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George Davidson
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Pr.ofessor of Geography University of tTafifdrrfia
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S. Editorinchief Practical Mechanical Engineering Editorinchief Practical Shop Work PRICE. MASSACHUSETTS . STARRETT COMPANY The World's Greatest Toolmakers ATHOL. FAIRFIELD i * Machine Construction. B. Worcester Polytechnic Institute AND CARL S.IHE STARRETT BOOK for MACHINISTS' APPRENTICES BY HOVARD Assistant Professor P. DOW. 50 CENTS THE L. S.
THE L. COPYRIGHT 1917 STARRETT COMPANY . S.
M510983 . without any great precision in the drawing itself. some skill at mechanical drawing. are the penalties of mistakes. Possessing this skill gives more opportunity to show ability than the running of a machine. To become skilled in laying out should be the aim of every apprentice. The number of measuring and laying out tools or instruments now purchasable is very great and the apprentice must become familiar with practically all of them. the blueprint gives dimensions accurately. Close observation of pieces laid out by skilled machinists is one way of becoming acquainted with the art. then. The fortunate apprentice may also have opportunity to observe a skilled machinist while laying out various jobs. Attention to details and extreme care are of utmost imIncreased labor cost. lay out work for the less experienced. But laying out requires some knowledge of mathe matics. lines laid out on the metal are to be worked to and must therefore be accurate. when called upon. The apprentice. It is a qualification one must have for advanced positions such as toolmaker. He must know what he can accomplish with each so that he will instinctively select those best suited to the job in hand. should lose no opportunity to make himself capable of laying out work. foreman.INTRODUCTION Laying out work preliminary to machining is transWhile ferring blueprint instructions on to the metal. wasted because of errors in laying out. or superintendent. and an acquaintance with machinists' fine tools and shop operations. No one can consider himself a skilled machinist unless he can lay out his own work and. as well as material portance.
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It will also serve as a reference book for data not to tools as rapidly as be memorized. for instance. The possession of many fine tools indicates a love for accurate work. . The combination set. Next to having a complete outfit of fine tools is the disposition on the part of the apprentice to add the best he can afford them. The tools in a machinist's toolbox are a sure indicaA wellfitted kit of fine tools helps tion of his ability. combines a rule. and combination set. miter.THE STARRETT BOOK of time in laying out is another element of Timesaving tools. quickacting micrometer. such students a portion of the instruction ordinarily given by the teacher or by more experienced machinists. The fewer the tools used. and a determination to do work which will demand recognition. and level. provided the ones at hand are really good ones. him hold a job in hard times and is one of the best assets a man can have when applying for a job. protractor. square. depth gage. center square. Economy success. In preparing this book. height gage. such as the dial test indicator. the less the bench will be littered with tools which may be used only occasionally. the aim has been to select those elementary features most essential to the advancement of machinists' apprentices and students in techniIt is intended to give cal and manual training schools. freedom from the borrowing habit. should be among those ready for use.
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material GENERAL DRAWING. showing all with used. screws. SECTIONAL DRAWINGS show certain assembled portions. it is often termed the Assembled or Assembly Drawing.. lines. DETAIL DRAWINGS show each part of the machine separately. number of pieces. therefore where a machine has a number of more or less complicated motions. scale. consists of the entire machine the parts located in their proper relation to one This drawing is usually made to a reduced another. In practice some firms group several details upon a single sheet others place a single detail upon a sheet. such as dimensions." A detail drawing should be supplied with complete data for constructing the part. as if a part of the stock had been sliced away to more clearly illustrate the interior construction." or "details. they are often termed "detail. often termed "sections. velocity ratios.. and other representations. are what make up the language of drawings. . etc.READING WORKING DRAWINGS Drawing is the language of the engineer. and the correct use of A set of working drawings these is readily learned. On these are tabulated all bolts. designer. and should consist of sufficient views to be easily read. and machinist. Unless a machinist can at least read working drawings he cannot be known as a skilled mechanic. which are common to the stockroom. scales. Instruction is sometimes necessary concerning the relation of certain centers to the motion of parts. and direction of motion." Position of "section" is shown by a full line drawn through a "view" and lettered at each end. motion diagrams are provided. etc. sections. MOTION DIAGRAMS. for example. operations to be performed. Certain conventions relating to views. and necessary to the erecting of the machine. onequarter or onehalf size. BOLT AND SCREW LISTS.
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THE STARRETT BOOK VIEWS. such as cast iron. made up of All layouts dots and dashes. different materials of construction. indicate center lines. termed full scale. FULL LINE DOTTED 1TINE CENTER LINE DIMENSION LINE SHADE LINE LINES. Dotted lines indicate hidden or invisible lines and edges. The draftsman of necessity makes use of some method of projection to get his various views on a flat surface on which only two dimensions can be shown the method of projection in machineshop use places the front view with the other views grouped around in the order of their names. etc. all drawings are made By using actual size. and equally spaced. Broken lines. All material things have three dimensions. Full lines on a drawing indicate the visible lines or edges of the object. as top view above. SCALES. 10 When the object is too .. for sections various combinations of full and dotted lines and special spacings. can be indicated. etc. steel.. Section lines are parallel lines drawn across a surface which is represented as being in section. length. should start from center lines. each view centering on either a horizontal or a vertical center line. and thickness or height. Dimension lines are usually full lines with a break in the line for dimension figures and an arrow head at each end to indicate the surfaces dimensioned. breadth. Where convenient. bottom view below. they are usually drawn at an inclination of 45 or 60.
THE STARRETT BOOK large to be conveniently represented full size. meas BRASS OR BRONZE WHITE ALLOYS ALUMINUM LEAD ZINC 11 . also known as 12". quartersize. halfsize. " When working from drawings the to 1 foot. called a reduced The usual scales are fullsize. the drawing is made to a regularly reduced size. 3". 6". and eighthsize. and IV 2 dimension figures should be invariably followed urements should not be taken from the drawing. scale drawing.
All information on when possible. abbreviated as follows: a drawing is.THE STARRETT BOOK ABBREVIATIONS. CONVENTIONAL ABBREVIATIONS Finish: to Surface be finished is .
protractors. dividers. however. nearly all of which are for the main purpose of obtaining linear measurements. THE YARD. of which the tenthousandth part is the shortMeasurements shorter est practical shop measurement. and volume. the workman who handles flat work only will usually have a somewhat different set of measuring tools from the workman on round work. In the United States the Standard of length is the British yard. straight . or the inch. area. and ness. The inch is subdivided into various lengths. of length is the common tance. THE METER. which is the French standard of length. In machineshop practice the measurement one. The practical machinist and toolmaker divides his work into two classes While it can(a) Flat Work and (b) Round Work. This is of such impormeasurements are of such exacta multitude of measuring tools are being marketed.37 notably in instrument work. The use of measuring tools in machine work is largely confined to the thirtysixth subdivision of the yard. common enough in scientific laboratory work. FLAT WORK In general the worker on 13 flat work will need to be provided with steel rules. of which two copies are owned by the United States Government. than this are. that many of the inches. is also coming into use in the United States. The meter equals 39. : not be said that each class has its distinctive line of measuring tools.THE STARRETT BOOK MEASURING TOOLS Measurements in general are those of length.
THE STARRETT BOOK Combination Set Toolmakers' Calipers 14 Micrometer Depth Gage .
In the human hand prominent in the fingertips.00025". as. for example. height. parallels. the skilled mechanic can readily "feel" the difference in contact made by changes of dimensions as small as 0. (b) The reverse of this method may be used for determining sizes. surface. a steel rule. tool is first set to "FEEL" The accuracy contact of all measurements is dependent upon the sense of touch (feel). the sense of touch is most Therefore the contact measuring tool should be held 15 by . Contact measurements are made in two ways: (a) The contact some standard of length.THE STARRETT BOOK edges. ROUND WORK For round work the measurements are by contact. steel squares. viz. the sense of touch is highly developed. afterward using the steel rule or standard gage to read the size. etc. center punches.: by first setting the contact points to the surfaces of the work. depth. Using suitable contact measuring tools. or a standard gage. as. toolmakers. The "set" dimension may then be used as a standard for testing the work. and the usual tools are those having contact points. slide calipers. and thickness gages. for example. In the case of skilled workmen.
THE STARRETT BOOK the fingers only. and in such a way as to bring it in contact with the fingertips. the sense of touch or feel is much reduced. is steel One readily made. plug and ring gages. The more common tools for contact measurements are inside and outside calipers. direct readings of onethousandth part of an inch are This tool rules. While it is possible to transfer by "feel" a length with an error not exceeding onequarter of one thousandth inch. the results are not always easily read. VERNIER CALIPERS a combination of contact points and of the contact points is a fixed part of a graduated steel rule. for this reason mechanics prefer to use direct reading tools Two methods of for the more accurate contact work. while the other contact point is a part of a graduated slider mounted upon the blade of the first. used in conjunction with steel rules. If the tool is harshly grasped by the fingers. For this reason the tool should be delicately and lightly held instead of gripped tightly. FRONT 16 . direct reading are in common use. By combining the use of the separate scales. and dimension blocks.
accurate measurements of height must be obtained. ily 17 . The removable jaw allows the user to make reverse measurements on the jig frame. By means of the vernier it is easy to make readings as minute as one thousandth part of an inch.THE STARRETT BOOK VERNIER HEIGHT GAGE Another adaptation of the vernier is the height gage. method of using is clearly shown on page 105 where it is used in finding the the center to center distance of a pair of jig buttons. its use is extended to include making accurate measurements of depth. By means of suitable adjustments. one of which is shown on the accompanying illustration. This instrument is used chiefly where close. The tool is thus rendered particularly de^^*~" sirable for use in jigmaking for the depth of a recess inside the jig frame may be read '1 obtained.
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THE STARRETT BOOK MICROMETER CALIPERS With the invention of the micrometer screw there came into use a new method of direct readings in contact measurements. In micrometer construction with a used length of screw thread of one inch A micrometer head cononly. and finish are purchasable.001" in onefoot lengths are commercially possible. Suitable graduations made axially on the threaded sleeve combined with the graduations on the edge of the rotating thimble give direct readings of onethousandth part of one inch. convenience. The great accuracy of the micrometer screw becomes evident when it is realized that threaded spindles with a limit of error of 0. For measurement by thousandths up to onehalf inch. for either inside or outside measurements. sists of a spindle. 19 . fitted through a threaded sleeve. Micrometer screws are mounted in a frame which may be varied in shape and size to render it convenient for the desired purposes. threaded forty to the inch. The contact points are also to the particular use desired. and instruments of this type in a variety of styles and of the highest degree shaped of accuracy. By means of a vernier scale used on the rear of the sleeve direct contact readings as small as one tenthousandth part of one inch can be readily made. having an enclosing thimble fastened to its outer end. the error is negligible.
for making such measurements is known as a combines the double contact of the slide calipers with a screw adjustment which may be read with great accuracy. the chances for mistaking one graduation for another also increase so that some other method of determining extremely accurate measurements must be devised. It is evident that as the fineness of the graduation increases.THE STARRETT BOOK Micrometer Measurements The limit of accuracy obtained by measuring between contacts depends on the graduations on the instrument. 20 . The commpn instrument It micrometercaliper.
from to 25. 2. and is numbered 0. To read the micrometer.THE STARRETT BOOK HOW TO READ A MICROMETER The pitch of the screw threads on the concealed part of the spindle is forty to an inch. therefore. Each vertical line indicates a distance of onefortieth of an inch. moves it lengthwise one fortieth (or twentyfive thousandths) of an inch. from line indicates a 21 . multiply the number of vertical divisions visible on the sleeve by twentyfive. One complete revolution of the spindle. 1. and add the number of divisions on the bevel of to the line which coincides with the the thimble. and every fifth line is numbered. Each numbered distance of four times onefortieth of an inch. or one tenth. The sleeve D is marked with forty lines to the inch. or one thousandth of an inch. Rotating the thimble from one of these marks to the next moves the spindle longitudinally one twentyfifth of twentyfive thousandths. etc. therefore. corresponding to the number of threads on the spindle. Twentyfive divisions will indicate a complete revolution. . Rotating it two divisions indicates two thousandths. The beveled edge of the thimble is marked in twentyfive divisions.025 or onefortieth of an inch. 3. etc. Every fourth line is made longer than the others.
For the Vernier caliper. tenths (or mark on the Vernier . The difference between one of the twentyfive spaces and one of the twentyfour spaces is one twentyfifth of onefortieth. note how many inches. and these twentyfive divisions occupy the same distance as twentyfour divisions on the scale.) HOW TO READ A VERNIER Readings in ten thousandths of an inch on caliper squares. Multiply this number by twentyfive.THE STARRETT BOOK horizontal line on the sleeve.100). then note the number of divisions on the Vernier from to a line which exactly coincides with a line on the scale. and add the number of divisions shown on the bevel of the thimble. In the engraving above. are obtained by the use of a Vernier. the Vernier has been moved to the right one and fourtenths and onefortieth inches . micrometers.. or one thousandth of an inch. in the engraving. For example. who invented the device in 1631. named from Pierre Vernier.025) the is from the mark on the scale. To read the tool. and fortieths (or . 3. On the Vernier plate is a distance divided into twentyfive parts. there are seven divisions visible on the sleeve. the scale on the tool is graduated in fortieths of an inch (0. etc. The micrometer is open one hundred and seventyeight thousandths. (7 X 25 = 175 and 175 + 3 = 178.25).
and 9 X 25 = 225. and onetenth of onethousandth equals One tenthousandth.225. . first note the thousandths as in the ordinary micrometer.425"). so that the reading of the ordinary micrometer would be . and the eleventh line on the Vernier coincides with a line on the scale. ten divisions on the sleeve occupy the distance of nine divisions on the thimble. vertical divisions visible on the sleeve. This seven is seven tenthousandths (. which is the distance the jaws have been opened. we add seven to the reading of the ordinary micrometer. therefore. Eleven thousandths of an inch are.0007). therefore. Line marked "7" on the sleeve coincides with a line on the thimble and. HOW TO READ A VERNIER MICROMETER Readings in ten thousandths of an inch are obtained by the use of a Vernier.2257. however. In this case. Now each division on the thimble represents onethousandth of an inch. and the total reading is one and four hundred and thirtysix thousandths inches (1. Then observe the line on the sleeve which coincides with a line on the In the diagram shown above there are nine thimble. as shown on the scale.436"). To read a tenthousandth micrometer. The difference between the width of one of the ten spaces and one of the nine spaces is onetenth of a THIMBLE LO ON THE MICROMETER O I I JJ'I J I I division on the thimble. and the readings will be . which operates on the same principle as the Vernier on the caliper.THE STARRETT BOOK (1. to be added to the reading on the scale.
anvil is shortened.16 \S .062S i 3 .'V' The '.312 L/M7S Has lock stop. SixInch Micrometer For measuring round work to 4% inches and flat work to 6 inches. for use in places where the ordinary anvil is too long to be inserted. ta^u. 24 . nut and ratchet QuickAdjusting Micrometer Has ratchet stop and lock nut.THE STARRETT BOOK HalfInch Micrometer JHHsflHiE hrizsl For measurement by thousandths up to onehalf inch.
and correction is quickly made by inserting a spanner wrench and turning until the line on the sleeve coincides with the zero on the thimble. Pressure of the finger on the end of the plunger allows the spindle to move instantly to the desired size without turning the thimble. A micrometer having the quickadjusting feature can be instantly opened or closed to any size within its capacity. not movable. making the micrometer a solid gage. MICROMETER AS A GAGE. By means of a knurled lock nut the spindle can be firmly fixed in position. READJUSTMENT FOR WEAR. When the finger is removed. With the Starrett micrometer the anvil is fixed. keeping it central and true. the readjustment is accomplished by various means depending upon the kind of micrometer.THE STARRETT BOOK OPERATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF MICROMETERS QUICK MEASUREMENTS. This feature does away with the frequent use of a test piece. Turning the lock nut contracts a split bushing around the spindle. When slight wear makes correction necessary. fine adjustments may be made in the usual way. 25 .
By means of sliding or fixed attachments a great variety of length measurements may be made with the ordinary steel rule. either in combination or used separately. edge 8ths. are made the bulk of common machineshop measurements. 2d. 3d. For either outside or inside measurements they may be set to or they may be read to a graduated steel rule. STEEL RULES These are thin blades of steel of varying lengths. down.002". wholly depending upon the degree of accuracy The most common of all machineshop tools sought. edge 32ds. edge 16ths.THE STARRETT BOOK TRANSFERRING MEASUREMENTS Transferring a measurement may be a delicate job or not. 4th. the distance between being controlled by a screw which works against a tension spring. widths. The makers term the various subdivisions of the inch by graduation numbers. In. for example. and thicknesses. In this way a workman can transWhere fer lengths with an error of less than 0.shop language this is called makingoutsideorinside measThe legs of the spring caliper are curved urements. With these tools. which is used for measuring over surfaces or between surfaces. 1st. 4 Graduation. for transferring measurements are steel rules and spring calipers. whether those of inside or outside surfaces. edge 64ths. SPRING CALIPERS The most commonly used tool for contact measurements is the ordinary spring caliper. to make two opposite contact points. . No. usually graduated in inches and various subdivisions of the inch upon each edge of both sides and often at the ends.
both for inside and outside work. fixed gages are the gages used by introducing thickness strips between the contact points and the over or inside surfaces." To accurately transfer a dimension with spring calipers the sense of "feel" must be well developed by the workman. better still.THE STARRETT BOOK specially accurate spring caliper measurements are deused for setting the contact points. thin tissuepaper may be used as thickness " feelers. Hard. The degree of accuracy of contact is dependent upon what the workman terms "feel. for the contact points are at the ends of very slender arms." strips. steel thickness gages or Calipering Over 27 a Flange . or. Spring calipers. can be set to dimensions either larger or smaller than sired.
however. If a considerable length is to be transferred. a certain A delicacy of touch is essential. for transferring lengths taken direct from a graduated steel rule. known as a Universal Divider. circles or arcs. or for scribing straight legs.THE STARRETT BOOK SPRING DIVIDERS In this tool the contacts are points at the ends of Dividers are used for measuring dimensions between lines or points. for the points do not then incline to the surfaces worked upon. . magnifying glass is a wonderful help for the accurate transfer of dimension with dividers. enter to such an " Feel does not extent into the " transfer of dimensions spring dividers as it when does using with spring calipers. it is best to use the type where the points are adjustable along a bar.
