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Unofficial Art Resource 2013

Unofficial Art Resource 2013

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Published by Kevin Kuo
World Scholar's Cup 2013 Unofficial Art Resource
World Scholar's Cup 2013 Unofficial Art Resource

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Published by: Kevin Kuo on May 22, 2013
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UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 1

Unofficial Art Resource
2013: A World in Motion

Table of Contents
PREFACE................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2! I. UNDERSTANDING ART ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3! ANALYZING ART ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3! PANOFSKY AND HIS THREE MEANINGS ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4! ELEMENTS OF ART.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4! PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6! II. IMMIGRATION, MIGRATION, EMIGRATION ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8! MIGRANT MOTHER ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8! MIGRATION ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9! MIGRANT MISERIES (SEMEKAZI) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10! TO RAISE THE WATER LEVEL IN A FISHPOND ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 11! THE LONG MARCH ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12! A LINE MADE BY WALKING.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13! BORDERXING GUIDE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14! TRANSBORDER IMMIGRANT PROJECT ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15! III. MOVING GOODS......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17! SLAVE SHIP ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17! PANAMA CANAL MURALS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18! PICTURE OF WESTERN TRADERS AT YOKOHAMA TRANSPORTING MERCHANDISE ....................................................................................................................... 20! MCDONALD’S HAMBURGERS INVADING JAPAN................................................................................................................................................................................. 21! IV. LAND, SEA, AIR, AND SPACE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 23! EL AUTOBUS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23! BERLIN LEOPOLDPLATZ PLATFORM .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24! NASA SPACE COLONY ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25! GUNPOWDER DRAWING PROJECT ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25! V. PEOPLE IN MOTION .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 27! SHIVA AS LORD OF DANCE (NATARAJA) ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 27! THE PEASANT DANCE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28! THE LITTLE FOURTEEN-YEAR-OLD DANCER ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 29! MARTHA GRAHAM – LETTER TO THE WORLD (THE KICK) ............................................................................................................................................................... 31! IMPRESSIONS LIJIANG .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32! VI. ART SPOTLIGHTS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................34!

This resource is dedicated to all the World Scholar’s Cup members for releasing resources for previous years and hosting great tournaments. This resource is also dedicated to all the editors, testers, commenters, etc1. Thank you all. Scholars of Taiwan: Terran, Kevin, Herbert, David, Justin, Vivian, and Jennifer

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You know who you are :D

UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 2

Preface
You don’t have to be reading this.2 This is definitely an unofficial resource, even though you might like it, and want it to be official. You might be reading this because you have absolutely no idea on how to research. You might be reading this because, well, why not?
This is not an ordinary resource. This is not a resource published by the World Scholar’s Cup. Seven of us, after knowing that we might not get resource guides this year, decided to embark on a huge exploration mission to make guides we all like. Feel free to use this resource as a starting point, but remember – this year’s exploration has no finite endpoint. You might read something in this guide that won’t make an appearance at the tournaments. You may find something in the tournaments that you don’t recall reading in this guide. Don’t use this guide as your only source of information. Here is one tip from the World Scholar’s Cup website. Ask yourself, or your teammate, or someone else why the specific topic was put in the outline. How does the artwork, concept, history, or anything relate to this year’s theme A World in Motion? Go beyond facts, and discuss implications and effects on society. Updates This is version 1.0. Future updates will be described here. This guide will be as dynamic as possible. Updates will be made to it if necessary. If you find a typo, report it. If you find something misleading or potentially incorrect, report it. If you find something interesting you might want to add, also report it. We feel that we don’t have enough footnotes, so we’ll need more, too. The feedback form will be linked below. Feel free to discuss and talk about this resource, or anything related to this year’s theme online. Discuss with over 800 scholars (and alpacas) in the World Scholar’s Cup Group here: http://www.facebook.com/groups/alpacascholars/. Provide feedback here: http://is.gd/fbackart13 Remember, you don’t have to be reading this.

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This quote came from my favorite WSC resource, the Economics Fundamentals guide.

Formal analysis aims to describe the “form” of an artwork—its colors. Duchamp’s urinal? Should you consider skill. and focus on the nature. size. and history of art. Understanding Art Try defining art. How can you compare van Gogh’s cubist paintings to. a famous engraving by Albrecht Dürer. You would describe a bird. let’s backpedal and look at the scholarship of art. They focus on more than just aesthetics (visual qualities and beauty). a certain type of work may be characterized as abstract if it avoids realistic representation and is full of colorful geometric shapes. Remember that you are a scholar too. spacing. Formal Analysis If you are an art historian. composition. Art historians are more academic. Art connoisseurs are knowledgeable and enjoy looking at artwork. one does not refer to anything outside the work itself. Stylistic Analysis Another important tool in the art historian’s tool kit is stylistic analysis. meaning. Art historian Ernst Gombrich divides art scholars3 into connoisseurs. Is art a product of human imagination? Is it a keen eye for reproducing reality? Is it something that shocks people? Now try rating a random artwork. You probably can’t. cat. You would talk about how the elements are placed in relation to each other. critics. For example. but not what it means. formal analysis is one of the most basic skills you will learn. textures. rabbit. You would not claim that the man and woman represent Adam and Eve. and content. What does this mean? If you were to perform a formal analysis on Adam and Eve (1504). uh. 3 4 The World Scholar’s Cup divides scholars into two divisions: Junior and Senior. style. but also look at the authenticity of a work. and historians. Scholars4 often use stylistic analysis to talk about a work’s style — a set of visual guidelines an artist uses to create art. line. Something you consider a piece of junk may be considered priceless by someone else. cow. . looking at how one work is better than the other. or infer that the scene is the Garden of Eden. They know how to look at art and evaluate works. Art critics focus on aesthetics and try to compare works. Take note that when one does formal analysis. and elk surrounding them. you would tell us that it shows in black and white a nude man and a woman standing in nature. and the snake coiled around a tree trunk biting a woman’s hand. or popularity? Analyzing Art Before looking at methods of judging art.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 3 I. In other words. you are describing what you see. shapes.

as they depict 3D subjects in fragmented. Thus. you can categorize Monet’s work as Impressionist5. if a work uses lines. let’s look at ways to view art. he details three layers of artistic/historical understanding. in his Studies in Iconology. In Studies in Iconology. Elements of Art Even after you’ve nailed Panofsky’s Three Meanings. How is stylistic analysis different from formal analysis? Stylistic analysis emphasizes categorizing a work. and soft colors. and doesn’t consider cultural meaning. You might ask. art scholars add historical context. explain symbols and metaphors. In other words. you perform a formal analysis. you might find it hard to define the elements of art. the “what does it mean?” layer. Though Panofsky’s method isn’t applicable to all works of art. or parts of a work you perceive with your senses. For example. Checkpoint 1: Natural Subject Matter The natural subject matter is a work’s most basic layer. The earlier “art tools” will help you. many textured brush strokes. in summary. He’d be mad. what kind of lines are they? How do you describe the color schemes used? Is a form geometric or biomorphic? Learning to properly 5 You wouldn’t want to classify Degas as an Impressionist. . For example. it is a useful framework. multi-perspective 2D shapes.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 4 Two works may have the same content but different styles. you would look at Dürer’s life and consider how his life affected his portrayal of Adam and Eve. Picasso’s works are characterized as cubist. if you compare Monet’s works. You would. you see that they all have thick dabs of paint. For example. “Why did Dürer draw Adam and Eve like this?” “Why pick a Biblical subject?” The final layer is. a western viewer would recognize a man and woman standing next to a snake as Adam and Eve. We will use the method of analysis outlined by Erwin Panofsky. For example. comparing trends across a range of artwork. Checkpoint 3: Intrinsic Meaning (Iconology) In this final layer. but we will also focus on the historical and cultural context (the meaning) of the work. a German art historian. Checkpoint 2: Conventional Subject Matter (Iconography) The conventional subject matter adds in cultural knowledge. for example. Panofsky and his Three Meanings Now that we have two ways to analyze art.

