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two coordinates to describe its motion, are called two-degrees-of –freedom systems. These coordinates are called generalized coordinates when they are independent of each other and equal in number to the degrees of freedom of the system. Unlike single degree of freedom system, where only one co-ordinate and hence one equation of motion is required to express the vibration of the system, in twodof systems minimum two co-ordinates and hence two equations of motion are required to represent the motion of the system. For a conservative natural system, these equations can be written by using mass and stiffness matrices. One may find a number of generalized co-ordinate systems to represent the motion of the same system. While using these co-ordinates the mass and stiffness matrices may be coupled or uncoupled. When the mass matrix is coupled, the system is said to be dynamically coupled and when the stiffness matrix is coupled, the system is known to be statically coupled. The set of co-ordinates for which both the mass and stiffness matrix are uncoupled, are known as principal co-ordinates. In this case both the system equations are independent and individually they can be solved as that of a singledof system. A two-dof system differs from the single dof system in that it has two natural frequencies, and for each of the natural frequencies there corresponds a natural state of vibration with a displacement configuration known as the normal mode. Mathematical terms associated with these quantities are eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Normal mode vibrations are free vibrations that depend only on the mass and stiffness of the system and how they are distributed. A normal mode oscillation is defined as one in which each mass of the system undergoes harmonic motion of same frequency and passes the equilibrium position simultaneously. The study of two-dof- systems is important because one may extend the same concepts used in these cases to more than 2-dof- systems. Also in these cases one can easily obtain an analytical or closed-form solutions. But for more degrees of

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freedom systems numerical analysis using computer is required to find natural frequencies (eigenvalues) and mode shapes (eigenvectors). The above points will be elaborated with the help of examples in this lecture. Few examples of two-degree-of-freedom systems Figure 1 shows two masses m1 and m2 with three springs having spring stiffness k1 , k2 and k3 free to move on the horizontal surface. Let x1 and x2 be the displacement of mass m1 and m2 respectively. x1 k1 m1 k2 m2 x2 k3

Figure 1 As described in the previous lectures one may easily derive the equation of motion by using d’Alembert principle or the energy principle (Lagrange principle or Hamilton’s principle) 1 m1 x Using d’Alembert principle for mass m1 , from the free body diagram shown in figure 1(b) m1 x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 − k2 x2 = 0 (1) and similarly for mass m2 m2 x2 − k1 x1 + (k2 + k3 ) x2 = 0 Important points to remember • Inertia force acts opposite to the direction of acceleration, so in both the free body diagrams inertia forces are shown towards left. • For spring k2 , assuming x2 > x1 , (2) k2 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 m2 x k3 x2 m2 k1 x1 k2 ( x1 − x2 ) m1

Figure 1 (b), Free body diagram

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the system is dynamically uncoupled but statically coupled. ⎟− ⎠ ∂qk (6) and noting that the generalized co-ordinate q1 = x1 and q2 = x2 which yields m1 x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 − k2 x2 = 0 m2 x2 − k1 x1 + (k2 + k3 ) x2 = 0 Same as obtained before using d’Alembert principle. the Lagrangian (3) (4) 1 1 1 ⎛1 2⎞ ⎛1 2 2 2⎞ 12 + m2 x 2 (5) L = T − U = ⎜ m1 x ⎟ − ⎜ k1 x1 + k2 ( x1 − x2 ) + k3 x2 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ The equation of motion for this free vibration case can be found from the Lagrange principle d ⎛ ∂L ⎜ k dt ⎝ ∂q ⎞ ∂L =0.The spring will pull mass m1 towards right by k2 ( x2 − x1 ) and it is stretched by x2 − x1 (towards right) it will exert a force of k2 ( x2 − x1 ) towards left on mass m2 . the spring get compressed by an amount x2 − x1 and exert tensile force of k2 ( x1 − x2 ) . One may note that in both cases. Similarly assuming x1 > x2 . 211 . Now writing the equation of motion in matrix form (7) (8) x1 ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 ⎡ m1 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎟+⎢ ⎢ 0 m ⎥ ⎜ 2 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎣ −k2 −k2 ⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ x ⎟ = ⎜0⎟ . 1 1 2 12 + m2 x 2 The Kinetic energy = T = m1 x and 2 2 1 1 1 2 Potential energy = U = k1 x12 + k2 ( x1 − x2 ) 2 + k3 x2 2 2 2 So. free body diagram remain unchanged. k 2 + k3 ⎦ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (9) Here it may be noted that for the present two degree-of-freedom system. Now if one uses Lagrange principle.

