocuum tube, elecirons would flow when lhe filomenl wos

heoted ond the plote wos positive. He

negotive, thot clthough electrons still boiled oft the heoted filoment they did
ment. (Unlike ottrocts, like repels.l

olso discovered, when he mqde the plote

nol flow but gothered qround lhe filo-

Poge I 9, porogroph 3, lost sentence should reodr The more they ore compressed, the more lhe current flow; the
less they ore compressed, the less the

currenl flow. Poge 44, finol porogroph, line ten; Delete sentence beginning: "Upon its finol londing opprooch, etc. . . ."

l
1

l

Poge 47 , lllustrotion: At oltitudes vnder 700' in control oreos ond elsewhere the minimum visibiliiy is one ('l I
cleor of clouds.

mile; the minimum cloud cleoronce if

I IT z
2
II
a

o

{

I
p o

o

Copyrighl 1956 by Civil Air Pqlrol, hcorPorol.d

Horold E. Mehrens Writer

Williom E.

Rowlond

Arl

Director

AIRP(lRTS,
AIRTTAYS,

ETECTR(I]IIGS

*

G(ll{TEI{TS
Poge

01{E

Growth ond

Deve1opment..................

1

TW(l
THREE

The Chorting

of Airports ond Airwoys

7

Electronics

ln

r{viotion...

r3

F(lUR
FIUE

Why Airports Are

Necessory...................

23

Airwoys, ond the Focilities of Air Troffic Control

29

srx
SEUEI{

The Regulotion of Air Troffic

1............

37

The Resurorion or Air Troftic

'

45

Summory

55

'U
Il
r.l
-t

0T eu.) 0'r

cL

Current technologicol developmenls in dif-

ferent but relqied oreos qppecrr to be interdependent. Such is certoinly the cose with
respecl to progress in the field of oviotion rodio ond thot in ihe field of electronics generolly. The use of rodio in oviotion hos enqbled oviofion to brooden the scope of its

Pref nce
Airports, Airways, and Aviation ElectroniGs is one of o series of six pocket-sized books prepored for use in the oviotion educotion progrom of the Civil Air Potrol.
It is to be used with on instructionol 35 mm. color, sound
filmstrip which illustrotes the concepts which it introduces. The purpose of his book is to describe in terms of secondory-school student understondings the scientific principles bqsic to oirport ond oirwoy operolions. The growth of oirports ond oirwoys is reviewed. The oeronouticol chort is presented os o source of informotion

operolion ond services. ln order io hqndle the qir troffic lhus generoted, new eleclronic
devices hod to be invented. Reseqrch directed

loword lhis problem discovered not only new devices for oir trqffic control but qlso new devices whose opplicotion is destined to offect mony olher industriol fields.
New mochines bosed upon electronic principles, whelher used in oviotion or elsewhere, hove implicotion for brood educqtion ond

lroining. A mochine moy surplont the mon who does o meniol losk; mon still remqins the mqster of such mqchine. Bul men ore not born with the knowledge ond the skills such mostery requires. These must be leorned. The foundotions for their leorning ore the fundomentol
scientific ideos underlying the operotion of ihe

eleclronic devices which it oppeqrs will soon dominole ihe socio-economic scene. The Civil Air Potrol seeks to o:sist those who

would help youth bring both understondings

ond skills lo the solution of the sociologicol problems which our scientific ond technologicol odvoncement oppeors to hove creoted. To this end it offers its services to orgonized formql educolion, ond it supports o notionql
youlh movement. lts oviotion educotion series will serve well to ocquoint the high school student ond the Civil Air Potrol codet with informotion essentiol to the generol understondings in oviqtion ond mony of its reloled
fields.

obout oirports ond oirwoys. A simple explonotion is given of the rodio circuit os the bosic operotionol principle of the focilities of oirwoy morking ond of oirport ond oirwoy troffic control. The noture of those electronic devices, which moke possible the dispotch of oirport ond oirwoy functions, is exploined. Finolly, the methods employed ot oirports ond olong oirwoys lo prevent oirtroffic conflicts ore discussed. The book's treotment of lhe severol oreos with which it is concerned is sufficiently generol to be of bosic importonce to oll oviotion coreer obiectives. Yel, its contenl is detoiled enough to chollenge the interesl of students ond odults olike. Although its first use will be with Civil Air Potrol codets, it will be found of consideroble volue in ony science closs or ony other closs thot stresses the role of scientific concepts in relotion lo oirports ond oirwoy operotions. The books ond filmstrips of this series ore not limited lo use with Civil Air Potrol codets only. They will be found of volue to studenls ond leqchers in ony oviotioh progrom. Those working with odults moy olso find this moteriol helpful, if the instruction or informotion goql is generol educotion os it relotes to oviotion.

The odvice on technicol mollers received from lhe Civil Air Potrol Heodquorlers, Office of Operolions ond
Troining, ond the odvice on educolionol mollers provided by the Aviolion Educqtion Personnel helped mqteriolly in the preporotion of this book. Speciol ocknowledgement is olso due to Mr. lrving Ripps of the Civil Air Potrol, Office of lnformolion Services, ond lo conlributing members of the Civil Air Potrol Notionol Commonder's Aviotion Educqtion Committee for suggeslions qnd odvice offered. The nomes of the members of lhe lhree groups menlioned obove oppeor elsewhere in this booklet.

MERVIN

K.

STRICKLER, JR.

Direclor

ol

Aviotion Edvcotion

CHAPTER
01{E
I't

,,{,

:i:;:'

It is likely lhol oirport growth would hove proceeded ol q

less

GR||TTTH

A]ID

DEUETOPMEI{T

You have heord it soid thof on oirplone con trovel from ony point on lhe surfoce ol lhe earth to ony olher such poinf. ln theory, this is lrue. ln lheory, such lrovel con follow q direct roule. There ore no surfoce obslocles such os mountqins ond deserls in the poth of on

ropid rote hod not the Federol Government oided in the construction of oirporls. Such oid wos first mode ovoiloble in the eorly 1930's. However, it wos not until lhe possoge of the Federol Airport Act of 1946 thot o substontiql oid progrom wos sel up. This qcl outhorized o moximum expenditure of one-hundred-million dollors per yeor for

oirporl improvement ond qonslruction.

oirplone's flight.

The need for oirporls.

A

modern airporl,

ln proctice, however, oircroft need oirporfs ond oir lones, iust os ships need seoporls ond seo lones. ln the doys of the pioneer pilot when oviotion wos very young, oirplones yvere oll smoll ond ony
cow poslure could be used os o "flying field," However, when the volue of oircrofl qs o procticol mode of tronsportolion wos recognized ond when the militory pofentiol of qviotion wos understood, lorge oirplones begon to be built. Airport growth hod to keep poce

with qircroft development.
,t:itt.,..: ::
':"'

Airport growth.
Eorly oirporfs were merely sod felds designoled os oirplone londing oreos. When lhese proved inodequote. cinder ond grovel runwoys up lo 1500 feet in length were conslructed. These were loid out so thot oircrqft hod o choice of londing diriction ond could lond inlo lhe prevdiling wind. As lorger oircroft were built ond these oirporls, in lurn. become inodequole, runwoys were lengthened qnd

, .:",.39 .t
-JF

surfoced wilh concrele. ln 1928, only twenty-five yeors ofter the historic flighr ot Kitty Howk, there were 1,300 oirports ol oll types in the United Stoles. Two yeors loler, lhere were 1,800 oirports of oll types. However, only 600 of these were lighted ond could occommodqte nighl fime, flight operotions. Todoy lhere ore obout 7,000 oirporls of oll types serving the cities ond lowns of this counlry. As o molter of foct, on oirport of some type con now be found qt inlervols of 15 lo 30 miles olong most designoted oirwoys.

i

I

I

Continued oirport growlh ond developmenl.

i

Airporl growlh is likely lo conlinue for mony yeors lo come. Modern tronsport plones, powered by reciprocoting engines, lond ol speeds up to 100 mph. ln o few yeors, ofter iet propulsion comes into greoler use, londing speeds of lronsporl oircroft ore likely to increose to 125 mph. A 100 mph londing speed requires q runwoy of opproximotely 6,000 feei. A londing speed of 125 mph will require q runwoy between 8,000 ond 10,000 feet long depending, of course. upon whether or nol improved chonges ore mode in the londing ond broking techniques now employed.
The purpose

f

lighting of oirwoys by powerful electric seorchlights wos begun lhe nexl yeqr. By 1926, q line of lhese oirwoy beocons, ploced every len or fifteen miles olong lhe oirwoys, extended from coosl to coqst. On q cleor nighl, o pilot could see lhree or four lights oheod ond, by keeping lhese in line, could sloy on his course. There were olso roule identificotion ond course lights instolled on the beocon lowers. ldentiftcotion lights, using lhe internqtionol Morse code, floshed on ossigned signol ot regulor intervqls. Course lighls were fixed so thol one pointed one wqy olong the oirwoy ond qnolher pointed in the opposite direction. The rqdio signol ond oirwoy morking.

of

oirwoys.

Designoted oirwoys leod from oirport to oirporl. They ore morked

to help the pilot or lhe novigolor keep the oircrofl on ils course. lmprovemenls in oirwoy morking ore mqde necessory by developmenls in oircrqft ond oirport consfruction.
Eorly methods of oirwoy morkings.

ln

1919, two yeors before the first nighr flight

of oir moil, o

ln 1921 , when Jock Knight mqde the ffrst scheduled night f,ight, corrying moil from North Plotte, Nebrosko, to Chicogo, lllinois, the flight poth he followed wor morked by bonfires on lhe ground.

reseorch proiect in lhe use of rqdio in oirplones wqs undertoken by the University of Morylond. However, il wos not until 1927 thot rodio rqnges were used lo supplement light beocons. The eorly use of lhese rodio ronge slotions wos limited. Only sevenleen were operoting by the close of 1927, Todoy, over 400 ore in operction. The morking of oirwoys with rodio broodcosting focilities progressed until by 1940 there were oboul 40,000 miles of oir roules deffned by four-course rodio ronges.

F

i-lNEW YORX

Low frequency omni-directional range
I
nt er

conli ne ntol Novigotion)

BUIMUDA

v
.J: f;

i
The growth
,,&

]I

ror

t

1

of oir

morking.

it,ll'r t!::l:rr "it *$ *.".-'";t' rrrrrrkiiti;{.