Under this head may be classed the litting of cross and traversing slides of lathes. the fit is classed either as a driving. boring machines. crank shafts. drilling machines. line shafting. The journal bearings of spindles. contact with sufficient firmness to hold them together under ordinary use. Under this fits where the separate parts must they were a single piece. such as the tables of grinding and of planing machines. sometimes known as packing strips. as . FORGED FITS AND SHRINK FITS. In most of these fits the moving and stationary parts are held in contact with each other by means of adjustable contact strips or gibs. If the surfaces in contact are to move on each other the fit is classed If the surfaces are to make as a sliding or running fit. In sliding and running bearings the limits are usually those of alignment and of contact. In some cases. are classed under this heading. milling machines. or forced fit. the cutter heads and spindles of numerous woodworking machines..well as many other cases. that a certain amount of hand fitting is essential to make the surface contacts as they should be. shrink. their weight keeps them in sufficiently close contact. SLIDING FIT. for example. and planers.THE STARRETT BOOK FITS AND FITTING In machine construction many of the parts bear such a close and important relation to one another. LIMITS. grinding machines. as. and in all cases certain limiting requirements obtain. RUNNING FITS. etc. In the case of running and of sliding bearings a certain amount of hand fitting is necessary to obtain desired results. while in either journal bearings or in flat sliding bearings it is essential that certain accurate contact between head are classed those become in use as if 29 . the crank pins and axles in locomotive driving wheels.
a straight edge. In testing the parts use is made of the Universal Test Indicator with the needle reading on a dial or upon a sector arm. For example. as. The amount of pressure necessary to place the two parts together is the limiting fact in the case of forced fits. tain practice. 30 . or direct to the lathe spindle. These can be of the direct reading contact type. the metals used. or of the indirect reading contact type. etc. In forcing the axles into locomotive driving wheels. in the engine lathe the ways or vees and the cross slide of the tool carriage must be parallel to or at rightangles to the axis of the spindles within set In engine lathe construction the limit set for limits. and the form of the surrounding hub. However specified.THE STARRETT BOOK the surfaces shall be made.001" in a foot of length. and there will also be a limit of alignment with other parts of the machine. spindles. the ordinary spring caliper used in conjunction with thickness gages or "feelers. The following tables give cer be forced irito holes. or where collars. and other machine parts are to be shrunk on to spindles. if desired. for example. The amount which it is necessary to add to the spindle or shaft diameter must of necessity vary with the length and diameter of the hole. as the micrometer and vernier bar. In the making of shrinkage and forced fits the limits are usually those of size. flanges. Where are to pins.. the specifications may limit the pressure to between one hundred to one hundred and fifty tons. this is 0. also. The indicator may be clamped to a test bar. hubs. it can be and often is held upon a special slider stand fitted to the vees of the machine." AMOUNTS TO LEAVE. it in fact reduces to limits of size and the use of measuring tools. it is customary to make the diameter allowance upon the spindle rather than upon the hole.
) Fits Table 1 Class .THE STARRETT BOOK Allowances for Different Classes of (Newall Engineering Co.
To avoid waste of time. sions a notation referring to the degree of accuracy required must be placed prominently on the drawing. the Company's Engineers will proceed according may (3) Where dimensions to the dictates of their best judgment as to what limits should be taken. and money. (5) It is frequently necessary to reduce fractions 32 . this Company's Engineers will use their best judgment in deciding just what limits it may be advisable to work to. (4) For all important dimensions Decimal figures should be used and limits clearly stated on detail drawIf Decimal figures are not used for such dimenings. are stated in vulgar fractions with no limits of tolerance specified.THE STARRETT BOOK LIMITS OF TOLERANCE While it is possible to produce machine parts with measurements refined to any degree of accuracy. assume responsibility for possible excessive cost brought about through working to closer limits than may be necessary nor for permitting greater latitude call for greater precision (1) than subsequently be found to be proper. or be definitely covered by written specifications to which reference must be made by notations on the drawings. in any event. unless otherwise ordered. lahor. The Company will not. it will be assumed that a considerable margin for variation from figured dimensions is available. (2) Where the customer fails to supply proper data as to limits. Full information regarding limits of tolerance should be clearly shown by drawings submitted. extreme precision may prove too costly for commercial work. the TaftPeirce Manufacturing Company has formulated a set of rules which defines the degree of accuracy to be expected in those cases where specifications and drawings do not than the rules provide for.
002" to . (6) Where dimensions are stated in decimal figures derived by other processes than those explained in paragraph five. In the absence of specifications to the contrary. will be obtained as accurately as the best mechanical practice applying to commercial work of the particular grade specified will permit. snap gages. M. those which require to be made accurately to definitely specified sizes should be either reamed.0015 " " Four . 33 . A. S. Standard form of thread will be used for all SPECIAL sizes. or lapped. eighths. detail drawings should be prominently marked clear instructions be given. or five places and limits are not specified it will be assumed that a limit of plus or minus .THE STARRETT BOOK representing fourths. sixteenths.0002 (7) Where close dimensions. such as the location of holes from center to center in jigs. external ring gages. (8) The dimensions of internal cylindrical gages. thirtyseconds. Standard form of thread and pitches will be used for *4 inch and all sizes above. (10) U. to decimal equivalents.015" (and in some cases even more) over the size of the drill used. ground. Standard will be used for numbered sizes below ^4 inch. fixtures. E. the following variations from dimensions stated may be expected: Two place decimals . S. but with limits not specified. (9) As drilled holes vary in size from . ground. and other exact work of like character are re and sixtyfourths "ACCURATE" and quired.0005 " " Five . U.0015 is permissible unless otherwise ordered. machine parts. four. and detail drawings thereof should bear nota tions accordingly. and similar work specified to be hardened. and lapped.005 plus or minus " Three " . S. When a dimension of this character is expressed in a decimal equivalent and carried out to three.
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hand tapping. be exact and sharp. For fine exact layouts a special marking solution must be used. chipping. or white lead mixed with turpentine. and the various center punches. centers. however. hermaphrodite calipers. levels. If work of no special desired. the lines. may be used steel rules. circles. steel squares.THE STARRETT BOOK BENCH WORK Bench work includes laying out. scratch awls. Particular care must be maintained to insure fine and accurate laying out. LAYING OUT. scratch gages. The one in common shop use is a mixture of one ounce copper PREPARING THE SURFACE. hand reaming. should therefore be exactly located and placed. etc. This is the shop term which includes the placing of lines. surface gages. A little nitric acid may with advantage be added. bevel protractors. divider. This solution applied to a cleaned iron or steel surface gives a dull coppered surface. etc. micrometer or vernier height and depth gages. shop jobs is not required. Ability to so combine and make use of the various tools 35 . The usual scribing points are those common to dividers. SCRIBING LINES. is accuracy sulphate to four ounces water. Combined with the scribing points. in laid out work.. and centers upon curved or flat surfaces for the guidance of the workman. that while a line drawing is seldom scaled and therefore exact accuracy of spacpolishing. and the finest line scribed upon it is brilliantly visible. are to be followed exactly. and trammel points. and all the many done at the bench or in a vise.. It differs in one important respect. All lines. carefully rubbing chalk. It is somewhat analogous to mechanical drawing. and center points should. filing. steel straight edges. circles. while in use. upon the surface of the work will be sufficient as a coating. and all scriber. end measuring rods. cen ing ters.
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is a considerable asset to the lay PROTRACTORS As made for machineshop use the common protractor is provided with attached straight edges." As oftentimes its use is determining the angle made by two surfaces (a bevel). Protractors for common shop use are graduated to degrees through a length of circumference of one hundred and eighty degrees. desirable results are to be 37 . If LAYING OUT PLATE.THE STARRETT BOOK as to insure accuracy ingout man. An attached vernier enables the user to read angles to onetwelfth of a degree (five minutes). Measuring the angularity of two or more lines with a protractor is termed "reading the angles. the tool is usually termed a bevel protractor. and can be used either to measure or to lay off lines at an angle to each other.
and gouge chisels. While the mechanic in the modern shop can usually find methods of machining most of the surfaces he needs to fit up. which are then placed upon the leveling plate. The face of a good chipping hammer should crown slightly. work and the known as leveling. work. so that the shock to the arm and hand will be less. to those for large pieces. and may be either of the ball peen or flat peen type. The common chipping tools are a hand hammer and a hand chisel. ordinarily termed cold chisels. and the gages. flat. diamond. nor over two pounds. they furnish an accurate plane surface upon which work and tools may be placed. The hand hammer should weigh not less than threequarters of a pound the when TOOLS USED.THE STARRETT BOOK obtained in laying out flat upon which to rest the vided. The steel from which they are . or layingout plates. cape. A chipping hammer should balance well in the hand when fitted to a handle not more than The handle near where it enters sixteen inches long. roundnose. etc. having sides The work may be laid directly several feet in length. squares. In other cases it is convenient to clamp the work to knee or angle irons. Chipping chisels. the hammer should be thinned and worked down to a shank that is somewhat flexible. upon the surface of the plate or held upon leveling strips or blocks placed on the plate.. special metal plates tools must be pro CHIPPING Formerly many of the surfaces of machine parts were handchipped and filed to a fit. The size of these plates varies from those of small areas used in laying out small jigs. These are surface. and other tools used around the work. and are often known by the shape of the cutting end. are of various sorts. there are still occasions work has to be handchipped. for example.
of octagon crosssection. at as acute an angle as the nature of the work will permit. well packed by the forge hammer. and the temper drawn to a medium blue. 39 . symmetrical. hardThe ened. Flatchipping and cape chisels should be ground with straight. hammer end of the chisel should be forged from the octagon to a reduced round but not hardened. with the cutting end forged to the desired shape.THE STARRETT BOOK made should be eighty to ninety point carbon. cutting edges.
(d) by the degree of coarseness. In shops which have compressed air. knifeedge. bastard. halfround. triangular. Hold the chisel loosely in the hand at an angle with the work that permits an even chip of right depth. flat. etc. to No. Files for some purposes are made tapered in their length. coarse. No. FILING essentially a finishing tool. No. as this rapidly tires the hand and arm. This confuses the user somewhat.. 8. square. rather than at the end struck by the hammer.THE STARRETT BOOK In hand chipping the hammer handle should be grasped near the end and the hammer swung free from over the shoulder with an easy forearm movement. etc. 2d cut. Singlecut files are those having teeth made by single parallel cuts across the face at an angle of twentyfive degrees.. as. The degree of coarseness varies with the length. 40 made . extra fine files are designated by numbers. for example. round. and dead smooth. 0. (b) by their crosssection. an 8inch file second cut is coarser than a shorter file bastard cut. smooth. which does remarkable work of the heavier sorts. In doublecut files the teeth are made by break ing up the single cuts into points by a second cut at an angle with the first. (c) by their cut single or double cut. The vision should be directed to the cutting edge of the chisel. The degrees of coarseness are designated by the following names as rough. and in skilled hands surfaces may be made very accurate and smooth. 1. use is made of the modern pneumatic chipping hammer. and for other uses have straight sides. file is The for example. 00. Avoid gripping hammer or chisel tightly. this Files are designated thus (a) by their length does not include the tang. unless he is familiar with practice. No.
HEIGHT OF WORK. etc. A common rule is to have it the height of the worker's elbow as he stands erect. This must of necessity vary with the height of the worker. wood. For very light freehand filing the work may be much higher. . Used for hoofs. in some cases the height 41 of the shoulders.THE STARRETT BOOK Rasp files are those having teeth made by a punch.
along the length of is tested by the use of steel straight edges. bevel protrac A fine grain surface results. grasping the point with the fingers and thumb of the remaining hand with thumb on top. and body to carry the file across the work with As the file is in regular. no sense selfguided the worker must train his body to regular controlled motions if he is to do effective work. In handfiling the held crosswise. . DRAW FILING. In heavy filing the point of the file may be grasped by the fingers and the palm of the hand with the palm on top. has direct bearing upon the quality and quantity of the product. etc. and controlled strokes. Used to set the grain somewhat smoother than regular crossfiling. Flat work tors. worker should train his hands. The worker should clasp the blade of file near its ends in each hand and then draw the the work. position is very important. even. The worker should clasp the file handle with the extended thumb on top. arms. TESTING FLAT FILING.THE STARRETT BOOK POSITION OF THE HANDS. steel squares. If the worker wishes position also to avoid tiring. file.
as. 100. It is obvious that it requires care and good sense in using a hacksaw blade if good results are expected. a smooth file. the surfaces are polished with some fine abrasive. glued to cloth or leather. for example. and are used for severing metal. which have the necessary adjustments for holding the blade in stiff tension. journal bearings. common grain abrasive is used. They are held in suitable hand or power frames. 80 100 a superfine file.THE STARRETT BOOK POLISHING Where a particularly smooth surface is necessary. 60 a second cutfile. journals. The finer sizes are often known as flours. 43 . 40 a bastard file. For ordinary polishing of machine parts. for example. GRADES OF EMERY the grades of emery run and the degree of smoothness of surface they leave may be compared to that left by files as follows The numbers representing 8 to 120. from : 8 16 and 10 represent the cut of a wood rasp. as. 20 a coarse rough file. If the stock to be cut is both hard and thin. thin blades of hardened steel with teeth cut along one edge. which means that the particles are of a size to readily pass through a sieve having one hundred meshes to the linear inch.. SEVERING METAL WITH HACK SAWS Hack saws are narrow. particular care is required to avoid injuring the blade. Grain abrasives are known by numbers. 120F and FF a deadsmooth file. etc. No. 30 an ordinary rough file. or where brilliancy of finish is desired.
TOI2 IN. a cutting speed of fifty to sixty strokes per minute should be maintained. and the user should consider this fact if commercially economical results are desired. made 44 . and all tendency to bending the blade avoided. under average conditions and without a lubricant. and the return stroke is as light as convenient without actually lifting the blade from its work. The blade should be under considerable tension when in use. not so with some makes of machines. and the material is soft steel. the saw should cut on the forIn machine cutting this is usually so. The blade when mounted in a handframe should have the cuttingteeth rake for NO. It must be held in the plane being cut. When hack sawing. ward is that is to say. If the saw is used in a power machine. using a suitable lubricant. but stroke. Unannealed tool steel should be cut under the above conditions at not to exceed sixty strokes per minute. a cutting speed of one hundred strokes per minute may be made. MOUNTING THE BLADE. The cutting stroke always the pressure stroke. Suitable blades and frames may be purchased for almost every service. SAWS ward.I45 TAKES 8 IN.THE STARRETT BOOK CUTTING SPEED.
By means of suitable weights. or so be to The machine shown above has been especially designed to efficiently operate hack saw blades. the cutting pressure upon the blade may be regulated according to the material being severed. To avoid blade breakage through careless handling.THE STARRETT BOOK HACK SAW MACHINE Hack saw blades used in cutting up bar stock structural shapes are much more efficient in a machine designed that its several motions and adjustments can properly controlled. and the stroke length of the bladecarrying frame can be adjusted to use the entire blade length. Such a machine is as sensitive the operator as a hand frame. thus getting the full efficient service from each blade. The bladecarry45 . The base column carries the working parts and the workholding vise. a safety device in the form of a dash pot is connected with the bladecarrying frame to prevent the blade from being dropped suddenly upon the work. no matter what diameter of bar is being severed.
103 in hand frames. 112B for light power machine work on soft steel. light structural iron. 112 for heavy hand frame work and light power machines. 115 on electrical conduit. 254 for heavy high speed machines. etc. to cut sheets and tubing thinner than 18 gage. No. 103B in hand frames. No. light angle and channel iron. What Hack Saw to Use No. and heavy hand frame work.256 for extra heavy power machines. brass stock.THE STARRETT BOOK ing frame for raised by a foot lever leaving the hands free The cutting lubricant is conveyed to the blade from a tank in the column by means of a small rotary pump. 46 . etc. 255 on high speed machines cutting tool steels. No. to cut tool steel. to cut tool steel. to cut cold rolled shafting and machinery steel. pipe. is work adjustments and measurements. No. to cut sheet metal and tubing 16 to 18 gage. on tool steels. tool steels and all solid No. No. 259 for cutting iron pipe. No. 255B on high speed machines cutting machinery steel. No. No. 253 in hand frames. to cut cast steel. No. No. No. 262 for cutting angle iron. No. 114 for general work in medium weight power machines. cast iron. cast iron. 254B for heavy high speed machines. to cut cold rolled stock and soft metals. No. 256B for extra heavy power machines. metals. 102 in hand frames. No. brass stock and ornamental iron work. auto frames.
two or more cutting lips conepointed depends for its efficient working upon four factors: (a) All the cutting lips shall have the same inclinadrill A of tion to the axis of the drill. the drill is guided by its sides and a three or four fluted drill will give better results. straightfluted spiralfluted The most common. (b) (c) A Cutting lips should be of exactly equal length.THE STARRETT ROOK DRILLING DRILLS. flattwisted and gunbarrel. FORM OF POINT. A drill is an endcutting tool. 47 . proper lip clearance of the surface back of the cutting edges. or four cut The twolip drill is used when drilling solid ting lips. type is the spiralfluted. barrel drill. used when especially straight. 1 a single cutting lip. three. the point of the drill controls the cutting edges. and the size of the drill. for enlarging holes already made. When a drill is used straight. stock. When drilling solid stock with a twolipped drill. tial. either by coring or by previous drilling. The three and four lip drills are used for enlarging holes previously cored or drilled. In the types referred to all except gunbarrel drills are conepointed on the The guncutting end. Twist drills are made with two. and for most purposes the most effiusually of cient. known as a twist drill. and if the drill is correctly ground the resulting hole will be reasonably round. and true holes are essenhas a blunt end with FIG. round. consisting two cutting edges set at an angle with the The more common types of drills are flat axis.
THE STARRETT ROOK correct angle of lip clearance. 2. use the handfeed at first and observe (a) the chips made by the cutting. After sharpening a drill freehand. and 3 show the result of careless freehand Figs. (d) Figs. (b) the size of the hole. To get the best results from drills and drilling machines. 2 edge. that when it is set for grinding any size of drill the FIG. FEEDING THE DRILL. If the cutting lips are of uneven length the hole will be enlarged over the diameter of the drill. 8 shows how the cutting lip is located to correctly grind the edges. If the cutting lips are shaped to a proper clearance. but if the cutting lips lack a proper clearance the resulting chips have the appearance of being ground off rather than freely cut. 1. and those from steel as in Fig. also their inclination to the axis. Drillings from cast iron should look as in Fig. the chips will curl as they start from the cutting FIG. of the cutting lips. A Freehand grinding results are usually so disappointing that in most machine shops the drills are sharpened in a spemacial drillgrinding chine. Fig. if the drill is properly sharpened. The design of this machine is such. the drill should advance 48 . 3 cutting lips are made of equal length and of the correct form. 6. 4 and 5 show how to test the length grinding. 7.
speed of the drill in feet 49 . Table No. but is less effective than power feeds. The distance which the drill advances per revolution is termed the FEED. may answer in certain cases. and must be adjusted to suit the conditions under which the work is being performed. if skilfully done. except for small wire drills. Under average conditions the peripheral speed recommended for carbon steel drills is thirty feet DRILL SPEED. 4 FIG. 2 gives the feeds per revolution recommended by one manufacturer of drills. This is the surface or peripheral per minute. FIG. and is rated at the outer diameter. 5 Feeding the drill freehand.THE STARRETT BOOK into the work a definitely regulated amount for each revolution. they can be greatly exceeded under some conditions. They are recommended for average conditions. but must be reduced for others.
THE STARRETT BOOK and for highspeed drills seventy feet to one hundred feet. 7 Table No. 8 60 . to forty feet. read across from 1inch in the lefthand column and under heading 70' find 267. feet as the selected cutting speed. FIG. Working conditions may at times cause a change in these figures. 6 FIG. When the extreme outer corners of the cutting edges wear rapidly it is evidence of too high a surface speed. 3 gives the revolutions per minute at which to run drills for various cutting or surface For example. with a 1inch drill and seventy speeds. FIG. the revolutions per minute.
THE STARRETT BOOK Speeds and Feeds for Drilling* HighSpeed Steel Drills Table 2 Size of .
