GOODISON PARK

LIVERPOOL

EVERTON FC

DESIGN & ACCESS STATEMENT

PREPARED BY - FORMROOM ARCHITECTS DATE - SEPTEMBER 2010

CONTENTS.

PART ONE

EXISTING 01 Executive Summary 02 Location 03 Site 04 Site History 05 Existing Plan 06 Existing Elevations 07 Surrounding Area 08 Opportunity and Constraints 09 Urban Analysis 10 Urban Street Views 11 Urban Analysis Diagrams 12 Existing Height Massing 13 Evolution Analysis

PART TWO

PROPOSAL 01 Proposal Brief 02 Form, Character & Materials 03 Building Use and Amount 04 Street Scene Massing 05 Long Distance Massing 06 Layout, Access & Circulation 07 Scale 08 Sunpath Analysis 09 External Precedents 10 Internal Precedents 11 Proposed Plans 12 Proposed Elevations 13 Detailed Design 14 Visual 15 Conclusion

PART THREE

SUPPORTING INFORMATION 01 The Architects 02 Supporting Information 03 Planning Policy Guidance

00

PART ONE
EXISTING

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.
PART ONE

Formroom Architects have been commissioned by Everton Football Club to deliver a new landmark building at their home Goodison Park, to house retail, (of Everton products) an Everton museum, offices and corporate hospitality - all under one roof. The proposals will allow the club to continue to grow and develop sustainably for the medium term. Everton Football Club has been looking to expand or re-locate over recent years in order to accommodate their growing organisation needs. However it has been decided that a new multi-purpose building would enable them to fulfil their business aspirations for expansion, resulting in additional accommodation within the existing site boundary. The site is currently occupied by a single storey marquee structure and car parking which will be removed. Existing offices within the stadium will be redeveloped for corporate use. It is currently proposed that ‘Everton One’, the existing football club shop will be refurbished for community based health and education use by the Everton Foundation This Design and Access statement will be accompanied by a full set of architectural planning drawings, and should be read as supporting information for the application. The scheme as depicted and hereby submitted for detailed planning approval is born out of the clients desire to contribute to the Club and the community as well as deliver a building of the highest architectural quality.

01

LOCATION.

PART ONE

KIRKDALE RAIL STATION

BANK HALL RAIL STATION
ER D

SPELL OW LN

ME

BAR

LOW L

LR

OS

N

WALTO N

LN

PR

WA LTO NL

N

IO RY RD

COMMERCIAL RD

R SLEEPE

VA L

LE

Y

S HILL

Everton is an inner City District of Liverpool. Everton Football Club within Goodison Park is situated two miles north of Liverpool City Centre, with Vauxhall to the west, Kirkdale to the North and Anfield to the north east. Liverpool has good transport links with Lime Street Railway Station being the nearest mainline station. Goodison Park itself is well placed for access via public transport, be it by bus or train. The nearest Station to the stadium is the Kirkdale railway station which is located just over half a mile away. A number of local bus services run to Goodison Park from Liverpool as well as Hackney carriage services. There are also on-site parking facilities for supporters travelling by car. 02

EV

ER

TO N

PART ONE

SITE.

The Stadium has been home to Everton Football Club since it was completed in 1892. It is one of the world’s first purpose built football grounds and was built within a residential area. Goodison has undergone many changes over the years and presently has a total capacity of 40,157 all seated spread among four separate stands. The proposed development site sits at a major junction of Goodison Road, Walton Lane running north to south and Spellow Lane to the West. It is a clearly visible location and provides an opportunity to deliver a building of the highest quality.