The eorly 1940's sow the use of the four-course rodio-rqnge stotion* increose until ot the end of the yeor, 1946, there were obout 346 ol these in operotion. However, the number of oircroft using the oirwoys olso increosed. Consequently, beginning with 1946, serious oir-trqffic problems begon to emerge. After coreful study wos mode of oirwoy troffic problems ond reseorch ond experiment hod proven the copobilities of new electronic devices, o new system colled the common syslem wos put into use. The new method of morking the oirwoys of our notion could not reploce the old methods oll ot once for some very procticol reqsons. One of these reosons wos economic. Vost sums of money would be required lo purchose new rodio tronsmitting equipment for oirwoys ond rodio receiving inslruments for oircrofl. Another reoson wqs educotionol. Those using lhe oirwoys hod become occustomed lo one system; they would hove to leorn to use o new one. Rototing beocon lights still mork some oirwoys; four-course oirwoys ore still morked by lour-course ronge sfofions; yet, new designoted oir routes morked by rodio-ronge stotions which use equipment bosed upon ihe very high-frequency port of the rodio spectrum ore ropidly coming into use. About 500 such stotions hod been instolled by 1956 ond the Federol Government's oir-trofiic progrom colled for instolling severol hundred more during the three yeors

following.
* See Chopter V, p.31.

ffiffiffiffi.trffiffi

WWffi

i: I .,

-t'

Lond -'..'l

. Civil

'ilj
Lond

Civil

Joint
&

Militory

tr#$ffi

ffi#$ffiffi'ffi$ru6$

I,$f,
Jtffiffi

,ftfiffiP{gffi $ ry
Lond

ffi$ffiW,qYffi

. Militory

Aeronouticol chorts reveol much obout oirports ond oirwoys. For this reoson ond ofhers, they ore indispensoble to pilots. However, before o pilot con use o chort efficiently, he must know how io reod the symbols which he finds upon it.

ll is importont thot you understond obout the growth ond developof oirports ond oirwoys. lt is of greoter importonce thot you ore oble, when the need orises, to leorn other things obout them from on oeronouticol chort. ln order to do this, you, like the pilot,
ments must become oble to interpret the symbols thot the chort-moker uses. i-"ir:l:ili{i*s:;;ii,prr

Water . Civil

af ,*iipr'i'

.

The chort-moker colls oirports ond oirboses (militory oirports) oerodromes. ln oddition to the method oI oirport clossificotion which divides oirports into public oirports ond limited oirports, there ore other methods of clossifying oerodromes, (llAirports or oerodromes ore either for lond plones, or seo plones. (2! They ore civil, militory, or ioint (used by boih civilion ond militory oircroft). (3) They ore
tt'

Civil

Wqter
&

.

Joinr

Miliror

..1-.... ..
'!,

,^

, .'

.li

r(.r'i.,]r:

Milircry

Rodio Ronge
iWiiir
Vr ir:t l

[l*t"r"* -*;l
L

2s7 BAL tu -.,-.
-

I

for heovier-thon-oir croft, lighter-thon-oir crofl, ond helicopters. (4) They ore equipped with troffic conlrol ond service focilities, or they ore emergency oerodromes with no focilifies. (See poge 9.1
The chort ond oirporl informolion.
You will remember thot there is o relolionship between oir density ond the oltitude ot which on oirplone operotes. Al seo level oirports lhe oir is more dense lhon it is ot oirports hoving elevotions of 500

Nsndirecfionql Rodiobeqqon
i'/''ri
,

ri Voi; :l

R*rdio 0ornnilunicfifion $fotion
i'1i, , r'
;.:;:l

uowtN Rn.0r() /\--------j \J i 4470
L -.--

C5

I
I

-.*_--_ --_-- *_...

.-

-

J

feet, or more; for, qs you remember, the higher the oltitude, the less dense the oir. You will olso remember thqt oir densily hos o relotionship to lift, ond thot lhe less dense the oir, lhe longer the "toke-off" run or "londing-roll" required for qircrqff operotion. For this reoson the pilot needs to know the elevolion in feet of the oirport he opprooches. There qre other lhings he musl know oboul lhe oirport. His chqrf will tell him obout mosl of these. His flight informotion monuol, o Civil Aeronoutics Adminislrolion publicotion, will give him informqtion obout the others, such os for exomple, recenl chonges in oirports ond oirwoys focilities. The pilot con leorn from his chort whelher or not on oirpori is odequotely lighted for night flight operotions. He con leorn the length of iis longest runwoy, whether or not it hos lowvisibility opprooch systems, ond whether or nol there is o directionfinding stotion ol the oirport. (See poge 30 for explonotions of these lroftic conlrol focilities.) He con olso leorn from his chorl the tronsmilting frequencies of lhe conlrol lower, so thot he con "lune-in" lhe proper frequency qnd receive informqtion ond instruclions from the lower. The symbols used to disclose oirporl information ore presenled in the following illustrotion. You will note thqt runwoy length is given in hundreds of feet ond thot o dosh in lhe ploce of o symbol meons lhot the fociliiy in question is not ovoiloble.
908
L

R*dor Heflcoffi

'r'

,

: ,',;

o

'*----- --,1 {t

,-*,_,

.-- RACON,___.-._.1 1256 2-l 2
|

l'he qhart and eiirwcy inforrnslion.
The rodio ronges, beocons, communicolion stotions qnd broodcosting slotions ore olso shown on chorls, Generolly such stotions

ore locoled neor oirporls. lf o rodio focility uses lhe low/medium rodio frequencies (LF,/MFI the chort symbol will be prinled in red; if ii uses lhe very high rodio frequency (VHFI the symbol will be printed in blue. lf voice broodcosl is included in lhe service provided, the word, "Rodio," will follow the nqme of lhe oirporl neor which the stotion or beocon is locoted. Airwoys morked bv LF/MF ronge stotions ore designoted by the colors, Red, Green, Blue, ond rAmber qnd o number. Such on oirwoy might be designoted qs Green 5 or Red 68. Airwoys morked by o VOR (Very High Frequency Omnironge) qre colled Victor oirwoys. They ore designoted by the letter V ond q number. Viclor oirwoys which extend in on eoslerly-weslerly direclion employ even numbers; those in o northerly-southerly direction, odd numbert. Olher controlled civil oirwoys indicote direction by use of nomes of colors. Red ond green oirwoys exlend eosterly-westerly; blue ond omber,
northerly-southerly.

BARGTRSVII".LE

Elevalion in feet Minimum Lighting

908 LH4t
,t,itlr't1 1{.rr,1',

Chort symbols of sr.lrfoce obstqcles ond coulion oreos.
Although the poih thot the oircroft flies is through lhe oir, lhe oirplone pilot must still poy heed to mony kinds of surfqce obstruc-

H

Hard Sur{aced runway
Length

fi,ctA i i.5

ilF

4t

o{

Longesl runway

275

t25.rS

in

hundreds

of feet

l0

ll

lions. Some of these ore nqturol obstocles io sofe flying, such os mounloins; others moy be obstructions which ore mon-mode, such os high towers ond trqnsmission lines. The chort symbols for these
must be reodily recognized. Cqution oreos, donger, resfricted, ond worning oreos, ond prohibited oreos oie oll significonl in lerms of oirwoy mopping. (See illustrotion below.)

Points olong the oirwoys ot which qircrqfl in flight may report their position to rodio communicotion systems ore indicoled by o lriongulor morking t A ); such points at which reporfs ore compulsory ore indicoted by o solid color, triongulor symbol ( A l. Moreover, on oeronouticol chorl indicotes by blue tint oll qreqs where oir lrqffic is controlled. The rules for such control qre exploined in Chopter 6. ln view of the foct thot omni-directionol ronges reveol lo lhe pilot the directions (mognetic beoring) of his oircrofl from omni-ronge stolions, o pilot con eosily find his position in relolion lo lhe oirport he wishes to reoch. (See poge 32 ). Such o circumstonce might oppeor lo lessen the need for designoted oirwoys. This is not the cose. ln order to prevenl oir troffic conflicts, scheduled oir lroftic musl be controlled. This con be done only by meons of the electronic focilities of oirwoys ond oirports. The following chopters discuss some of the scientific principles upon which these focililies ore bosed, briefly describe the operotion of them, ond outline lhe troffic rule enforced by meons of them.

PROHIEITED ANEA

DANCEN. RESTRICTED ON WARNITIe AREA lnvisible hazards

CAUIION AREA
Visible hazards

Fliqht

of aircrafl prohibited
of uling agency.

excepi by specific aulhoriiy

io air

navigalion.

io air

navigalion.

t2

il
#

ETECTR(I]{|CS 11{ AUlATl(ll{
The rodio in modern oviolion.
The principles of rqdio moke modern qviotion possible. Rodio signols mork the oirwoys. By meons of rodio, oirplone pilols ore give toke-off ond londing instructions. Wherever oircroft fly,.rodio provides o meons of ground-to-oir ond oir-to-ground communicotion. Flighi plons ore filed, weother informqtion is dispersed, ond lroftic is confrolled-oll by meons of rodio. Rodio signols help the pilot keep the proper course, ond rodio, rodor, ond instrumenls which moke use of rodio signols guide him to sofe londings. olthough clouds ond fog moy hide ihe oirport qnd obscure his vision.

How electricol energy gels from lronsmiller lo receiver.
close o switch in the primory circuit would couse

to open ond o mognetic field to build up ond collopse oround the primory coil of this circuit. The movemenl of the lines of force thqt occurred qs o consequence,
You remember from your siudy
mognefos thot

of

induced voltoge and olternoling movement of eleclrons within the secondory circuit. ln the mogneto, lhe primory ond secondory coils were odiocent one to the other. However, the effect would hove been the sqme hqd the coils been ploced q considerqble dislqnce qpqrt.

The bosic principle

of

induction

Mognetic lines of force.
The mognetic lines of force oround o bor mognet or o coil loke o circulor poth from one of the poles of the mognel to lhe olher. However, when the flow of eleclrons is through o lineor conduclor such os the ontenno of o rodio lronsmitter, the lines of'force ore circulor ond rodiote outword in the form of woves, much os surfoce ripples move when o slone is dropped inlo q loke.
r,t

The principles upon which rodio is bosed ore reolly quite simple. Electronic devices seem hord lo underslqnd chiefly becouse lhe things which moke them work ore invisible. We connot see otoms ond elecirons; neilher con we see eleciric currents nor rodio woves. Yet, even if we connot see them, we con gel some ideos obout them from the things they do which we con see, feel, or heor. Through opplying fhe principle of induction (see Power for A'ir' croff, poge 301, o rodio lronsmilter chonges sound woves to qudio woves. lt then couses rodio-frequency woves lo corry the oudio impulses {wqvesl through spoce, enobling o rqdio receiver luned to the proper frequency to pick up the corrier wove ond the oudio impulses il corries, ond lo chonge lhese ogoin info sound woves which you, lhe listener, moy heor. Oiher electronic opplionces moke similqr use of rodio-frequency woves (electro-mognetic oscillotionsl which induce vohoge within o secondory circuil.