. Transitional values are smooth (think about the smooth change in values when drawing a sphere). Descriptions of colors are usually based off the color wheel. Values can create the illusion of space. 8 Jennifer wrote this section. Flowers and Fruit. Secondary colors are the combination of primary colors. blue. Colors evoke emotions .UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 5 describe these elements will help you accurately talk about artworks (not to mention make you sound very professional6). A complementary color scheme uses colors directly across each other. Colors ranging from yellow to violet-red are warm colors. while harmonious color combinations make you feel zen. uses three cats of different sizes to create a diagonal line. and paintings especially. such as indigo (blue + violet). Often. while broken values create edges and texture (think about the way value changes abruptly at the edge of a cube) Texture Texture is a valuable part of the artist’s toolkit because it engages another sense besides sight . Three Little Cats. Darker values can be used to represent shadows. such as green (yellow + blue). Texture is intense and evocative. lots of abrupt value changes can show the texture of crumpled paper. though. productive. Texture can be created using fabrics or other materials that feel a certain way to the touch. and is often loud and energetic. they cannot be made by combining other colors7. while blue is calm and maybe sad. while colors ranging from yellow-green to violet are cool colors.texture is tactile.red is fiery.’ giving it energy and depth. on the other hand. rely on value (also known as tone). Value Drawings. The interaction of different colors can prick your nerves in different ways. texture is what makes a work ‘come to life. Color (Hue) Colors. Value refers to the lightness and darkness of an artwork. polite. lines can also be implied. uses colors next to or close to each other on the color wheel. For example. For example. Direction of line can 6 7 Some would say that you are prompt. uses short brush strokes and uneven coloring to create bumpy textures. by Paul Cezanne. and prepared. I dare you to try. angry and passionate. Primary colors–red. meaning that is appeals to our sense of touch. Analogous color schemes. Though lines can be explicit. and are usually relaxing. by Jennifer8. such as blue and orange. and yellow– are the basic colors. Tertiary colors are the combination of a primary color and a neighboring secondary color. Value can be tints and shades of black and white. are an appealing and complex element. Line Lines are used to define spaces and shapes in an artwork. The illusion of texture can be created using lines. but remember that colors have values also. That’s not all. or hues. Clashing colors can make you feel sick. value and variety of color. while lighter values represent highlights.

while diagonal lines are full of movement. but don’t meet at a fixed point. that the shapes you study in geometry are most likely geometric shapes9 .UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 6 be very important-horizontal lines are calm. Organic (or natural) shapes are ones that curve without a set pattern. much like things found in nature-and of course they give a work a natural. When thinking of shapes. vertical lines are strong. Note. and the lines are orthogonal lines. When an artist shrinks an object in the distant. in Cat Family. and geometric forms. Form Forms are. how do artists know how to use these elements? You do this using the principles of design. imagine a canvas with diagonal lines from the bottom of the artwork that meet at a single point. A simple explanation: positive space is the foreground. now you should know how to talk about art. That point is the vanishing point. The important distinction to make is that forms are three dimensional (or at least have the illusion of being so). Another way of saying this is positive and negative shapes. the image is said to have isometric perspective. But how do you decide how one artwork is better than the other? Or. very simply. living feel. negative space. Shapes are often considered in terms of figure (the shape on top) and ground (the shape in the bottom/surrounding area). linear perspective is being used. Objects in the far usually look hazy and have a bluish tinge – this is atmospheric (or aerial) perspective. for example. the Chinese painter Guo Xi wrote. curvilinear. not that the positive space is cats. When angled lines are used. 3D shapes. Analyzing forms is much the same as analyzing shapes-there are organic. Space Two important parts of studying space. while negative space is the background.” Perspective suggests depth. a framework for organizing elements of art so that they are cohesive. Take note that you are describing space. respectively. or elements in relation/proportion to each other. When there is linear perspective. Principles of Design Okay. are perspective and positive vs. you would say that the positive space is triangular. your geometry class might come to mind.these give works a structural and clean feel. however. “Distant people have no eyes. not objects. 9 As opposed to…? . Shape Shapes are 2D boundaries defined by lines. Around 1000 years ago.

Think back to the color wheel (or scroll up and jog your memory). Both show things moving. though. This is because eyes are drawn naturally towards the center. and has the effect of drawing attention to part of a work. Generally. where all the different shaped pieces must fit together to create an image that makes sense. all these parts of a work must work together. you are not wrong. To help you understand rhythm. but note the keyword movement. where elements radiate from a central point (circular balance. You don’t have to calculate the PED right now. think of a work as a puzzle. often. a dull blue next to a neon blue shows intensity contrast. and Elasticity10. lively. Rhythm (Movement) Rhythm. works have more symmetrical balance. If you’re in the mood for metaphors. defined as the repetition of visual movement. or similar. Contrast most commonly shows up as color contrast. after an artist applies various elements of art and principles of design. It is similar to repetition and pattern. or how visual weight is distributed through a work. Unity Unity is basically the cohesiveness of a work. in other words). With these tools in hand. can strongly affect the feeling of a work. or creating a focal point. This adds excitement and energy to both works. by Marcel Duchamp. Contrast has the effect of making a part of a work pop out at you. the more they contrast each other. where the elements on the left and right of the work are the same. . analyze. both artists repeated the moving parts of the work-Boccioni repeated the horse’s moving legs. Using asymmetrical balance can also be interesting and effective. which colors would contrast each other the most? If you are thinking about complementary colors. let’s look at the works Nude Descending a Staircase. while a smooth surface next to a bumpy one shows texture contrast. by Umberto Boccioni. Contrast Contrast refers to differences in elements of art. Another type of symmetry is radial balance. Traditionally. is a tricky principle to understand. observe. it’s interesting. Contrast can come in many forms. and enjoy the WSC selected artworks! 10 Economists need not worry. At the end of the day.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 7 Balance Balance. but trickier to use. while Duchamp repeated the moving limbs of the person. Instead of portraying movement realistically. and the work is more harmonious. the farther two colors are in the color wheel.

I made five exposures. be sure to wear flowers in your hair. and That is. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to the USA. And if you’re going to take pictures of others.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 8 II. crashed on Black Tuesday. tremendously. Her photos were brought to attention and were distributed in newspapers. she moved to San Francisco and became a portrait photographer. FSA) and Lange was offered a job there. Panicked. She met economics professor Paul Taylor and they both documented farm workers. She told me her age. until the stock market seemed to know that my pictures might help her. and birds a fortune. People thought this that the children killed. Some people even moved to other countries. Migrant Mother Dorothea Lange Dorothea Margaretta Nutzhorn was born in New Jersey in 1895 and studied photography in New York City. and soon the banks closed down one by one. When her father abandoned her at the age of 12.“ October 29. that she was thirty-two. There was a sort of equality about it. stock prices soared working closer and closer from the same direction. hoping to strike had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields. During the Great Depression. giving her a permanent limp. Suddenly. which weakened her right leg. 1929. income decreased drastically. Oh. as if drawn by a 1929) was a decade of prosperity in magnet. At the age of seven. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. The Great Depression The Roaring Twenties (1920“I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother. Many lost their jobs and . Dorothea Lange. later called Farm Security Administration. people rushed to banks to withdraw their savings. but I do remember she asked me no questions. she started taking pictures of the unemployed and homeless. be sure you know where you’ll be walking or you’ll face treacherous paths. And if you’re going to be marching to protest. Lange contracted polio. Their work was noticed by the Federal Resettlement Administration (RA. In 1919. Migration. Her most known photo was of a woman named Florence Owens Thompson. Lange. and so she helped me. I did not ask her name or and many were borrowing money her history. The economy grew her. be sure to take accurate notes. Unemployment skyrocketed. speaking about Migrant Mother in 1960 Stocks were no longer worth as much as before. she took on her mother’s maiden name. There she sat in that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her. and if you’re going to read the section below be sure to … uh. Immigration. be prepared. blissful period would never end. Emigration If you’re going to San Francisco. She said that they to invest in stocks.

although Lange did almost instantly. told Lawrence to join the Harlem Community Art Center. the picture was in the public domain. although most of them were not effective. some of cardboard . were badly built houses and shantytowns made by the homeless. As banks failed. His teacher. he moved to New York and was enrolled into an arts and crafts settlement house in Harlem. though it did make her a celebrity. while she waited with her other children in a temporary camp. Some were made of wood. which increased tariffs on imports by as much as 50%. when their car stopped suddenly by a pea-picker’s camp. This made international trade even worse. but attended classes at the Harlem Art Workshop. and had to live in Hoovervilles around the nation. The one featured in the WSC curriculum.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 9 their life savings. however. and deepen the depression. She didn't ask my name. President Herbert Hoover passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. When he was 13. I can't get a penny out of it. Lange came by and took six pictures over 10 minutes.” Many families found themselves homeless. She never did. an African-American artist called Charles Alston. Many programs were started to reverse this depression. so consumers could buy domestic goods and improve the economy. The picture itself was claimed to be the “ultimate” photo of the Depression Era. The pictures were taken by a Graflex camera. Migrant Mother (Florence Owens Thompson) Sometime in 1936. Thompson and her family were on the highway. Thompson claimed Lange said she would not publish the photos. Around the late 70s. Hoovervilles. Migration Jacob Lawrence Jacob Lawrence was born in 1917 in New Jersey. many families and businesses had to default on their debts. Lange. so they too increased their tariffs. meaning that they said something like “we’re sorry we really can’t pay our debts.” Since Lange was funded by the government. it is not possible to determine which photo was taken first. it didn’t matter whether the person was rich or poor. Sculptor Augusta Savage found Lawrence a scholarship to attend the American Artists School. Thompson’s sons and husband went to get the car repaired. the Great Depression affected everyone. Lange did not get royalties from the image. She said she'd send me a copy. She said she wouldn't sell the pictures. . Though the negatives are numbered. He dropped out of school at 16.it depended on what materials they could gather. While waiting for his husband. and the original negatives were 4x5” film. was the most famous and published photo out of all six of them. Other countries were distressed that America made it harder for them to export. Thompson’s identity was discovered. named after the President at the time. It was reported that the Thompsons actually didn’t sell their tires. She was quoted saying “I wish she [Lange] hadn't taken my picture. looking for work. was criticized for her inaccurate notes.

