# Process Control - Project 2

Simulation a Plant-Wide Control System Using MATLAB

By:- Eng. Sahar Nasrallah
Supervised by:- Dr Deeb Abu Fara
http:www.mathworks.com

Lecture Outline
 Project Objective
 Project Description -Reactor/Distillation Column Plant-

 Dynamic Process Modeling

 How to solve ODE using Simulink? (Simple Example)

Project Objective
 The objective of the project is to practice simulation a

plant-wide control system.

Project Description

 The binary distillation column (DC) has 20 stages. is fed to a reactor where the reaction A →B takes place isothermally. mainly A but also containing some B. .Project Description  A mixture of two species.  DC produces two product streams: an overhead (distillate) stream rich in A and a (bottom) stream rich in the desired product B.

.Project Description The A-rich distillate is recycled to the reactor to increase the conversion of A to B.

Project Description  An Isothermal Reactor:- .

Project Description  A Distillation Column:- .

2. 5. The column operates with equimolal overflow (L=V). 6. Constant relative volatility is used to describe vapor/liquid equilibrium. 4. Each tray represents an equilibrium stage . Column operation is at atmospheric pressure. Reactor operation is isothermal (ᴧT = 0). The reaction rate is first order in A (Elementary RXN). 3.Project Description  A number of simplifications are used here: 1.

A →B rA = -kRHRz Reactor residence time. HR (Fo + D) = 2.Dynamic Process Modeling  Reactor: General Information: Reaction rate expression is first order in reactant A.5 hr .

33 h-1 HR : Reactor holdup.5 mole fraction A . 0. 0.Dynamic Process Modeling rA : rxn rate ( reactant A consumption rate) kR : Specific reaction rate (rate constant). 2400 lb-mol z : DC feed composition.

Total (overall) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet .F (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) .Dynamic Process Modeling  Reactor: Model: 1.Outlet 𝑑𝐻𝑅 𝑑𝑡 = Fo+ D .

960 lb-mol D : Distillate flow rate. 500 lb-mol . Ib-mol/h F : Column feed rate.Dynamic Process Modeling HR : Reactor holdup. 2400 lb-mol Fo : Fresh feed 460.

Dynamic Process Modeling  Reactor: Model: 2.Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑅𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 = F0z0+ DxD .Fz + (-kRHR z) (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) . Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet .

9 mole fraction A XD : Recycle composition.Dynamic Process Modeling z0 : Fresh feed composition. 0. 0. 0.5 mole fraction A .95 mole fraction A z : Column feed composition.

ii. Equimolal overflow is assumed. assume equilibrium holds for each stage: yi = (α 𝑥𝑖)/(1+𝑥𝑖) . A is the more volatile component.Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: General Information: i. Saturated liquid feed is to 12th stage (of 20) numbered from the top down.

Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: Drum Model: 1. Total (overall) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐷) 𝑑𝑡 = V-R-D (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) HD: Drum holdup 185 lb-mol .

1100 Ib-mol/h D : Distillate flow rate. 5001b-mol/h .Dynamic Process Modeling V : Vapor boilup. 1600 1 b-mol/h R : Relux flow rate.

Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐷𝑥𝐷) 𝑑𝑡 = V(y20) — R(xD) — D(xD) ( 0 for perfect reactor level/mol control) .Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: Drum Model: 2.

=2 .974 α : Relative volatility.Dynamic Process Modeling y20 : The A concentration in the vapor outlet from tray 20 — upper tray — yi = α 𝑥𝑖 1+𝑥𝑖 = 0.

Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: Stage i above feed Model: 1.yi-1) for 13≤i ≤19 . Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑆) xi 𝑑𝑡 = L(xi+1.xi )-V(yi .

mol L=Li+1=Li=Li-1=R V = Vi+1 = Vi = Vi-1 .5 lb.Dynamic Process Modeling — Rectification Section — Hs: Individual stage holdup Hs = 23.

Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑆) x12 𝑑𝑡 = L(x13.x12)-V(y12 .Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: Feed Stage: 1.y11) + F z .

1100 Ib-mol/h F : Column feed rate. 960 lb-mol/h .Dynamic Process Modeling where L’ =L + F L: Liquid hold up = R.

xj )-V(yj . Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑆) xj 𝑑𝑡 = L’(xj+1.Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: Stage j below feed Model: 1.yj-1) for 1 ≤ j ≤11 .

Hs = 23.Dynamic Process Modeling — Stripping Section — Individual stage holdup.5 lb.mol L’=Lj+1=Lj=Lj-1=R+F = L+F = 2060 V = Vj+1 = Vj = Vj-1 .

Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: Bioler Model: 1. Total (overall) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐵) 𝑑𝑡 = L’-V-B (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) HB: Boiler holdup 275 lb-mol .

1600 lb-mol/h B : Bottoms flow rate. 4601 b-mol/h .Dynamic Process Modeling L’ : L+F = 2060 lb-mollh V : Vapor boilup.

Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐵𝑥𝐵) 𝑑𝑡 = L’(x1) — V(yB) — B(xB) ( 0 for perfect reactor level/mol control) .Dynamic Process Modeling  Distillation Column: Boiler Model: 2.

Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the other toolboxes. Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment. It’s special interface .What is Simulink ?  What is the SIMULINK ? 1. . both in: A. 2.

What is Simulink ?  What is the SIMULINK ? 1. both in: . Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment. 2. Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the other toolboxes.

It’s special interface . The source code of the Simulink system is not open. C.What is Simulink ? A. B. It’s special “programming technique” . .

convert a block diagram directly into Simulink and simulate the operation of the system. 2. . differential equations or (in the case of discrete times) difference equations. dynamic systems is with block diagrams.What is Simulink ?  linear or nonlinear time-dependent processes (dynamic systems that are continuous in time) can be described using: 1.

.What is Simulink ?  This is an attempt to understand the behavior of the system by means of a graphical representation. which essentially consists of representations of individual components of the system together with the signal flow between these components.

How to solve ODE using Simulink  Example: find the open loop response for the following of ODE using Simulink toolbox. 𝐝𝐲 =3𝑥+1 𝐝𝐭 —2𝑦 y(t) and x(t). .

How to solve ODE using Simulink  Solution: .

How to solve ODE using Simulink .

What is you task ?  Your task is to choose one or more of the alternatives and perform simulation study using MATLAB Simulink.0105 mole fraction. despite disturbances in the fresh feed composition zO and the feed flow rate FO. 0. to maintain the composition of B in the product stream xB at the nominal value . .

23.What is you task ?  Alternative 1 (Fig.7a) .

What is you task ?  CSTR Model: .

Fz + (-kRHR z) + 𝐻𝑅 (𝑑𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 • z = F0z0+ DxD .What is you task ?  CSTR Model: • (𝑑𝐻𝑅𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 (𝑑𝐻𝑅) 𝑑𝑡 = F0z0+ DxD .Fz + (-kRHR z) • (𝑑𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 = [F0z0+ DxD − Fz + (−kRHR z)] − z (𝑑𝐻𝑅) 𝑑𝑡 𝐻𝑅 where • (𝑑𝐻𝑅) 𝑑𝑡 = (Fo+D-F) .

zo • Outputs: z .HR .What is you task ?  CSTR Model: • Inputs: D – F – Fo – xD .

What is you task ?  Distillation Column Model: .

What is you task ?  CSTR -Distillation Column Model: .

Thank You… .