IF

i
rtrl

'!

t4

'i.-lrrlillii:lrl

1l',i, i,,jl11,,t nf- r':*ji*i'frtir.n,.r"rl1r.y in'il:l1t:i

non-conductor between lhem. Such

q

condenser moy be

of

the

The electronic flow induced into o rodio receiver hos o Yery speciol tosk to perform; consequently, lhe primory circuit which lronsmits the rqdio-frequency woves moduloted by the oudio wqves must be provided with some speciol kinds of controlling devices' Among lhese devices ore found resistors, induction coils, condensers, lronsformers, ond electron tubes. Resistors offer resistonce lo the ollernoting flow of electrons in q circuit. (An electric light in o circuit is one kind of resistor.)

fixed or voriqble type. The oreo of its plotes delermine the copocitqnce volue of o condenser. The greoter the copocitonce of q circuil, the lower the frequency of its current's oscillotions. Consequently, if the vqrioblei condenser of o circuil is turned so thot it hos o lorge plote oreo. the circuit will be tuned to o correspondingly low frequency; if it is turned so thot il hos o smoll plote oreo, lhe circuit will be tuned to o correspondingly high frequency. A condenser ocls os o broken circuil to o direct currenl ond os o lowresislonce resistor to o low-frequency, olternoting current. To o high-frequency, olternoting current, the condenser oppeqrs to hove no effect. The lrequency of the rodio woves of o circuil is confrolled

.EHJ
GENERATOI
(

by the relofionship ol inductonce fo copocifonce.

cotL
(

lcstsTot
(

Pressure)

lnductance)

Resisia nce)

YANIAELE CONDENSET

WM
I

_xh

(Ca pacita nce)

lmportonl omong lhe elements of electronic circuits ore lronsformers ond electron tubes. A ironsformer is o form of induction coil. You remember thot the rotio between the number of turns of wire in o primory ond the number in its secondory coil determines the chonge in voltoge between the two coils. The function of tronsformers in the electronic circuit is lo increqse volloge.
lr.i.'t ,,, i.,i.,:

The scientific device which is perhops the most importont ih modern

rodio communicotion ond which hos mode possible mony developments in electronic oids lo oviotion is lhe electron (or vocuum) tube. You know thot rodio wos successfully used before electron tubes
were invented, but without lhe electron tube, its use wos quite limited.

r'; r:!

J { l i J il i: {, i!.rl 1:

i:

il

l:1,

{: i: i : f", 1 i i: rr.

The induction coil provides inductonce

in o circuit.

lnductonce
t.
r.,

is lhe property of o circuit thot tends lo opPose o chonge in lhe direction of on existing current. lt is present only when lhe currenl is chonging. The induction coil octs os o high-resistqnce resislor lo on olternoting current, os o low-resistonce resislor to o direcl currenl, ond os o breqk in the circuil io very high frequencies. the obilily of o circuit lo store up on electricol chorge. ln qn electricol circuit, o condenser is composed of lwo sels of plotes with o
The condenser provides copocitonce in

The fundomentol principle

of o melol cquses it to give oft electrons.

of lhe electron tube is thot the heoting Eleclrons oppeqr to

o circuit. Copocitonce

is

escqpe from heoled metol much os woter molecules evoporote when woter is heoted. Edison in 1883 wqs the first to nole lhe effect of electrons given off by o heoled wire. Following Edison's observotion, on Englishmon nomed Fleming discovered lhot if he ploced o filomeni {o loop of very fine wirel ond

t6

17

v

DIODE

when he mode the plote negotive, thol olthough eleclrons still boiled

off the heoted filomenl, rhey did nol flow but gothered oround the
filomenf. (Unlike oltrocts, like,repels.f Thus Fleming hod found both o third method * by which electrons con be mode to flow qnd olso o method of chonging ohernoting electricql currenls lo direct eilectricol
currenls.

cluslered oround the fflqmenh consequently, the plote current is decreosed. These properiies of the of the grid mqke it o control
device.

Why the grid con be used os o conlrol of eleclron flow.
By regulating lhe positivity or negolivily of the grid, lhe omounl of electrons entering the plote circuit con be controlled. A very smoll currenl through lhe grid will cquse o very lorge chorge to be given the plote circuil. Stnoll chonges in the chorge on lhe grid produce very lorge fluctuqlions in the plote circuit. These focls give the triode its lhree mosl importont uses in rodior oscillotion, omplificofion; ond defection.

fhe nqlure of the lriode electron lube.
ln 1906, on Americon, Lee De Foresl, odded o third elemenl lo lhe vocuum tube. This elemenl is colled o grid. The three-elemenl eleclron tube is colled o triode. The developmenl of lhe modern lriode electron lube mokes possible long dislonce rodio lrqnsmission ond mony olher elecironic mirocles. ln the inlerest of reffning the operolion of the lriode, other elemenls hove been inlroduced inlo the vocuum tube: o four-element tube is colled o tetrode; o fiveelement tube, o pentrode.
The grid.

The stoges of sound lronsmission.

of wire ploced between the filqment qnd lhe plote of the electron lube. When it is given o smoll positive chorge, lhe flow of eleclrons from heoled filoment to plote is increosed; consequenlly, the plote currenl is increosed. When it is given o negolive chorge, lhe eleclrons will be repelled ond remoin
* The olher lwo melhodr ore induclion (os in o generolor, mognelo, ond induction coill ond chemicol o(lion or in on eleclric bottery.

The grid is q smoll coil

of o microphone cousing vorying degrees of pressure upon corbon gronules lhrough which flows on electric current. The degree of flow of this currenl is directly proportionol lo lhe degree to which the gronules ore compressed. The more lhey ore compressed, lhe less the current flow. It is this efiect of the sound woves upon ihe microphone circuit thot chonges sound woves inlo oudio woves. The voltoge of the microphone circuit is now "stepped-up" by q lronsformer (see poge l7 ) ond fed into the grid circuil of lh.e eleclron lubes.
diophrom

ln the firsl stoge of sound tronsmission, sound woves strike lhe

l8

l9

ANTENNA

MODUTAIED RADIO FREOUENCY WAYE

Amplificotion.
You remember thot rodio woves lose strength ofter they leove the lronsmitling stqtion. Consequently, il is necessory thot they be omplified by the rodio receiver. This is occomplished by connecling fhe

ln lhe second stoge of sound lronsmission, lhe voltoge voriolions of the microphone circuit, which correspond lo lhe sound frequency (the oudio wovel reoching lhe grid circuits of the oscillotion lubes, couse voriqtion in the omplitude of the rodio-frequency wove (the corrier wovel. These variqtions, obviously, correspond to the shope of the oudio wove. Thus, eleclricol impulses represeniing sound woves ore impressed upon the rodio corrier wqves. This process is colled modulotion. When the omplitude of the rodio frequency
wove is voried, lhe process is colled omplitude modulolion lAM.lr

receiying onfenno to lhe grid ol on erectron fube known os fhe ampliffer. Thi olternotions of the signols coming through the ontenno will be omplified os the grid voltoge of the omplifying tube offecls lhe current of the plote circuit. This type of omplificotion is colled radio-frequency omplificolion.
Delection.

When on eleclron tube is operoied ot g proPer, negolive, grid volloge, vibrotions ore coused in its plote currenl corresponding to the ovdio wove cqrried by the rodio frequency woves. This process which seporotes the oudio wove from the corrier wqrre is colled
demodulolion.

Oscillotion. Heinrich Hertz {18891 developed the firsl device thol would produce eleclro-mognelic woves thol could be detected. This device (oscillotorl is mode of o condenser chorged by on induction coil. As soon os the condenser ploles become sufticiently chorged, lhe di-electric Inon-conductor) between the plotes breoks down, ond lhe electrons oscillote belween the condenser ploles estoblishing on eleclro-mognetic field. The electron lube becomes on oscillotor when its grid voltoge is increosed beyond o cerlqin criticol point.
* Behreen 1935

Afier lhe rodio frequency wove hos been demodulqted, lhe oudio wove obloined is put into the grid circuits of oudio omplifying tubes.

AMPIIIUDE MODULATION (Constanf frequency, Changing,applilude

)

ond 19,{0, Moior E. H. Armrlrong dcvised o rodio tronsmilling
not upon omplilude chonges, but upon frequcncy chongcr

in lhe corrier wqve. When the frequcncy of the rodio wove is chongcd by lhc cficct of the rodio wove upon il, lhe proces is collcd frcqucncy nodulqtion (Flrt). (Scc
illuslrolion poge 2l)

system which depends

ll

chanqe in frequency

Large change in frequency

HIGH

YALUE

FREQUENCY IIODULATION {Chanqinq frequency, Constani ampliiude)
21

20

These lubes omplify the oudio frequency woves iusl os lhe rodio frequency omplifying lubes omplify the rodio frequency woves. The diophrom of loud speokers or pilois' heodphones lhen convert lhe

omplified oudio woves into sound woves.

Eleclronics is

o young ond fost growing

science.

Eoch doy sees new eleclronic opplionces developed ond new industriol uses mode of these. One school of thought is of the opinion thot within o comporotively short period of time, oggressor notions will be deterred. not by fighter oircrofl mqnned by pilots, bu.t by electronicolly guided missiles thot olwoys reoch their lorget. Recently eleclronic reseorch hos mqde discoveries which ore helping to improve eleclronic instrumenls now in use. For exomple, from o substonce colled germonium, very smoll devices colled fronsisfors con be mode. When instolled in on electronic circuil these will do much of the work previously done by lhe electron lube. From substonces sue h os quortz ond borium tilonole, other smoll devices colled troducers ore mode. These hove mode it possible to creote on enlirely new lechnologicol fiel/-ultrosonics * . Should you in the future ocquire o speciol interest in eleclronics, lhe study such on interest motivotes will open for you the doors lo o world of fosci-

noting morvels.
* Ullrosonics finds nony uses in induslry. One of lhe mosl imPortonl of these lo drive lhe drills ond culle.s which shope brillle ond hord-lo-mochine moleriols.
is

CHAPTER

F(lUR

22

The oirport's operolions.

