Tina Joseph Mrs.

Shwartz Prolouge Outline Psychology is also known as the scientific sudy of mental processes and behavior. Anything which an organism does is also known as behavior. Sensations, dreams, feelings, emotions are known as a mental process. Socrates and Plato from ancient Greece believed that an individual’s knowledge was an asset born with us, because the body and the mind are two seperable items. Hebrew scholars believed that physical emotions where tied with mental emotions. Buddha questioned the ability of emotions becoming ideas. Aristotle questioned Socrates and Plato’s theory of innate knowledge by concluding that knowledge was environmentally influenced. Rene Descartes agreed with Plato and Socrates theory by concluding that ‘animal spirits’ flowed thorugh nerves. H e also believed that memories opened pores within the brain through which the animal spirits may also flow through. Francis Bacon from England believed that superstition was coincidential, the believer allowed himself to be woed through coincidential eventswhile they bypass events which would not follow the particular superstition. John Locke believed that an individual’s mind was like playdoh, it is shaped by one’s experiences and is blank when we were born. He also wrote an essay ‘Concerning Human Understanding’. Empiricism is the view that knowledge originates in experience and should rely on observation and experimenting. Wilheim Wudht administered the first psychology experiments by calculating individuals time of response to simple tasks, he also established the first psychology lab in Germany. His work inspired the branches of structuralism and functionalism. Edward Bradford Titchener introduced structuralism which tried to figure individual’s thoughts and elements by having the individual report how they feel about an object it was very unreliable. James believed that ‘consciousness served as a function.’. functionalism revealed that memories would reveal our present actions. Mary Calkins became the president of the APA ,after being refused or degree from Harvard.

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Until the 1920’s-‘scince of mental life’ 1920’s-John B Watson and B.F Skinner labeled psychology ‘scientific stuffy of observable behavior.’ 1960’s- Care Rogers and Abraham Maslow ‘enviornmental influences when meeting the required ‘love and acceptance’ - cognitive reduction – importance of mental processes and how we precess and remember information though process and brain functions

Nature – Nurture Debate • • • • • Plate- Innate /heridatary Aristotle –through the senses Locke-Mind is blank sheet. Enviornmentally influenced Descartes – same as Innate Charles Darwin- ‘ Orgin of Species’ ‘Evolutionary process’

Natural Selection-Best trait will prevail through competition Biopsychosocial approach-analyzes the influences of social-cultural, psychological and biological factor. Different Perspectives • • • • • • • Neuroscince – Body and Brain enabling sensory experiences and memories Evolutionary-Traits influence behabior through natural selection Behavior Genetics-Genes and environmental Influences Psycodynamics- Unconscious Conflicts spurs behavior Behavioral- observal responses Cognitive- Process ,store and retrieve information Socail- Cultural- Behavior varies within different cultures

Various Fields (Researchers) • Biological Psychologists-links between brain and mind

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Development Psychologists-abilities from birth to death Cognitive- how do we think? Solve problems? Personality-Traits Social- Viewing and affecting each other

Applied researchers include counseling psychologists and clinical psychologists. Psychologists are medical doctors who could treat people with disorders, prescribe medication and offer psychotherapy for survery, question, read, review and reflect, management of study time, overlearning, listening during class, focusing on big ideas, being a smart test taker are also some good study ways.

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