Table of Cutting Speeds Ft.015 for larger is .007 for drills inch and smaller.004 to . This feed is based on a peripheral speed of a drill equal to 30 feet per minute for steel 35 feet per minute for iron 60 feet per minute : M .007 to .THE STARRETT BOOK The Speed A . per Minute . of Drills Table 3 feed per revolution of . We believe that these speeds should not be exceeded under ordinary cir cumstances. and from about all that should be required. for brass. It may also be found advisable to vary the speed somewhat according as the material to be drilled is more or less refractory.
Larger amounts of work warrant a skilled "layer out. Unless the holes when drilled are to match up with other holes or with fixed studs. or soda water. paraffine oil. The practice is to scribe two or more point as lines which shown in Fig. or soda water. 9. For soft steel and wrought iron. a jet of air if anything is used ally worked dry. For jig. laying out and drilling are usually done by the workman. : APPROXIMATE and ACCURATE. lard oil. tool. of the LAYING OUT. viz. it is : CUTTING COMPOUNDS. usuFor cast iron. the centers must be accurately laid out and scribed upon the surface of the work. turpentine. it is enough if the center is laid off with a chalk pencil and a steel rule. and experimental work. kerosene. upon the body Locating the centers for drilled holes work is termed "laying out. speeds. Those recommended have stood the test of service For hard and refractory steel. kerosene. 9 63 ." Laying out for drilling comes under two heads. turpentine. For aluminum.THE STARRETT BOOK To maintain high cutting necessary to use a lubricant. intersect at the exact desired Assume that the link is to FIG. For brass. or soda water." On the smaller jobs.
THE STARRETT BOOK
connect two studs. Proceed to scribe two intersecting lines upon one of the hubs, as shown in Fig. 9, using a combination square fitted with a center head. At the intersection accurately place a light centerpunch inPlace one leg of a spring divider with its dentation. point in the center mark and adjust the other leg to have its point touch the edge line of the hub and note the
concentricity of the center. If correct, close dividers to scribe a circle the diameter of the required drilled hole, setting the points by the scale graduations upon a steel
FIG. 10
rule.
Locate light centerpunch marks on the scribed
circle as
shown
the
When
work
in Fig. 10. is laid
out by another than the
FIG. 11
54
THE STARRETT BOOK
second circle, having a slightly greater diameter, should be scribed. This check will show whether the
driller, a
hole was drilled to the original lay out. If no importance is attached to the center to center distance of the holes proceed as before with the second hub. Where the center to center distance is important, set the points of the universal dividers to the center length, and with the point A, Fig. 11, in the previously located center mark scribe on the opposite hub. Scribe a short line across its face afterward, proceeding as before. For all accurate work use the automatic centerpunch, Fig. 12, and for heavy work the machinists' centerpunch, shown in Fig. 13.
PREPARING THE SURFACE.
For
accurate laying out, clean the machined surfaces and wet the portion to be worked upon with the copper sulphate (blue vitriol) solution., When dry, the surface will distinctly show any lines which are made upon it. Chalk well rubbed into the surface is sufficient for the less accurate jobs.
STARTING THE DRILL.
After laying out and previous to drilling, greatly enlarge the center holes with a centerpunch to assist the starting of SCRIBING CIRCLES WITH DIVIDERS the drill. Start the hole with drill point in the enlarged center, using hand feed until a reasonable dimple is made in the work. Observe if this is central with the scribed circle, and if not central use center gouge, as in Fig. 14, and repeat until accurate. A DRILL. When starting a drill it often TO has a tendency to slide or crowd off to one side. Where it is essential that the drilled hole coincide or center with some previously scribed circle or layout, the drill
DRAW
55
THE STARRETT BOOK
must be brought back into the correct posiThis is accomplished by the use of a small gougepointed chisel, sometimes called a center chisel, and the process is termed, "drawing the drill." First, note toward which side of the small dimple left by the drillpoint
tion.
it is
necessary to shift the drill. Then chisel a small groove in that side of
is
the dimple. If the start
eral chisel grooves
very eccentric, sevmay be necessary;
whereas,
suffice.
if
only slightly eccentric, a
mere touch of the
It is
chisel will often readily seen that the drill is made to cut more easily where the grooves are, and therefore the natural resistance of the opposite side pushes the drill toward the side cut by the
Drill drawing gougepointed chisel. can only be done previous to reaching the full diameter of cut.
HOLDING THE WORK.
ness in holding the
sible for
Carelessis
work
respon
If drilling accidents. no special holding device is available, the work should be held in a drilling vise, clamped directly to the drillingmachine table, or clamped to an angle iron. Fig. 15 illustrates a method of
many
FIG. 12
holding the work safely. When once the work is clamped in position on the drillingmachine table, adjust the table to center the located hole with the drill rather than reclamp the work. HOLDING THE DRILL. In Fig. 16, at A, the drill is shown held di66
FIG. 13
some form of quickacting collett chuck should be used. This is a good method if several holes of the same diameter are to be drilled at a single When frequent changing of the drill is necessetting. 15 57 . H FIG. The changes can then be made without stopping the machine. When it is essential that the holes be of an exact standard diameter. 14 DRILLING FOR REAMER. FIG. sary. and whether or not the reaming is to be done directly in the drilling If the drilling is done through jig bushings and the holes are short as compared to their diameter. as in drilling holes of numerous sizes. The amount left for reaming depends upon whether one or two reaming operations are necessary. it is customary to use a drill somewhat smaller than the given diameter.THE STARRETT BOOK rectly in the spindle. using a singlespindle machine. and afterward ream the holes to standard size. machine.
results as accurate as any. to allow for passing a machine reamer 0. and is DRILLING FOR TAPPING. If the holes are relatively long.005" small through the hole which is afterward handreamed. In practice the nearest commercial size of drill is listed for drilling tapped holes. except accepted practice for good work.THE STARRETT BOOK a single reaming operation will often suffice. Where a full thread depth is essential the hole to be tapped should be made with a drill of a diameter smaller than the nominal diameter of the bolt by an amount equal to double the depth of the thread. the drill should be 1/64" to 1/32" smaller than the finished hole diameter. This method gives by grinding. .
THE STARRETT BOOK Letter Sizes of Drills Diameter Table 4 .
MASS U.S.STARRETT CO. U. DRILL SIZE MACHINE SCREW TAPS 1 f TABLE LETTER SIZES yji it 11 1 H 3 OR STEEL WORK USE AP DRILLS ONE OR TWO LARGER THAN. TAP DRILLS FOR I.S. U. MASS.THE STARRETT BOOK Handy Equivalent Tables Made of Spring Steel jto NO.A. MASS. THE L. N (ii) 591 L.S. A. UST r SIZES .S. THE DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS \ ATHOL. ATHOL. STARRETT CO. ATHOL.STARRETT CO.S.S. V fP 1 590 THE L.A.
many tables would be required to cover all selections of tap drills. For U.THE STARRETT BOOK SIZES OF TAP DRILLS. However. S.75  10 . but 1. What diameter of tap drill should be used for a X 10 tap? % 1. using a drill whose diameter approximates the web thickness of the larger drill. ranging in to four inches in diameter. Standard threads use same formula.4. as shown in Fig.3 should be used in place of 1. size from No. of tap or thread EXAMPLE. considerable pressure is required to force the larger drills into the work at an efficient cutting feed. 17 DRILLING LARGE HOLES. 17. FIG. Because of the large number of screw thread standards in use. and as the cutting edges at the web do not cut as effectively as they do outside the web thickness. For this reason many workmen first drill a lead hole. A lead hole will also assist in centering the drill upon an inclined surface. Twist drills are sold.400 Tap in drill = D  T which T = D = number of threads per inch dia. if the inclination is considerable it is necessary to butt mill or hand chip a spot giving 61 . 80 wire gage As the drill increases in diameter the web is correspondingly thickened. The sizes of tap drill for all pitches of V threads may be found by the following formula.400 Tap drill = = .75  .14 NOTE. 1.
FIG. 18 the cases of deephole drilling it is better to rotate rather than the drill. 19 shows the machine with the drill guides in working position.THE STARRETT BOOK sufficient surface to work upon. and Fig. it is customary in efficient drilling of this sort to use special drills designed for the purpose. There are many cases in which it is desirable to enlarge a hole throughout a portion of In all work . When the bolts are for holding purposes only and are not used for aligning the several pieces. BOLT HOLES. 18 shows a special hollow drill often used for drilling axial holes in lathe spindles. millingmachine. While for spindle drilling it is possible to use ordinary twist drills with extended shanks. and grinder line of drilling known as gunbarrel drilling. it is customary to drill the holes through which the bolts pass somewhat larger than the bolt diameters. The practice of some firms is to use in place of a single large drill a relatively smaller one. The drill must be started exactly concentric with the axis of the machine. afterward enlarging the hole by some method of counterboring at a much less expense for tools and at as rapid a production rate as by entire drilling. This allows for a variation in the bolt sizes and for inaccuracy in locating the centers. Under this name may be classed the drilling of holes through the axes of spindles and that special lathe. Fig. For this reason a startinghole the exact diameter of the drill is first counterbored. DEEP HOLE DRILLING. COUNTERBORING.
and In Fig. . The practice is to enlarge the already drilled hole by using a cutting tool having a pilot or leader to guide the cutting edges. 20 are shown the its use is termed counterboring. no certainty that the two diameters will be concentric.THE STARRETT BOOK FIG. tool in operation and its purpose. 19 its If a drill is used for this purpose there is length. This tool is known as a counterbore.
THE STARRE T T BOOK .
At least once a week the lathe should receive an allover cleaning. and the "live" or headstock conepoint should rotate truly concentric with its axis. either from excessive pressure or from highspeed rubbing. The conepoints of the centers should be smooth and an exact sixty degrees. mediumsize flexiblebottom squirt can is best for this purpose. the competent workman proceeds to prepare and test Remove both centers and after cleaning the centers. as. INDICATING AND ADJUSTING. and the bearings should be washed out with kerosene.THE STARRETT BOOK THE LATHE CARE OF THE LATHE. All oil holes should be kept free and clean. the ways upon which the carriage moves. for improper lubrication of the wearing surfaces A is one of the immediate causes of excessive wear. stock center should have a hardened point to resist wear. Those bearings. The engine lathe is capable of producing the largest variety of product of any of the machinetool family. and where possible should be protected from entering dirt. A plugged oil hole prevents the proper lubrication of the bearing. for example. The centers should align with each other in the vertical and horizontal planes. rests to a large degree the accuracy After attention to lubrication of the work produced. them and the tapered holes note whether they return to The "dead" or foottheir places with a successful fit. which by construction are hard to protect "from dirt. and oiling should be frequent on those bearings which are given the severest service. trial and error method of adjusting the centers in alignment is to first bring the conepoints nearly into The 65 . Upon the condi tion of the centers. Especial attention should be given to applying a suitable machine oil to all the bearings. should be frequently cleaned and reoiled.
as shown in Fig. To test the live center for concentricity. receive the work. 21. readjust the footstock and repeat the test until the required UNIVERSAL DIAL TEST INDICATOR FIG. If the dial shows an eccentricity in excess of the allowed limits for the job 66 . as the tool passes along the length of the work. place in the toolpost a universal testindicator. 21 degree of accuracy is obtained. slowly by hand and note the dial. and by adjusting the footstock frame upon its cricket bring them into as exact truth as is reasonably With the footstock clamped in position to possible. surface the diameter of a trial piece for a length sufficient to allow testing its diameter at If the diameter increases or decreases several places.THE STARRETT BOOK contact. with the feeler in touch with the Rotate the headstock spindle conepoint.
22 for its proper conepoint center gage. a toolpost grinding fixture. This is a tool for indicating minute contact variations upon a graduated dial or upon face. the conepoint must be trued by some grinding attachment. for example. In cases where it is customary to have the live as well as the dead center hardened. shown in Fig. 22. the conepoint should be machined true. test To either center angle use made of a TEST INDICATOR.THE STARRETT BOOK be done. and can be trued with a square nosecutting tool. and afterward lightly filed to a smooth surto FIG. is 67 . as. By many workmen the live center is left unhardened.
THE STARRETT BOOK Truing Work in Chuck Truing Jig on Face Plate Indicator Used with Surface Gage on Bench Plate 68 .
coned to. This is termed "centering the work. to indicate uniin formity of height in the planer. It is LOCATING THE CENTERS. the centers may be located . Most turned work is done upon the lathe centers. to indicate eccentricity in the lathe. The testindicator may be used with advantage any of the common machine tools. Where the turned job is made from ordinary black bar stock. and it becomes necessary to provide suitable cavities in the work. shaper. USE. WORK CENTERS. to indicate parallelism. dred in a complete circle with an easily read width of spacing. Best practice in this respect is to use a combination drill and center reamer.THE STARRETT BOOK The graduations are usually one huna graduated arc. milling machine. The instrument is built in such a way that one of these spaces represents a movement of the contactpoint of 1/1000 inch. as it insures exact concentricity in the drilled and reamed hole. to size." and consists in first locating the position of the cavities and afterward drilling and reaming them to form and size. efficient turning demands HERMAPHRODITE that the chip taken shall be of practically uniftfrm depth as the work rotates against the CALIPERS cutting tool. or milling machine. and to test for alignment in any_ machine. evident that the centers should be so located that the entire diameter of the turned job shall finish Beside this.fit the conepoints. all of which are based upon a combination of short and long arm levers. For these reasons some degree of accuracy in centering is necessary. or grinding machine. Various mechanisms are employed for multiplying the movement of the contactpoint. boring machine.
THE STARRETT BOOK LATHE TOOLS 1 2 3 LEFTHAND SIDE TOOL RIGHTHAND SIDE TOOL RIGHTHAND BENT TOOL 4 5 6 RIGHTHAND DIAMOND POINT LEFTHAND DIAMOND POINT ROUNDNOSE TOOL 7 8 9 CUTTINGOFF TOOL 10 11 12 THREADING TOOL BENT THREADING TOOL ROUGHING TOOL BORING TOOL INSIDE THREADING TOOL 70 .
The nose of a cutting tool has several sides. When the centers are well located the holes may be drilled under a drillpress or in a handlathe. In such cases the forging is so located with reference to the straight edges as to give a fair average of the surface errors due to forging. For exact turned work the centers should afterward be lightly rereamed to correct the errors in their alignment due to by scribing the straightening of the bar. and a properly ground and properly set cutting tool is a wedge in that it splits off the excess stock.THE STARRETT BOOK lines at an angle across the ends. may be used to scribe the ends of the stock. the centerpunch marks are shifted. The center is located with a centerpunch at the intersection of the scribed lines and the concentricity tested by spinning the bar upon the lathe centers. While in common shop language all these are known as cutting tools. Where much bar stock must be centered a special selflocating centering machine is often used. be straightened to reasonable truth. It is also usual to leave a greater excess of stock for finishing purposes upon a forging than upon rolled bar stock. If necessary. Among the common lathe tools. two of 71 . after centering. as convenient. technically speaking. A set of tools for use in the engine lathe is shown in the chart on page 70. LATHE TOOLS. many of them separate the stock in a manner that is analogous to crowding off the metal rather than by pure cutting action. When the' job is to be turned from a forging. using a combination square with a center head and the provided In place of this tool a hermaphrodite caliper scriber. it is usual to roll the forging on straight edges and scribe lines across the ends. the side tool and the diamondpoint tool are the best examples of wedge or splitting action. If the piece is bent it must. Cutting in its proper sense is a splitting action. using a surface or height gage.
23 SIDE CLEARANCE slant is away from the work it is termed front rake. if in the direction of the axis of the work. (See Fig. For turning ordinary soft steel and soft gray iron an angle of sixty degrees is good practice. As in the case of "rake" the clearance directly away from the axis of the work or lathe is termed front clearance. The length and size of the shank of the forged tool depend upon the size of chip and the machine used. The angle formed by these surfaces must be sufficient for strength. A cutting tool may have its upper face forged and ground with either a front or a side rake or a combination of both. The angle which the upper side of the tool makes with the horizontal is termed the rake.) CLEARANCE. it is termed side rake. By clearance is meant the angle which the under side of the tool makes with the vertical.THE STARRETT BOOK which come together at some angle to form a cutting edge. the working end of the tool is forged upon the end of a short piece of square or rectangular bar stock. and to furnish enough metal to conduct away the heat generated by the cutting action. 23. If the CLEARANCE FIG. In the case of forged lathe tools. RAKE. For harder material^ the angle may be increased. 72 .
Unless the cutting tool has a bent shank it is usually set at rightangles to the surface of the work. The grinding may be done upon the periphery of a diskwheel or upon the sides of a cupwheel.THE STARRETT BOOK With that along the axis of the work side clearance. the front clearance is usually forged to fifteen degrees or over. The grinder should have a suitable workrest upon which to support the tool in sharpening the larger tools. It is necessary. SETTING THE LATHE TOOL. and in most cases not more than ten degrees. or for resting the hands in the case of the smaller tools. While there are exceptions. RIGHTHAND TOOLS. the work rest should be firmly and securely clamped as close as possible to the used face of the wheel. It is very important that the lathe tool be properly set in relation to the axis of the work and the direction of the cut. and cutting edges formed to turn or square from the right towards the left. and cutting edges are formed to cut from the left to the right the tool is known as a lefthand tool. For purposes of safety. GRINDING LATHE TOOLS. or upon an ordinary waterdrip If made from the newer highspeed steel grindstone. These are tools having the rake. the tool in cutting position the clearances must be in any case not less than three degrees. lathe tools are usually set with the cutting point at the exact height of the axis of the lathe. clearances. LEFTHAND TOOLS. In any case the wheel should rotate to force 73 . Lathe tools made from carbon tool steel should be sharpened by grinding upon a wet emerygrinder. notably that of the diamond point. the grinding should be upon a dry and rather coarse abrasive wheel. In the case of the diamond point. When the rake. to set the point above the axis height to obtain a working clearance of not to exceed ten degrees'. clearances. therefore. as desired.
and in the case of a sixtydegree angle the center gage is suitable. In this case the angle can be tested by use of the usual center gage. and great care should be taken when grinding a lathe tool to have the several faces true and making correct angles with each other. and the angularity of the surfaces which meet to form the cutting edge can often be measured with a bevel protractor. as illustrated in Fig. The manner of doing this is a pretty good index of the workman.T H E t STARRETT BOOK the tool upon the rest rather than from it. 24. 24 fined cutting edges. Efficient cutting depends very largely upon the correct sharpening. as well as the correct setting of the cutting tool. TESTING THE CUTTING ANGLES. The usual lathecutting tools have wellde 45V FIG. 74 Where cutting angles other . This tool is also used to test the angle when grinding a veepointed thread tool. As the usual machine construction materials are not excessively hard. a cutting angle of not far from sixty degrees may be maintained on such tools as the side tool and the diamond point. and should run true and in balance.