the above two equations in matrix form can be written as xc ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 k2l2 − k1l1 ⎤ ⎛ xc ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎡ m me ⎤ ⎛ ⎢ me J ⎥ ⎜ θ ⎟ + ⎢ k l − k l k l 2 + k l 2 ⎥ ⎜ θ ⎟ = ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ c ⎦⎝ c ⎠ 2 2 ⎦⎝ c ⎠ ⎣ ⎣ 2 2 11 11 (12) 212 . + k ( x − l θ ) + k ( x + l θ ) = 0 + meθ (10) mx c c 1 c 1 c 2 c 2 c Again taking moment of all the forces about point C + ( mx )e − k ( x − l θ )l + k ( x + l θ )l = 0 + meθ J θ G c c c 1 c 1 c 1 2 c 2 c 2 (11) Noting J c = J G + me 2 . Clearly this is a twodegree-of freedom system and one may express the co-ordinate system in many different ways. Consider a lathe machine. the equation of motion of this system can be obtained by using d’Alember’s principle. the spring forces and the inertia forces must be equal to zero leads to the following equation. Distance between points C and G is e .Example 2. viz. This point is at a distance l1 from the left end and l2 from right end. it will be shown. which can be modeled as a rigid bar with its center of mass not coinciding with its geometric center and supported by two springs. how the use of different coordinate systems lead to static and or dynamic coupled or uncoupled equations of motion. Point C represents a point on the bar at which we want to define the co-ordinates of this system. Figure 3 shows the free body diagram of the system where point G is the center of mass. Assuming xc is the linear displacement of point C and θc the rotation about point C. k2 . xc J cθ c ) m ( xc + eθ c C k1 ( xc − l1θ c ) k1 k k2 l1 e θc G k2 ( xc + l2θ c ) l2 Figure 3: Free body diagram of the system Figure 2 In this example. k1 . Now summation of all the forces.

e.e. Normal Mode Vibration Again considering the problem of the spring-mass system in figure 1 with m1 = m . kl +k l ⎦ ⎝ c⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 0 2 11 2 2 2 (14) Hence in this case the system is dynamically coupled but statically uncoupled. this coupling disappears. Case 3: If we choose l1 = 0 .. the equation of motion will become xc ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 ⎡ m me ⎤ ⎛ ⎢ me J ⎥ ⎜ θ ⎟ + ⎢ k l c ⎦⎝ c ⎠ ⎣ ⎣ 22 k2l2 ⎤ ⎛ xc ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟. 2⎥⎜ k2l2 ⎦ ⎝ θc ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ (15) Here the system is both statically and dynamically coupled. Case 2 : If. k2l2 = k1l1 . i. few cases can are studied below. and we obtained uncoupled x and θ vibrations. the equation of motion becomes xc ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 ⎡ m me ⎤ ⎛ ⎢ me J ⎥ ⎜ θ ⎟ + ⎢ 0 c ⎦⎝ c ⎠ ⎣ ⎣ ⎤ ⎛ xc ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎥ ⎜θ ⎟ = ⎜ 0 ⎟ . m2 = 2m . k1 = k2 = k3 = k . point C coincide with the left end. i. the equation of motion (9) can be written as 1 + k ( x1 − x2 ) + kx1 = 0 mx 2 − k ( x1 − x2 ) + kx2 = 0 2mx (16) 213 . the equation of motion can be written as x θ k1 ( x − l1θ ) k2 ( x + l2θ ) k2l2 − k1l1 ⎤ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ x ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 ⎡ m 0 ⎤ ⎛ + =⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎢ 0 J ⎥ ⎜θ ⎢ 2 2⎥⎜ ⎟ G ⎦⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎣ k2l2 − k1l1 k1l1 + k2l2 ⎦ ⎝ θ ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ (13) So in this case the system is statically coupled and if k1l1 = k2l2 . point C and G coincides. Case 1 : Considering e = 0 .Now depending on the position of point C.