WHY AIRPIIRTS ARE ]{ECESSARY
The modern oirport terminol building.
The deporting oirline possenger orriving ot the oirport of one of our lorger cities finds much oclivity there. His oirporl limousine moy be one of holf dozen or more unlooding possengers ol one enlronce while still other limousines ond toxis lood incoming possengers ol
{p

Some of these "behind-lhe-scenes" oirport oclivities ore colled oirporl operolions, These operolions moy be conducled by o commerciol qviotion business, such os o scheduled oirline, o chqrter service, o flight school, or q moinlenqnce ond repoir service bosed ot the oirport. Aviolion businesses conducled ot the oirport, olher thon those of the oirlines, qre colled fixed bose operofions.

onother. An otlendont lokes his luggoge ond guides him to the proper oirline counler, where o courteous ond uniformed tickei ogent verifies his reservotions, checks his boggoge, ond ploces it on o conveyor which whisks it ropidly out of sight. After receiving his "gole-poss" ond informolion obout the deporture lime of his flight ond how lo reqch lhe proper oircrofl, lhe possenger moy look oround him. He will be in the oirporl terminol building. Thot which he sees will hove been orronged lo qccommodole him ond other oir lrovelers. He will find vending mochines which sell o voriely of things from hosiery lo insurqnce. He con purchose his stomps from o vending mochine, or ot some oirports he moy polronize the Post Offfce which will be found within the building. ln ihe most modern of oirport terminol buildings, he will find q news stond, o book store, o drug slore, o gift shop, c bqiber shop, o beouly shop, o snock bor, o restouronf, clothing slores for men ond women, o cocktoil lounge, ond perhops o club room. At ony oirporl

Airport odministrolion.
Behind-the-scene, oirporl octivities include the work of qdministering the business offoirs of the oirport itself. Mony business detoils engoge the ottention of the oirport qdminislrotor ond his stqff. These ronge from the collection of renlols from fhose who use the oirport's focilities lo the construclion of oirport buildings ond runwoys.

Airline operolions.
When the oirline possenger requests u reservqlion, he is told either thot spoce is ovoiloble ond thot his reservolion con be confirmed or lhot no spoce is immediotely ovoiloble ond thot if he chooses he moy obtqin o reservotion on on ohernote hight. Before flight informqlion con be given to possengers, rolher detoiled ond exoct records musl be kept by the telephone-soles seclion of the oirline. Sometimes this service is locoted ot the oirport. When such is lhe cose, like mony other qirline tosks which keep lronsporl oircroft flying ond possengers hoppy, il escopes notice. Generolly, when the oirline possenger thinks obout the work of the qirline, he thinks of the pilot ond perhops lhe mechonic. Yet, fewer thon I 0./" ol oirline employees ore pilots, ond fewer lhon 25oL ore mechonics. (See Aviofion and You, pp. l9-2 I .)
"Behind-the-scene" oirport ocfiyifies.

lerminol building he will find omple woiting room ond possenger
qccommodolions.

The deporting possenger

will heor onnouncements of

incoming

onto lhe ond deporting qpron, oirond deporting incoming these porking he will observe boording will be possengers leoving, others will be croft. Lines of lhe oircrqft which he sees. He will see luggoge unlooded ond looded os plones dischorge lheir possengers or ore mode reody for loke'oft. He will observe people fueling oircrqft. He will see still other people performing still other tosks. Some of these losks he moy nol undcrstond. After his flight is onnounced, he surrenders his ticket or gqlc poss to on oirline ollendonl ond boords his plone. He is grcctcd by o smiling slewordess ond deports the oirport unoworc of mony oirporl ocfivities designed lo moke his flighr os sofe os hir deporturc wos pleosont.

flights. lf he looks oul of the window

21

T:
I

Governmenl oirporl operotions'
Behind-the-scene, oirport qclivities include cerloin services provided to oll types of oviotion by the Federol Governmenl; for qviotion in the few short yeors of its existence hqs become very essenliol both to our notionol economy'ond to our notionol defense. Without the Federol Government services housed in oirport buildings, modern oir tronsportotion could not exist. These services ore mode ovoiloble by the Weother Bureou, by the Civil Aeronoutics Administrotion (CAAI, qnd ol militory oir boses by the U. S. Air Force ond Novol oir operotions. They ronge from the briefing of pilots plonning o crosscountry flight to the instolling ond operoiing of rodio ronge slolions

Air Troftic Control (ATC).'
Air Troffic Control focilities qre locqled ol moior oirports. One of lhese is the oirporl lroffic conlrol tower. The other is lhe oir
I

t rl
rl

roule lroffic conlrol center. Airport trqffic conlrol towers ore ofien provided with opprooch conlrol focilities for instrument londings. They ore designed so lhot on cleqr doys nothing obstructs the conlrol lower operqtor's view of the oirport or lhe sky obove it. Approoch control rodor provides the controller with o meons of observing the position of oircrqft when clouds cover the sky. Consequently, the men or women working in the control lower ore oble to tell the piloi when, without feor

ond opprooch control ond oircroft londing

systems.

of colliding with other oircrofl, he con iqxi into toke-off
loke-off, lond, ond ofter londing, toxi lo

position, lhe romp or hongor.

The pilol ond flight ossislonce

service'

lmogine lhol you ore o pilot plonning o flight io o distont oirport. Under such q circumstonce you will need lo know cerioin things' First of oll, you will need lo know obout the weolher. Will ir offer ony obslocles lo your flighl. requiring you to fly o longer route or to use speciol flight instrumenls en route? Then, you will wont lo know whot rodio focilities olong your roule ore operoling; whol runwoy conditions you moy expect ot your deslino' tion, ond whot service focilities ore ovqiloble ot lhe oirporl of your destinqtion. Flighf ossistonce service will give you onswers lo oll lhese questions ond even help you prepqre ond ffle your flight plon.

Approoch Control.

On doys when lhe weolher is such lhoi visibility is obstrucled, Approoch Control is operoted by the conlrol fower' Approoch Control moy use severol difierent kinds of rodio ond olher electronic devices. Eqch of these serves o specific purpose ond is used in coordinolion one with the other to help the pilot lond sofely.
Airport Surveillonce Rqdor (ASRI is on eleclronic device used by Approoch Control lo leorn lhe beoring (directionl ond distonce from lhe oirport of lhe incoming oircroft before it begins its "let-down" opprooch. This informotion is given to ihe pilot by rodio. Precision opprooch rodor (PARI is on electronic device lhot shows to the PAR operotor in the lower the position of qn incoming oirplone on its glide poth. By the use of rodio, ihe operotor on lhe ground gives proper londing directions to the pilot of lhe incoming oircroft. The pilot of the londing oircrofl will qlso use eleclronic devices colled locolizer, glide slope focility, ond ILS (instrumenl londing system) morkers. lSee p. 35.)

The rqdio ond flight ossisionce service'
service,

Once you ore en roule, you moy still use the flight ossistonce if your oirplone is equipped with o rqdio in operoling condition. Twice eoch hour, ot I 5 ond 45 minutes post the hour, weolher reports ore broodcost whether you osk for them or nol. You moy, however, use your rqdio to osk for weqther informolion of other times. You moy olso request olher informotion, such os help in esioblishing your position, the condition of rodio oids olong your route, ond lhe generol condiiions ol the field where you ore to lond. It is best nol to coll for informotion loo neor the time of the regulor weother report broodcosfs. But ot oll times, flight ossistonce is no furlher from you os o pilot thon is your rodio lronsmiller-receiver.

ll h
i

Air roule lroftic conlrol cenlers'
oir roule troffic control cenlers supervise oir troffic within conlrol oreqs. The conlrol oreo Proper is o designoted civil oirwoy which hos necessory control focilities. lt is generolly defined os on oirspoce len miles wide extending upword from 700 feel obove the
The

26

27

surfoce. However, control oreos moy be exponded lo include oreos neor oirports not on the oirwoys over which oircrqft fly on IFR (instru' ment flight rulesl. The conlrol focilities qdminislered by oir route lroffic conlrol cenlers, like the focilities of communicoiion slqtions ond the oirport troffic control lower ond its opprooch control, employ
electronic devices odopted to speciol purposes.

Airline focilities supplement governmenl operolions.
Airline communicolion services, which supplement some of the Federql Government services, moy be found ot mony oirports. Every effort is mode by both industry ond government lo moke flying sofe ond to provide for ihe growlh ond development of oviqtion. Just os the CAA ond the Weolher Bureou in the inleresf of qviotion sofely use
bolh eleclronic qnd lqnd-linb communicotion syslems, the oirlines olso use such systems. The oirport is lhe center from which rodiqte oll of these services, whether provided by government or induslry. The foct thot the oirport is on oviqtion odminislrotion cenler employing mony devices bosed upon the discoveries of modern science moy escope the otlenlion of the cosuol visitor qnd the oirline possenger' Yet, these octivities ore mosl significont' The oirport, whotever ils size qnd wholever octivities ore found there, hos os its primory purpose lo provide o foke-oft ond londing oreo for oircrofl' Yet, were il not olso used os o center from which services, in the interesl of sofe toke-off, sole flight, ond sofe londing, ore ovoiloble, civil ond militory oviotion os we know it would nol exisl; lhere would be little incentive for proclicol oviotion pursuils; ond our nqlionql defense ond
economy would suffer.

CHAPTER
FIUE

AIRWAYS
and the facilities of air tratfic control
All-weother flight.
lf oircroft could fly sofely only when lhe pilot could see lhe ground below him ond other qircroft in the sky oround him, oirwoys qnd the methods used lo control the trqffic olong lhem would be comporotively unimporlont to oviolion operotions. Howeyer. the pilot of on oirplone must be prepored to guide his oircroft when he cqn see nothing oheqd of him nor below him except cloud or fog. Under these qnd similor conditions, he must ovoid other oircroft in flight ond keep q sqfe dislonce from mountoins, rodio lowers, ond other such obstrucfions. He musl olso fly directly lo his destinotion, know when to begin his descenl so lhol he cqn reqch the oirport runwoy, ond complete his londing sofely. Rodio ond eleclronic oids moke lhese things possible.

megocycles (very high frequencyf. Some militory rodio communicotion focilities operote on frequencies obove 200 megocycles.

Rodio ronges ond oirwoys.
Rodio ronges, lou remember, ocluolly tell the pilof where the airwoy is locofed. The low frequency, ronge stotion tronsmits signols in such d woy thot overlopping of signols defines four courses. The high frequency, ronge slolion tronsmits signols in iuch o woy thot, no motter whot the flight position of on oircrqfl is, lhe pilot con olwoys lune in on o direct course to the stqtion neor his deslinotion.

a

The low frequency, ronge slolion.
The low frequency, ronge stotion

ltf/Mfl

hos one odvontoge over

the high frequency, omni-ronge stqtion (VORI which will likely keep mony [F/MF ronge slolions operoting for mony yeors lo come. Low frequency broodcosts con be tuned in ot low oltitudes ond con be received on lhe ground. High frequency broodcosts like television broodcosts follow o "line-of-sight" direction. The curvolure of the eorth obstructs VOR signol reception by qircrofl flying ot low oltiludes.