" is high in carbon.THE STARRETT BOOK than 60 are used. eighty point to one hundred and twentyfive point. page 70. or. high75 . however.) FIG. These are known as carbon steel (tool steel). and a new product of the electric furnace sold under the trade name of "Stellite." Carbon steel. Highspeed steel is a special steel having its composition alloyed with tungsten and perhaps vanadium or molybdenum. the universal Bevel Protractor is useful. "tool steel. highspeed steel. 25 MATERIALS FOR GUTTING TOOLS. (See Fig. TOOL HOLDERS. The high cost of the materials used for modern cutting tools has resulted in the marketing of a variety of holders designed to hold cutting points. In this manner a large number of relatively inexpensive cutting points are made to interchange in One form of toolholder is a single shank or holder. and care must obtain not to overheat or blue it. and when correctly heated and afterward plunged in cold water. made to hold points forged in the regular forms shown In some examples. holders are made to carry short bits broken from square bar stock and afterward sharpened into some resemblance to the true forged shape. Unfortunately for highspeed cutting the hardness is drawn at a comparatively low heat. as it was formerly termed. also for testing clearances. the in the chart. While heat treatment does not give it the exceeding hardness of tool or carbon steel. hardens to a very high degree. 25.
turned pulleys. and is properly known as a mandrel. As the quality of the work depends upon the truth of the mandrel it should be tested upon dead centers with a testindicator before being used. workcenters must be provided for holding it on the lathe centers. They are made of either tool steel hardened and ground true with the centers. and cuts which heat the tools and chips to a dull red. as. and under favorable conditions marvelous turning may be done. or from soft machinery steel. drive or force it into place. carefully removing dirt. 76 . although often called an arbor.THE STARRETT BOOK speed steel has the peculiar property of retaining its hardness at temperatures considerably in excess of those which readily soften tool steel. A by the mandrel is stamped upon the larger end. Stellite is a new cutting material composed of chromium. It is cast into form and cannot be forged. standard set of mandrels varies in diameter and in length. Its hardness is equal to the diamond. The ends for a short distance are reduced in diameter and provided with flats for clamping on the dog. Also avoid scoring the mandrel with the cutting tool.0005" in an inch. This bar should be classed as a toolroom tool. cobalt. Where the work is to be turned true with a hole through it. MANDRELS. and sometimes tungsten. for example. Lathe drive with the usual lathedog as for any job done on the centers. Tools made from highspeed steel are used at speeds. feeds. according to the shop conditions. To use. casecarbonized and afterward ground. Avoid forcing or driving the mandrel into a hole that is neither round nor straight. using a Mandrel press for forcing or a lead hammer for driving. or pieces of lead from the centers before placing the work in a lathe. chips. The common way is to force or drive into the workhole a bar having center holes in its ends. Mandrels usually taper at the rate The diameter of the hole fitted of 0.
studs. For ordinary machine rod. The socalled United States standard is in this country the more generally accepted one. screw. for example. 7 P. written. to a definite form of thread crosssection each diameter has a specified number of threads per inch of length. screws. or inside a nut.THE STARRETT BOOK CUTTING. or stud to be threaded by rotating either the work or the die. as. There are numerous screwthread standards in more or less general use. and is therefore illustrated in It will be noted that in addition Fig. the point of the cutting tool is shaped to the exact form of the spaces between threads. SCREW THREAD PITCH AND LEAD. 26 and Table 6. etc. Threading dies are used both by hand and in powerdriven machines. While strictly speaking pitch is the reciprocal of the number of threads per inch. 1/7" pitch for a screw thread 7 per linear inch. upon the bolt. the lead is double the pitch. shows a truncated sixty degrees triangle with the space and the land alike. . If the helix FlG 26 is double. SCREW THREADS. bolts. shop men  speak of it as 7 pitch. Pitch in a thread is the j /WIDTH distance measured from the "^ OF FLAT center of one thread to ~T the center of an adjacent DEPTH OF thread. the lead is equal to pitch. If the screw thread P. The United States standard thread. When screw threads are cut in an engine lathe. is a single helix. or bolt.. . A screw thread is a helical groove cut or formed into the surface of a bar. the threads are made with These are screwed special tools called threading dies. when sectioned. By means of a lead screw and a train of gearing the tool is compelled to move along the axis of the work at a 77 THREADING IN A LATHE.
S. Standard Screw Threads Table 6 Diameter .THE STARRETT BOOK U.
If both members of a fraction are multiplied by the same number. This allows of raising the fraction to suit the gears which are 7 5 35 in the set furnished. The directions above refer to the most simple form and twentyfive furnished set." and their use is obvious. be as seven is to five. large variety of pitches. Various lathe manufacturers have introduced different arrangements of the gearing. Given the number of threads per linear inch to be cut and the number of threads per linear inch of the lead screw. and it is found by scaling that the lathe lead screw has single five threads per linear inch. Those furnished will usually provide for cutting all the threads within the usual range of the lathe with which they come. therefore. SELECTING CHANGE GEARS. As the train of gears usually furnished with an engine lathe can be changed to give different rates of advance. the ratio is not changed. it is desired that single seven threads per linear inch shall be cut upon a li/dinch bolt. the desired tool advance for cutting seven threads per linear inch. it is in this manner possible to cut threads of a. For example. These are known as "change gears. are found in the having teeth.X . the problem is to select gears giving the desired ratio of cut to lead screw.rotates. for example. when rightly placed. This number called the 79 . of lathe. The change gears selected should. . thirtyfive teeth tively. In practice a set of several gears having different numbers of teeth are furnished with each lathe.= If gears 5 5 25 .THE STARRETT BOOK definite rate of advance as the work. but with any lathe the above procedure will give correct results if it is first determined what number of threads per inch will be cut if gears of the same number of teeth are placed on spindle stud and lead screw. The ratio of cut to lead screw is then that of seven to five (7/5). respecthe selection of these gears will give.
THE STARRETT BOOK Lathe Set Up for Thread Cutting Note Thread Stop at A 80 .
PLACING THE CHANGE GEARS. The common engine lathe has projecting through its headstock a shaft known as the "stud.THE STARRETT BOOK "lathe screw constant" should then be considered as being the number of teeth on the lead screw gear even though it is not the actual number." This projects a sufficient distance STUD GEAR COMPOUND GEAR OUT OF MESH INTERNED GEAR SIMPLE TRAIN OF GEARS FOR THREAD CUTTING 81 .
As an example of their use. If the set of gears furnished failed to provide a ninety gear. When the number of threads to be cut is more per linear inch than that of the lead screw. the smaller of the selected gears is placed upon the to the larger upon the lead screw. Among shown 82 . but did provide one of fortyfive teeth. shown has sides at an angle with each other of sixty degrees. In the above it is assumed that the stud rotates in unison with the lathe spindle. the 25tooth gear would be placed on the stud and the 35tooth gear on the lead screw. the tools listed on page 70 the ordinary threadingtool point. assume that a gear having ninety teeth was needed upon the lead screw to cut a given number of threads. most lathes are provided with an adjustable compound auxiliary stud which is provided with two locked gears having a ratio each to the other of two to one. It is obvious that this or any other form of point must be formed and The point tested to give the correct form of thread." Those mounted upon the projecting end of the lead screw are known as lead gears.THE STARRETT BOOK allow of mounting gearing and usually the upper cone for the feed belt. "STUD" and COMPOUNDING THE GEARS. The number of teeth in the large idler gear has no bearing upon the results. The point can therefore be tested with a center is THREAD TOOL. as it simply conveys the motion of the upper or stud gear to the lower or leadscrew gear. Reverse the order if the number of threads per linear inch is less than that of the lead screw. Gears mounted or to be mounted upon this projecting stud are termed "stud gears. and advances the tool as if the 90tooth gear had been used. placing this on the lead screw and meshing the two to one compound stud into the train completes the desired ratio. In the example. As a means of enlarging the range of threads per linear inch possible to be cut with any set of change gears.
When grinding a thread tool. GRINDING THREAD TOOLS. The same gage may also be used in setting the tool square with the axis of the work (see page 74). It is important that the point of the thread tool shall conform to the outline of the groove between the adjacent threads. and that the surfaces below the cutting edge properly clear the stock being cut.THE STARRETT BOOK STUD GEAR INTERMEDI GEAR COMPOUND GEARS FOR THREAD CUTTING gage or rule. particu83 .
Use lard oil when threading steel. or may be an ordinary threaded nut. For ordinary purposes screw threads when cut are fitted This may be a hardened and to some threaded hole.THE STARRETT BOOK lar care should be given to for the lead of the thread. A righthand thread when the threading tool is advanced from right If the tool when cutting advances left as it cuts. THREAD CUTTING TOOL SET AT HEIGHT OF LATHE CENTER results to RIGHT AND LEFT THREADS. ground gage. left from to right the resulting screw has a lefthand thread. and at rightangles to the axis of the lathe.accuracy. Cut the cast metals dry. MEASURING AND TESTING SCREW THREADS. Set the tool point at the exact height of the lathe centers. and malleable iron. Where the quality of the work demands special. USES OF CUTTING LUBRICANT. or where 84 . wrought. have the clearances sufficient SETTING THE TOOL. depending upon the accuracy of the work.
27). If the point of the thread tool has been carefully and exactly formed and accurately set in place. of measuring tools may be needed to cover all cases. the thread is tested by measurements made with calipers. measuring the diameter at the root of the thread may give sufficiently accu CALDPERS FOR TESTING THREADS and this may be done with a set of thin point spring calipers.THE STARRETT BOOK standard threaded gages are not available. MEASURING LATHE WORK. the diameter measurements can be 85 . When greater accuracy than this is required. however. Work done in the engine lathe is of such a variety that a considerable list rate results. Ordinarily. set. and operated to give an exact thread outline. micrometers having special threadmeasurx ing points are resorted to (see Fig. In all this it is assumed that the thread tool is ground.
steel rules are provided with or without sliders. as. centers into lathe spindles. are also used for diameter measurements. The Morse taper is the one commonly used for all drills and drillEither of these may be used for the ing machinery. or some of the usual bar calipers. what are known as taperfits are used. FIG. tapered hole in lathe spindles. and it it desirable to have them easily removFor this able.THESTARRETT BOOK made with spring calipers. as well as limit snap gages. while some lathe manufacturers have established standards of their own. Where two when together standards. Cylindrical plug and ring gages. for the spindle tapers in milling machines. micrometers. purpose several rates of change in diameter have become TAPER TURNING. for example. and many of these may be used in measuring the shorter lengths. Pages 87 and 88 give the more common standThe Brown & Sharpe Standard is in general use ards. For the longer measurements of length. 27 parts are to fit firmly in use. The more accurate measurements are usually made by using a micrometer. 86 .
THE STARRETT BOOK T .
THE STARRETT ROOK Morse Standard Taper Shanks Table 8 r ANY .
the Ordinary tapers are rated at in a foot's length. inch as. To turn a taper it is necessary to use a lathe provided with a taper attachment or to adjust the footstock of the engine lathe sufficiently off center to give amount which the diameter changes % TAPER TURNING 89 IN LATHE .THE STARRETT BOOK TURNING TAPERS. for example. the Brown & Sharpe taper of per foot.
In the above illustrative example both length and amount of taper are given.1875 = 2 12 16 and the footstock would be set over 3Ae inch. the tail stock should be moved over % multiplied by % or V Had the piece been 18 inches long. In setting the taper attachment. the mandrel length can be considered as the distance apart of the center points. The difference in diameters of these 4 inches is to be inch. The calculation necessary to determine the distance which the centers shall be offset. but the amount of taper is not always known. if the piece were a foot long. Suppose a piece is 8 inches long and a taper is to be turned on one end. How much must the tail stock be offset? If the taper is % inch in 4 inches it would be 1% inches in a foot and the tail stock would be moved over onehalf of 1% inches or % inch. the axial distance the center points are apart is not important. the tapered portion to be 4 inches long. but as it is only 8 inches or % of a foot long. work or If the distance the center points enter the the mandrel is ignored. To turn a Brown & Sharpe taper on a piece of work nine inches long the problem would work out as follows: 9 3 . AMOUNT TO OFFSET CENTERS FOR GIVEN TAPER. is that of multiplying the length of the work or mandrel in feet by onehalf of the required taper in inches.= 0.500 _ x . Adjustment of the footstock of an engine lathe is not so simple as the taper attachment. they are easily set for the required taper. while this distance must be considered in setting over the footstock of the lathe. % % % 90 . As all taper attachments are graduated to read direct. the tail 2 inch. or 1% stock should be moved over multiplied by inches..THE STARRETT BOOK the required rate of diameter change.
The necessity of considering the distance the center enters the piece depends somewhat upon its If the piece is very long. it should be pressed lightly into a standard tapered hole and worked back and forth sufficiently to mark the places where bearing occurs. If each center enters the piece onefourth inch they would enter a total of onehalf inch. the actual taper will length. Work of this sort is is example of such work termed "eccentric. the center is offset towards the operator. ground. it can be used for turning work not concentric with the TESTING THE TURNED TAPER. ECCENTRIC TURNING. If the work has been lightly covered with some marking pigment. must obtain that the coating is not sufficient to smooch. however. set the footstock away from the operator when adjusting. however. good taper SETTING THE TOOL. The at the toolpoint should be set exact height of the axis of the lathe. as it will deceive the workman.THE STARRETT BOOK It has been assumed for these simple calculations that the lathe centers merely touch the ends of the piece. and the length of the piece should be reduced by onehalf inch in the calculation. But in actual work the distance the centers enter the piece must be considered. To as it axis. differ considerably from the calculated taper. While turning the taper the calipers should be used frequently so that it may be soon determined whether or not the tail stock is correctly placed." and an seen in the eccentrics which 91 . thus making the length of the piece the same as the distance between centers. Adjust tapersetting until a correct fit is obtained. the bearing points will be more distinct. Care. For coning pulleys. or filed. is test the taper turned. The calculation should be as accurate as possible to avoid continually changing the tail stock to get a reasonably fit. In most taper work. While for the most part the lathe is used for work exactly concentric with the axis.
THE STARRETT BOOK Amount of Taper in a Given Length. When the Taper per Foot is Known Table 9 .
special attachments are provided for the ends of the shaft. one for turning the shaft and the other for finishing the eccentrics. but performing the necessary operations on it while so held. for eccentric turning it has a second set of centers which are offset the amount required for the eccentricity specified. Special eccentric turning chucks . the hole is first finished to required dimensions.THE STARRETT BOOK operate the valves of steam engines. the t When the specified eccentricity is too extreme to allow both pairs of centers coming within the limits of the diameter of the shaft. While the mandrel has been built on one set of centers exactly true with its axis. If the work has a hole through it. 28 two sets of centers. not only the mounting of the work in the chuck. In the case of eccentrics made solid with the FIG. 28. CHUCKING.may be made to hold the work. and can afterward be machined off. Chucking includes. are made side by side in the ends of the shaft. The name "chuck" is given to a line of tools having a variety of form. as in the above example. as shown in Fig. In crankshaft turning. A mandrel is then used for carrying the work on the centers. shaft. special ends may be cast or forged on the ends of the work. all 93 .
THE S T A R R E T BOOK 94 .
wire pins. when chucking rough pulleys in the hub. or. such as drills. all the jaws may be made to move together. while smaller sizes are fitted with a tapershank which fits tightly into the tapered hole in the The smaller sizes are used for carrying tools. and are known for as drillchucks.THE STARR of E T T BOOK which are designed to hold work or tools upon the In general the heavier sorts are nose of a spindle. and are sometimes called "work chucks. not so firm as to distort or spring it. "truing up the work. the chuck being called an independent jawchuck. Adjusting the chuckjaws so that the work will run as true as desired is termed. also screws. HOLDING THE WORK. and can be adjusted independently.. etc. The larger sizes are widely used for holding work machine operations. and if held too tightly and sprung or crushed. spindle. The jaws are moved by means of screws or gears. tools may be broken. the work is injured and in some cases entirely ruined. these jaws are so designed that a considerable variety of work may be readily held and successfully worked upon with common cutting tools. Where greater work is indicated with a Uni95 . TRUING THE WORK. mounted upon a faceplate which screws upon the end of the spindle. also be taken that the clamping of a slender piece is If work slips. The work must be clamped Care must firmly in the chuck while being machined. studs. the versal dial test indicator. leaving a plain marking for this method is used drilling out the hole accuracy is required." On their face they are provided with adjusting jaws movable regularly to and from the center. of the work can be accomplished by holding a piece of chalk to just touch the work." This is preliminary to any toolOften this truing ing which may be done on the job. in which case it is known as a Universal chuck.
or four fluted twist drills. done by using a tool known as a "knurl" or "knurling tool. such as shown in the toolchart (page 70).2812 II . three. the chuck is a part of the regular tool equipment.3437 15.3187 5 7 . I 32nds. .3125 7 . so made that they open and close by handoperated levers or automaticallyoperated cams.0625 3 .250 I 14 0312 38 .THE STARRETT BOOK CHUCKING TOOLS. The surfaces of adjusting screws and small machine parts are often given a regular rough surIn the machine shop this is face for easy gripping. The knurling tool may be fed along the surface of the work by hand. 96 . 29 sults give a fine gripping surface and a rather pleasing effect to the eye. KNURLING.4375 NO 232 9 . When neatly effectively done the reFIG. In turret lathe work.1875 5 ." which consists of one or more indented rollers or knurls mounted to rotate in some form of holder.USA imprinted into the surface. and reamed with machine reamers. and but usually the power traverse feed is used. these chucks are often of special design. With chuck it the work located in the be tooled with ordinary lathe tools. 3 0937 . CHUCKS ON TURRET LATHES.4687 These knurls are forced into and fed along the stock until the indented design has been sufficiently THELaSTARRETTCD ATHOLMASS. Fig. or special shell bits and coun may terbores. 29 shows knurling on a micrometer.375 IBths. The process is repeated if one passage of the tool does not give sufficient depth.1562 . or it may be drilled with two. for barstock.
counterbores. Drills are now largely of the twist type.THE STARRETT BOOK TOOLMAKING Under the name "tools" are listed the various small or toolroom tools used either by hand or in various maSo important has their use become that large chines. Every skilled machinist. spiralmilled flutes and a conepoint with effective cutting lips The flutes or lands as noted under drill sharpening. To prevent rubbing on the sides of a hole. taper slightly from full diameter size at the conepoint to several thousandths inch smaller at or near the holding shank. and with some makers Drills is thicker near the shank than at the point. should know the principles upon which such tools are made. are carefully heattreated. REAMERS.. yet leaves the cutting edge of the drilllip a own. are usually purchased in the open market. and the most efficient are machined and milled from solid barstock. The web is as thin as consistent with the required strength. straightened. such drills are known as "increase twist" drills. The grooves are milled with cutters having a form that gives the maximum chip capacity. reamers. and most machinebuilding firms now buy their more common tools rather than maintain a toolmaking plant of their For example. however. drills. DRILLS. The term "reaming" is given to the proc97 . The prevailing type has a straight or a tapered holding shank. and ground to diameter. and for this purpose both Carbontool steel and highspeed steel are being used. milling cutters. and should be able to make any or all of them. industries are devoted to their manufacture. straight line. colletts. the flutes are also cleared back from the front edge throughout their length. etc. Several makers of twistdrills increase the lead of the twist when milling the grooves.
THE STARRETT BOOK
ess of enlarging a drilled hole. Reamers are of two welldefined types, known as "fluted" reamers and "rose"
The fluted reamer is one having numerous on the circumference of the cutting portion of the tool. In other words, the cutting is done on the circumference instead of at the end, as with a drill. The number of flutes on the surface of a reamer varies with the diameter, and with some makes the numreamers.
flutes
ber of flutes
reamer
is to
is greater for a given diameter when the be used in a machine instead of for hand
reaming.