03

SITE HISTORY.
PART ONE

Goodison Park as we know it today started to take shape when Archibald Leach services were enlisted to design a stadium that was to become famous the world over. In 1907 the first side to be completed was the Park End double-decker stand, at a cost of £13,000. Two years later the large Main Stand on Goodison Road was built for a cost of £28,000 and housed all the club offices and player facilities. Around the same time £12,000 was spent on concreting the terracing and constructing a new cinder running track. During the Second World War, Goodison Park suffered quite bad damage due to it’s close proximity to the docks at Liverpool and the club was awarded £5,000 for repairs from the War Damage Commission. After the War football enjoyed an era of immense popularity and soon after Everton had completed the repairs to the ground they had their highest ever attendance, 78,299 on 18th September 1948 for the Division One game against Liverpool. England were awarded the World Cup in 1966 and in acknowledgement as the prominent league ground, Goodison Park staged more games than any ground outside of Wembley Stadium. Five games were played including the epic quarter final between Portugal and North Korea and the forgettable semi final between West Germany and Russia. In preparation for the World Cup, Everton had bought and demolished some of the houses which stood behind the Park End Stand in order to make way for a new entrance from Stanley Park. In 1987 the old pitched roof over the Gwlady’s Street stand was replaced with an upturned sloping roof which extended out over terracing below. The new covering joined the one over Bullen’s Road to form a continuous roof on two sides of the ground.

Goodison Park Facts; • Was the first league ground visited by Royalty • Was the first ground in England to have dug-outs. • Was the first to have double-decker stands on four sides. • Was the first to have underground heating. • Was the first to have a three tier stand. • Has staged more top fight games than any other. • Is the only league ground to host a world cup semi final. • It has staged FA Cup Semi Finals and Finals. • It has staged numerous England games. • It is the only football stadium in the World to have a church at one corner, St Luke the Evangelist.

04

SITE HISTORY.
PART ONE

04

EXISTING PLAN.
PART ONE

05

EXISTING ELEVATIONS.
PART ONE

ELEVATION 1 - GOODISON ROAD

ELEVATION 2 - WALTON LANE

06

SURROUNDING AREA.
PART ONE

The site has a varied backdrop on all sides. Predominantly set against the vast scale of the Park End stand as a back drop, there is also Stanley Park to the South from where elements of the Park End stand are visible.

STANLEY PARK

EXISTING ‘EVERTON ONE’ STORE

ST LUKES CHURCH

ANFIELD CEMETRY & CREMATORIUM

GLADYS STREET COMMUNITY PRIMARY SCHOOL WALTON LANE

07

OPPORTUNITY AND CONSTRAINTS.
PART ONE

Opportunity 1. Local Opportunity for Business The site occupied by Everton Football Club is a well established and thriving football club and business. Everton Football Club has occupied the site for numerous years and has naturally outgrown the need for the space in their current location. The site is in a prime location to allow for new bespoke scheme. It will create a new, fresh and exciting building for the local area, which in turn will continue to bring people to the heart of Everton and bring business to the community 2. Improved Physical Environment The existing location currently permits a temporary marquee and can be seen as far from ideal. The new addition would resolve the need for a better environment for the employees of Everton and will bring the community and businesses alike together. This intern would make the area a lot more desirable place to work and live. 3. Community Enhancement The new proposal with the addition of a cafe, retail unit, museum, and hospitality suite will improve and enhance the area of Everton. A successful proposal would almost guarantee the continued prosperity that the local economy brings as well as the additional benefits brought about by the reuse of the existing Everton One building by use of the Everton Foundation. 4. Site Specific Design The opportunity to deliver a design that is clearly of Everton’s progression, rather than the generic ‘anywhere, anyplace’ architecture of the existing building. The opportunity to create an excellent development and vibrant, secure mixed use scheme, with well-planned and orientated office space that reinforces the local community with passive observation of Everton. 5. Active Frontage The opportunity to reinstate Walton Lane, with an active frontage will complement and reinforce the area giving a connection back to the streetscape,

6. Continuity A great opportunity to create a scheme which responds and reinforces the unique history of Everton football club. Constraints aren’t necessarily negative things, but a list of criteria we must satisfy in order to engineer a robust design. A detailed site analysis was undertaken as part of the design development process for the application and the following constraints and opportunities identified: Constraints 1. Open urban site The site is positioned in such a way that its proportions are exposed to the elements which result in the existence of a large open space towards the edge of the site. A successful proposal will aim to tackle such future issues and create a more dynamic appeal to the existing site. 2. Space Restrictions The corner space and neighbouring streets and existing car park will have to be acknowledged. Buildings in similar situations have often been resolved poorly due to lack of consideration. The new scheme will be sensible resolved, crating the best possible solution to the space available with a duty of care to the neighbouring environment. 3. Potential noise intrusion from Walton Lane Walton Lane may at times be noisy, especially in rush hour. We will have to take this into consideration when regarding the internal locations and material selection to help reduce the passage of sound. 4. Mixed Use Character The building truly is mixed use in character with four different uses occupying a single building. The desires and motivations of the differing occupants all need to be considered for access ease of circulation, security and safety as well as aspirational wishes.