Rodio oids ond eleclronic devices.
Rodio oids hove helped moke flying sofe since lhey were firsl infroduced in oviolion, You hove leorned, however, thqt the increose in number of modern oircrofl in operotion hos mode it necessory to odopt improved rodio devices. (See poge 6.) Although older rqdio oids ore still used, modern oircroft moke increosing use of modern

LF/Uf rodio ronge signols ore broodcosl on freguenpies from 2OO to 415 kilocycles. Eoch ronge stotion is ossigned o three-letler identificotion signol which is tronsmitted ot 30 second intervols. Weqther
informoiion is olso broodcost by lhese slotions. Through lhe use of speciol onlennos lhe Morse code for A (dit dql is directionolly broodcost into two opposing quodronts-,of

eleclronic devices. Such devices

ore instolled, mointoined

ond

operoted by the CAA, Oftice of Federol Airwoys.

Air-ground communicqlions.
As o moffer of focl, oir-ground communicolion mode possible by the lwo-woy rodio is indispensoble fo modern ovialion. By meons of rqdio the pilot mo'y, through the communicolion slolions olong his route, osk for ond receive inslructions from troffic control centers ond from weolher service. Aircroft rodios which hove been put into mosl recenl use, operote on frequencies belween 108 ond 150

30

The four-covrse rodio ronge.

the ronge ond lhe Morse code for N (- -, do dill is broodcost into lhe other two quodronls. These signols ore of equol omplitude ond inlerlock olong ihe quodront boundories lo moke o sleody lone which defines the course. This lone is conlinuous except when broken to occommodote stotion identificotion signols ond weolher reporls. ln order lo receive the signols tronsmilted by these slolions, the rodio receiver must be tuned to the proper frequency' This frequency con be found by referring to the oppropriote oeronqulicol chorl. (See Poge I l.l As the dislonce from on LF/MF rodio ronge slolion increoses, lhe beom it tronsmits fqns out ond its signol begins lo fode. However, os the distonce from the ronge decreoses, its beom norrows ond its signol becomes stronger. Directly over o stolion is o cone of silence. An oircroft entering o cone of silence will receive nO course signols. Voice broodcosls, however, will still be received.

The very high frequency, omni-ronge stotion.
The omni-ronge slolionr (VOR) sends out lwo signols in the 108-l l8 megocycle radio-freqvency bond. One of these, from the center

Yery high frequency omni-ronge. exist. However, supposd o fixed, green, beocon light floshed every time thot the rototing light beom of this imoginory beocon sweeps post mognelic north. Assume thqt the beom rototed once eoch l0 seconds. ln thot event, since lhere qre 360" in o circle, it will poss
throush 36o eoch second

ontenno of the five onlenno group, is non-directionol. lt rodiqtes in the form of o circle exponding ond controcling exoctly 30 times eoch second. The second signol, from the four corner onfennos, forms o figure eight pottern thot rotoies clockwise 30 times eoch second with the cenler ontenno os its center of rototion. The first signol is colled the reference-phose signol; the second, the vorioblephose signol. The VOR ronge is set so thot ihe vorioble-phose signol pottern points toword mognetic north ot lhe exoct time the reference-phose signol reoches its moximum exponsion. At this lime, on o line (or rodiolf extending between the VOR ond mognelic norlh, lhe iwo signols ore in phose (motchl with eoch other. All oiher rodiols (lines extending from VORI qre in different phose. The VOR receiver is oble to meosure the degree of this difference ond indicotes it on the diol of o visuol indicolor on the oircrofl instrumenl ponel'

(+f)

lt is possible for o

pilcit to

find his direclion from this beocon (l) by stqrting o slop wolch upon seeing the green light ond stopping it when the beom sweeps post him ond {21 bV then multiplying the number of seconds shown on lhe stop wotch by 36 ". lf the pilot's stop-wotch shows 7,5 seconds, his posilion with reference to the beocon will be 270o. Thot is, he will be directly west of lhe beocon. Ihe YOR receiver is o kind of combinolion sfop-wofch ond colcvloting machine which uses rodio signols rolher thon light signols os o bosis lor its compufofions.
'i

h,': ruc.lio n'lonlccr beq:cnrr:

o ruppl*mernt l* !h*

r'crur,tt*

stgtiein.

The b<rsic idea

underlYing VOR'

So thot you con better understond how VOR works, let us compore it with o speciol kind of oirport beocon which does not octuolly

Although the rodio ronge slolions tell q pilot of on oircroft in flight where lhe oirwoys ore locoted ond lhe direclion of oirport from his oircrofl, they give him no informolion os lo his distonce from lhe oirporf.

32
I

33

He musl depend for this informqtion upon his skill in novigotion ond the knowledge he hos of the direction ond strenglh of winds which moy oftecl his speed over the ground. Or, if his oircroft is
properly equipped, he moy use eleclronic devices colled morkers. There ore two principol types of morkers used for this purposefon ond Z morkers. Both types of morkers operole on the frequency of 75 megocycles. The fon morker is 3 miles wide qnd l2 miles long ocross the oirwoy neor the eorth's surfoce. However. ot higher oltitudes, lhe signols spreod out until their effect covers o correspondingly greoter oreo. The Z morker is olwoys locoted ot the sile of on LF/MF rodio-ronge stotion. lt rodiotes q cone shoped signol verti' colly obove the ronge stotion. (See poge 32.1 tt the morker receiver of the oircroft is tuned to 75 megocycles, the pilol receives o signol when his oircroft flies over o morker. He will heor o lone, ond the morker light will glow.

seems incredible thot DME cqn meosure the time required for the rodio impulse lo lrovel o few milis; yet it is oble fo do thrs tosk.

Combining VOR ond DME.
VOR ond .DME emphosize the importonce of the opplicotion of eleclronics lo the problem of oir novigotion. When these ore used together, the pilot con pinpoint the position of his oircroft without using more cumbersome methods.

The Course Line Compuler.
Should

o pilot wish to fly

his oircroft on

o poth thot does not is colled
the

pcss directly over o VOR stotion, he con still moke use of the VORz"

DME system. The device

lhol

mokes this possible

Course line Computer. The Course line Compuler by meons

of informolion fed io it

elec-

VOR ond flight position.
The pilot who uses o VOR receiver con use this to find his position olong his route. He knows lhe beoring he is flying. He con tune his receiver to onother VOR stotion to the right or left of his course ond loke o beoring on this VOR stotion. lf he plots lhe two beoring lines on on oeronoulicol chort, they will intersecl. (See illustrotion poge 9 .l The point ot which lhey intersecl is his chort-position. From this ond other chort informotion lhe distonce of the oircroft's position from the first VOR stotion moy be found.

lronicolly by VOR ond DME ground equipment octuolly solves o pilot's novigotionol problems. The pilot simply sets the proper informqlion into the computer, then flies the needle (heods the oircrofl so thot the indicqtor needle is properly centeredl to his destinotion.
For qll procticol purposes, he hos opirorenlly moved the'VOR stotion

from its locotion to lhe point of his destinolion. One lype of course line computer, colled o pictoriol computer, shows lhe pilot his position ond progress by meons of on indicqtor which moves ocross o chort os lhe qircroft moves through the oir.

Olher eleclronic inslrumenls.

The DME.
Within the lost few yeors on eleclronic speedometer for oircrofl
hos been developed. This device is colled Distonce Meosuring Equip-

lf low-visibilily

weolher conditions prevoil ot the time on incoming

flight reoches on oirport, other electronic equipmenl lhe oircroft corries moy be put into use. Locolizers, glide slope indicotors, ond
morker deleclors receive ond interpret signols from ground instollqtions. (See poge 27.1 The locolizer gives the pilot of on incoming oircroft loterol (sidewoysl guidonce during his londing opprooch. The glide slope indicotor gives him verticql (up ond down) guidonce. The lnslrument Londing System (lLSl morkers tell him how for he is from the oirporf. Two of rhe ILS morkers ore very imporionl. The outer morter (OM) is locoted on the locolizer course line opproximotely 4 7z miles from

menl lDMEl. ln lhe cockpit of on oircroft using DME, lhe pilot con leorn from on indicolor his distonce lo or from o VOR stotion. DME requires receiver-tronsmitler combinotions on both ground ond in lhe oircroft. lt operotes oi 1,000 megocycles. The ground equipment is colled o fronsponder; the oirborne equipment is colled on lnferrogotor. DME equipmenl is very intricote. When one thinks of the speed ot which ultro-high frequency rodio woves trovel loP' proximolely ot the speed of light-I86,000 miles per secondl it

34

35

I

I

the end of the runwoy. The middle morker (MMl is locoted on this some line ot 3,500 feei from lhe opprooch end of lhe runwoy. A third ILS morker, lhe boundory morker ot ihe end of the runwoy is less imporlonl; since by the time his oircroft hqs reoched lhis morker, the pilot will be below the overcosl ond cqn see lhe runwoy.

Electronic devices: versotile seryonls

of oviolion.

The devices thot help oirporls ond oirwoys do their most importcnl tosks ond help lhe pilots guide their oircrofi sofely, oll qre bosed upon the science of eleclronics. Electronic devices mork the thousonds of miles of oirwoys lhot cover conlinentol United Stoies. They moke possible lhe control of the troffic olong lhese oirwoys. They moke possible londing ond toke-off operotions ot oirporls during lowvisibility weolher conditions. You moy follow, os o coreer, fieids of inlerest other thon oviotion or eleclronics. ln thot evenl, lhe generol understondings of elec-

lronic circuits which you now hove goined is sufficient. You hove leorned oboul principles which ore bosic lo the lools men use lo prevenl oir troffic conflicts ond keep oir lrovel sofe. Should you choose to follow o coreer in qviotion eleclronics, you will need to leqrn in detoil how eoch of the devices bosed upon the electronic circuit operotes. Somedoy, you mqy ne;ed to leorn how lo operoie or repoir these ond olher electronic devices thot ore now in process of development. When thot time comes, lhe underslonding of the bosic eleclronic principles which'you hove goined ffom your present studies will be of greol help to you.