As its name implies, a fluted hand reamer is made hand use, and is seldom called upon to enlarge a hole more than .007" for any diameter, and not more
for
than .003" in the smaller
sizes.
In the case of machine or lathe reamers, the length of the flutes for any given diameter is fifty per cent less than the standard length for hand reamers. The depth of flute is usually somewhat in excess of that of hand reamers. In most cases machine reamers are used for enlarging drilled holes to a diameter which only allows sufficient stock for hand reaming. When the holes are not to exceed a diameter in length, machine reamers may be used for finishing the drilled hole to its full diameter; but when straight, round, accurate holes are to be of exact diameter the better practice is to first drill 1/32" to 1/16" under size, enlarge to hand reaming size with a machine reamer, and then carefully hand ream to exact size.
ECCENTRIC FLUTES. Formerly
an odd number of
this
flutes,
fluted reamers had such as nine or eleven. Although
method eliminated chattering to some extent, it had the disadvantage of making it difficult to caliper the diameter of the cutting edges. Eccentric fluting, as it is called, consists in milling the flutes with uneven spacing to obviate chattering, but having them exactly oppo98
THE STARRETT BOOK
site, so that a diameter measurement a micrometer.
may be made with
A rosereamer is an endcutting tool, and is often used in place of a drill in cored holes. It is never made for hand use, and in general practice is seldom used for
exact diameter.
MILLING CUTTERS. In lathe work the cutting tool fixed and the work rotates. In a milling machine the cutter rotates and work is fed against it. The rotating cutter, termed a "milling cutter," has an almost unlimited variety of sizes and shapes for milling regular and irregular forms. Milling cutters are made from some of the tool steels, heattreated to give the right cutting qualiis
the stock coming to the toolmaker in the form of rough blanks, carefully annealed. Where the cutter has a hole through it this is first drilled, bored, or reamed to a diameter somewhat smaller than that in the finished
ties,
cutter.
The reason
faces
must be finished
for this is that all the exact true surafter the cutter has been hardened
some grinding process being necessary which requires an excess of stock. When the length of the cutter is greater than about onehalf inch, it is usual to chamber the hole to a shape that renders it necessary to diameter grind the holes at In cutters of considerable length the the ends only. saving in grinding by this procedure is considerable. The sides of the blanks are usually recessed, giving a hubandrim effect at the sides of the cutter. An even number of teeth is preferable, and these are spaced to a circumferential pitch varying from threeeighths to threequarters inch for ordinary cutter sizes.
When the teeth are milled into the solid blank, a cutter giving a space angle of sixty degrees is preferred for cutting the peripheral teeth, while one of seventy Where degrees is generally used for the side teeth. milling cutters are made in quantity, special space cutters
99
THE STARRETT BOOK
are
worked out
to give the
maximum
chip room con
sistent
with tooth strength. After the cutter has been heattreated to the proper hardness, it is finished to the specific dimensions by
grinding.
Unless special methods is completely finished as the first operation of grinding. This is accomplished by holding the cutter trued in a chuck screwed on the spindle of a Universal grinder and grinding out the hole to standard size, using an internal grinding attachment. GRINDING THE SIDES. Fig. 30 shows how to grind the sides with the cutter held flat against a faceplate. If the cutter is to be used for deep cuts, the faceplate is set to give a slight concavity to the sides of the cutter.
GRINDING THE HOLE.
tools are
and
employed the hole
FIG. 30
CLEARANCE OF THE TEETH. The
cutters are given a slight clearance
teeth of milling
back from the cutting
edges; five degrees
is
usually sufficient.
100
This permits building the jig in the drawing around the "coupon. type. then arrange the clamping device. JIG DESIGN. of the openbox Jigs steel. The jig body is usually of cast iron. which is first rough planed or milled on all surfaces which are to be finished. Fig. Make the jig as simple as possible. A good example of this is shown in the drill jig. In designing a jig. A jig should be so designed that the work can be put into position in only one way.THE STARRETT BOOK JIGS AND FIXTURES Jigs and fixtures are special devices designed to put manufacturing upon an efficient basis. (&) interchangeability of parts. Provide for supporting the thrust of the cutting tools in such a manner as to avoid springing the work. While in the larger shops the jigs are designed by the draftsmen. first determine and lay down the locating points or stops. Jigs are of the plate type which lies upon and is clamped to the surface of the work. A jig is a device for holding the work and for locating the tool work to be done upon it. the piece is first drawn upon a sheet of paper. To start the design. in many shops the toolmaker both designs and builds the jigs. and (c) accurate production. These surfaces are then finish 101 . avoiding every feature in design that complicates the workman's use. as this term is known in shops not using jigs. which is sufficiently large to allow locating the views some distance apart. Three distinct purposes are served by the use of jigs: (a) Reduction of cost per piece. and in no other way can a workman so clearly show his ability and ingenuity as in the building of jigs. 31. and of the closedbox type." as the piece is often called. JIG BODY. and fixtures are usually made from cast iron or Their use practically does away with fitting.
31 When the allowable error is very small a more accurate scheme must be followed.THE STARRETT BOOK planed In some cases jig bodies in a surface grinder. as shown in Fig. holes are drilled and tapped to fit the button screws. In this the holes are located by laying out scribed center lines and locating intersections where the holes are to be centered. are finished by grinding FIG. and the hole drilled and reamed directly. LOCATING BUSHING HOLES. 102 . These are held by means of the screws. If no particular accuracy is demanded. and the best of several meth ods for the average toolmaker is that known as the button method. the holes for bushings can be located directly by careful attention to ordinary layingout methods. 32. Instead of drilling and reaming the bushing holes. to final dimensions. The jig buttons are small. accurately ground cylinders. lightly clamped in place.
shifted upon the faceplate until a button indicates true . The holes for the hardened bushings are usually bored by swinging the jig body upon a The jig body is then faceplate in an engine lathe.THE STARRETT ROOK and exactly located to centers by accurate measurements. 32 BORING HOLES. in locating holes is secured The highest possible accuracy bv this method. FIG.
THE STARRETT BOOK with a Universal Dial Indicator. as shown in Fig. The jig body is then clamped tightly upon the faceplate. 33. After removing the jig button. the hole is first rough BUTTONS ADJUSTING BUTTONS TO SIDE OF PLATE IN PLACE ADJUSTING BUTTONS WITH MICROMETER 104 .
THE STARRETT BOOK .
THE STARRETT BOOK 106 .
THE STARRETT BOOK
drilled approximately to size, and afterwards carefully bored exactly to size. This prepares the hole for hold
for
ing the hardened steel bushing; the process is repeated all the previously located buttons. JIG BUSHINGS. If the holes in a castiron or softsteel jig
body were left as bored, they would soon lose accuracy by wearing off center; To prevent this wear the holes are lined with hardened and carefully ground These bushings, pressed or driven tightly into place.
bushings are made with a hole having a diameter equal The to that of the tool which passes through them. bushings are sufficiently long to support the drill. In case the jig bushings must be removed frequently, they are known as slip bushings, and the hole in which they slip is lined with a steel lining, itself hardened and ground. In some cases the bushing locates the work as well as the tool, and if so the bushing screws through
the body of the jig and against the work, as a boss for example.
107
some prominent part
of
THE STARRETT BOOK
In all construction work a certain of inexactness is allowable. In other words, it is impossible to obtain absolute precision, and the allowable errors in exactness are termed "tolerances."
TOLERANCES.
amount
In some cases a tolerance of onesixteenth inch might be allowed, while in others exactness to the fraction of a thousandth part of an inch may be necessary. See pages 31 and 32.
JIG
FOR DRILLING BOLT HOLES
IN
CYLINDER FLANGE AND HEAD
The projection on the
jig
keeps
it
the bore of the cylinder, and the recess jection on the head.
108
fits
concentric with over the pro
THE STARRETT BOOK
GRINDING
In the machine shop the term "grinding" refers to the producing of finished surfaces by means of rotating grinding wheels, and the process of grinding as used in finishing machine parts is today the most efficient method devised for the purpose. With a proper selection of grinding machine and grinding wheel, all of the common machine construction materials may be readily
and accurately
finished.
Grinding machines are classified into two groups, (a) those for curved surfaces; as, for example, cylindrical work; and (5) those for plane or flat surfaces.
The first of these is usually called a cylindrical grinder, and the second is known as a surface grinder. Each group has many designs, made necessary by the varied uses to which grinding is adapting itself.
GRINDING WHEELS. These are now known as abrasive wheels, and the material from which they are made is termed an abrasive. The abrasives in common use are the minerals emery and corundum, and the manufactured abrasives, sold under the trade names of
Owing to Aloxite, Carborundum, Crystolon. the uniformity of the product as it comes from the electric furnace, manufactured abrasives are at present more largely used than natural abrasives. MAKING ABRASIVE WHEELS. An abrasive wheel is made up of one of the abovenamed ABRASIVES and a BOND. The bond is, as its name indicates, something for holding the abrasive in mixture. Grinding wheels are made by three processes, known as Vitrified, Silicate,
Alundum,
and
Elastic.
VITRIFIED WHEELS. In wheels made by the Vitrified process, the bond is of earth or clay which hardens or vitrifies' when subjected to a temperature of about
2500
F. to 2800
F. for a definite period of time.
109
Vari
.THE STARRETT BOOK Allowances for Grinding Table 10 Inches Diameter.
For many poses the combination wheel single grade. and sorting processes. and in this manner bring fresh cutting edges and points into grind by use. and which holds firmly the cutting points of the abrasive until they become dulled by use. as shown in the following list in which "M" is medium. The principal ingredient of the bond is shellac. A prominent firm uses the letters of the alphabet. 40 indicates that the abrasive was graded through a sieve having a mesh of forty to the linear inch. With abrasives of equal quality the maker who nearest approaches the ideal bond produces the superior wheel.THE STARRETT BOOK ous grades of hardness are obtained by using bonds of different tensile strength. BONDING. The maker. This number conforms to the sieve mesh SILICATE WHEELS. Silicate of Soda is the bond and wheels made by this process are most efficient for tool and knife grinding. In grinders' language. lists his wheels as hard or soft by some scale of numbers or by letters. The ideal bond is vious to moisture. GRADING THE WHEELS. By numerous crushing. through which the abrasive is passed. therefore. GRADING THE ABRASIVE. and then allows them to ing contact. the abrasive is graded into a series of sizes which give the wheel its grain number. cleansing. abrasive wheels are known as hard wheels and soft wheels. The ideal retains the grains of abrasive until bond is one which dulled sufficiently break away. is COMBINATION WHEELS. sives of several grain numbers. grinding. does not soften grinding purpreferred to a wheel of Combination wheels are made up of abra one which is imperby heat. silicate used in wheels. ELASTIC WHEELS. Ill . grain No. This process of bonding is generally used for the very thin wheels used for slitting metals. The bond then releases the dull abrasive and permits fresh. sharp points to begin cutting. for example.
g. L is one grade or degree softer than medium. etc. Grade 1 is the softest and grade 6 the hardest. 4.. two degrees harder than medium. but not quite medium hard.. and 6. letters The intermediate medium soft. 1 V 2 2. e. O.THE STARRETT BOOK Norton Grade List used to designate the degree of hardness of our Vitrified and Silicate Wheels. both Alundum and Crystolon. . between those designated as indicate so many degrees harder or softer. 3. list The following grade is E F Soft G H I Medium J Soft K L MEDIUM M N O P MEDIUM Medium Hard Q R S T Hard U V W X Extremely Hard Y soft. Elastic Wheels are graded as follows: 1. 2^. 112 . 5.
the amount varying with the size of the work itself. An allowance of 1/64 of an inch is general on the smaller machine parts. lack of efficiency may result. In general where the work is to be ground it is best to consider the lathe as a mere roughing machine for removing the excess of stock at as deep a cut and as coarse a feed as is consistent with an efficient cutting speed. 113 . This process includes the work done in removing excess stock previous to finishing to size in the grinding machine. While it is possible to grind from the rough stock without previous lathe work. the process is known page 110. ROUGHING FOR GRINDING. SELECTING THE WHEEL. or even more may be left on machinery steel parts for removal in the grinder. is When ground rotated. Unless a study is made of the conditions surrounding the whole operations of the lathe and the grinding machine. the method usually followed is to first rough turn the work. but it may be used as a start in the right direction. As the hardness of material and the area of contact made by the wheel have a marked influence. which fairly represents general practice. CYLINDRICAL GRINDING. In general a soft wheel should be used on hardened work and a harder wheel on soft materials. If the grinding machine is modern in design as much as 1/32 of an inch. Table 10. page 115. leaving the job of finishing to the grinding machine. AMOUNT TO LEAVE FOR GRINDING. and Table 11 shows grinding wheel speeds. perhaps. no table can entirely solve the problem.THE STARRETT BOOK the piece being as cylindrical grinding. shows allowance for grinding as recommended by one maker of grinding machines. and the development of machines for grinding cylinders has given the process a great impetus. wheel to the selection of the be used in any grinding operation can. but this allowance should be increased on larger sizes. best be made by reference to Table 12.
THE STARRETT BOOK Table of Grinding Wheel Speeds Table 11 Diameter Wheel .
THE STARRETT BOOK Grade and Grain of Grinding Wheels for Different Materials* Table 12 (The Norton Co.) Class of Work .
THE STARRETT BOOK MOUNTING THE WHEEL. the position of the operator leads naturally to adjusting the micrometer spindle with the fingers of the right hand. The wheel should be so mounted that there are no unequal stresses set up. the left hand grasping the frame. hence he occupies the position as shown. Fig. The accompanying illustrations show RIGHT and WRONG methods of mounting wheels carefully study the cuts. Suitable guards should be provided to prevent injury to the workmen in case of the wheel bursting. and Fig. 34 shows an operator adjusting his micrometer for obtaining a measurement on a cylindrical piece. Flat surface grinding may be divided into two general classes (a) Machine work : 116 . MEASURING THE WORK. GRINDING FLAT SURFACES. 35 shows the While in lathe operator as he makes his reading. in grinder work the reverse is generally true. The for use of micrometers obtaining exact measurements is nowhere better illustrated than in grinding.
but by using metal discs. not with abrasive wheels as previously described. or cylinders. rings." Laps were first used by lapidaries in finishing the surfaces of mineral specimens. such as boxes.THE STARRETT BOOK FIG. the surfaces of which have been charged with a fine flour abrasive. 34 parts. as. 117 scales and and tables. and an exactness of surface is being obtained on fine flat work which leaves little to be desired. steel blades. but laps have been in common use for a considerable time on fine work in the machine shop. (b) fine tool work. firstnamed class of work was done by reciprocating the work beneath the circumferential face of an abrasive wheel in a machine which. LAPPING." and its use "lapping. for example. . straight edges. Until recently the rulers. The use of machines with CUP WHEELS has practically revolutionized such grinding. In certain lines of work the final grinding process is often made. etc. crossslides. Such a tool is called a "lap. is not unlike a small planer. in principle. etc.. faces of nuts.
" brass. holes in jig bushings.THE STARRETT BOOK Laps are generally made of some material enough so that the abrasive can be readily pressed soft into the surface. and in the finest die and punch work. The several grades are denoted by the time taken to precipitate. or. In some COMMON USES OF LAPPING. plug and ring gages. for example. the surface is Soft. 35 of the finer grinding operations the lap is charged with diamond dust which has been precipitated or settled in a suitable dish of olive oil. "charged. and any of the flour abrasives may be charged into the surface by rolling the abrasive into the lap either with a hardened roll or on a hardened surface. The more common uses of lapping are those of finishing micrometer ends. 5 takes ten hours. FIG. fineness No. as it is correctly termed. closegrained cast iron. 118 . or lead may be used for the lap. copper. as. Since lapping is a somewhat slow and tedious process it should be used only for the removal of small amounts of stock.
or a leveling instrument. 36 may be Having decided upon the location. Ordinarily the machines are aligned by simple meas* See page 124 for directions for setting up a level. An easy way to do this is to provide rectangular slips of cardboard.THE STARRETT BOOK LOCATING AND ALIGNING MACHINERY When the product of the shop is determined. Placing these upon the floor plan of the room. the machinery aligned in these positions by measurements from some base line made upon the floor or ceiling. the proper location of the machines may be found by means of a plan or location drawing worked out in the drafting room. and by using push pins the cardboard representations may be fixed in position. 119 .* such as shown in Fig. FIG. 36. the better of several arrangements may be found. each representing to some definite scale the plan outline of each machine. may be used.
Special leveling and aligning attachments for setting and lining up 120 . there may be such interferences As the efficiency as to necessitate repeating the work. the usual method of alignment is to stretch a wire or cord the length of the room at the desired level of the shaft and at a distance from its location sufficiently great to give easy working room. 37. FIG. A light stick notched at one end to rest upon the shaft and a wire brad at the other end for a feeler is all that is necessary for ordinary alignment. 37 With the shafting hangers in approximate position and the shafting in place. With the two ends of the wire in position it should be stressed to bring it taut and should be supported at frequent intervals by wire hangers.THE STARRETT BOOK urements and the countershafting hung from the ceiling vertically over the machine by plumbing up from the previously located machines. of the shop depends to a considerable extent on a convenient arrangement of the machines. In such work thought must always be given to the line shafting and pulleys. the necessary shifts can be made to bring the shaft parallel with the wire. ALIGNING THE SHAFTING. With the locations of the several lines of shafting determined upon. Such a level is shown in Fig. Leveling the shaft is done with special spirit levels having metal frames. Unless care is used. the bases of which have been carefully grooved to set upon the shaft. all interferences should be taken care of on the ceiling rather than altering the arrangement of the machines.
THE STARRETT BOOK
shafting are sometimes used. Shafting is often lined by plumbing up from a data line on the shop floor with a mercury plumb bob.
Mercury Plumb Bobs
121
THE STARRETT BOOK
LEVELING INSTRUMENT
While the surveyors' transit can be used in shop leveling and in shaft aligning a much simpler and a more inexpensive instrument termed a leveling instrument is all that is needed. It consists of a table capable of being adjusted in the horizontal plane, which carries a yoke which in turn carries a twelveinch brass tube. The whole instrument is placed upon a suitable tripod. The tube has no lenses and therefore is not a telescope as in the surveyors' instrument. At one end of the tube are the usual cross hairs which locate the axis and at the opposite end is a peep hole or sight piece for the eye. The yoke which carries the tube is attached to a graduated arc which is let into the upper part of the table; this allows the instrument to swing to read angles in the horizontal plane.
In using this inimportant that the table be carefully leveled. It is pivoted on the tripod tube by a ball and socket Three knurledhead adjusting screws threaded joint. through the tripod top and resting against the under side
ADJUSTING THE INSTRUMENT.
it
strument
is
of the table furnish a means of adjusting the table. Upon the table carrying the yoke is a benttube spirit level with a sensitive air bubble. After the tripod legs have been placed to roughly level the instrument, adjust the knurled leveling screws to give .as correct a centering for the
air
bubble as
is
possible.
To
test this
adjustment swing
the yoke, which carries the air bubble, to several positions and note any change in the position of the bubble. If there is a change, readjust the leveling screws until the yoke can be swung through its travel with the air bubble maintaining its central position.