08

URBAN ANALYSIS.
PART ONE

N

N

N

OUTWARD VIEWS FROM GOODISON PARK

VIEWS FROM STANLEY PARK

FOCAL HUB

09

URBAN ANALYSIS.
PART ONE

N

N

N

CONNECTION TO THE COMMUNITY

ARRAY OF VIEWS

BOUNDARIES

09

A

B

C

URBAN STREET VIEWS.
PART ONE

D

E H

E

I

J D F G G F A C B

H

I

J

10

URBAN ANALYSIS DIAGRAMS.
PART ONE

STANLEY LAKE PARK

EVERTON FC STORE

CAR PARK

EVERTON FOOTBALL STADIUM

CHAPEL

HOT WOK

11

EXISTING HEIGHT MASSING.
PART ONE

3 METERS

6METERS

7.5 METERS

9METERS

10.5 METERS

28.9 METERS

12

EVOLUTION ANALYSIS.
PART ONE

Initially our proposals were to meet a brief for a 10,000 sq.ft office building. As our involvement with Everton Football Club grew and as we looked at more that could be done with the existing site and more that could be achieved by stretching our aspirations, so the brief and ultimately the building changed. Rather than look to work with an organically developed building, we constantly looked at a fresh start with a blank piece of paper to ensure that the building we designed was as well thought through as possible.

13

PART TWO
PROPOSAL

PROPOSAL BRIEF.
PART TWO

The new development will be a fresh addition to the area which will in addition illuminate the existing junction and provide an interesting view for the public. Furthermore it enables Everton to provide larger more modern facilities for both the general public and its current staff. The raking form of the building rises toward the main corner of the development to create focus not only for user interaction but to define the confidence of the buildings presence at a key junction and provide a new 21st century ‘Front Door’ for Everton Football Club.

01

FORM, CHARACTER & MATERIALS.
PART TWO

In plan the building is rectangular as has already been described. The extruded box has then be carved in to and sculpted to create a shape that draws the eye all around it from any view creating interest and delight with the angular roof and cantilevered forms at the corners. The cantilever creates depth to the elevation while the rising roof almost creates a fifth elevation to be viewed when entering or leaving Liverpool City Centre through Walton. The existing local vernacular shows a mixture of terraced housing from the last century with, churches and schools and other pre war predominantly brick buildings. This does give a background character that is rich in warm colours and depth of material, if somewhat run down and in need of restoration in some cases. The Goodison Park Stadium also has elements of historic fabric but over the years these have been added to, adapted and overlaid with late twentieth century metal and composite cladding panels. These late additions do create a flat grey background for our new proposals. The location of our proposals means that we are effectively creating a new front door to Goodison Park. This new face should be of quality in terms of material selection but also address the challenges of stadia design without being too carnival or brash. By the very nature of the uses within the development, glass pays a major role in our material palette. We have chosen to use this on the three front facing elevations that face all major highways and long views of the proposals. Conceived as one skin, the collection of clear, opaque and fritted glass creates a facade that reflects and mirrors it surroundings in terms of tonal colour and also maintains clean and crisp lines out of the sculpted form of the carved block. To the rear of the building on the northern elevation is more of an internal facade that is completely constructed from black brick with a raked joint. Passing around the building from the external public roads to the internal facade of the building that faces the stadium. This elevation houses different uses to the main three and can therefore naturally and legitimately be constructed from a different material. Visually this variation in material also creates added interest as uses approach and circulate the building. 02

BUILDING, USE AND AMOUNT.
PART TWO

The site is currently occupied by a marquee building, used for hospitality and events and a car park for staff and supporters. The proposal seeks to demolish the existing marquee building and construct a new four story multi purpose building on the site while still leaving space to accommodate car parking. The ground floor is to be used to accommodate retail and ticket sales while the first floor will house an interactive museum and café. The second floor is to provide a larger open plan office space with some cellular units, leaving the third floor for a flexible hospitality suite. The existing total floor space of the marquee is 518sqm while the car park amounts to approx 8269sqm. The proposed development has a footprint of 1287sqm leaving 6982sqm available for car parking. Schedule of Accommodation: • Ground Floor Gross Area - 1287sqm / 13853sqf • First Floor Gross Area - 1259sqm / 13552sqf • Second Floor Gross Area - 1361sqm / 14650sqf • Third Floor Area – 1361sqm / 14650sqf TOTAL 5268sqm / 56705sqf