When he was 23. he joined another military camp for unemployed black youth. removal began two years later. After apartheid ended. The Harlem Renaissance was an African American cultural movement during the 1920s and 1930s primarily taking place in the neighborhood of Harlem in New York City. District Six is one of the residential areas in South Africa affected by apartheid. At the age of 30. he completed a narrative painting set of sixty panels he called Migration of the Negro. and many non-Whites were removed and had to move to other places. The series depicts the migration of African Americans from the South to the North after World War I. . Before the apartheid. At the age of seven. African American art. literature. now named The Migration Series. They all have many bags of luggage they want to take with them up North. the government designated District Six to be a whites-only area. Lawrence became the first African American artist to be represented in a New York gallery. Afterwards. except religious buildings. Migrant Miseries (Semekazi) Willie Bester Bester was born in 1956 in a small town near Cape Town. he and his friends made small wire cars. three acts collectively known as the Group Areas Act was passed. some Afrikaans. whites. pass laws that limited non-white entry into white areas were also enacted. Most of the areas were restricted to Whites. according to apartheid. his car was usually the most decorated one. South Africa. music and drama flourished. By the age of 24. but another work titled Migration. This act assigned racial groups to certain sections to live and work. District Six was made up of different races. the government started bringing people back to the district. Later on. and Indians. poetry. His father was a Xhosa. As a kid. Many of the people were pushed to a small town called Cape Flats. Having the faces removed gives a sense of anonymity. In District Six.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 10 At the same time. Bester went back to art. Some artists aims to bring awareness to issues such as oppression of the blacks and lack of civil rights. In 1966. Bester’s art was used to express politics. Lawrence’s works focuses on the daily struggles and history of African Americans. Lawrence was able to work and study with other Harlem Renaissance artists. As a teenager. Bester needed to leave school to help his parents. Migration (1947) The painting studied is not the sixty panel Migration Series. including some Xhosas. During this time. The main character in the artwork is surrounded by a lot of faceless people in a train station. because when he was 10. The Community Arts Project gathered a group of artists in District Six. and he became active in the anti-apartheid movement. Bester joined the South African Defense Force for a year. buildings were destroyed. all of them share the same goal to seek a better life up North. and his mother was colored. and their struggle to adapt. Most of Lawrence’s work focused on the history and struggles of African Americans. his family was removed due to the Group Areas Act. Like many Harlem Renaissance artists. More about this can be read in the History Resource. Under the apartheid government. he learned to paint. using it as a form of protest.

The first thing seen in the collage is Semekazi’s bed. Zhang crossed the courtyard laying down. a retired construction worker. his face was all black. is. Zhang Huan’s solo performances were masochistic. people were interdependent. but don’t. By the end.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 11 Migrant Miseries (Migrant Laborer) In Migrant Miseries. which also acts as a prison for him.” calligraphers wrote Chinese sayings on his face. he removed his clothing and laid on the bed for 10 minutes. Migrant Miseries is a collage made of 2D and 3D items found in Cape Town then painted on by Bester. Bester highlights the conditions of laborers that work for a company that promises to pay pension. He moved to an area called Beijing East Village and made friends with other artists living there. and were discriminated altogether. although he also makes photographs and sculptures. China in 1965. and sold scrap metal. He later received state pension. similar to a Buddhist prostration. Residents in the East Village and Zhang started to use their bodies for art. Zhang was not politically motivated. He is mainly a performance artist. Semekazi’s wife and children are also featured in the collage. though the company refused to pay him pension because he was listed as dead. he earned his BA in He Nan University and he got his MA in 1993 in Beijing’s Central Academy of Fine Arts. The bed is chained to a Bible.he donated some money to the church every month. there is a row of numbered cups. and wanted to find something else to do instead of painting. The Bible refers to Semekazi’s beliefs . In 1988. Ironically. he returned to China from New York. Afterwards. which he carried with him to prevent harassment. Watch it on YouTube Watch this short documentary where Zhang talks about his performances and his return to China. industrial life was like imprisonment. symbolizing that they were treated anonymously. The main focus of the art is Semekazi. shown by the bars in his bed and the chains. and felt settled again after his discomfort of living in the West. covered by unreadable text. To Bester. titled “Pilgrimage: Wind and Water in New York. . There is a strong divide between the rural life and urbanity. When he arrived. he hung himself to the ceiling while “a medic siphoned off his blood. Semekazi did not have a house. Above them. and to support his wife and his four children. the Bible is placed next to his pass book.gd/zhdoc In a performance.his retirement pension. he was murdered. and was never going to get what was promised to him . Shortly after this work was made to commemorate him. To Raise the Water Level in a Fishpond Zhang Huan Zhang was born in Henan Province. In one of them. he had to rent a hostel. He applied for pension after his construction business. In the East Village. Some of his performances deal with identities . to the ice bed.” he placed a Chinese style bed with ice cubes as a mattress in a plaza. Bester felt that Semekazi was imprisoned to industry.in “Family Tree.” In another one. he was locked in a box.

that was when he was first exposed to Marxist ideologies and developed a determined attitude to free China through social and political revolutions. fishermen and labourers.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 12 To Raise the Water Level in a Fishpond Zhang Huan describes this performance on his website as: “I invited about forty participants. they stood in a line in the middle to separate the pond into two parts. Then they stood still. which was eventually disbanded by the Kuomintang. he was a young revolutionary with great visions ahead of him. he switched between jobs until he located a stable occupation as a librarian. recent migrants to the city who had come to work in Beijing from other parts of China. he taught at the Beiping State Art Institute. They stood around in the pond and then I walked in it. Mao and the Long March Mao Zedong was born in 1893 in Hunan. if people are in a great pond. In 1931. until the point of the performance arrived. That the water in the pond was raised one meter higher is an action of no avail. The basic message was that art can change the world. and enrolled in the Research Section of the Hangzhou State Xihu Art College. From 1919 and on. Though a great landscape artist. They were construction workers. Later on. By the time he graduated. his works were not appropriate during the Cultural Revolution. the first Premier of China by producing war propaganda. he joined the August One Art Association. fish is the symbol of sex while water is the source of life. all from the bottom of society. the water level must increase due to physics. In addition to assisting the propaganda effort. in fact.” A Chinese proverb states that one person cannot make a difference in a larger environment. Then they all walked freely. He arrived in Chongqing. where he attended primary school in 1901. The Long March Li Keran Li was born in 1907 in Xuzhou. co-founded by Mao Zedong. In the Chinese tradition. The CCP (Chinese Communist Party). Zhang disagrees. which was to raise the water level. . one kind of understanding and explanation of water. he studied traditional Chinese painting from masters and became a professor at the Central Academy of Fine Arts. China after a Japanese invasion and worked under Zhou Enlai. He was prosecuted because his skills did not fit with political demands. The performance is shown as a series of photographs. At first. This work expresses.

far away from the KMT government. He is also a sculptor. With no chance of victory. The painting was painted to mark the anniversary of the founding of New China. Mao and his Red Army had to get away from the Kuomintang and go through a series of marches through China. established as second-in-command of the CCP. photographer.000 that set off from Jiangxi. Some people are smaller than others due to perspective. where Mao. the CCP lost more than Warm the steep cliffs lapped by the waters of Golden Sand.000 members from 100. causing Mao to pull the CCP to Jiangxi. From 1928 to 1934. emphasizing the large number of people and their constant movement.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 13 Chen Duxiu. CCP. 80. with small people everywhere. . the The Red Army fears not the trials of the March. After successfully taking over the city of Zunyi. after winning several debates. and painter.escaping the KMT by going through these roads. The people are drawn as indistinct figures. after so. is a type of art where physical landscapes are used to create art. Due to the major differences between the KMT (Kuomingtang). and Li Dazhao. each face glowing. or Earth art. we see cliff faces and narrow mountain roads. Cold the iron chains spanning the Tatu River. Land art. the painting was sold at an auction for 108 million yuan (17 million USD). the KMT double-crossed the CCP. A Line Made by Walking Richard Long Richard Long was born in 1945 and is one of the Britain’s most known land artist. 11 About 500 meters. Many people died as a result of it. they often waged wars against each other. covering a total of 6250 miles. CCP held a major meeting called the Zunyi Meeting of 1935. or 1640 feet. Viewers need to see the whole work in context. The The Five Ridges wind like gentle ripples CCP arrived in Yanan. globules of clay. was established in 1921. The Long March. In 2008. will influence China for years to come. In this painting. combating the KMT army as they Read a Translation of Mao’s Poem went. and due to the gruesome trip. And the majestic Wumeng roll by. The Long March This landscape painting was based on Mao Zedong’s poem. because they had to go through high mountains and other treacherous environments. until the KMT was able to successfully surround Mao in summer of 1934. Mao and his comrades packed up their supplies and went on the now-immortalized Long March. Mao and his comrades were able to repel KMT-led assaults repeatedly. but they are all doing a common thing . The march itself lasted from October of 1934 to October 1935. which was in turn based on The Long March. From so. but the CCP has created a long-lasting image that The three Armies march on. was Holding light ten thousand crags and torrents. the KMT won a major victory against the Minshan's thousand li11 of snow joyously crossed. until creating the First United Front to cooperate in order to banish the warlords from China. The CCP traveled first to the west and then up north.