USING THE LEVELING INSTRUMENT.
possible to so
mount the
leveling instrument
122
While upon a
it is
plat
THE STARRETT BOOK
form that its height will be sufficient for the use of mounted upon the shaft, the usual method is to hang targets upon the shaft and adjust them to swing low enough to allow the leveling instrument to be set with its tripod on the floor or on some convenient foundation
targets
spot.
THE TARGETS.
These consist of stirrups which
carry a spirit level and block with vertical and horizontal lines crossing each other. A plumb is hung upon the stirrup in such manner as to be readily raised or lowered. One of the targets may be hung upon the shaft free to swing plumb, the other is used as a fixed wall target. USE. After the shafting has been roughly aligned with the wall of the building or with a line of columns, this being done by measurement, the leveling instrument is placed vertically beneath one end of thfc shaft. To locate the leveling instrument, plumb down from the center of the shaft, using the hanging target plumb bob, and locate a point in the floor or board placed on the foundation. A prick punch mark in the flat head of a wire brad previously driven into the floor provides a permanent point. Set the tripod of the leveling instrument directly over this point, using the plumb bob hanging from the center of the table. Next carefully level the table as already described. Hang the portable target closely in front of the crosshair end of the tube and level and adjust its height until the horizontal cross hair of the tube coincides with the horizontal cross line of
the target.
Remove the target to the far end of the shaft and swing the tube of the leveling instrument until the sight through the tube coincides with the vertical line on the target. With the hanging target displaced, mount a fixed target upon the wall at the far end of the shaft and adjust it until its cross lines coincide with the cross
hairs of the tube as sighted.
123
If
the instrument
is
in its
By reference to the fixed target it can at all times be checked. The telescope or sighttube is connected to a graduated vertical arc so that vertical angles may be measured as well as horizontal. and has a plate carrying a graduated arc. is mounted on a tripod. aligning machinery. except measure vertical angles. It is provided with 124 . and because of its simplicity and freedom from complications. Repeat for each hanger until the target can be hung upon the shaft adjacent to any hanger and show perfect coincidence of target cross lines and tube cross hairs. the setting up of the instrument is complete. and in building dams and raceways for simple waterpower developments. HOW TO SET UP THE TRANSIT The Starrett transit or level can be used for the same purposes as any engineer's transit and level. Note that after the instrument and target have been set neither should receive further adjustment except in the shaft itself receives the adjustcase of accident ments. and enables the operator to lay out anything that does not require excessive refinement. and it should be borne in mind that the level will do all that the transit The transit. The level is for measuring angles in a horizontal plane only. will do. Replace the hanging target at the far end of the shaft and adjust the adjacent hanger so that the cross lines of the target coincide with the cross hairs when sighting through the tube. it can be used by any one in laying out foundations for buildings. which is furnished either with a telescope or plainsight tube. The transit combines in one instrument the facilities for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles.THE STARRETT BOOK original position with the plumb bob over the point in the floor.
It should then be made as nearly level as possible by adjusting the lower parts of the extension legs. 125 . that place being higher at which the height of the target is less. so that neither wind nor accidental touch will disturb the adjustment.THE STARRETT BOOK leveling screws. Then carry the rod to the other position and find the The difference beheight of the target at that point. the legs must be firmly set into the ground or floor. The sight tube or telescope should then be turned through an angle of about ninety degrees and again the bubble adjusted to the center of the glass by means of two leveling This operation should be continued until the screws. no matter in what direction the telescope may be turned. as read on the rod. To find differences of level of two places. tween the two heights. the instru ment should be placed in a position about equally disFirst obtain the height of tant from the two points. To level the instrument. bubble stands in the center of the glass. the target on one of the rods by means of the cross line in telescope or sight tube and make record of the same. and with a ground level vial for adjusting the level of the graduated plate. It should then be brought to a perfect level by means of the leveling screws between the plate and tripod head. This is done by bringing the level over any one of the leveling screws and turning one screw in and another out until the bubble appears in the center of the level glass. will be the difference of level of the two places.
is the sign of subtraction.THE STARRETT BOOK ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA Many as. multiplication is understood. When letters or between letters and to figures. forming them into an equation. which states the conditions. SYMBOLS Some same of the symbols or signs as those used in arithmetic. But this does not apply 3 X c X d. precedes numbers or letters the plus sign is understood. of algebra are the THE SYMBOLS OF QUANTITY in arithmetic are the figures used and the letters of the alphabet. and then solving the equation. and as these letters do not always have a definite value. it is always 4 or 20. called times. some problems cannot be solved by arithmetic. same as in arithmetic. example. or difference. called COMMON + + minus. but 328. 2abc is 2abc. 126 . and the value remains unchanged. In fact. is Thus Serf means 328 numbers : not 3 X 2 X 8. In algebra letters are used. In arithmetic a figure has a definite value. called plus. they are as follows: If no sign is the sign of addition. 4 or 20 for instance. Some find it easier at the beginning to think of the letters as abbreviations. for engineering and shop problems can be solved more readily with algebra than by means of arithmetic. X there is is no sign between the sign of multiplication. when the conditions are not fully and concretely stated. THE SYMBOLS OF OPERATION are the signs used in arithmetic. Algebra is applied by expressing the relations in algebraic terms. their use adds flexibility to mathematical operations. that is.
4 times some quantity represented by a is equal to 3 times some quantity represented by b. a *. strictly speaking. : is read "is to" or "to." a = b means that a is equal to b. If 4a = 3&. or a X a X a. Thus 2 2 is read "2 squared" or "2 with the exponent 2." The letter a is to be taken three times 4 as a factor. It indicates ratio.4. figure or letter written at the right and a little above a number or letter is called the exponent. but it is evident that a does not equal b. Similarly a is read "a cubed" or "a with the exponent 3. read divided by. 3a is the coefficient of (b c). read "equals" or "equal to. m m the relative values = is the sign of equality. pression (a + b) x. it is la. The numerical factor or number is generally called the coefficient." 127 . (a * is + When no numerical coefficient 1. or whatever value is given to a. or the quantities. the same value must be given to b. or mul3 tiplied by itself. but. as.b = 4 b COEFFICIENT. is always unity or EXPONENT." The number 2 is to be used twice as a factor. and 5a& is the coefficient of c." Division may also be expressed by a horizontal line between a 16 = 16 *. + (m + X (m + n) X (m + n). in 5abc. or in the exb) is the coefficient of x.THE STARRETT BOOK * " the sign of division. it shows how many times the number is to be taken as a factor. X aXbX cX cXcXdXd XdXd. 5a is the coefficient of be. Again in the expression 3a (b c). In the same way (m n) = Thus a = The small expressed. a*bc*d*=a Again n) n) X (m + Note this difference m*= m X m X m X 4m = m + m + m + SYMBOLS OF RELATION show of letters. 5 is the coefficient.
but more often they are connected by this sign : : SYMBOLS OF AGGREGATION ( [ ) ]  j Parentheses. 5 (c + d) means that c + d as one quantity is to be multiplied by 5. When the horizontal line extends over the expression it means that the indicated root is to be found of the entire expression. Braces. It does not mean that a alone is to be subtracted. Brackets. The small number or index used in connection with the radical sign denotes what root is meant. 01 course." ^/6 is read the fifth root of ft." When no index figure is used the square root is understood." m 128 . THE RADICAL SIGN. V + n = "the square root of m + n. Thus ^/~a is read "the cube root of a. This sign is used as in arith metic. Letters or quantities enclosed in parentheses are to be handled as a single quantity. Or (a + b) 5. be connected by the sign of equality. they may. V Vinculum. or expressed. (a + b) means that the sum of a and b taken Again as a single quantity is to be subtracted. is to that is. it shows that some root of the quantity be found. the same gle quantity. Radical Sign (square root).THE STARRETT BOOK If two ratios are equal.(x + {/) means that a + b taken as a single quantity is to be divided by x + y taken as a sinAnother way of expressing it is. Vx + y = the square root of x + y. operation performed on a must be performed on b also.
five units that get we zero.THE STARRETT BOOK Let m= 36 and n = 64. Arithmetic 4 apples 3 apples 10 apples 17 apples 11 ab the terms are alike. are similar terms. and one preceded by the minus sign is a negative term. When several terms have the same letters. when they are not alike the addition When is expressed. but may differ in numerical coefficients. This applies whether the term is a simple one like 3a (a monomial) or (x + y) 2 2 (a binomial) or (a + 2ab + b ) (a polynomial). or by no sign at all. or Gcfxy ADDITION Addition is finding the sum of two or more Algebra 4ab 3a& lOafr quantities. SIMILAR TERMS. 6ac added to 6ac 129 . and 3ac they are called similar terms. V~m~+ n= V"367F 64 = VIM" = 10 n=V36+ 64=6 + 6470 V/n + Vm + Vn = V36+ V64=6+ 8 = 14 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE TERMS A term or quantity preceded by the plus sign. 5a. 5ac. we say that if we have five units + 5 and and subtract 5 cancel. Thus 4ac. we add them by adding the coefficients. is a positive term. In arithmetic is. Similarly in algebra 5a cancels 2 cancels Qa xy.
but in algebra 7 11 = 4. then subtract the sum of all the negative or minus terms. For instance. Subtraction is the process of finding the DIFFER between two quantities. that is. 5/nn When 2mn 3/nn 6mn 15mn positive terms in the above equal + 23mn and the negative terms equal 8mn. 130 . and unlike terms are subtracted by indicating the difference. but the signs unlike. for the sign prefixed to the answer is that of the greater sum. 6ac added to ISac 6ac added to ISxy there are several quantities which are alike. that is. Had all the signs been changed. The SUBTRACTION Subtraction in like many ways is like addition.THE If S T A R RETT BOOK = 12ac = I8xy 6ac the terms have different signs they can be added by algebra. the answer would have been 15/nn. the result being 23mn 8mn = 15mn. we add them by adding all the positive or plus terms. In arithmetic 11 cannot be subtracted from 4. 7 lacks 4 of being equal to 11. but in algebra this can be done by expressing the difference. terms can be subtracted in the same way that they can be added. It is ENCE minus 4. In arithmetic the larger cannot be subtracted from the smaller.
THE STARRETT BOOK The 2 is 6. 5abx multiplied by Qaxy 131 = . Subtracting a quantity is the same as adding a plus quantity. same as mul 4ac 4ac 4ac 4ac 5 20ac is a process of taking a given quantimes as indicated by a number or another Multiplication tity as many quantity. The sum of a minus quantity and a plus quantity is the difference between the quantities. number 2 or 2 8 These few rules should be remembered. difference (in it is whether ence is 6 or subtracted. Subtracting a + quantity is the same as adding a minus quantity. MULTIPLICATION Multiplication is a short method you add 4ac tiplying 4ac by if five times. that is. + 6 between 8 and Whether the differdepends upon which number is being of units) 8. with the prefixed sign of the larger. of addition. Multiplication differs from addition in that unlike quantities can be multiplied. the result is the 5. The difference between a plus quantity and a minus quantity is equal to the sum of the quantities.
those consisting of two or more terms each. SIGNS. if one is plus and the other minus. If both quantities are plus. 24o Multiply c + 66 + 6ac 2a + 4b by 3a  6a 2 + 24&' 132 Go2 . a X a = a x X x = x~. then annex the letters. we proceed in the same c by 6a. multiplying them when alike by adding the exponents. if both are minus. the product is minus. the product is plus. is illustrated by this example in arithmetic: . Multiplying more complicated quantities. for 2 instance. Multiply 4ac + Sab + 2e way : 4ac 6a + 3afc + 2c  c 24a 2 c + 18a 2 fc + 12ac 2 6ac 18a2 Combining similar terms. Multiply 4 + 3 + 21 by 6 let Instead of adding before multiplying each number by 6 : us multiply 4+ 3+ 21 6 24 + 18 + 12  6 = 48 If we use letters also. the product is plus.THE STARRETT BOOK This simple example shows that to multiply we first multiply the coefficients.
a = a because 2 in the dividend. therefore we put the b in the quotient. addition. 2 In algebra dividing 25a fcc by Sac is finding how 2 many times 5ac will go in 25a c. the case of the letter c. If three quantities are to be multiplied. as in the case of b. and the exponents become zero. and cancellation of like terms. first multiply two of them. 1 c with the exponent zero equals one or unity. for it involves multiplication. DIVISION the process of finding how many times contained in another. a cancels one a numerator and c cancels c. there is no exponent Division is one quantity is to subtract. 2 1 = 1. When no similar letter is a *. 25 by 5. These cancel because 1 = 0. The in the 133 . In arithmetic dividing 20 by 4 is finding how many times 4 is contained in 20. In 5ac ) 25a c ab Another factors : way to state this is to divide the terms into =5ab 5ac 5 cancels 5 in the numerator. then multiply the product by the third. then divide the the coefficient First divide letters by subtracting the exponents of the same letter.THE STARRETT BOOK The above example should be thoroughly understood. for instance. c goes in c once or 1.
is is + the The process of polynomials is merely an extension of the process of dividing monomials. + the quotient +. 4 35a 3 & Sa 2 b lab 2 by Example: Divide 40a 8<f  + lab : So3  3 lab) 40a . When the quotient is When quotient quotient is is + and the dividend and the dividend the When is the divisor . either in terms of numbers or in terms of numbers and letters. the rules governing signs are practically the same : When is both divisor and dividend are both divisor and dividend are the divisor . The two terms or expressions are called members or sides of the equation. the term on the lefthand side is called the first. The letter whose value is to be found is called the "unknown quantity.35a fc 40a4 35a3 fc 4 + Sa 2 b 2  lab 2 (oa 2 + b 8a b Sa2 b lab 2 lab 2 EQUATIONS AN EQUATION is an algebraic expression in which two or more terms or quantities are connected by the sign of equality. Since division is the converse of multiplication. A very important fact to remember about equations is that if the same operation is performed on both sides of 134 . and that on the righthand side is called the second term. To solve an equation is to find the value of the unknown quantity." and it is usual to represent the unknown quantity by the letter (x).THE STARRETT BOOK SIGNS.
we have 5 X 1/5* = 5 X 20 * = 100 Before solving an equation it is usually easier to rewrite or rearrange the terms so that x with its coefficient will be alone on the lefthand side. Changing the terms from one side to the other is called "transposing. we can transpose terms. Both sides are multiplied by the same quantity. /. we have b x 2a + 2a 135 + 2a . This fact instance. d. = 1/5* = 20 Multiplying both sides by 5. e. 20 Dividing both sides by we have 4 x Again. The same quantity is added to both sides. So: is made use of in solving an equation.THE STARRETt BOOK the equation the lefthand side will righthand side. The same root of both sides is extracted. Both sides are divided by the same quantity. still be equal to the The equation will continue to be an equation if a. Both sides are raised to the same power. c. b. x Adding 2a  2a = = b to both sides. The same quantity is subtracted from both sides." It is evident that in transposing the truth of the sign of equality must not be destroyed. for = 5. Bearing in mind the fact that if the same operation is performed on both sides of an equation the lefthand side remains equal to the righthand side.
combine the fractions on the righthand because they have the same denominator. is in (m 2 +n 2 n) b the denominator instead of in the 61 a H b * x~ lOc Multiplying both sides by x gives (a + b)x 10c 136 .THESTARRETT BOOK As 2a cancels + 2a. so that x will be alone. plus changed to minus or minus to plus. by multiplying both sides of the equation by the denominator. the denominator can be eliminated. and that in transposing the only thing that happened to it was that its sign was changed. Numerous examples would show to transpose a quantity from one side of an equation this simple fact that to the other. the lefthand side. First. c~ b side. If the term containing x is a fraction. it is only necessary to write the quantity on the other side with its sign changed. multiply both c x _ Suppose x numerator. thus: n x m + n 2 2 sides To get x alone on by c. we have b x = + 2a We see from this that the 2a has been transposed from one side to the other.
x 6 lOc a + b Then multiplying both sides by 6. are produced? 137 . ~ a 60c + b SHOP AND ENGINEERING FORMULAS The letters which we have used are given a meaning in shop and engineering formulas by assigning to each a definite numerical value. we have (a b)x _______ + \x _____ a lOc 6 (lOc) We ____ + b~ a +b 60c a+ The short cut to the same result is to invert both sides. and the rest is twentyHow many milling machines and lathes eight shapers. In a certain shop onefifth of the output is milling machines. lOc b . the coefficient of x.THE STARRETT BOOK Now transpose all terms (a + b) x  = 6 lOc Or dividing both sides by '. twothirds is lathes. The letters are connected by signs to represent the conditions.
in designing keys some use this formula: 126.P. the letters having definite values. The total is equal to x .+ 5 x 2x + 3 28 Multiplying both sides by 15. In designing. P. and N = number of revolutions of the shaft per minute. = the horsepower transmitted. DN the total twisting moment on the shaft. x 2x .added 5 to 2x . Usually the values of all but one letter are known or assumed.THE STARRETT BOOK If we let x represent the total number of machines. The problem then is to find the numerical value of the unknown by substituting the known values. formulas are used. H.000 X H. D = diameter of shaft in inches. z=. in which P = 138 . and these formulas are in the form of equations. to eliminate the fractions. we have 15* 15x = = 3* 13* + + 10* 420 + 420 Transposing 15*  13* 2x = = 420 420 x=2W x 5 = 210 5 = 2x 42 milling machines and 3 = 420 3 = 140 lathes. the common denominator. sum is added to 28 to equal the unknown 3 quantity x.equals the number of milling machines and equals 5 3 the number and this of lathes. For instance.
14 . is the face 8 inches and the pulley 27 inches in diameter.14^B~D in which T B If = = D= thickness of hub in inches.THE STARRETT BOOK If 20 horsepower is transmitted at a rotative speed of 40 revolutions per minute and the shaft is 2 inches in diameter. the twisting moment is found by substituting the known values and solving for P. diameter of pulley in inches.500 In finding the thickness of the hub of a pulley. width of face in inches.84 X 6 inch or % inch 139 . some designers use this formula : T = .000 2 X 40 20 X = 31. we have T = .14^8 X 27 = = . P  126.
Each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds. An angle is sometimes defined as the difference in direction of two straight lines. setting the head of the milling machine for milling spiral flutes in twist drills or reamers. so that he may work to the angle that is wanted. the angle is the most important. The B will be an angle of 60 if angle A the arc A B is onesixth of the circumference. and In laying out work the in the cutting of bevel gears. Of all the plane figures which the machinhas to deal with. 140 the same.THE STARRETT BOOK MENSURATION ANGLES. another definition is: an angle is the space between two straight lines that meet. The circumference of the circle is divided into 360 equal parts. having for a center the vertex of the angle. . Angle A ured by the arc A B. not to some other angle. the difference in direction and the number of degrees is the same. Angles are also used for measuring rotation or circular movement. If a circumference of a circle is drawn. It makes no difference what the radius of the circle is or arc may be. Examples of working to an ist angle are found in the setting of the compound rest when taper turning. the measure of the angle will be that arc included between the B is meassides of the angle. and also the most troublesome. each called a degree. or would meet if produced. machinist must understand the properties of angles and the use of the protractor. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes.