03

STREET SCENE MASSING.
PART TWO

The concept sketches illustrate an indication of the schemes size and massing in comparison to its environment. The current site has somewhat lost its sense of place and the new addition to the area would hugely contribute to the continued restoration of the area. The scheme has been well considered to bring life in to the surrounding environment and therefore the design is looking to secure a place among Everton’s continuous history.

VIEW FROM WALTON LANE

VIEW FROM LANGHAM STREET

04

STREET SCENE MASSING.
PART TWO

AXO 1

AXO 2 04

LONG DISTANCE MASSING.
PART TWO

A

B

B

WALTO N

LN

SPELL OW LN

C

D

LOW L

N

D

BAR

IO PR

LN
C

WA LTO N

A

R RY D
05

LAYOUT, ACCESS AND CIRCULATION.
PART TWO

Layout The layout and size of the proposed development has been influenced by the surrounding area. Firstly the shape of the building is a basic and efficient rectangle which is effective in terms of construction and simplicity, thus creating clean lines and a simple form. Secondly, the orientation of the building, dictated mainly by the shape of the existing site, has been sited so that the southern façade runs parallel to Walton Lane allowing maximum exposure to the existing landscape and views of Stanley Park. And thirdly the structure has been kept to a maximum of four storeys as to not over shadow or intimidate the existing buildings in the area. Ground floor is naturally the most sensible place for retail and is easily linked to the first floor café and museum space. Hospitality was considered best placed on the top floor to maximize views of both the park and the water and hills beyond. Access The main access for the retail and museum attraction into the building is situated on the prominent corner of Spellow Lane and Walton Lane. This enables an easy focal point which will draw visitors and supporters in through a directed route. Visitors entering the building are immediately positioned within a double height space within the retail area. Routes up to the museum and café are easily located and are controlled on match days. A second more entrance, within the car park and on the private side of the site will be located to the rear of the building on the north façade. This is intended to be used by staff members working in the second floor offices or visitors to the top floor hospitality. Circulation The upper levels of the building are circulated by two central cores. These cores are the main communal routes to access all floors whilst also providing safe fire escape. Lift access is provided to all departments throughout the scheme. Throughout the development all areas are designed to comply with the requirements of the Building Regulations approved Document M ‘Access to and use of Buildings’ 06

PART TWO

SCALE.

A

The townscapes importance of this site supports an approach where additional height is an appropriate response to improving the sense of place of Everton Football Club. The new proposal is therefore deliberately amongst the taller structures in the local area to reflect the importance of the scheme and so build community focus. It sits against the backdrop of the stadium and so has precedent for a tall building. Urban design in the planning system: towards better practice’;
‘The scale, massing and height of proposed development should be considered in relation to that of adjoining buildings; the topography; the general pattern of heights in the area; and views, vistas and landmarks. Relating new development to the general pattern of building heights should not preclude a degree of variety to reflect particular circumstances. The character of townscape depends on how individual buildings contribute to a harmonious whole, through relating to the scale of their neighbours and creating a continuous urban form.’

A

07

PART TWO

SCALE.

B

B

07

SUNPATH ANALYSIS.
PART TWO

The following sunpath diagrams illustrate a series of computer modelled shadowing studies illustrating the extent of shadows cast throughout the year during the morning, at noon and in the afternoon. These demonstrate that there will be no loss of residential amenity due to overshadowing for the occupiers of adjacent properties.