CHAPTER

srx

36

THE REGUTATI(II{ (IT AIR TRAFFIG, I
The need for oir lrqffic control.
I

Since oir spoce is lhree-dimensionol, it would olmost oppeor thot lhe regulotion of oir-troffic is unnecessory. Unlike the qutomobile whose lrovel route is q roodwoy, the oircroft in tronsit need nol rely upon o norrow polh. Moreover, oircroft in flight hove on

leorn this procedure, however, il is necessory to leorn in o generol woy lhe purposes for which lhe procedure hos been estoblished. lt olso should be remembered thot some light oircrofl moy be equipped only with lhe essenliol instrumenls for cleor weqlher flying. Consequenfly, lhese oircroft will hove no rodio lronsmitler nor receiver. Under such o circumslonce, light signols, eoch of which hos o specific meoning understood by pilot ond communicotor qre directed

odvonloge over lhe outomobile in highwoy lroffic, in thqt one oircrofl moy poss oround, over, or under onother. However, there ore certoin lhings on outomobile on lhe highwoy con do lhqt on oirplone in flighl connot do. dn outomobile con slop ol qn inlersection signol, permitting o flow of cross-troffic. Since qn oircrofl to sloy qlofl must keep in continuous molion, there con be no occommodoting pouses in the flow of oir troffic. Moreover, during inslrumenl flight conditions lwhen clouds or other obstruclions to vision prevoil) the odvonloges of three dimensionol lrqvel qctuolly become hozords. For, if one oircrofl were permilted to fly ot ony oltitude ond olong ony course, unreslricted ond unconlrolled, onolher qircroft would hqve the some privilege, ond collision between the lwo during low-visibility weolher condiiions would become likely.
The purpose

loword the mqneuvering oircroft by meons of o "light gun" which shoots eilher o red, green. omber, or white beqm. The scope

of qir lroftic regulotion.

Air troffic, both ot oirports ond olong oirwoys, is governed by regulolions. At the oirport, the movement both of qircrofl on the ground ond of those deporting ond orriving is in occordqnce with

of oir lroffic

regulolion.

Air trofrc regulotion is importont in lhe inlerest of sofe operolion of qircrofi.' ln oddition, it is essenliol to modern oircroft operolion becouse the flow of oir troffic in ond oul of modern oirports is so heovy thot wilhoul it, moximum use connot be mqde of oirporls ond oirwoys, ond serious lroffic conflicls will occur. The focilities

of

communicqtion.

Both rodio signols ond light signols ore used io convey oir trofiic informotion from ground communicolors lo the oircroft flight crew. Chopters l,V ond V offer generol explirnotions of the devices ond opplionces of rodio ond the uses of some of these in communicolions. When you study lhe operolionol procedures of rodio, you will leorn in detoil how lo use rodio communicqlions in oviotion. Before you

38

rl

I

estoblished rules. Along lhe oirwoys, lhe-movement of oircroft olso musl be in occordonce with prescribed procedures. Moreover, regu' lotions formuloied in lhe interest of the sofe ond expedilious flow of oir lroffic ore concerned not only with oir lroffic rules but olso, under certoin flight condirions, wilh proper oircrofi equipmenl ond speciol

pilot skills.
The methods of flight regulolion ond control'

novigoled ond which the Civil Aeronoulics Administroior hos opproved it is not necessorily within o conlrol oreo. lt is only within o conlrol oreo when it hqs focilities, such os oir-lo-ground rodio communicolions, rodio ronge stotions qnd morker beocons, which mqke troffic conlrol possible. Flight within both control oreos qnd conlrol zones is governed by rules estqblished for the protection of oir lroftic. Since troffc within control zones is heqvier thon thot wilhin control oreqs qnd becouse of

os suitoble for oir commerce,

Air troffic
ihings:

regulotion

employs o

syslem founded upon lhree

speciol lroffic problems such os londing ond toke off, odditionol speciol regulolions govern flight within control zones.

o. A body of regulotions, bosed upon onolyses of proclicol flight situolions, prepored by the Civil Aeronoutics Boord'

The conlrol oreo exlension.
Sometimes

Services which use electronic ond oiher communicolion fqcilities by meons of which pilots of oircroft receive odvice, instruction, ond

b.

oircroft orriving ot on oirport during low-visibility

flight informotion.
tices.

c. The pilot's good iudgmenl ond his use of good operoling proc-

weolher condilions connol be cleqred for on immediote londing. The pilot in such inslonces is instrucled to hold {fly q circulor course ot o designoted qltitudel. Since flight during the time on oircrofl owoils londing inslruc?ions must qlso be conlrolled, lhe oir spoce within which lhis kind of moneuvering tokes ploce is colled o conlrol

Flight polhs ond oirsPoce. An oircroft's posilion in the oir spoce obove q certoin kind of surfoce oreo goyerns the oir lroftic rules under which il operotes. qn oirport, it is For exomple, when on oircrqft is flying over or.neor governed by rules thol moy not opply when it is flying olong oh
oirwoy.

Control zones qnd conlrol oreos.
For ihe sqke of convenience, troffic regulotions ore clqssified in terms of conlrol zones, control oreos, ond elsewhere. A control zone is on oir spoce exlending upword from lhe surfoce of the eqrth. lts dimensions hove been estqblished by the Civil Aeronoutics Administrolor, lt includes ot leosl one oirport ond the <iir spoce over lqnd odiocent to the oirPorf. A control oreo is on oir spoce exlending upword from qn oltitude 700 feet obove lhe surfoce of lhe eorth. lt generolly includes the oir spoce used by oircroft flying olong civil oirwoys. You remember thot olthough o civil oirwoy is o poth through oir spoce which con be

oreo exlension. As o motier of focl, certoin flight regulotions estoblish some con' trols over flight elsewhere lhon in control oreos ond conlrol zones. The difference belween lhe types of conlrol exercised in control zones ond oreos ond lhol exercised elsewhere, resuhs chiefly from differences in lhe omount of oir lroffic. For, where oir trofffc is sufficiently heovy so lhql hozords lo sofe flight operotion threolen, control oreos ore extended ond focilities for oir lroffic conlrol qre
soon estoblished.

Airporl VFR trofiic ond loxi procedures. {VFR is the symbol which slands for Visuol Flight Rules.) At oirports which hove control lowers in operolion, oirport lroffic control is exercised by such towers during VFR weqlher conditions. Ai such oirporls oll movement of oircroft within the oirport's control zone musl be cleored either lo loxi, to loke off, or to lond. Cleoronce in lhese inslqnces moy be communicoled to the pilot of on oircroft by meons of either rodio or light signols.

40

41

When his oircroft is equipped with on oircroft rodio, the pilot
simply tunes to the proper chonnel
1

ond osks instructions. He receives

these by tuning his rodio receiver operotes his oircroft qccordingly.

to the proper chqnnel2 qnd

When his oircroft is not equipped with rodio, the pilot depends on light signols for his informotion. The following chort lists these
signols ond gives their meonings:

<-. -+:-=_*-€ ---+ . -.# ,:5<€a-

r

Signols from o portoble, trqffic conlrol lighr ond rheir meonings
Color ond Type

<-,!L---2.=\\//;:i:t'>-^-e4'
.-(:t---,,__

of Signol
STEADY GREEN FLASHING GREEN

On the Ground Cleored for toke-off Cleored to toxi

ln

Fl

Cleored to lond
Return for londing (to be followed by steody

green ol proper limel
STEADY RED

Stop

Give woy to other oircroft ond continue circling

FLASHING RED
FLASHING WHITE ALTERNATING
RED

Toxi cleor of londing

qreo (runwoyf in use
Return to storting point

Airport unsofedo not lond

on oirporl AND GREEN

Generol Worning Signol Exercise Exireme Coution.

doylight by rocking the wings of their oircroft in flight ond during hours of dorkness by blinking their londing or novigotion lights. At night in order to ottroct the ottention of the control tower, the pilot of on
'Rqdio tronsmitlers used on light, priyole 6ircrofl hqye fixed receplion positions. Those used on commerciol oircrofl moy hqve severol positions; lhe pilot selects lhe one oppropriqle, such os you selecl o chonnel on your lelevision sel.

Pilots should ocknowledge light signols during hours

of

il

t'!M't} !

{n*,*u*,*_*...<(a*dtu

,Sar$'Jd(glxatta'{itlllltll4(:lr

J r''+#d'r\_r'

---.--.-*"r*..rd#

*'ua-!
#r-u

l* \*'*''

...,......^

!Toxi informotion is communicoled on lrequencies ol 121 .7 ond 121.9 mc. Air Trqftic Conlrol communicolions use frequencies in the ll8.t through the 121.3 mc ronge ond 123.7 ihrovgh the 126.5 mc ronge. Frequencies used by oirport ond oirwoy rodio focililies moy be found on lhe qeronouticql chorts.

('

.,,jd,*r@.i-.r

"

','

r'i

I --.-i-r.

.r.\q.I.\-_

<.*-- *'*'---.)

42

oircroft not equipped with rodio should turn on his londing lights ond toxi into o position which mokes these visible to ihe lower
operotor.

lf the roioting beocon of on oirport is lighted during hours of doylight, it meons thot weother conditions ore below VFR minimums ond thot on Air Trofiic control cleoronce is necessory for oircroft operotion. During the hours of dorkness, floshing lights outlining the iroffic direction indicqtor (wind tee, teirohedron, or other such devicel hos the some meoning.
Airport lroffic pofterns.
An oircroft not equipped wilh rodio, upon orriving ot ils destinqtion, mokes ot leost one complete circle of the oirport, conforming meonwhile to the proper iroffic pofiern ond wotching both for other oircrofl ond for o signol from the control tower. At some oirports, o segmented circle is used to convey trofiic pottern informotion (See illustrotion poge 41 l. A pilot should observe the flow of trofiic to determine the runwoy in use ond, in the obsence of lroftic, use the runwoy which will enoble him to lond his oircroft into the wind. A wind tee, tetrohedron, or other wind indicotor will give him thc wind direction. Upon its finol londing opprooch, qn oircroft should wind direction. Upon its finol londing opprooch, o pilot, when procticoble, should keep his oircrofr on o stroight course for rhe lqst 1,000 feet before crossing on oirport boundory.

WIND INDICATOR

CHAPTER
Segmenled Circle
44
icl&{4,r

SEUEN

:---

Ceiling, Visibiliry and Cloud Cleqronces; VFR tlinimums
ln Control Zones
Visibility

ln Conlrol Areqs

Elsewhere

3
I

Miles*
I

3

Miles

I
1

Mile

t

rrlliludes

Dislqnces

500'under
000' over 2000' horizontolly 1000'ceiling

500'under
000' over 2000' horizontolly

500'under
000' over 2000' horizontolly

/O0'

from clouds

uvo lhe Itrce

Visibility

3
I

Miles

Alrrrlliludes
ill( rrr under

Dislonces

500'under
000' over 2000' horizontolly
1000' ceiling

from clouds

0'obove l0t
lllp rurfoce

I Mile (Helicopter operotion ot reduced speeds is not governed by this minimum)
Cleor of clouds

fhe odd-even ottitude

rule.

The rules under which on oircroft operotes depend in port upon the weother which prevoils. lf the rules followed ore those procticed when the weother is comporotively cleor, it is cuslomory to soy thot the flight is o VFR flight. lf the weother is such thqt the cloud ceiling is quite low ond flight visibiliiy is obstructed, oircroft operoting legolly will be governed by IFR (lnstrument Flight Rules| procedures.