The complement of an angle of 37 is 53.THE STARRETT BOOK A RIGHT ANGLE is one formed by two lines perpendicular to one another. Two right angles are formed when a line so meets another line that the two angles are equal. It often happens that a protractor set to 60 actually measures 120. The angle shown here is a little less than 55. The arc which measures it The tool most comis a quarter circumference or 90. being graduated from zero to 90. because the instrument reads directly. the supplement of the angle must be found and the protractor set to the supplement. Thus. Either of is the complement of the other. may be in the measuring form of the combination set (page 14). monly used for measuring a right angle is a trysquare. The protractor is a graduated disc on a fixed blade and adjustable stock. Either these angles of these angles is the supplement of the other. Any given angle may be laid out or measured by setting the blade at the desired angle with the stock. With the Starrett combination set. for It The instrument most commonly used angles is the protractor. The supplement of an angle is the angle which must be added to the given angle to make 180. AN OBTUSE ANGLE is any angle of more than 90. to lay off an angle of 150 we first find the supplement or 30 and set the protractor at 30. But the proper scale must be selected. or the protractor shown in the accompanying illustration. or two right angles. 141 . But when the desired angle is greater" than 90. To set the protractor at an angle of less than 90 is an easy matter. The complement of an angle is the angle which must be added to the given angle to make a right angle or 90. all angles are read directly because of the two scales. AN ACUTE ANGLE is any angle of less than 90. each graduated from zero to 180. The supplement of an angle of 63 is 1X7.
or 180. The area of any triangle = product of base and altitude divided by 2. The sum of all three angles is equal to two right angles. If the three sides of a triangle are proportional to the corresponding sides of another triangle. the triangles are similar and the corresponding sides are proportional. all the angles are equal. BASE TRIANGLE Any angle equals 180 minus the sum of the other two.THE STARRETT BOOK PROTRACTOR A plane figure of three sides if all three sides are equal in length the triangle is equilateral and also equiangular. that is. If the angles of a triangle are equal to the corresponding angles of another triangle. The areas of two triangles are equal if they have equal base and equal height or altitude. 142 . the triangles are similar and the corresponding angles are equal.
The sum of all the angles equals four right angles. or 360. V hypotenuse squared side squared.THE STARRETT BOOK A right triangle is right angle.414 1.414 RECTANGLE A plane figure of four sides. All four angles are right angles. The sum of all the angles equals four right angles. RIGHT TRIANGLE is one having one the side opposite The square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. or 360. All four angles are right angles. 143 The difference between a square and a rectangle . parallel.7071 1. and the opposite sides are equal and. A plane figure of four sides. Area SQUARE = square of a side. and the opposite sides are equal and parallel. The hypotenuse the right angle. V hypotenuse squared base squared. The area = base X side Hypotenuse Base Side = = = V base squared + side squared. the square of a diagonal Side Diagonal = = = = V area diagonal V area side X X X .
598. Long side = area divided by short side. Area = product of two adjacent sides. angles equals 720. of parallel sides X one half the altitude. Side Side = = line. Radius of inscribed circle = side X .598.464.866. = square of radius of inscribed X 3. A A diameter is any straight line passing through the center and touching the CIRCLE circumference at each end. the Diagonal = V sum of squares of adjacent sides. Two circles having equal radii are equal. The sum of all the Area Area Area circle = square = square X of side X 2. radius of circumscribed circle. Two circles with unequal radii vary in area as the the circumferences are proporsquares of the radii tional to the radii. All the sides are equal and all the angles are equal.THE STARREST BOOK is that the adjacent sides of a square are equal. plane figure bounded by a curved every point of which is equally distant from a point within called the center. two of which are Area TRAPEZOID = sum parallel. radius of inscribed circle X 1. A plane figure of four sides. A regular plane figure of six sides. adjacent sides of a rectangle need not be equal.155. of radius of circum scribed circle 2. Short side = area divided by long side. 144 .
Area = 3.1416. A plane figure bounded by a curve. that is.3. of which every point is the same distance from two points on the longest axis.296 X length of arc Radius Length of arc degrees in angle radius X degrees in angle. Area = .296 X length of arc Angle X == X radius 57.7854. the sum of the distances from any point to the foci is equal to the sum of the distances from any other point to the foci. 57. Area = . Area square of diameter X .01745 145 .small radius squared). Area = square of radius X 3. Circumference = diameter X 3. Radius = circumference H 6. = .1416. A plane figure included between two circumferences having the same center.THE STARRETT BOOK A chord is a straight line intersecting or touching the circumference.7854 X (large diameter small diameter squared).2832. Area = onehalf the radius X length A of arc.008727 X radius squared angle in degrees.1416. Radius = V area *.1416 X (large radius squared . A chord at right angles to a diameter is divided into two equal parts by the diameter. squared radii plane figure included between two and the arc. but not passing through the center.
1416 X radius squared. sum of square = 3.7854 Circumference (approx. the smaller the number.1416 . solid having six faces. divide the circumference into any number of equal parts. each a All faces and edges are equal. the more accurate the curve.THE STARRETT BOOK Area Area = = 3. X product of axes. The string is always tangent to the cylinder. The curve drawn through these points is an involute. Edge Total area = square 146 of edge X 6. 9.1416 of axes A by cycloid is a curve formed a given point on a circumference of a circle rolling on a straight line. 4. draw lines at right angles to the radius and make the lengths of these tangents equal to the actual length of the arcs. area of circle X 3. Length Length Area = Area = Area = of curve diameter of circle of curve radius of circle X 3 X 3. To draw the curve. = = X 8. Volume cube of edge. An involute is a curve traced by the end of a string as it unwinds from a cylinder and is kept taut. .) X the product of its semiaxes. Through these points on the circumference. A = = \/ volume. SOLIDS square.4248 X radius squared.
THE STARRETT BOOK A solid having a rectangular base and rectangular sides. Total area = lateral area + (5.196 X square of side of base) . = Slant height = V vertical edge onehalf side of base squared. Lateral area = side of base X vertical edge X 6. A right pyramid is a solid having a base a regular polygon and faces isosceles triangles. that is. all rectangular.598 X square of side of base X vertical edge. A prism having for its base a regular hexagon. squared A frustum of a regular pyramid has parallel bases. 147 . REGULAR PYRAMID onethird altitude X area Volume of base. HEXAGONAL RIGHT PRISM Volume = 2. = area of base and top of areas of the six area = sum faces. Slant height = altitude of triangular face. Volume = product of the three SQUARE PRISM edges. Lateral area = perimeter of base X onehalf slant height. and bases at right angles to faces. All opposite edges are equal and parallel. or altitude. * product of other two Total + area of Total area sides. it is the lower portion of a pyramid cut by a plane FRUSTUM OF PYRAMID parallel to the base. Any edge = volume edges.
Slant height = V square of radius Altitude = V square of slant height + square of altitude. Lateral area = the sum of the perimeters of the two bases X onehalf slant height.1416 X radius of base X slant height. square of radius. Volume = . Slant height = V square of altitude + square of difference in radii. X 148 .0472 X square of radius X altitude. it is of base Volume = 1. by revolving RIGHT CONE a solid figure formed a right triangle on its vertical side as an axis. Volume = sum ' A right cone has a circular base and vertex in a line perpendicular to the center of the base. Slant height = V square of edge square of onehalf difference of side of bases. It is The frustum bases. Volume = onethird altitude X sum of the areas of the two bases and the mean proportional between the two bases. that is. Conical area = 3. The mean proportional of the product.THE STARRETT BOOK of areas of the two bases and mean proportional between them X onethird altitude. The mean proportional is equal to the square root of the product. FRUSTUM OF CONE of a cone has parallel the lower portion of a cone when cut by a plane parallel to the base. It is a solid of revolution. Lateral area is equal to the square root bases = sum of perimeters (circles) of two onehalf slant height.2618 X square of diameter of base X altitude.
axis of hole coinciding with axis of cylinder. Hollow cylinder. that is. Volume = 3.1888 .1416 . it is generated by revolving a rectangle about a side as an axis.1416 X cube of radius = Radius 4. A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved surface every point of which is equally distant from a point within. altitude X thick thickness).1416 X of large radius HOLLOW CYLINDER ness Volume = 3.1416 X diameter X altitude.THE STARRETT BOOK A right cylinder is a solid having circles for bases and lateral surface perpendicular to bases. = 149 .7854 X square of radius of diam X altitude. SPHERE Volume = 4 X 3.2832 X radius X altitude. Cylindrical surface Cylindrical surface Total surface = 6. it is generated by revolving a half circle on the diameter as an axis. cylindrical surface + twice area of (circle) base. called the center. It is a solid of revolution.6204 X \j/ volume.1888 X cube of radius = T/ volume 4.1416 X X (large diameter altitude X (square square of small radius). Volume eter = X square X altitude. Volume = difference in volume of two cylinders. It is a solid of revolution. Volume = 3. that is. = 3.
If the plane passes through the center.1416 X square of height onethird height). volVolume = volume of sphere ume of segment. A spherical zone is formed by passing two parallel planes through a sphere. X Area = height.THE STARRETT BOOK Area = 4 X 3. X (radius Radius of segment = V height X (diameter of sphere height of segment). cube Volume = 4. Area SPHERICAL ZONE = 2 X X 3. the segment is onehalf the sphere. radius.1416 X radius of sphere X height. If it does not pass through the center Volume = 3.1416 X square = 12.5664 3. Volume = difference in volumes of two spheres.1416 X radius of sphere height.5447 X V area of radius. Surface of spherical segment = 2 X 3. Radius = Hollow sphere.2832 X radius of sphere X height. of A spherical segment is formed by SPHERICAL SEGMENT passing a plane through a sphere. Surface of spherical segment = 6.1888 X (cube of large radius small radius). 6.5664 X square of = area 12.2832 radius of sphere X 150 .
and is expressed in feet per minute or feet per second. The moment of a force is the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the fixed point to the direction of the force. although some carelessly refer to an applied force as being a power. tion. and the perpendicular distance is called the lever arm of the force. 161 . Power should not be given the same meaning as force. That is. The element of time is always included. the length being proportional to the magnitude. Moment of force is measured in footpounds or inchpounds. VELOCITY is rate of motion. It is the product of force and distance divided by time. represents the point of application. The fixed point is called the center of moments. It is measured in footpounds or in inchpounds. and is expressed in footpounds per minute. place of applicamagnitude. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FORCES. Velocity does not include force nor weight. Two or more forces may act together on a body. A force may be represented graphically by a straight line. The operation is called the COMPOSITION OF FORCES. is any cause which tends to produce or Force It is measured in pounds. POWER is the amount of work done in a given time. MOMENT OF FORCE. To find a single force which produces the same effect as two or more forces. is to find the RESULTANT. has three characteristics direction. It is distance divided by time. One end of the line the line is drawn to some scale. usually. or footpounds per second. WORK is the product of force and distance.THE STARRETT BOOK MECHANICS A FORCE modify motion. and an arrow head at the other end represents the direction. Work does not involve the element time.
CD AB = AE : : EC the forces act in opposite directions. but in intensity it is equal to the difference between the components. When two forces acting at a point can he represented in direction and magnitude by the adjacent sides of a parallelogram. the resultant is parallel to both. If two forces act in opposite directions. the resultant will be represented in direction and magnitude by the diagonal of the parallelogram. The point of application of the resultant is: If AB : CD = CE AE : 152 . The operation is called the RESOLUTION OF FORCES. PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES. the resultant is equal to their sum. but not from the same point. is PARALLEL FORCES. the resultant their difference. If two forces act in the same direction. It is nearer the greater force and takes the same direction as the greater force. A B and A C are the forces and A R the resultant. their resultant is parallel to both. but is located outside of them on the line (produced) joining the points of application.THE STARRETT BOOK To find two or more forces which combined are equivalent to a given force is to find the COMPONENTS. and is The resultant is equal to their sum. located between the forces at a point that divides the line joining the points of application inversely as the magnitudes. ^B When two forces are parallel and act in the same direction.
the force applied at a point between the fulcrum and the weight. To solve all problems relating to the lever. The lever arms are the portions between the weights or forces and the fulcrum. A lever is an inflexible rod. by the lever arms. in fact. the weight of the lever itself is to be considered. the" same principles apply. but there If 153 . The same formulas are used. point called the fulcrum. it must be remembered that the moments are the weights or forces multiplied by the distances from the fulcrum. which may move about a fixed. As the lever is considered in balance. They may be illustrated in levers. that is. the product of the weight and length of weight arm is equal to the product of the power and length of power arm.THE STARRE'TT BOOK LEVERS Moments of forces are very important factors in machines. j Z* * A I i is (w) In the third form of lever. and both weight A weight ~"1 f [ and force act in the same direction (w) : or WX L=FX W F= L : / / : W= FX L Z I FX i Z WX L / W WX L F When the weight or load is between the fulcrum and the point at which the force is applied. the same formulas are used. the moment of force (F X Z) remains the same. When the fulcrum is between the ^ * L and the force.
one will act with the moment of force and the other act with the moment of weight. F X L= p __ WX WX _ / I PULLEYS OR BLOCKS.THE STARRETT BOOK The additional several moments of weight. The is force equal to of number F= If W N is there are five ropes and the weight 300 pounds. THE WINDLASS. With levers of the second and third class. the additional moment of weight will are then moments is act with the original added to it. and. moment of weight. In a lever of the first class there will be two moments of weight due to the weight of the lever. Velocity 154 Velocity =N of F . of weight are found by multiplying the weight of the lever arm by the distance of its center of gravity from the fulcrum. The moment of force and the moment of weight are the means for finding the force required to lift a weight by a rope wound on the drum of a windlass. therefore. required to lift the weight the weight divided by the ropes that are shortened. the force is: 300 = 60 pounds F= o velocity with which the weight is raised is equal to the velocity of the force divided by the number of ropes The shortened.
of driver = D Revs. is to place a pulley on the driving shaft and another on the driven shaft and pass an endless belt over them. The revolutions are inversely proportional to the circumferences and. of driven Revs. or a change of speed. pulley of the revolutions and diameter of one equal to the product of the revolutions and diameter of the other pulley. and a point on the periphery of the driven pulley will be pulled through this distance whether or not the periphery is equal to the circumference of the driving pulley. : Revs. of driven X d = Revs. The smaller pulley runs at the higher rotative speed. of driver X D X d Revs.THE STARRETT BOOK PULLEYS A simple way to transmit power. The product is From Revs. diameter of driven. of driven Revs. X D. of driven D= Revs. of driven X d = Revs. It is evident that the linear speed of the pulleys is the same. either at the same speed. To change the rotative speed of shafts it is only necessary to place on them pulleys of unlike diameters. D= d = diameter of driver. multiply the revolutions of the driver by its diameter and divide by the revolutions of the driven. of driver : d. that is. one revolution of the driving pulley pulls the belt through a distance equal to its circumference. of driver To find the diameter of the driven pulley. 156 . to the diameters. of driver X D we have d = and Revs. therefore.
Revs. With a driven pulley of 24 inches diameter. what will be the speed of the driven pulley? 156 . what diameter pulley should be selected? d = 150 X 12 = 3 inches 600 The driving driven shaft is shaft to makes 200 revolutions and the revolutions make 150 per minute.THE STARRETT BOOK Example: The driving shaft makes 150 revolutions per minute and the driving pulley is 12 inches in diameter. of driver = D Revs. of driven X d : Revs. of driver when sizes of pulleys are known X D = Revs. The driven shaft is to make 600 revolutions. When the driver runs at 270 revolutions per minute. what size driver pulley should be used? 150 X 24 = D= 18 inches 200 To find speeds Revs. of driven X d. of driver XD d Example: The driver pulley is 16 inches diameter and the driven is 18 inches diameter. of driven = Revs.
of driver Dia. of driver = Revs. of driver Dia. of driven 167 . of driver Revs. of driver X Revs. of driver XD 270 X 18 16 =240 Example: Two pulleys. of Driver Dia. of driven Revs. of driver X X Revs. of Driver = = = Dia of driven X Revs. of driven Dia.THE STARRETT ROOK Revs. of driven X d D 120 X 18 14 = 93 13 FORMULAS FOR PULLEY DIAMETERS AND REVOLUTIONS When three factors are known the fourth can be found by using one of the following formulas: Dia. one of 14 inches diameter and the other of 18 inches diameter. of Driven = Dia. of driver Dia. The driven shaft is to run at 120 revolutions per minute. are available. of driven Revs. If the 14inch pulley is placed on the driven shaft what should be the speed of the driver? Revs. of driven = Revs. of driven Revs. of Driven Revs.
known the sixth 168 . But pulleys B and C are on the same shaft and have the same rotative speed.THE STARRETT BOOK The same principles apply to more complex belting. of A X D X diameter of A diameter of B X X diameter of C diameter of D. rela Combining these equations we may express the tion as follows: The speed of the first driver multiplied by the diameters of all the drivers is eqaal to the speed of the last driven pulley multiplied by the diameters of all driven pulleys. pulley Revs. of C. This arrangement is often desirable when it is impracticable to get the speed reduction with one belt. of D X diameter of D. Suppose two pulleys are on the same shaft. = is If five of the above quantities are easily found. of Revs. of A X diameter of A = Revs. of C X diameter of C = Revs. of B X diameter of B and Revs. that is. of B = Revs. we then have a combination that resembles a train of gears. when the larger pulley would have to be very large as compared with the smaller. Revs. Or Revs. In the above illustration the high rotative speed of A (on a motor shaft for example) is reduced to a much lower figure at pulley D.
and D is 16 inches. all all first driver product of diameters of product of diameters of drivens drivers Revs. Suppose we had given the speed of D. C is 5 inches. of last driven Revs. of D A X diameter of C The two unknown quantities are diameter of B and diameter of G. of D = 192 = 125 In the above we have found the rotative speed of D without finding the rotative speed of B. of pulleys to use in place of B and G. J>ut do not know what Revs. of A diameter of B X diameter of diameter of D or Revs. and is 4 inches in diameter. but we had given the diameters of B and C. per minute.000 D X D X 12 X 16 192 Revs.000 = = Revs. of 24. Pulley B is 12 inches in diameter.THE STARRETT BOOK Example: Pulley A runs at 1200 Rev. of Revs. What is the speed of D? X 4 1200 X 5 24. Using the data in the above example we have 1200 125 16 X diameter 1200 125 of B diameter of C X 4 4 Diameter of B Diameter of G 16  12 ~!> 169 . but the RATIO can be found.
.THE STARRETT ROOK Then the ratio of the diameters is 12 5. Example: The shaft of 3inch pulley D is to make 900 revolutions. of last driven 150 900 1 ^ Tijn X 3 X diameter of C diameter of B _ __ 3 vv 6 14 1 vx diameter of C 14 f _ Diameter of B Diameter of C 6 3 7 "9" _14_ ~18~ 160 . pulleys have these diameters 10V2 11. and any pulleys having diameters in this ratio will give the desired 2 speeds. C if A is 14 inches in diameter and makes 150 revolutions? The available 8. The formula Revs. 13y2 inches. 12. 9. 18 and 7V or 24 and 10. of first to use is driver product of diameters of product of diameters of diameter of B 14 all all drivens drivers Revs. The pulleys may be 12 and 5 inches. what pulleys must be placet as B and : .