21ST MARCH 9AM

21ST MARCH 12PM

21ST MARCH 15PM

08

SUNPATH ANALYSIS.
PART TWO

21ST JUNE 9AM

21ST JUNE 12PM

21ST JUNE 15PM

21ST DECEMBER 9AM

21ST DECEMBER 12PM

21ST DECEMBER 15PM

08

EXTERNAL PRECEDENTS.
PART TWO

09

INTERNAL PRECEDENTS.
PART TWO

10

PROPOSED PLANS.
PART TWO

LOCATION PLAN 11

PROPOSED PLANS.
PART TWO

APPLICATION BOUNDARY

11

PROPOSED PLANS.
PART TWO

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

11

PROPOSED PLANS.
PART TWO

FIRST FLOOR PLAN 11

PROPOSED PLANS.
PART TWO

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

11

PROPOSED PLANS.
PART TWO

THIRD FLOOR PLAN 11

PROPOSED ELEVATIONS.
PART TWO

EAST ELEVATION

WEST ELEVATION 12

PROPOSED ELEVATIONS.
PART TWO

SOUTH ELEVATION

NORTH ELEVATION 12

DETAILED DESIGN.
PART TWO

FIXED SILVER ETCHED GLAZED PANEL. 0% OPACITY FIXED GLAZED PANELS. 100% OPACITY FIXED BLUE ETCHED GLAZED PANEL. 20% OPACITY 50MM ALUMINIUM FRAME. COLOUR DARK GREY (SPECIFICATION CONFIRMED)

BLACK BRICK FIXED GLAZED PANELS SET FLUSH TO BRICK WORK

13

VISUAL.
PART TWO

14

CONCLUSION.
PART TWO

The new proposals at Goodison Park provide a fantastic opportunity for the Club to continue to prosper from both a sporting point of view and for commercial viability. The impact of the proposals will benefit the community and the wider area through the new uses and attractions that the building will contain and the knock on effect of the redevelopment of Everton One for community based health and education. Architecturally, the proposals bring a new fresh and exciting front door to Goodison Park with what is a truly mixed use building of high quality architectural design.

15

SUPPORTING INFORMATION

PART THREE

A

B

THE ARCHITECTS.
PART THREE

The Architects/ Formroom ‘Totally dedicated to the regeneration of the city’ We aim to design architecture that is contemporary and original but calculated and sensitive to context. Considerable time is then spent analysing the brief together with the site to propose a new and innovative solution, delivering a fresh layer to a dynamic future. Every line we draw is for a reason, every space we create is meticulously considered. We do not believe in rhetorical statements or the introduction of shapes and materials to disguise what we propose. Our philosophy is formed from being proud and confident of what we produce and what we strive to achieve. C D Our aim is to produce architecture that is contemporary and innovative yet tactile and sensitive to its context. Considerable time is spent analysing the brief together with the site to propose a new and measured solution. Our work covers a diverse base, crossing all sectors, and includes the specialist areas of conservation and historic redevelopment including listing buildings and contemporary new build. A Duke Street_Retail & Residential B Baguley Street_Residential C Century House_Office (Listed Building in Conservation Area) D Bagot Street_Student Accommodation

01

SUPPORTING INFORMATION.
PART THREE

Entrance Entrance and exit doors and frames to blocks will be of robust and constructed from a vandal resistant material. Entrances will be well lit both internally and externally. All four corners of the building will have CCTV. The main building entrance doors to the rear of the building to access the offices and hospitality will include video access and will slide. Electromagnetic sheer locks or electrically operated dead bolts are also to be added. These main entrances will be controlled by a combination of a Proximity Access Control System and a door entry phone and video system on external doors. The lobby area is located immediately inside the entrance with two lifts and a main stair. There are no external ramps or steps as access is level for the full perimeter of the building. Entrance to the shop is via two sets of doors with a staircase and lift providing access to the first floor cafe and museum attraction. Doors All doors should be noticeable from their surroundings, with vision panels. Adequate space should be provided alongside the leading edge of the door to allow a wheelchair user to open the door while clear of the swing. Lever handles should be provided to all doors to allow them to be used easily with a closed fist, and at a height suitable for standing and seated users. The doors will be able to be opened with a force not exceeding 20N. Internal Stairs There will be two stair cores in the building. One forms part of the lobby, which will be the main stair core, the other being an emergency stair escape to the rear of the building. The treads on all the stair cores will be equal, and will be no less than 250mm deep with the risers not exceeding 180mm. Nosing will be clearly identifiable and slip resistant. Widths and handrails will comply with the current building regulations with regards to capacity and travel distances. Lifts The access to the passenger lift in the lobby will be