because he walked through it. with the center brighter than the sides. creating a line. Extending into the horizon. one could still consider it to be in motion. and DNA. Landscapes are reshaped. For others. there is balance between the action and the object.art. Unfortunately. we see an empty grass field. A Line Made by Walking Long made this work while studying at St. he never altered the environment much. to parody the avant-garde movements. In the photograph. not the representation of a landscape. Martin’s School of Art in London. contrasting the rest of the work’s muted tones. rendered in lighter tones. His work focuses on privacy and freedom infringement.art is art where the Internet is the main medium. which gives the work a sense of vastness. and others are distorted over time. Some works of land art disappear after a few days. we see mountains fading into the work through atmospheric perspective. Though it does not move. he highlights issues such as the corporate ownership of our identities. the meaning of his work is in the visibility of his actions. It decays. and most of his work focused on creating open and democratic systems by modifying technologies and social systems. He became well known for his sculptures made by his epic walks to remove areas of the world. He enjoys hacking things around him. In the distant. there are giant bushes. He then took a photo of the line he made in black and white. which is light. BorderXing Guide Heath Bunting Bunting was born in 1966. By breaking down the division between art and daily life. though he injects some playfulness. net. he would have more mysterious works. Artists may document their work with photographs – so people can see them without traveling. this work shows how things don’t have to be permanent. then. He went to the English countryside. The mountains in the distance. Additionally. but he never made them deliberately exotic or interfering. In another definition. Using Long’s characteristic portrayal of objects in motion. . Viewers are first drawn to the dark bottom part of the work. against a light gray (or maybe blue in real life) sky.art is a group of artists that worked with Internet art. our eyes follow the path the people take.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 14 Land art evolves. and finds form through everyday acts of resistance. Net. His work is presented through different manners. There is a sense of hope. In this work. shows that life have many unknown possibilities. Most of his work can be found through the Internet. Natural structures are placed. It changes. you’ll have to go see it in person before it disappears. Occasionally. Bunting is also known for being a prankster with his work. and walked back and forth on a straight line in the grass. Additionally. He built his first computer when he was 14. the BorderXing Guide is not accessible in most locations. he prioritizes action. He was a co-founder of net. occasionally moving stones or drawing lines by tracing. Due to his respect to nature.

Additionally. It comments that movement between borders is restricted by governments and powerful people. most migrants are from indigenous communities. and don’t necessarily speak Spanish.” by finding the most aesthetic crossing. Not only was the phone cheap. in addition to communication and data exchange. The app was designed like a compass. If people wanted to look at it. so migrants can focus on the environment instead of the phone. The project itself was like how borders restrict movement. but without any government intervention such as customs. According to Florian Schneider. You might have an Internet connection. but you might not be able to access it. in Mexico. etc. so they could insert their own algorithms even with no mobile plan. On an occasion. because of several acts of civil disobedience. He personally calls himself an “artivist. The interface was designed to be universal. They encouraged people to download a Java Applet that would constantly refresh a website. His works are often controversial. the GPS system was crackable. He and his group believe that the Internet should also be used for direct action. With FloodNet. Because of the program. it challenged the “liberties” of the Internet. though.” Transborder Immigrant Project Ricardo Dominguez Dominguez was born in 1959. they had to travel physically to a location where access was allowed. Transborder Immigrant Project The Transborder Immigrant Project’s goal was to help immigrants crossing the border between Mexico and the United States. by making it only accessible from some places. and also makes the phone vibrate when it’s near something important. takes place on a website.and it says a lot about a society’s political and social climate when one sees what kind of border crossing a government tries to present.” where he and a group of people would overload websites with denial-of-service attacks. aiming to motivate them on their hard journey. Not everyone can view the project. .” a mix between artist and activist. he organized “electronic sit-ins. they successfully overloaded websites of oppressors of the revolutionary Mexican Zapatista group. It documents walks that go through national boundaries. The Electronic Disturbance Theater is a group of activists that practice non-violent acts of defiance. It was inspired by UCSD art professor Brett Stalbaum’s project Virtual Hiker. and is now an artist and a visual arts professor.BorderXing Guide. “borders are there to be crossed. The goal was to support the Zapatista rebel group. which had an algorithm that created a virtual hike based on the immigrants. the program focuses on making “walking art. after a paramilitary group surrounded a church and attacked everyone in the small town of Acteal. immigration.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 15 BorderXing Guide One of Bunting’s project . or apply for access. The phone also reads inspirational poems to the immigrants. Their significance becomes obvious only when they are violated . especially with the Electronic Disturbance Theater. Ricardo’s team wanted to see how GPS technology can help immigrants cross the border The Transborder Immigrant Tool was an app built on a cheap Motorola i455 cell phone.

However. and federal criminal charges by the United States government. there was not much progress. . there was still controversy. and not entirely political. Dominguez was threatened with city. Ricardo’s group was able to fund for 500 phones. the activists are harder to stop. as of 2010. the project was not deployed. for emergency reasons. but he also wanted to add some phone time to each tool. However. county.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 16 Ricardo wanted to have the project up and running by 2008. state. As a disturbance art. These devices were thought to link together both art and politics.

Keep that in mind while reading this chapter. Oil paints are usually opaque and are made of pigments mixed with oil. His trademarks include using watercolor techniques with oil paints. the Zong was overcrowded and had inadequate supplies – widespread sickness was typical of such vessels. From a young age. The trouble was apparent. When the ship arrived. he first paints his paper with wet paint before layering on the final image Additionally. When he died. The abolitionist movement started in Britain after the Zong Massacre. This time however. Turner Joseph Mallord William Turner only had training in art. and his work focused on the power of nature. Slave Ship J. At the age of 15. though.the ship holders would not get to claim a loss payout if the Africans died when they arrived.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 17 III. Although slave trading was now gone. Despite holding the title of Father of British Watercolor Painting. He filled up around 300 sketchbooks of work. People move a lot of “stuff. at the age of 14. Turner painted many landscapes that glorified nature. the ship owners asked for a payout for the loss of the people. Most of his paintings explored the effect of technology and the division between humanity and nature.” or goods all the time and the movement of goods can have several impacts on society. his first exhibit was held in the British Royal Academy. you would expect equations related to work. You will not see anything related to joules or F • d • cosine theta. mistaking Jamaica for another island) led the ship astray for 300 miles. the slave ship Zong travelled from Africa to Jamaica through the Middle Passage. and also jumped overboard. In many of his pieces. Like most slave ships. Ten crewmembers were disgusted by this act. slavery itself was not abolished until the 1833 with the Slavery Abolition Act. Great Britain abolished the slave trade in 1807 with the Slave Trade Act. M. Jamaica was still a bit more than a week away. Turner was in the Royal Academy. far too many slaves became sick and started dying. they only had four days of water left . and painting with bright colors. Turner was a Romantic painter. Watercolors are thinner and see-through. thousands of watercolors and many other drawings. which was the common route for slave ships travelling to the Americas. Turner painted more in oil. But this is not a Science Resource. If they were to drown. he painted around 280 oil paintings. because the pigments are mixed with water. after faulty navigation (i. Captain Luke Callingwood ordered for 142 people to be thrown overboard. the first mate of the Zong . Moving Goods If this was a Science Resource. as it was ranked higher than watercolors. the ship holders could still claim money.e. he showed promise of becoming a great artist by copying other prestigious and famous drawings. In 1789. However. The Zong Massacre Unlike the United States. They said that throwing them overboard was necessary to protect funds. W. In 1781.