"On the top flight" (the operotion of oircroft obove o well-defined <loud formotion) moy be undertoken by oircroft operoting VFR, provided thot the climb to ond desceni from such flight con be mode in occordonce with visuol flight rules. Under such circumstonces, lhe required horizontol, visibility distonce is still three miles. Moreover, crs he climbs to or descended from his cruising oliitude, the pilot must still keep o horizontol seporotion of 2,000 feet between his oircroft ond the cloud formotion.

You remember from the chopter on Aeronouticol Chorts (see poge The flight of on oircroft operoting on YFR procedures is restricted

by the locotion of on oircroft's operotion ond the weother condilions ot the time of its flight. To help you understond the relotionship between the locotion of o flight ond the corresponding VFR procedure, the following toble is used:

I I thot oirwoys ore identified os either colored or Victor oirwoys tlepending upon whether the ronges which define them ore fourcourse or omni-directionol. Green, red, ond even numbered Victor
I
'When visibility conditions ore below minimum. if IFR lroftic condilions permit, rruthoriuotion lo (onducl locol VFR operolions, such os proclice toke ofts ond lqndrr(ts, mqy be given by ATC (Air Troffic Conlrol) io on oirporl operolor.

46

t-l

oirwoys qre eost-west oirwoys. When oircroft ore flown eqslbound upon such oirwoys ot on oltitude of or over 3,000 feel obove lhe surfoce, lhey musl moinloin on indicoted oltitude obove seo level which is ot the "odd-lhousond foot levels," such qs 3,000 feet, 5,000

feet, 7,000 feet, 9,000 feet, efc. When oircrqfl qre flown weslbound, they must mointoin on indicqted oltitude which is ot the "even-thousond foot levels," such os 4,000 feet, 6,000 feet, 8,000 feet, 10,000 feel, elc. Amber, blue qnd odd-numbered Victor oirwoys qre north-south oirwoys. Along these oirwoys, north-bound oircrofl operoting ot levels of 3,000 feet or over ore flown ot odd thousond-foot oltitudes. South-bound qircrofl operoting under like conditions ore flown ot
even lhousond-foot oltitudes.

Aircroft more lhon 3,000 feet qbove lhe surfoce within q control zone ore olso governed by the odd-even flight oltitude rule. Eostbound ond norlhbound oircrofl fly ot odd-thousond-foot oltitude levels; weslbound ond southbound, ot even thousqnd-foot oltitude
levels.

When the flight visibility is less thon three miles, lhe flight-poth oltitudes of oircroft, operoting elsewhere thon wiihin o conlrol zone or oreo qnd flown ot 3,000 feet or over 3,000 feel obove the surfoce, ore governed by the mognelic course the oircrofl follows. Aircroft on mognetic courses belween 0o qnd 89o fly ot odd lhousondfoot levels; between 90o ond 1790 ot odd lhousond-foot levels plus 500 feet 13,500'; 5,500/; 7,5O0'; etc.) between l80o ond 269o ot even lhousond-foot levels; between 270" ond 359o ot even lhousond-

Air Troffic Control Communicofions

Ihe flight plon.
The flight plon moy be filed with the neoresl oirwoy communicolion

foot levels plus 500 feet (4,500'; 6,500';8,500'; etc.l lnslrumenl flight rules.
Flight plons moy be filed for oircrofl operoling VFR. ln fqct, it is o sofe proclice olwoys to file q flight plon. lt is required thot flight plons be submitted for qircroft operoting when weother conditions ore below VFR minimums. The filing of on inslrument flight plon ossures Air Troffic Conlrol thqt the oircrofl is equipped for inslrument flight ond thot the pilot holds inslrumenl rolings. Before leoving or entering o conlrol zone or oreo, oircroft operoting IFR must gubmit o t flight plon qnd receive on oir lrofiic cleoronce.

riolion, oirporl lroffic control lower, or oir-route lroffic conlrol cenler by person, lelephone, or rodio. lt is by meqns of informotion given on lhe flight plon thot the oir lroffic controller con plof o flight occurotely ond plon the flight's movement in terms of the prevoiling flow of oir troffic. The flighl plon conioins informotion qbout lhe type ond idenlificotion of lhe qircroft qnd the nome, oddress, ond certificole number of the pilot in commond. ln qddition to the oirport of intended deslinotion, the flight plon nomes qlternqte oirports within the oircrofl's rodius of flighr. The flight plon olso slotes in terms of

of fuel on boqrd, Of speciol significonce to 'dir Troffic Control ore lhe following items which the flight plon musl conloin: the point of deporture, or when the flighr plon is filed enroute, the position of lhe oircroft; the proposed time of deporture; lhe roule to be followed; the cruising ohitude
hours ond minules the omounl

48

49

IFR olfitude rules.

Rules connof reploce

pilot iudgment.

or oltitudes; the proposed true oir speed ot cruising; the rodio lronsmitting ond receiving frequencies io be used; lhe point of the first intended londing; ond on estimotion of the time which will elopse between deporture ond qrrivol over fhe oirport of first intended

of o flight plon olso hos o very importont secondory purpose. ln the event o pilot is forced to moke on unscheduled londing in qn oreo not equipped with communicotion focilities ond foils to moke scheduled position reports, qn oir seorch for the oircroft is mode. Civil Air Pqtrol senior members ploy on importont role in seorch ond rescue. The informolion in the flight plon helps the Civil Air Potrol seorch teom quickly locole lhe overdue oircrofl.
IFR sltitude rules.

londing. The filing

Within control zones ond oreos, ATC keeps oircroft o certqin distonce from one onother. Yerticolly (up-ond-downf seporolion is mointoined by ossigning difierent oltitudes to different oircroft; longi' ludinolly (forword-ond-bockword) seporofion, by estoblishing minimum lime seporolion belween different qircrofi on the sqme course; ond loterolly (right side-ond-left sidel seporolion, by ossigning porollel courses to different oircroft enroute to the some destinotion. IFR
flights cruising outside control zones on mognelic courses belween 0o to 89" sholl fly ot odd thousond-fool, indicoted, seo-level oltitudes (1000'; 3000'; 5000'; etc.l. When such flights cruise on mognelic courses between 90o to 179", lhey sholl fly ot odd lhouson.ds plus 500 feet (1500';3500';5500'; etc.l. When lhey cruise on mognetic courses belween l80o ond 269o, lhey sholl fly ot even thousonds 12000'; 4000'; 6000'; etc.l. Such flights operoting outside of control zones when on mognetic courses belween 270" ond 359o sholl fly ot even thousond-fool, indicoted, seq-level oltitudes plus 500 feel 12500'; 4500'; 6500'; etc.l.
t

ln stoting his proposed flight oltitude in his flight plon, the pilot should indicote odd oltitudes for eosterly-northerly flights ond even oltitudes for westerly-soutlrerly flights. Except where other oltitude minimums hove been estoblished, IFR flights musl operote so qs to cleor, by ot leost 1000 feet, the highest obstocle within five miles of the cenler of the intended course. ln mountqinous regions, q cleoronce of 2000 feet is required.

he oir lroffic cleorcnce"

The oir lroffic cleoronce issued by ATC oulhorizes the operotion of on oircroft within o control zone or oreo. However, such operotion

50

5l

of the oircrofr in flight.

musl be conducted under lhe specific conditions of the cleoronce. Otherwise lhe purpose of lhe cleoronce would be defeoted, since its principol obiect is to help the controller know ot oll times the position

The pilot must notify ATC

if the rodio equipmenl of

his oircroft

cqnnot receive omni-ronge signols when he is instructed to use these

ln this respect, il is importont for lhe pilot lo remember lhot only during IFR weother conditions is it possible to keep slqndord seporo_ lion befween oircrqft. During VFR weother conditions, VFR flights cqn be operoting without the knowledge of ATC. Generolly, trqffic cleoronces ore issued for the oltifude ond roufe reguesled on lhe flight plan. However, trqffic conditions sometimes mqke it necessory ro ossign oltitudes ond routes other thqn rhose requesled. Such moy be the cose in oreos of oir lroffic congeslion. Flow pofterns ore estoblished for these oreqs in order lo increqse rhe copocily of lhe oirwoy. Under such conditions, ATC moy chonge o requested route lo conform to the flow pottern. Somelimes ofter o cleoronce hos been issued, il becomes necessory, in order to ovoid possible conflicf between qircrofi in flight, for ATC to omend lhe cleoronce. Such oction moy be token by on oir troffic controller ony lime he believes it necessory. The pilot should give close oltention to the cleoronce when issued

to identify o rodio fix. For pilots ore required when operoting IFR to keep continuous listening wotch on the proper rodio chonnel ond lo moke o position repori ot the time they ore over ony compulsory
rcporling point or ony reporting point specified in the flight plon. Posilion reporting is very importont ond musl be os occurote os porrible, becouse sofe ond effective troffic conlrol depends upon occurote position reporting. lt is olso necessqry for eqch position rcport lo include on estimqted iime of possing lhe next reporting
point.

ond nol ossume thot the roule ond oltitude for which his flight

is

cleored ore lhose requested. When receiving cleoronce by rodio, he should osk for o "repeot-bock" of ony inslruclions thol he does nol cleorly understond. He olwoys hos the privilege of requesling o cleoronce difrerent from lhe one issued by ATC when for some reqson complionce with the cleqronce issued would nol be proc_
ticoble.

It is importont thot pilots in flight report ony unforecost weother condition encountered. They olso must report, to ATC, hozordous conditions when lhese ore encountered, whether or not these condilions hove been forecost. Olher reporls thot pilots musl moke include the oltitude of the oircrofl when it reoches the point to which it hqs been cleored, or o "holding point," ond the time of ils orrivol lhere. The pilot must report his deporture from one oltitude for o ncwly ossigned oltitude, the time of leoving on ossigned holding point, ond when such hoppens, the foct thol qn opprooch hos been missed. Still other reporls moy be requested by Air Troffic Control, ond it is the responsibiilty of lhe pilot to conform to lhese requests. Finolly, it is mondotory thot o pilot reoching his destinqlion "close out his flight plon." Approoch Conlrol.
As you know, Approoch Control is o service of Air Troffic Control thot supervises deporling ond orriving IFR flights. Unless' he hos bcen instructed by ATC to do so enrouie, the pilot woits until he rcoches his ossigned holding point before requesting instructions from Approoch Control. Through the meons of oppropriote instructions lo o pilot bosed upon the controller's knowledge of the positions of other oircroft within the control zone, on opprooching oircroft is directed lo o sofe londing. IFR londings depend upon both the electronic

A pilot moy olso cqncel on IFR flight plon ot ony time he is operoting in VFR weother conditions. He does this by o messoge lo the controller or to the oir-ground rodio slqtion with which he is in communicotion. However, should subsequent IFR operotion become necessory, he musl file o new flight plon immediotely. Pilol responsibiliries under on oir lroffic cleqronce. After on oir troffic cleoronce hos been obtoined, its conditions must be observed unless for some reoson the cleoronce is subsquently omended. The pilot should remember thot ony chonge in oltitude, roule, or lrue oir speed ot cruising oltitude is o chonge of flight plon.

focilities used by conirollers to obtoin ond import informqtion ond lhosc used by the pilot to receive this informotion (See poge 27 l.
Approoches which employ eleclronic devices ond opplionces demond complele cooperotion of conlroller ond pilot.