housed near to the entrance and next to the stair core. This lift will comply with all required regulations regarding disabled access. Disabled WC (DPT) Within the scheme there will be disabled wash rooms located on every level. The dimension of this should not be less than 2200x1500mm. The access to the toilet will be level and sufficient space will be provided to allow manoeuvring and opening all doors. Any added door controls should be positioned at a suitable height to be accessed by seated users, and additional grab rails to be installed will be in accordance with the sizes stated in Part M of the building regulations. Lighting The lighting levels are to be calculated by the services engineer to ensure the levels are sufficient for the intended use. In communal area lights should be positioned where they do not cause glare, reflection or confusing shadows. A sensitive lighting scheme has been incorporated into the design to enhance the overall aesthetic and provide a safe and easily navigable environment. In any individual areas the lighting should be adjustable by the user. Fluorescent lighting is to be installed only where it is unlikely to cause inconvenience to people with hearing impairments. Signage All signage (including emergency) will be suitable displayed on the interior and exterior of the building. This will be easy to read from distance and from nearby. Building Management All external routes, are to be kept clean, unobstructed and free of surface water at all times. All corridors are to be kept clear to allow wheelchair manoeuvrability, and are not to be obstructed by deliveries, storage and furniture. Appraisal and development The proposed development is to undergo detailed scrutiny and appraisal throughout the duration of the project. Regular client and design team meetings are scheduled to take place on and offsite to ensure the clients and publics needs are addressed and implemented with the scope of works. Every element of work forming part of this proposal is subject to the review and comments of the consulting design team and relevant specialists. The scheme is to be reviewed in detail at the scheduled meetings in terms of accessibility, sustainability, availability, cost,

programme, and giving particular consideration to planning negotiations and conditions. If an item is considered necessary to the project that has not previously been considered following review, detailing and approval it will be included within the scope of works document and added to the Design & Access statement for consideration in the whole scheme. General Guidance for Building Users Disability Discrimination Act This Access Statement should be kept on the premises to assist in any check on access provision. It may be particularly useful in relation to any queries by individuals as to whether there are aspects of the building that cause difficulties in relation to the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA). The Access Statement refers to the status of the building in relation to Building Regulations and the British Standard which tend to be referred to in any question of reasonableness under the DDA. Vehicular Visitors using the building and arriving by car will be able to park within the current car park and walk unaided and without impairment or level change. Cycles There will be new cycle racks provided on site.

02

PLANNING POLICY GUIDANCE.
PART THREE

This is not designed to be an exhaustive account of the plans and policies affecting this site, but rather, to highlight the key policies that have affected the design of this development. It is considered that this proposal accords with all relevant design guidance. This assessment includes local, regional and national design policy guidance as well as best practice documents. PPS 4 Industrial, commercial development and small firms: Well designed, high quality developments are central to this document and this proposal clearly demonstrates a commitment to achieving that. It also suggests that developments should be delivered to enhance economic growth and to deliver a high quality environment which are to be pursued collectively. The Environment White Paper “This Common Inheritance” emphasised this relationship when it said that “Economic growth is not an end in itself. It provides us with the means to lead better and fuller lives. There is no contradiction in arguing both for economic growth and for environmental good sense. The challenge is to integrate the two.” This scheme follows advice contained in By Design: Urban Design and the Planning System (2001), the Urban Design Compendium (2000) and both the Urban White Paper and Urban Task Force Report (both 1999). This approach has been honed over the last decade and is now standard practice. It is considered that this scheme accords with the best practice approach outlined in these documents and are best summarised by eight key principles: • Character – Somewhere with local distinctiveness. • Legibility – Somewhere that is easy to understand and navigate around. • Permeability – Creating a form which makes for efficient movement for all modes. • An Articulated Townscape – creating an interesting and contextually responsive townscape using height, scale and massing.

• Human Scale – The built and remodelled form is easy for the human eye to read and provides a sense of scale and perspective that doesn’t overwhelm or intimidate. • Security / Surveillance – Creating a place that is properly overlooked, easily policed (passively and actively) and which feels safe and welcoming to all. • Detailing and Interest – Promoting ornamentation, rhythm, consistent vernacular and intrigue in the built environment. • Adaptability and Robustness – The layout and the buildings should contribute towards sustainable design, adaptation and robustness in the design and materials to ensure that they withstand the test of time.

03

7 Constance Street Knott Mill Manchester M15 4JQ T 0161 870 1152 E info@formroomarchitects.com W formroomarchitects.com

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.