ne'er heed their chains Hope. Hope. throw overboard The dead and dying . ships had to sail below the tip of South America if they wanted to transport goods from one side to another . nothing more. people wanted this to be called murder. The Slave Ship suggests that slavery is a crime against nature . the details may not have been entirely accurate. An Anti-slavery Poem Publicity spurred change. because that would be property destruction12. you could kill your slave. fallacious Hope! Where is thy market now?” Panama Canal Murals William Van Ingen Van Ingen was born in Philadelphia and studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. the slave ship is seen far from the viewer. the slaves are just goods that need to be transported to Jamaica. Later in his life. The ship. he moved to New York City and studied under stained glass masters. albeit filled with turmoil. To the left. are inhuman and unnatural. The Slave Ship presents itself dramatically. Turner paints waves that seem to be destroying the ship at the same time. The Panama Canal A canal is a constructed waterway for ships to go through. and are placed in the background. . The purpose is to decrease travel times or create better shipping links between two places. He is known for murals in the Library of Congress and the US Mint. Turner wrote this poem. their act is offensive and inhumane. To the ship’s crew.a treacherous journey. There is also a division between nature and society. and urges us to sympathize with the slaves. 12 And not considered murder. The first mate. In 1811. In the past. under Thomas Eakins. The Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing overboard the Dead and Dying—Typhoon coming on) “Aloft all hands. Regardless.and nature will fight back. which was displayed along side the painting at an anti-slavery conference. Before the canal was built. there are slaves struggling before the ocean takes them away.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 18 reported that there were still 420 gallons of water on the ship. The traders aren’t as important. Before it sweeps your decks. The split emphasizes the inhumane acts of the slave traders. The Panama Canal is a canal that connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean across the Caribbean Sea. To the right. it rained on one of the days. so another 11 days’ worth of water could’ve been collected. Furthermore. However. They can also be built to allow some cities far from the sea to get a shipping link. The slaves seem to be a part of nature and the ocean. strike the top-masts and belay. To Turner. James Kelsall and another passenger wanted to avoid being charged for this event and so may have exaggerated some details. The vibrant sunlight and the colors give us a sense of motion. Arthur Hodge was tried for killing his slave. along with the slavers. with many colors. Yon angry setting sun and fierce-edged clouds Declare the Typhon's coming. but not someone else’s.

UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 19 In the 1500s. Additionally. but there was a condition . However. a tunnel that directs the flow of water. In 1902. and became the largest man-made lake at the time. they went bankrupt. and the US failed to negotiate with Colombia and sided with Panama. but environmentalists fear for the loss of diversity in the land. The US signed the HayBunau-Varilla Treaty. Control was granted to the Panama Canal Authority in 1999. the Panama Canal Treaty was signed. . However. these plans were never started. The second mural depicts the construction of the Gatun Dam spillway. and some ships find it faster to actually go another route than wait long times at the canal. During the California gold rush in 1849. due to fighting in Europe. which resulted in Panamanian independence. which leased the Canal Zone. Panama Canal Murals The four murals are now stationed in the Panama Canal Administration Building in Panama. In 1979. In 1880. and the fourth one shows the digging of a mountainous area to make the canal. the French began to work on a canal in Panama. The dam had 14 spillway gates. and tells the story of the construction. The first mural depicts the construction of a culvert. the land 5 miles from each side of the canal. the Spanish made plans to create a route in Panama to justify trips to the Americas. Some people want to increase the size of the canal. and construction halted once more. the age of this canal is starting to show . slowly granting the Panamanians control over the canal.post-Panamax ships are too big to cross the canal. The third one shows an epic construction of a lock gate. However. the idea was revived. Gatun Lake was formed by the damming of the Chagres River. the US Congress (the Spooner Act) bought the assets from the French. to the US. Things went wrong. the United States could intervene in Panama’s domestic affairs to prevent disorder. The US in turn granted Panama independence and money.the US had to form a treaty with Colombia (which controlled Panama at the time) and allow the Colombians to use and control the canal.

By then. Starting from 1826. The completed work was shipped to Panama under his supervision. demanding that Japan open up its ports. Originally. and the 13 He probably made his prints using the Instagram equivalent for woodblock prints. Instead of being mainstream13. In the first mural. He compiled drawings on a book about the Opium War. The second mural shows workers laying down groundwork for construction. port facilities were built in a small fishing village . Van Ingen traveled to Panama and saw the process of construction. showing that there is a lot going on . which opened up two Japanese ports for United States trade. On 1853. #woodblockgram . he focused on pushing borders. one of the ports that would be opened was in the town of Kanagawa. The next year. and illustrated for a book written by an explorer that ventured the island of Hokkaido. a symbol of progress. The city grew to become the base of foreign trade in Japan.” Foreigners could not enter nor leave the country of Japan. at $25 per square foot. he started producing color prints of women and actors. the construction of the culvert is detailed. The murals display a lot of color and detail. which give us a sense of “epicness” and motion. Sadahide painted illustrations in books. The background is also crowded. using perspective and exaggerated specific objects for emphasis. Starting in 1860.Yokohama. Sadahide began to focus on these yokohama-e. The depiction of the bar hanging in midair gives a sense of bustling motion. everyone was already used to these foreigner paintings and began to focus on more domestic affairs. but the shogunate of the time decided that the town was too close to a main road. he produced a world map that was quite accurate. especially the fourth panel. Instead. as we can imagine the crane moving the bar even as we lay our eyes on the mural. or “locked country. The Port of Yokohama During Japan’s feudal period. Sadahide is known for incorporating Western artistic elements into his work. Picture of Western Traders at Yokohama Transporting Merchandise Hashimoto (Utagawa) Sadahide Sadahide was born near Edo (which was the former name of Tokyo). He returned to New York and painted the murals on separate panels. which convey a sense of hope and expectation-the building of the Panama Canal was a new. and the third shows the actual construction with cranes moving heavy metal bars around. His works influenced future artists of his type. Commodore Matthew Perry arrived at Japan with several warships. he also used shading to show juxtaposition against flat planes. have backgrounds of sunny skies and fluffy clouds. Not only did he use Western perspective along with ukiyo-e elements. and produced 55 prints that year. he started painting panoramic and bird’s-eye view images of other cities. All four panels. he made 40. he only produced 3 and produced none at all the following year. even before the opening of the port.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 20 George Washington Goethals supervised the construction of the Canal and also ensured the preservation of the construction in art. at different perspectives. After this period. The port in Yokohama was opened to the public in 1859. This resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Peace and Amity. For example. Sadahide himself was also interested in foreigners. unprecedented feat. and produced charcoal sketches of the activities going on at the time.progress is going well. and from 1830. he also painted bird’s-eye view pictures of cities. Goethals requested Van Ingen to produce the murals. They show how technology has the power to alter landforms and assist human activities. He is best known for yokohama-e. and ukiyo-e artists produced these prints because of their curiosity to foreigners. In 1850s. or ukiyo-e woodblock prints depicting scenes in Yokohama. In 1862. there was a policy of Sakoku.

his work had to be expressive to bring out the “complexity of volatile national and international issues. landscapes. Instead. peaceful waves that resemble waves in traditional Japanese paintings. His father inherited his grandfather’s kimono store.” which is a place of entertainment without the responsibilities of the everyday world. the Great Kanto earthquake destroyed the city. implying that they are from different countries. Many of his works focused on political issues. McDonald’s Hamburgers Invading Japan was concerned about the homogenizing of tastes due to the advent of fast food. His series. there are small. Picture of Western Traders at Yokohama Transporting Merchandise Picture of Western Traders is a woodblock print made by joining 5 standard wood blocks. In the picture. both in reality (as depicted in the picture) and in artistic style.” The city grew to become a booming industrial city. In 1923. Whether true or not. There is an anecdote. There is contrast between the Japanese and the foreigners. many ships and sailboats are seen. Foreigners could live in a region in the city called “Kannai. Shortly after being rebuilt. Workers are putting merchandise onto the ships and we see interactions between the people on the ship. Ukiyo-e are Japanese woodblock prints focused on historical tales. To Teraoka. Around the 1980s. McDonald’s Hamburgers Invading Japan Masami Teraoka Teraoka was born in Onomichi.” or “inside the barrier. where Sadahide dropped his brush in the water while making sketches for the print. all with foreign flags. he wished for Masami to become a creative artist.AIDS. In contrast with the giant vessels. or theaters. but was broken and rebuilt several times. although they still have some woodblock print style. Hiroshima-ken on the inland sea. and that he had to use a foreigner’s pencil to complete it. he became involved in paintings with a darker theme . Ukiyo literally translates to “floating world. including “the abuse of children by priests. this woodblock print captures the motion and energy of the people in Yokohama. it was destroyed again in World War II. and focused on the blending of Eastern and Western culture. His father did not want him to continue the business.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 21 first English newspaper was published there.” .” These later pieces have some inspiration from Renaissance paintings. His early watercolors were inspired by ukiyo-e woodblock prints.

Geishas and samurais are his way of depicting traditional Japanese people and culture. The tattooed woman in the foreground is eating her soba noodles. His McDonald’s Hamburgers Invading Japan series contains three different woodblock print style paintings showing the influence of American culture in Japan. we see two women. . introducing Japan to the consumer culture and fast food it is not needed there. The last image is titled Tokyo Ginza Shuffle. and is similar to the first painting. dressed in traditional Japanese clothing.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 22 McDonald’s Hamburgers Invading Japan In most of Teraoka’s prints. Again. most likely from McDonald’s. The woman stepping on the burger shows that Japan does not need McDonald’s. titled Chochin-Me. The geisha in the back wonders whether she should bite into the hamburger. this shows that they are not a necessary part of Japanese culture. there is a half wrapped cheeseburger. The burger. is shown as an invader. To the right to her legs. In the second image. though she is eating her noodles and cannot answer. Many people wearing traditional Japanese clothing are seen dancing#. he finds a way to express his Japanese culture. titled Geisha and Tattooed Woman. In the first image of the series. there is a Japanese woman. with hamburgers lying on the ground. and consults the tattooed woman.