14 (R+r) +2D +  (Rr) D 2 R= = radius of small pulley. inches. place these : will . but if a double belt is to be used add to the measurement twice the thickness of the belt. The length of small belts may be obtained by passing the belt around Open Belt.350 LENGTH OF BELTS Pass a tape. . Formula for Length of Open Belt L r = 3.350 = = 900 X 10% X 3 28. D = Distance between centers of shaft.57. preferably a steel tape. New belts stretch and become slack after a short time. around the pulleys. then add to this product twice the distance between centers in inches. This will give the length direct. Multiplying by 1% gives 10% and 13y 2 To prove that the calculation is correct. inches. the pulleys and straining with hand pull. With long belts stretching may be anticipated by cutting the belt one inch shorter for every ten feet.THE STARRETT BOOK Then multiply the ratio 7 9 by any number which make 7 and 9 equal to the diameters of pulleys on hand. Rule for Length of Open Belt Add diameters of pulleys in inches and multiply the sum by 1. if a single belt. L = Length of belt. values in this expression: The speed of the first driver (150) multiplied by the diameters of all drivers (14) and (13%) is equal to the speed of the last driven (900) multiplied by the diameters of all driven pulleys (10%) and (3). inches. inches. 161 Radius of large pulley. 150 X 14 X 13% 28. and the slack should be taken up.
pulleys are 11 feet apart and are 24 Length of belt? Open and L = = 3.8 + 326. and the number of revolutions is always a constant ratio for these two gears. 3.8 inches. Example: and 16 inches crossed.92 inches. mesh a point on the pitch circle of one moves at the same linear velocity as a point on the pitch circle of the other.8 + 264 +132 = 326.14 = = X (12 + 8) + (2 X 132) + (12 + 132 2 8) 400 62.14 X (12 + 8) + (2 X 132) + (12132 8)* 62.14 (R letters + r) + 2D + Length of Crossed Belt 2 (R + r) D The have the same values as above. open belt.8 + 264 . GEARS CONSTANT VELOCITY RATIO.THE STARRETT BOOK Formula for L = 3.12 + 16 132 = = L 326. crossed belt. Belts over pulleys and plain rolling cylinders cannot be depended upon to give a constant velocity ratio there is always some But when two gears are in loss of speed due to slip. 162 .8 + 3 = 329. Two in diameter.
Or. of follower X / Revs. A gear having twice as many teeth as the gear mesh ber of teeth numbers ing with it will make but onehalf as many revolutions in a given time. immediately that the linear velocity of the pitch circles must be equal and the rotative speeds can be found in the same way as with belts. two gears of the same pitch. It may be said that the space occupied by a tooth and the space between two teeth is the same in both This fact shows gears if they have the same pitch. for of teeth are proportional to the pitch diameters in the same way that the peripheries of pulleys are proportional to the diameters. one gear of a pair is the driver and the other the driven or follower. of follower X t. As in belts and pulleys. Revs. of driver X T T number of teeth on the driver and t number of teeth on the follower: by the number of teeth on the driver = = = T= and t "Revs. of driver X T Revs. Therefore. that is. the gear with the smaller number of teeth runs at the higher speed. if Revs. must have an unequal number of teeth. The pitch diameter or the numthe is substituted for the pulley diameter. The number of revolutions of the driver multiplied number number is equal to the of revolutions of the follower multiplied by the of teeth on the follower. of follower 163 . is the same for both gears.THE STARRETT BOOK Two gears in mesh have the same pitch. but of different diameters. of driver = Revs. the distance from the center of a tooth to the center of the next tooth. the speeds (rotative) are inversely as the number of teeth. measured along the pitch circle.
will be its speed? Example: A driver having 63 teeth makes 800 revoIf the follower has 42 teeth. what Revs. How many teeth has the driver? T= 30 X 80 64 = 24 Example: The driver makes 160 revolutions per minute and has 40 teeth. how many revolutions per minute? Revs. multiply the revolutions of the follower by its number of teeth and divide the product by the revolutions of the driver. of driver = 110 X 44 90  = 225 lutions per minute. of follower = Revs. If the driver has 44 teeth. of driver  X / T Revs. of follower Revs. of follower = 800 X 42 63 = 1200 164 . How many teeth? / = = 160 X 40 100 = 64 Revs.THE STARRETT BOOK To find the number of teeth (T) on the driver. Example: The follower has 64 teeth and makes 30 revolutions per minute. of driver X T Example: The follower has 90 teeth and makes 110 revolutions per minute. The driver makes 80 revolutions per minute. The follower makes 100 revolutions.
of Driver = = = = Revs. C drives N having 75 teeth. The velocity ratio of the first to the last is found as follows: The product of the number of teeth on all the drivers divided by the product of the number of teeth on all the followers is the velocity ratio. and is on the same shaft with M. of follower X teeth on follower teeth on driver Revs. B. Suppose the train has three drivers. Pinion B on same shaft with L has 13 teeth and drives M having 104 teeth. etc. What is the velocity ratio of A to N? 165 . of follower teeth on follower Teeth on Driver Revs. of Follower teeth on follower Revs. lathes. and if the shafts are As made by parallel it is usual to get the speed change by keying two gears of unequal size on every shaft. clocks.THE STARRETT BOOK FORMULAS FOR SPEED OF GEARS When three factors are known the fourth can be found by using one of the following formulas: Revs. Examples are found in hoists. A. Pinion C has 15 teeth. great speed changes are trains of gears in place of a pair. M. and C and three followers. Each pair in the train has its driver and follower. of driver X teeth on driver Teeth on Follower Revs. A has 14 teeth and drives L having 70 teeth. except the first and last. of driver Revs. and N. of driver X X teeth on driver Revs. L. of follower in the case of pulleys.
it is easy to If A find the speed of N if the speed of A is known. the speed may be figured from the = following: Multiply the revolutions per minute of the first driver by the continued product of the number of teeth on all drivers. The quotient will be the revolutions per minute of the last follower.200 When the speed of the first driver or the last follower is also known. and divide by the continued product of the teeth on all followers.THE STARRETT BOOK Velocity ratio = teeth on teeth on A X L X teeth on B X teeth on C teeth on MX teeth on N 14 70 1 X X 13 X X 15 75 104 ~ 200 Knowing the velocity ratio of the train. as The apprentice who wishes 166 . N will make only 9. runs at 1800 revolutions per minute. 9 revolutions for 1800 4. LATHE GEARING for to figure change gears screw cutting should understand the principles.
the lathe screw constant should be used in place of the threads per inch on the lead screw. is number of of teeth the speed of the all first on threads to be cut threads on lead screw teeth on lead teeth screw gear on spindle stud Suppose there are 6 threads on the lead screw and 46 teeth on the lead screw gear how many threads will be cut if a 24tooth gear is placed on the spindle stud? threads to be cut 40 " 6 24 threads to be cut = 40 X 24 10 6 = The above assumes that the lathe is geared 1:1. that the lathe screw constant is equal to the number of threads per inch on the lead screw. las. 167 . rather than be dependent upon formuThere is but one statement to be memorized.THE STARRETT BOOK already explained. the number of threads per inch to be cut corresponds to the revolutions of the driver. The continued product driver and the equal to the speed of the last follower multiplied by the continued product of the teeth on all followers. Then the number of threads to be cut multiplied by the teeth on the spindle stud equals the number of threads on the lead screw multiplied by the teeth on the lead screw gear. is. Or drivers. If the lathe is not so geared. and the number of turns on the lead screw to move the carriage one inch corresponds to the speed of the follower. In figuring change gears.
and there are threads per inch on the lead screw. 168 . as 7 : 5. "Which gear goes on the stud?" In some cases it may seem easier to assume one gear and go through the calculation to find the other. 7 and 5 by any number. What gears are to be used? five threads to be cut teeth on lead screw gear teeth on stud gear threads on lead screw 7 teeth on lead screw gear teeth on stud gear is 5 The ratio of the gears By multiplying both as 6. Suppose seven threads are to be cut. such we get 42 teeth on lead screw gear teeth on stud gear 30 Using the formula as above may aid in disposing of that troublesome question.THE STARRETT BOOK The foregoing example shows how the figuring can be done when the gears are on the spindle stud and lead screw. but the problem is usually one of finding out what gears to use. there being then one unknown quantity and three known quantities.
THE STARRETT BOOK Table 13 Specific Gravity and Properties of Metals Metal or Composition .
fire Brick.6 Concrete Earth.3 2. Ivory 1.2 1. in cement Cement.8 170 .2 1. wet Sandstone Slate 1. 1.8 2.6 2.0 Trap Tile 3. rammed Emery Glass Granite Gravel 4.0 2.8 1.0 2.6 0.3 2.75 1.4 Asphaltum Borax Brick.2 Gypsum Ice 0.7 2.5 1. pressed 1.1 common Sand.1 Brickwork.0 2.8 1. hard Brick.4 1.0 1.6 2. Portland Chalk Charcoal Coal.27 2.75 2.8 2.8 3.6 2. in motor Brickwork.6 2.THE STARRETT BOOK Table 14 Average Specific Gravity of Miscellaneous Substances Specific Substance Gravity Asbestos 2.8 Quartz Salt. loose Earth.0 Sulphur 2.65 1.6 1. dry Sand.8 2. anthracite Coal. common black 2.7 Soapstone Soil.4 2.15 1.9 '.5 ( Masonry Mica Mortar Phosphorus Plaster of Paris 1.85 Limestone Marble 2. bituminous 2. common Brick.
THE STARRETT BOOK Table 15 Specific Gravity of Gases (At 32 degrees F.) Gas .
THE STARRETT BOOK Table 17 Composition of Miscellaneous Alloys Alloys .
THE STARR ETT ROOK Table 18 Average Substance Specific Heats of Various Substances .
THE STARRETT BOOK Table 19 Templets for Drilling Standard and Low Pressure Flanged Valves and Fittings American Standard V N to .
THE STARRETT BOOK Table 20 Templets for Drilling Extra Fittings Heavy Flanged Valves and American Standard Size .
RETT BOOK Tap Drills For A. Standard and . E. Size of Tap .Special Machine Screw Taps and will The diameter given for each hole to be tapped allows for a practical clearance at the root of the thread of the screw not impose undue strain upon the tap in service.THE S T A R Table 21 S. M.
THE STARRETT BOOK Table 22 Tap Drills for Machine Screws Size of Tap .
Vernier Carbon Steel Carbon Steel Drills. . Drilling. Inside and Outside Calipers. Deep Hole Drilling Detail Drawings Dividers.. 35 . Measurement of . Drilling. Hermaphrodite Calipers. . Composition of Angle. 12 43 104 132136 119 172 140 . Drilling Drilling Deep Holes . Spring Calipers. for Testing Screw Threads Calipers. Speed of 103 104 27 85 69 27 19 26 16 75 51 67 Center Gage Center Punches Change Gears Chipping Chisels for Chipping 56 79 38 38 Chucking Chucking Tools Coefficient (Algebra) Composition of Alloys Compound Gears for Thread Cutting 93 : Contact Measuring Counterboring : Cup Wheels Cutting Compounds for Drills Cutting Lips of Drills Cutting Screw Threads 96 127 172 82 15 62 117 53 47 77 . Grain Adjusting Toolmakers' Buttons with Micrometer Algebraic Signs Aligning Shafting Alloys. 28 42 55 48 51 48 62 55 57 58 56 61 55 1J5 . Spring Draw Filing Drawing the Drill Drill Drill 02 7 Grinding Speed . . .INDEX Abbreviations for Drawings Abrasives. Drawing the Drill Drilling for Reamer Drilling for Tapping ' ". . . Starting Drill Drilling. Templets for Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and 178 Fittings . . Bench Work Bolt and Screw Lists Boring Holes in Jig Body . Micrometer Calipers. Holding Work Drilling Large Holes Drilling.. . 7 Buttons' Toolmakers' Calipering over a Flange Calipers. .
Trains Grades of Emery Grading Grinding Wheels Grinding Grinding. Cutting Lips Drills. Letter Sizes of Drills.THE STARRETT BOOK Drilling. Fittings. 40 40 42 30 174 29 151 Gear Speeds. Measuring Work Grinding Milling Cutters Grinding Speeds for Grinding Wheels Grinding Wheels. 91 126 43 134 60 169 127 175 Filing Filing. Cutting Speed Saws. Templets for Drilling Forced Fits Forces . Grades Grinding Wheels. What One to Use Hand Chipping Height Gage High Speed Steel Drills. 45 43 44 46 38 17 51 56 57 95 21 22 23 146 Involute 179 . Speed of Gears. Mounting 165 79 163 165 43 Ill 109 110 113 113 116 115 116 100 114 109. Testing Surface Fits. . Templets for Standard and Low Pressure Flanged Valves and Fittings Drills. Templets for Drilling . Allowances for Grinding. Hack Hack Hack Hack Saw Machine Saws . Speed of Holding Drill in Spindle Holding Work for Drilling Holding Work in Chucks How to Read a Micrometer How to Read a Vernier How to Read a Vernier Micrometer . Grade and Grain Grinding. Kinds . Kinds Drills. Amounts to leave Grinding Cylindrical Grinding Flat Surfaces Grinding Wheels. Testing Cutting Lips ' 174 53 47 47 59 97 49 Eccentric Turning Elementary Algebra Emery. 111 Ill 116 Saws. Making Drills. Cutting Compounds Drills. Formulas for Gears for Thread Cutting Gears. . Amounts to Leave Flanged Fittings. Grades of Equations Equivalent Tables Expansion of Metals Exponent Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and Files.
. Clearance Lathe Tools. 75 72 73 72 73 74 85 53 161.. 146 Lapping Lathe Lathe Centers Lathe Gearing Lathe Tools Lathe Tools. Use of Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Mechanics Lathe Work Screw Threads Tools Work.. Rake Lathe Tools. Testing Cutting Angles Lathe Work. Milling Cutters Milling Cutters. Finding Difference Up . Grinding Plane Figures Plate for Laying Out Plumb Bobs Polishing Preparing Surface for Laying Out Protractors Pulley Diameters and Speeds. for Measuring Screw Threads Micrometer.. Levers Limits of Accuracy Locating Bushing Holes in Jigs Locating Jig on Face Plate Locating Machinery Low Pressure Flanged Fittings Lubricant for Thread Cutting Mandrels. 32 102 103 123 174 84 76 85 84 13 116 151 169 140 104 25 19 86 21 25 25 99 100 142. Formulas for Level for Aligning Shafting Leveling Instrument Leveling Instrument. Grinding Lathe Tools. 162 119 119 124 125 153 29. Adjusting Buttons with Micrometer as a Gage Micrometer Calipers Micrometer. Measuring Laying Out for Drilling Length of Belts. Quick Adjustment . Formulas for Pulleys 37 121 43 35 37 157 155 180 . Jigs. How to Read Micrometers. Grinding Melting Point of Metals Mensuration Micrometer.THE STARRETT BOOK Jig Bushings Jig for Drilling Cylinder Flange Jigs and Fixtures Jigs. 96 117 65 65 106 70.. Adjustment for Wear Micrometers. How to Set Levels. 107 Locating Bushing Holes Types 108 101 102 101 Knurling '. Setting Lathe Tools.
Formulas for Standard Flanged Fittings Gravity Gravity Gravity Gravity of Gases of Liquids of Metals of Substances ' .S. 78. Brown & Sharpe Taper Shanks 31 51 52 59 59 78 87 14 Specific Gravity of Substances 15 Specific Gravity of Gases 16 Specific Gravity of Liquids 17 Composition of Alloys 18 Specific Heat of Substances 19 Templets for Drilling Standard and Low Pressure Flanged Valves and Fittings American Standard 20 Templets for Drilling Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and American Standard Fittings 21 Tap Drills. Standard 132 29 146 171 171 1G9 Heat of Substances Speed of Drills Speed of Gears. Pitch Threads. 181 . S. Amount Tapers.M. Offset of Centers. Testing 59. Scribing Lines for Laying Out Section Lines Shop and Engineering Formulas Signs (Algebra) Sliding Pit Solids Specific Specific Specific Specific Specific . Sizes of .E. 88 92 110 114 115 169 170 171 171 172 173 174 .. Standard Screw Threads Morse Taper Shanks Tapers 10 Allowances for Grinding 11 Grinding Wheel Speeds 12 Grinding Wheels for Different Materials 13 Specific Gravity and Properties of Metals . Standard 22 Tap Drills for Machine Screws . Properties of U.THE STARRETT BOOK Pulleys. Starting Drill Stellite 170 173 52 165 174 55 76 38 Surface Plates Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Allowances for Different Classes of Fits Speeds and Feeds for Drilling Speed of Drills Letter Sizes of Drills Sizes of Tap Drills TJ. 175 176 177 176. t Taper in Given Length Taper Shanks Taper Turning Taper Turning." S. 88 86 90 91 . Making 128 97 77 84 77 78 35 11 137 Threads.. Screw Screw Screw Screw Threads . or Blocks . Tap Drills. Measuring Threads. 154 25 Quick Adjustment of Micrometers Radical Sign Reamers. A. 177 90 87. .
Form of Thread Tool. 10r> Universal Dial Test Indicator Vernier Calipers Vernier Height Gage . . Setting Tolerance. 123 4!) Thread Tool.THE STARRETT BOOK Targets Testing Cutting Lips of Drills Testing Flat Filing Test Indicator Testing Turned Taper . . Vernier. Turning. Locating . Limits of Tool Holders Tool Making Toolmakers' Buttons Train of Gears Transferring Measurements 42 67 91 82 84 32 75 97 103 165 Truing Work in Chucks 07. Work Centers 26 95 69 103 16 17. . How to Read Wheels 22 23 109 Wear of Micrometers 25 What Hack Saw Work Work Centers Weight per Cuhic Foot of Substances to Use Windlass Centers. . . . 170 46 154 69 89 12 Working Drawing Abbreviations Working Drawings 182 . Vitrified How to Read Vernier Micrometer. .
900 IN FOLDING LEATHER CASE x 4%" x l%* Size of case folded. 321. 11. No. 4" Outside Caliper with solid 73. 6" Flexible Steel Rule in pocket case No.THE STARR E T T BO Q K SETS OF TOOLS FOR APPRENTICES AND STUDENTS SET NO. 390. No. 6" Combination Square. Center Punch No. 4" Inside Caliper with solid 83. No. 900 consists of the leather case and the following tools: No. 7" Set No. No. 4" Caliper 79.00 . complete No. 4" Divider with solid nut nut nut PRICE. set complete 183 $6. 117B. Center Gage 241.
901 consists of the following tools: No. 11. No. No. complete Flexible Steel No. nut Inside Caliper with solid nut PRICE.15 . 6" Combination Square. 12"x7"xl^ Set No. 321. 6" wooden case and the 390. set complete 184 $6. 901 IN NICELY FINISHED WOODEN CASE Size of case. Center Punch No.THE STARRETT BOOK SETS OF TOOLS FOR APPRENTICES AND STUDENTS SET NO. 6" Outside Caliper with solid 73. 5" Divider with solid nut 79. No. Center Gage 77. 117B. 6" Rule in pocket case No.
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY BERKELEY Return This book is to desk from which borrowed. DUE on Allgl7'48JL .RY i U>E Due end of WINTER Quarter subject to redall M AB 1 9 after 5 flQ 3* 'IS STACKS WR 1 "7' REC'OLO 21100m9. the last date stamped below.'47(A5702sl6)476 .
M51G983 .
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