52

53

a
The pilot's knowledge, skill, cnd iudgment.
lmportont os ore the rules of oir lroffic ond voluoble os ore lhe tools of communicotion ond novigolion, the quolity of iudgment exercised by the pilot of the oircroft is the most significont foctor in successful oir troffic regulotion ond sofety of oircroft operotion. Rules ond regulotions con only define potterns of behovior. Electronic devices con only convey informotion ond instructions. Unless the pilot disciplines himself lo respect the rules of flight ond to follow them ond unless he is copoble of bosing his flight procedures upon the instructions ond informotion he receives, both rules ond instruclionol guidonce will hove been wosted,
fi

*ttei e.Srerr:tilrt; pro*itir:e*.

Obviously those who use the focilities of oirports ond oirwoys must observe corefully the oir troffic rules estoblished in lhe interest of sofe flying. However, quite frequently oir troffic conflicts occur when no rule hos been viololed. As o molter of foct, rules connot reploce good pilot iudgment in lhe plonning ond conducting of o flight. Pilots should be coutious obout exercising the prerogolives of VFR flight. For exomple, pilots operoting VFR should use good judgment ond stoy owoy from opprooch oreos when visibility is down to three

or four

miles.

Pilots should be olerl ot oll fimes. Air collisions occur most oflen when weother condilions ore excellenl ond pilot's otlention becomes reloxed. Good iudgmenl dictotes thot o pilot, olthough he hos the right of woy, should give woy to opprooching oircroft thot get too close. ln lhe inlerest of best possible iudgment, pilols whenever possible should use the designoted oirwoys, operote neqr lhe center of lhe Victor oirwoys, follow IFR procedures even when operoting VFR, conduct IFR operolions unless weother is well obove VFR minimums, ond

when conducting on IFR operotion, moke condition of his ATC cleoronce.

q written record of

the

ffiffiffiffiffiffiw
54

ln lheory, on oircroft con fly on infinite number of poths through lhe oir from ony surfoce point to ony other. ln proclice, the poths of flight leod from oirport to oirport. ln- proctice, oircrqft lond ond loke-off from lqnd or wqler oreos suitqble for these purposes. Aircrqfl not only need proper londing ond loke-off focilities, lhey olso need mointenonce ond repoir focilities. Moreover, lhose who use qircrofl need services ond occommodolions which the oirporl must

ol thrrc discoveries will continue to bring oboui improvemenls in lhe loolr of oviotion. Alrports ore necessqry for mony obvious reosons. There ore other
r.oronr for their imporlonce thot moy be overlooked by the oirplone porcnger or the oirport visitor. Among these is lhe provision by the qlrport of odministrotive centers for the control of lhe severol ospects of oir troffic. dmong lhe services odministered by oirport centers ore
Service; (b) Air Troftic Conlrol, which includes Alrporl Troffic Conlrol, Approach Confrol ond Air Roufe frofric Confrol; lcl Rodio Communicolions, ond (dl Weother Bureou Observotion qnd

of o specific oirporl or o specific oirwoy from on oeronouticol chqri such os pilols use. For exomple, the chori reveols the type ond size of on oirporf, the rodio focilities it uses, ond its oltitude ond locotion. The chort olso shows the locotion of the civil oirwoys, the mognetic direction they follow, ihe type of rodio beoms ond morkers thot they use, the position of check points, ond lhe geogrophicol locotion of rodio focilities ond
communicotions stotions olong them. Airwoy ond oirporl developments ore keeping poce wilh oircrofl ond engine developmenls. These developments ore moinly in the fields of oirport engineering qnd oviotion electronics. ln lerms of the

provide. Much con be leorned oboul the noture

lol Flight Assislonce
lorccosting.

of the flight services whose odminisirolive centers moy be hourcd ot on oirpori exlend olong lhe Civil Airwoys. The use of
Some

relotive importonce

of these two developmentol oreos, progress in

the lotter is of the most significonce. Consequently, the studenl of
oirports ond oirwoys must reoch some generol understondings of ihe scientific principles underlying the devices which ore used in oirport

oloclronic devices to conlrol oir trqfric qlong on oirwoy is lhe foctor which mokes on oirwoy of o poth of flight. lt is lrue thot through the urc of modern eleclronic devices, such os VOR/DME o pilol, whether or not he is on q civil oirwoy, moy fly on exoct ond direct course lrom the oirport of his flight's origin to lhe oirport of itq destinotion. Howcver, o flight which does not follow o designoted civil oirwoy connot profit by mony ATC services thot otherwise would be ovoiloble. ln lhe interest of oviotion sofety ond oir lroffic ossistonce ond

ond oirwoy operotion.
The rodio signols, which ore used in ground lo oir communicolions ond to mork oirwoys, ore mode possible becouse men hove leorned how to control the nolure of rodio wove frequencies. The eleclron tube is one of the devices which helps estoblish such confrol. Through use of one type of eleclron lube, o foint rodio signol con be omplified by o rodio receiver. When this is done, o very weok electromotive force con be increosed until it is strong enough to octivote lhe diophrogms of both the eorphones used by o pilot ond ihe indicotor of on electronic instrument. This is possible becouse one of the functions of the electron tube is lhe some os thqt of on electric generotor or botfery-to generole electriciiy. Eoch doy sees new discoveries mode in the field of eleclronics. The scientific opplicotion

conirol, oir lroffic rules hove been estoblished. The rules relqte chicfly lo weother minimums, flight oltitudes, ond troffic potterns to bc used under different circumstonces. An oircroft observes one set of rules when the weolher permits flight by reference to obiects ond londmorks on the ground (VFRI, onother set when the weother re' quircr ihe use of speciol instruments (lFRl. More exocting rules govcrn flight in control zones thon govern flight in conlrol oreos. Whilc oir troffic rules exlend lo oirspoce elsewhere thqn thot of control zones ond oreos, these in the mqin relqte to procedures which connol be supervised by Air Trqftic Control (ATCI. ln thc finol onolysis, eftective oir troffic eontrol depends upon the lnlcgrity ond good iudgment of the pilot who operoles on oircroft. IFR opcrotions must olwoys be cleored by dTC in terms of o flight plon fllcd by the pilot in commond. A, wise pilot will nol chonce VFR operolions when weother condilions ore doublful. Moreover, he will

56

57

AVIATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL
occepl the responsibilities imposed on him by the ATC cleoronce he received, His course of oclion will be in occord with these responsibilities.
Mlvln (.5lricklcr.
lltra, lor ,rl Aviolion Education
Jr.

Arthur l. Mariin, Souihweslern Region Vicior E. Moore, Northeasiern Region
and

llar,rltl L, Mohrens, Chief , Ediioriol ( urrir ulutn Division
Wrllrarrr

John M. Ogle, Rocky Mounlain Region John E. Sims, Southeaslern Region John V. Sorenson, Pacific Region Charles W. Webb, Great Lakes Region

Airports ond oirwoys ore of principol imporlonce becouse without lhem ond the equipment they employ, oircrqfl would hove no system of orgonized operotion.

lraininrt Aids Division
E, Collin. North Cenlral Region

t.

Rowlond, Chief, Audio Visual

fveroll

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
frrrlrrll A, Eolls Itlr.r lor, 86lli Reodinq Clinic Wtllir C. Srown hrrr ralrrl {or Aviotion Education li,vruon ol Stote ond Local School Systems ( )llr a ol Educolion lrrlrn A, Bryon lltror l,rr, lnslitule of Aviation llrrvarllv ol lllinois
i,,hn ll. Iurbay llr nr lor A ir Wor l<J Ed ucation Kenneth E. Newland Occupations Division Slephens Colleqe

Willouqhby E. Sams, Consultant Avialion Education Cali{ornia State Departmeni of Education
Harry C. Schmid Sfaie Direcior Vocafional Division Department of Educalion

Slale of

Mi nnesoia

lranr Worlri Airlines, lnc,

t,6"10n N. Gordne. I'r't,nr;nlrndcnl, Educational Services l'air Arrraricon World Airways System
.1,,In L Ooodwin Arror iole Professor llrrivonily ol California

Frank E. Sorenson Professor of Educalion Teachers College The University o{ Nebraska Roland H. Spauldinq in Education in Charqe o{ Aeronautical Educalion New York Universitv School of Educalion
Professor Parker Van Zandt USRO De{ense
I

l)nt'drlrrnnl of

Eusiness

Adminisiraiion

l'lrrlrlr 5. l"loptins l)a|larlrrronl Head
Oewron

lniernaiional Staff, NATO
Paul A. Wilkinson Denver Public Schools
Ha rry Za rilsky Audio-Visual Division

Norwir I University
l)rrar lor, lnslitute of Tropical Meteorology llnrvarrily of Puerto Rico trll (rrubnr Slreel l)ar M,rinns, lowa Drrar

C. McDowell

Mrrlyn McLouqhlin, Li. Col., USAF invrrron,l O. Mertes

Naval Medical School Nalional Naval Medical Cenier

l,rr. School ond Colleqe Service [Jnilerl Air Lines

Jordan L, Larson Superintendent of Schools Mount Vernon. New York

OPERATIONS AND TRAINING PERSONNEL
rnnl W. I lonrloy, Colonel, USAF l)apuly Chiof ol Staff, Operations an,l lraininq
I Seymour E. Lalham, Maior, USAF

Director of Training

Wellar W, lhompson, Lieuienoni Colonel, USAF I rar ulivo Ollicer lo the Depuly Chie{ of

Evarice C. Mire, Jr.. Maior, USAF Chief of Senior Training Leonard C. Yonaifes. Maior, USAF Director of Communicaiions John W. Scoit, Coptain. USAF Assistant Director of Communicalions

\tetl, ()Jlorolions ond Training
lor ol
Ogrorolions

Morlin R. Walsh, Jr., Lieulenant Colonel, U5AF
Ittr o,

Alvn

( hral, Sonior Oporotions

t.

Connor, Liculenonl Colonel, USAF

Jack A. Walberf Communications Technician

I

t

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