Sea. and Space For the past years. the seats on the bus kept bending until the seats couldn’t hold it anymore. To her. Kahlo paints her life right before her bus accident. a streetcar appeared. Groups came to support Díaz’s opponent. She made use of these tragic events. as it was about to turn to a different road. though born in 1907. and placed Victoriano Huerta in power. The Mexican Constitution in 1917 gave the president dictatorial power. making portraits on an easel in her hospital bed. After they boarded the bus. Rebel leaders Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata put Madero in office the following year. In order to protect the US’s economic interest.14 El Autobus Frida Kahlo Kahlo. World Scholar’s Cup tournaments have taken place on land. because it was the beginning of the Mexican Revolution against elitist president Porfirio Díaz. Her heritage is also conflicting. or even in the air. they caught a bus that would take them home. However. another artist. The train (streetcar) ran over many people. which spilled all over Kahlo’s bleeding body. these “imagined” venues may possibly be WSC tournament hosts. According to Alex. It was only in 1934 did reforms finally start taking shape Kahlo’s early life was filled with conflict. 14 I hope. The bus was new and had benches along the sides. Kahlo married Diego Rivera. . Still. and snapped into many pieces. Alex also recounted that a person on the bus carried a bag of gold. Kahlo was pierced by a handrail. in 1929. it was a significant year. wanted to be born in 1910. Imagine a Scholar’s Scavenge in a space colony. Huerta’s rule was not long. but also gave workers rights and limited the Catholic Church. Imagine a tournament on sea. her mother is Mexican and his father is German-Jewish. reforms were slow to happen. President Wilson supported Venustiano Carranza. The rebels and the United States turned against him. but remarried the following year. They divorced ten years later. but was not able to. Magic realism is often used in Latin American works. focusing on the subconscious mind. Land. she contracted polio at the age of six and got into an accident at age 18. Kahlo’s works can be described as surrealist. Still. El Autobus In Autobus. in which impossible things are shown normally. and tries to convince that fantasy is a part of life. Francisco Madero. Air. Surrealism is most connected to paintings by Salvador Dalí. although he was not effective. it drove off. Alex Gómez Arias. That’s enough imagination now. and rebellion still continued. Soon. However. no reforms happened. After wandering around Mexico City with her boyfriend. her works are also of magical realism. Carranza died in 1920. The bus driver attempted to pass the streetcar.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 23 IV.

her right leg was fractured. he began painting pine trees. In the painting. There is also another woman. There are only three or four people in the platform. next to the person holding the bag of gold. In the background. it is safe to say that they are alone at night. and she received an abdominal wound from the handrail. Suh is known for dealing with a diverse range of subjects. The National Museum of Contemporary Art in Korea selected him to be Korea’s Artist of the Year in 2009. Her spinal column was broken in three pieces. In addition to showing what it was like before her accident. He believes that people have fallen victim to mankind’s lust for power and wealth. reflecting the alienation and feeling of meaninglessness people living in large cities sometime experiences due to the fast pace and hectic-ness of cities. there is a drastic contrast between the factories and the empty field. and serves as an interchange between two of the lines. her collarbone and pelvis were broken. and grew to paint history paintings and other works depicting people in the city.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 24 Doctors thought Frida was not going to survive.” not having a real purpose and feeling extremely lonely. Figures in his urban paintings are roughly drawn using intense color and texture. perhaps mirroring the abrupt changes of the Mexican Government. tired from the stress a city brings people. we also get to see people of different social classes in daily life. Using art. His works also explore historical turbulence and the conflicts of natural desires in human beings. usually New York and Berlin. Berlin Leopoldplatz Platform The Berlin Leopoldplatz Platform is one of the U-Bahn (underground) stations in Berlin. we see her to the far right. a Native woman. and highlights the people in an intense shade of red. Based on the dark colors. Berlin Leopoldplatz Platform Suh Yong-Sun Suh Yongsun is a Korean painter and sculptor. her shoulder was out of joint. . a worker. He think that these people are simple and fragile. Suh uses strong colors in this artwork. he studied at Seoul National University and later became a professor at the university. “caught in the web of a metropolis and meaningless plight. and a kid. His paintings draw out the pains of the individual living in the pressure of large and growing cities. From 1975. In the early 1980s. he hopes to bring social and political awareness to this issue. They are often masked. and how people struggle to understand history. throughout history and today.

and he saw it “being used in both good ways and bad. gravity. The design study was to see whether it would be possible for regular people to settle in space. NASA also has designs and concept arts for other types of colonies.the land is green with an abundance of trees and vegetation. there are other planets. One thing that is constantly present throughout the different works is nature . Now.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 25 NASA Space Colony Rick Guidice and 1970s Space Colony Art In the 1970s. Cai acted in martial arts films and studied stage design. we see the interior of a space colony. hills. one of Mao’s trusted military advisors. However. in destruction and reconstruction. Lin Biao. look towards the sky. Earth will not be inhabitable. He has said that Mao Zedong has influenced not only him but also many artists from his generation. His gunpowder drawings follow one of Mao’s principles . including feng shui and Chinese medicine. China. Other concept arts show similar scenes. every year. they say. settlements are good at holding a growing population. Cai uses a lot of traditional themes. Eventually. . This idea was already thought of in the 70s. as he participated in demonstrations and was used to explosions. and thus Cai was exposed to Western literature and Chinese art at an early age. His city was known for producing gunpowder. and houses.“destroy nothing. but with a different perspective. but is an important part of human lives. started to organize students in an attempt to “get rid of the old. Colonizing space will not be taking land away from other natives. with a river. though it was at the time (and probably now even) not economical and arduous. This implies that a fresh and clean environment may not be present on Earth anymore. create nothing. the NASA Ames Research Center conducted a study about space colonies and the possibilities of humans living in space. His father was a calligrapher who worked at a bookstore. Lin held massive rallies between August and November of 1966. NASA hosts a Student Space Settlement Contest for students to design a space colony. They can also provide great views of space. He was familiar with the Cultural Revolution in China. According to NASA’s article on the space colony study. and instead of only seeing stars.000 people. In the concept art. such as “Bernal Spheres” and “Toroidal Colonies” that hold 10. and come in with the new”. Gunpowder Drawing Project Cai Guo-Qiang Cai was born in Quanzhou.” In his early twenties. and resources. The colony selected is called “Cylindrical Colony” and is a concept of a space colony that holds more than a million people. The space settlements were designed to have their own environment.” The Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution was an extension from the internal party purge in the summer of 1966.

Mao Zedong”.” The Red Guards continued their terrorizing savagery. and they realized they were being used. and Mao used this chance to accuse Lin of being “a great traitor and Soviet spy”. and tradition itself was a source of evil. praising him constantly to a sacred status. It also poses another question . showcased in Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. and putting both into solitary confinement. The Red Guards savagely attacked any intellectuals or any source of capitalism. as he believed that his trusted comrades have been corrupted by neo-capitalism. In these gunpowder works. Mao also did not just stay put. and gunpowder was ignited. His attempts were well received by the general public. The Miniatures series contained a creative process . parents. Gunpowder allowed him to go against the suppressive art tradition in China. However. From 1966 to 1967. the Cultural Revolution was in full bloom. as in August 1966. the closest successor to Mao. Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi of being “erroneous”. Victims of the Red Guards were forced to heavy beating. The final downturn came when Lin Biao. It is a symbol for violence. and China was in dire need for an extension to the continuous revolution that he has spoke of. usually with unexpected results. transferring the designs to paper. Cai applies gunpowder to stencils. he instructed youths out of the cities and into the countryside to “experience how life was like for 80% of the Chinese people” which should “deepen their understanding of revolution”. However. Mao had to pull in PLA troops to contain the violence: the PLA is to set examples of “true commitment to the nation” that the Red Guards were to follow. and then ignites it. Mao was not willing to put trust into the young Red Guards. titled Saraab. He began to develop controlled explosions with gunpowder. This backfired. Gunpowder Project While Cai Guo-Qiang was in Japan. he accused his personal aides. Actually. but is also related to one’s desire for longevity. The artwork Route is a gunpowder-made imitation of a nautical chart. insulting anything “old”: teachers. those that did not commit to Mao or faltered were accused of treason. Gunpowder has a strong cultural meaning. he explored the use of gunpowder. and then confessing to all sorts of crimes. He later dismissed both of them from their positions in the CCP.is the artist the sole creator of an artwork? . Mao believed this to be an excellent time to get rid of inner turmoil in the CCP. as the urban youths looked upon themselves as a higher status. Revolutionaries that Mao has envisioned to be great supporters of the Marxist-Leninist line were also turned upon. Mao realized that Lin Biao posed too much of a risk in the power struggle that will start after his death. most of the citizens found this to be contradicting: years ago Lin was praised and now accused? Mao began to lose support for the Cultural Revolution. Lin was later killed in an air crash. When the situation became alarming that the Red Guards have run out of control. One of his projects.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 26 each appealing to “great throngs to honor their great leader. so much that people would “weep and burst out in tears every time Chairman Mao waved his hand at Tiananmen Square. presents an Arab perspective on modern art. which slowly died down in 1972 to 1976. This project questions creation in destruction and ornament in art. was accused of assassination of the Chairman. who have no experience compared to the PLA. The gunpowder blast creates images.volunteers prepared the stencils. allowing them to “run wild” as the Red Guard. and was spontaneous. Mao then took a turn for the Cultural Revolution.

According to Hindu beliefs. mentally advanced man. and the trident for the Hindu triumvirate.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 27 V. Important features are: a third eye for wisdom and energy.” which represents the sound of creation. Shiva cursed that people should not worship him. Parvati. The first god. Vishnu. turtle. Shiva has the role of the destroyer. performed at the end to destroy the universe. Additionally. boar. the vibhuti (three lines drawn across the forehead with white ash) for his superhuman power. because Brahma distracted his mind to material cravings. Shiva is split into half-man and halfwoman. the tandava. Interestingly. He is the preserver and protector of the universe. Brahma had to continuously say the four Vedas (Hindu religious text) from each head. That was also quoted in the second chapter. A happier view speaks of Brahma’s role as the creator being over . halflion/man. to the point that it was causing her embarrassment. She even tried jumping to avoid his gaze. so he can recreate it. According to a story. . The Vaishnava worship him the most. is the creator of the universe and all creatures. The most important dance.Vishnu and Shiva take over with their roles. balances him. Hindus believe that destruction is used to remove the imperfections of the world to provide change. Vishnu carries four objects that represent what he is responsible for. ideal man. The nine incarnations are: fish. hunter. The lotus flower stands for liberation. A legend says that Shiva almost performed it at the wrong time. she was so pretty that Brahma couldn’t stop looking at her. He destroys the world. Sometimes. and the mace represents mental and physical strength. and Shiva In the Hindu religion. Some sources say that Shatarupa tried to transform into other creatures. he is to return to Earth and balance good and evil. People in Motion The name of this chapter happens to also be a line from San Francisco. Brahma. is the cosmic dance of death. He is seen as both the source of good and the source of evil. destruction is constructive. a cobra necklace for his power of destruction. Begin your exploration of people in motion here. Brahma created Shatarupa. The chakra represents the mind. Lord of Dance Shiva is often portrayed as Nataraja. When she went one way. He has a conch that makes the sound “om. a woman to help aid him in creation. the lord (or master) of dance. Shiva was not happy with his behavior. and consider him the greatest god out of all. Vishnu is the second god in the triumvirate. dwarf. Brahma would grow a head in that direction. he has been incarnated nine times and will return once more. In times of trouble. but Brahma would just grow a head on the top of his head. and chopped off his fifth head. people are actually portrayed in motion. Buddha. because the rhythm of dance is a metaphor for the balance in the universe. there are three main gods that are part of the triumvirate and are responsible for the world. To repent. he is the least worshiped god in the Hindu religion. and the tenth one is predicted to be a man on a white horse. His wife. and be prepared to debate motions about people in motion while in motion. Shiva as Lord of Dance (Nataraja) Brahma. Except this time. but Brahma just changed his form to the male version of that creature. However.

The second left hand points towards the lifted foot. They can be realistic or romanticized. In 1551. they are just generic people doing what they do in everyday life. although the lightness of Italian Renaissance art has not been incorporated. which unites mythology. usually with a landscape element. symbolizing his victory over ignorance. The Peasant Dance Pieter Bruegel the Elder Bruegel was a Flemish Renaissance painter known for drawing landscapes and genre painting. His upper right hand holds a damaru. and incorporated several Renaissance elements. He also drew several paintings of protest. an hourglassshaped drum used to symbolize the sound of creation. It depicts Shiva dancing in a ring of flames. and married his daughter. with no expression. In an article. such as markets or parties.and later travelled to Italy. During the Flemish Renaissance. Genre paintings are paintings that represent everyday life.1279 CE). Shiva stands on a dwarf . but occasionally painted religious works. Nataraja Sighting at CERN A 2 meter tall statue of Shiva as Nataraja was placed in the European Center for Research in Particle Physics as a gift from India to celebrate the center’s association with India. which is fire that signifies destruction. The Peasant Dance . meaning liberation. It was said that he dressed up like a peasant to go through weddings and interact with the others. Dutch paintings focused more on nature and beauty. He depicts village life realistically. with his left leg lifted. The second right hand shows the Abhaya mudra (fearlessness). The contrast from the upper hands shows the balance between creation and destruction. In genre paintings. and his face. art. this gave him inspiration for his genre paintings. and physics. to distinguish him from the other Bruegel. without sentiment. he was the apprentice of Pieter Coeck van Aelst. His upper left hand contains Agni. The flames stand for the Universe. those who follow dharma will be protected from evil and ignorance.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 28 Shiva was depicted as Nataraja first in the Chola dynasty (300 BCE . Fritjof Capra highlights the parallel between the dance of subatomic particles and Shiva’s dances. the identities of the figures are not known. Bruegel the Elder was sometimes called Peasant Bruegel.the demon called Apasmara. In the beginning. His paintings show 16th century social and physical aspects. According to Hindu religion. He specialized in genre paintings. Bruegel became a master in the painter’s guild . It was reported that he asked his wife to burn some of his paintings that might caused his family to be persecuted politically. means balance. made with bronze.

Degas was masterful in his depiction of movement. The man with the bagpipe offered alcohol by a drunk and prideful man. for whatever reason. some are dancing. Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas. in the foreground. he’s including some of the immoral things going on. there are many people. We can’t be sure what they’re arguing about. not spirituality. a rigorous secondary school starting from age 11. The arguing men are mad at each other. Most of his paintings and sculptures were related to dance. Though he ended up becoming a classical painter. and sporting. and the groom is not present. lust.they disagree with something even though everyone else is dancing. but they are turned away from the church in the background. and in the back. that takes place (originally) on the anniversary of a church. this is a day where they should all be celebrating the anniversary of the church. alone. we can see that this carnival is not all good .UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 29 In The Peasant Dance. Extension: The Peasant Wedding Another of Bruegel’s work. dances. in Paris. The Peasant Wedding. which was a festival. others are sitting on the bench drinking. The bride in the painting is sitting in the center of the table. Behind the bench. but did not focus on his work much. there is a person trying to make another person dance. especially of greed and anger. . he began his life wanting to be a history painter because of his academic studies. are depicted. feasting. He obliged. but it doesn’t matter . there are two people kissing. He studied at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. sort of like a fun fair. there are people arguing. Even more. it’s somewhat religious. there is dancing. probably peasants. was painted around the same time. By looking carefully at this painting. It’s possible that this painting and The Peasant Dance were related and connected to each other. although his dad wanted him to go to law school. Some of the seven sins. and graduated with a baccalauréat certification. He went on to copy artworks in the Louvre.people are arguing! Bruegel isn’t only showing peasants dancing. he preferred to be associated with realism more. such as gluttony. and anger (wrath). People are running around. Though considered one of the founders of impressionism. Right in front of the kissing couple. All these partygoers have their minds on material goods. The dance they are in is most likely a kermesse. The Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer Edgar Degas Degas was born with a long name. In kermesses. and female nudes. This artwork also displays some similar themes.

the history painting. He called for the group to also exhibit works by non-Impressionists (a term he disliked anyways). Two years later. He also discovered that his brother had a lot of business debt. The Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer (Little Dancer of Fourteen Years) The sculpture. and a wig were put on her. After the sculpture was complete. After Degas’ death. resulting in 28 bronze sculptures of the dancer. ballet slippers. who gave him unforgettable advice. a student at the Paris Opera Ballet dance school. He sold some inherited artworks to pay off the debt and started to depend on his own producing fine pieces beginning in 1874. he was able to also collect paintings he liked. and still more lines. Reportedly. He also did not like how the members constantly sought for attention and publicity. he was accepted by École des Beaux-Arts and studied drawing. By selling his paintings. though he completed numerous artworks before it. “Draw lines. a real tutu. Degas returned to France into a large studio so he could start on The Bellelli Family. he was found to have an eye defection that would cause him to worry for the rest of his life. is not your average sculpture . his siblings decided to have bronze repetitions of his sculptures. sculpted around 1881. he worked until 1912 and stopped. During the Sixth Impressionist Exhibition. He returned to France in 1873 and his father died the year after. because he joined the National Guard.it was sculpted in wax15. both from life and from memory. Degas worked with a wide range of materials.each one wearing different tutus depending on the museum. Interestingly. He painted family members while staying in the US for that year. Degas moved to Italy the following year and started researching for a history painting he was planning. It was not finished until 1867. The subject of this sculpture was Marie van Goethem. The sculpture was not well received. The sculpture was placed in a glass case. and sculptures. The group disbanded in 1886. The sculpture was not full size. Don’t bring it to the Global Round! . 15 This would never survive Dubai. He spent his last years blind until his death in 1917. he met French Neoclassical painter Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. he moved to New Orleans to stay with his brother and other relatives. In 1859. so it looked like a medical specimen. critics compared the dancer to a monkey and an Aztec. Unfortunately. but was about ⅔ the Marie’s size. pastel. Degas joined an independent society that would later be known as the Impressionists. and you will become a good artist. When Degas died. That year. The Franco-Prussian War halted his art production in 1870. including photography. young man.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 30 In 1855. he had conflicts with other members .he did not like the landscape painters and mocked them for painting the outdoors. several bronze recasts were done .” Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres’ advice to Degas His next few years contained a lot of important moments of his life.

and a second one followed 3 years later. including Dorothea Lange. expressing human sadness creatively using dance and photography. Graham’s motion is contrasted with the dark background.that all things are made of “dancing atoms. then Graham is probably the influencer of modern dance. It combines the similar themes from Martha Graham’s dance and Dickinson’s poem with Morgan’s photography skills. In 1932.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 31 Martha Graham – Letter to the World (The Kick) Barbara Morgan Morgan was an American photographer famous for her works dealing with modern dancers. This is my letter to the world. Barbara thought that photographers who dealt with the Depression “only added to defeatism without giving hope or courage” while the dances were heartening. the Great Depression. Letter to the World – Emily Dickinson The photograph titled “The Kick” or “Letter to the World” was based on Graham’s 1940 performance . That never wrote to me. she had her first son. cofounded Aperture. In 1952. The photograph shows a lot of energy from the skirt. compared to the other staff who were used to traditional styles. Morgan. With tender majesty. she pursued photography. Graham was born in Pennsylvania and studied at the Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts. Barbara was influenced by the American Modern Dance movement after watching a performance of the Martha Graham Dance Company. she would not be limited to daytime. In order to remain an artist while looking after two sons. It focused on depression and isolation. Judge tenderly of me! .Letter to the World and also Emily Dickinson’s poem “Letter to the World. she advocated modern art. For love of her. This way. Her dances focus on serious issues in a dramatic manner. and Jose Limon. and also read from the Chinese Six Canons of Painting about the essence of life form. along with other photographers.-The simple news that Nature told. and could work at night. sweet countrymen. Merce Cunningham.” As a faculty member in UCLA. She traveled to other schools and then established her own Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance. She was trained in art from UCLA. Chronicle was influenced by the Wall Street Crash. The reading reinforced her father’s teachings .” The performance and the dance express the experience of sadness over disappointment in love. such as Martha Graham. Her message is committed To hands I cannot see. Martha Graham If Picasso can be considered the influencer of modern art. a photography magazine. and the Spanish Civil War. She did not consider herself a photographer until she set up a studio with a darkroom so she could develop her own work.

and took up painting and photography. Impressions Lijiang Zhang Yimou Zhang was born in China and is a director. Zhang’s first film was released. Sample parts of the performance here: is. Zhang has also done Impression West Lake. Additionally. During the Cultural Revolution. are primarily matriarchal. In Beijing Film Academy. a city in Yunnan Province. he worked on a farm and at a cotton mill. to be detailed below. producer. Tibet.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 32 The photo expresses so much emotion that even without the poem. Impression Hainan. he is one of the Fifth Generation of Chinese filmmakers.gd/litheme . It won several awards. and has an Honorary Doctorate Degree from Boston University and Harvard University. and also once a cinematographer. In addition to Impressions Lijiang. the tea route was a trade link of tea from Yunnan. His 1989 drama Ju Dou was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. He was chosen to direct the Beijing portion of the closing ceremonies of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Also known as the Southern Silk Road. He also directed the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. The performance depicts the women working hard while the men drink. and more. Over the years. and central China. actor. The Old Town of Lijiang was known for its system of waterways and bridges Impression Lijiang Zhang has directed several musicals called Impressions. These groups. To balance this. he directed many more films that also won many awards. he was the runner-up for Time Magazine Person of the Year. China used to be one of the centers of silk embroidery and part of the Ancient Tea Route. This particular performance shows the life of the Naxi and Mosuo minority groups. one can understand the sadness behind it. China to India. Impression Lijiang is one of the Impressions performances. His uncle and brother went to Taiwan after the defeat during the Chinese Civil War. In 1987. there are also parts of the performance where there are men involved in the dangerous activity of tea trading. In China. Lijiang Lijiang. because it involved negotiations on the trail. These outdoor musicals are co-directed with Wang Chaoge and Fan Yue. he majored in photography. unlike others. writer.gd/impressl Listen to the main theme here: is. titled Red Sorghum. His father was a dermatologist and was also an officer in Chiang Kai-Shek’s National Revolutionary Army.

the performers will invite viewers to pray and burn wishes in a cauldron. As a result. The production used 100 horses. After the show.but there is an airport in the small city. The set and costumes were designed by Fan Yue . so there is still a way to travel to Lijiang to watch the performance. the location is somewhat hard to reach .the use of many colors make the performance colorful and stunning.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 33 Impression Lijiang is staged on Jade Dragon Snow Mountain (Yulong Mountain) at 3100 meters. However. the show itself is a celebration of the minority culture in the area. and over 500 minority people who are not professional actors. .

4 cm N/A N/A - Performance Ink and wash Photograph and graphite on board The Internet (and the world) Java 2 Platform Micro Edition App on Motorola i455 Oil on canvas Mural Landscape painting Land art Net.5 cm 26 x 55. Due to time constraints. 56. - Location Library of Congress De Young Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Private collection N/A Private collection Tate Gallery. M. be sure to report it in the feedback form! Selection Migrant Mother Migration Artist Dorothea Lange Jacob Lawrence Willie Bester Zhang Huan Li Keran Richard Long Heath Bunting Ricardo Dominguez J. W.5 cm 205 x 418 cm Color woodblock print Watercolors / color screenprint on Arches 88 paper Oil on canvas Ukiyo-e 1982 - 1929 Dolores Olmedo Patiño Museum. Van Ingen Hashimoto Sadahide Masami Teraoka Frida Kahlo Year 1936 1947 Size 4 x 5 in. Mexico City Private collection Primitivism Berlin Leopoldplatz Platform Suh YongSun 2008 Acrylic on canvas - .3 x 36. Smithonian Institute Various locations Romantic Mural Picture of Western Traders at Yokohama Transporting Merchandise McDonald’s Hamburgers Invade Japan El Autobus 1861 5 prints of 10 x 15 in. If you know something that fits here or find an error. Turner William B.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 34 VI. we’ll be putting all the art spotlights in this section instead. Britain Online - Medium Film Egg tempera on cardboard Collage (mixed media assemblage) Classification Photograph Cubism Migration Miseries To Raise the Water Level in a Fishpond The Long March A Line Made by Walking BorderXing Guide Transborder Immigrant Project The Slave Ship Panama Canal Murals 1993 1997 1959 1967 2001-11 2007 125 x 125 cm N/A 96 x 146. Boston Panama Canal Administration Building Arthur M.5 cm 37. there may be some missing parts.5 x 32. Sackler Gallery.6 cm 93 m2 Museum of Fine Arts. Art Spotlights Remember art spotlights? To prevent formatting issues.art Disturbance art 1840 1914-15 90.8 x 122.

11th century 1567 Various H: 68. with cotton skirt and satin hair ribbon on a wooden base Gelatin silver print Performance Sculpture Martha Graham – Letter to the World Impression Lijiang Barbara Morgan Zhang Yimou (codirector) 1940 2008 42. NYC Kunsthistorisches Museum. Austria Various Medium - Classification Concept art (?) Gunpowder Drawing Project Shiva (as Lord of Dance) The Peasant Dance 1995 c.6 cm 114 x 164 cm H: 104 cm (varies) Copper alloy Oil on oak panel Contemporary art Sculpture - The Little Fourteen-YearOld Dancer 187980 Partly tinted bronze.3 cm D: 56.2 cm 400 performers Private collection Jade Dragon Snow Mountain. Lijiang.UNOFFICIAL ART RESOURCE | 35 Selection NASA Space Colony Artist Rick Guidice and Don Davis Cai GuoQiang Unknown Pieter Bruegel the Elder Edgar Degas Year 1975 Size Various Location NASA Ames Research Center Various The Metropolitan Museum of Art. China Photograph .7 x 57.

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