the normalized value can be given by A1 2k − 2mω 2 2k − 2mλ = = A2 k k (22) (23) k in equation (22) and (23) yields the same values. substituting ω12 = λ1 = 0. passing simultaneously through the equilibrium position. Here.634 and λ2 = ( + 3) = 2. x2 = A2 eiωt (17) Hence.634 (21) k k and ω2 = 2.634 214 . as both the equations are not independent.366 2 2 m m 2 2 m m So.1. we let x1 = A1eiωt . From the first equation (19) the normalized value can be given by A1 k k = = 2 A2 2k − mω 2k − mλ and from the second equation of (19). the natural frequencies of the system are ω1 = λ1 = 0. (2k − mω 2 ) A1 − kA2 = 0 −kA1 + (2k − 2mω 2 ) A2 = 0 or. So one should find a normalized value. it may be observed that for these frequencies.We define a normal mode oscillation as one in which each mass undergoes harmonic motion of the same frequency. λ1 = ( − 3) = 0. Now. yields 3 k k λ 2 − (3 )λ + ( ) 2 = 0 m 2 m 3 1 3 1 k k k k Hence. in matrix form (18) ⎡ 2k − mω 2 ⎢ ⎣ −k 2k − mω 2 −k ⎤ ⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ −k ⎟=⎜ ⎟ 2⎥⎜ 2k − 2mω ⎦ ⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ −k = 0.. One may normalize the response by finding the ratio of A1 to A2 .e.. 2k − 2mω 2 (19) Hence for nonzero values of A1 and A2 (i. one can not get unique value of A1 and A2 . for non-trivial response) (20) Now substituting ω 2 = λ .366 m m Now from equation (1). m as both these equations are linearly dependent. equation 6. For such motion.

731⎫ ⎬ ⎩1.00 ⎭ In the 1st normal mode. The participation of different modes will depend on the initial conditions of displacements and velocities. So for a system the free vibration can be given by x = φ1 A sin(ω1t +ψ 1 ) + φ2 B sin(ω2t + ψ 2 ) (27) 215 .732 = ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ A2 ⎠ λ =λ1 (24) k m and similarly for ω2 2 = λ2 = 2. when the second mass moves unit distance.⎛ A1 ⎞ 0. From equation (24) and (25). Also in the first mode when the second mass moves unit distance. the resulting free-vibration of the system will be a combination of the different normal modes.73⎫ ⎬ ⎩1. the first mass moves 0. the first mass moves 2.366 ⎛ A1 ⎞ −2.00 ⎭ φ2 ( x ) = ⎨ ⎧−2. Free vibration using normal modes When the system is disturbed from its initial position.731 units in the same direction and in the second mode. which are arbitrary. The normalized amplitude ratios are called the normal modes and designated by φn ( x) . the two masses move in the same direction and are said to be in phase and in the 2nd mode the two masses move in the opposite direction and are said to be out of phase.73 = ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ A2 ⎠λ =λ2 (25) It may be noted • • • Equation (19) gives only the ratio of the amplitudes and not their absolute values. If one of the amplitudes is chosen to be 1 or any number.73 units in opposite direction. the two normal modes of this problem are: φ1 ( x) = ⎨ ⎧0. we say that amplitudes ratio is normalized to that number.

They depend on the initial conditions.00 ⎭ ⎩1 ⎭ ⎩ x2 ⎭ where A and B allow different amounts of each mode and ψ 1 and ψ 2 allows the two modes’ different phases or starting values.00 ⎭ The general solution for the free vibration can then be written as: ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎧0. This is explained with the help of the following example.Here A and B are part of participation of first and second modes respectively in the resulting free vibration and ψ 1 and ψ 2 are the phase difference.731⎫ ⎨ ⎬ =⎨ ⎬ sin ω1t ⎭ ⎩ x2 ⎭1 ⎩1 ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎧ −2. For each of these modes the time solution can be expressed as: ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎧0. Substituting: 216 . velocity x x1 k x2 k m 2m k Figure 4 Solution: Any free vibration can be considered to be the superposition of its normal modes. x2 (0) = 1 and initial 1 (0) = x 2 (0) = 0 .731⎫ ⎧−2. We have to determine the resulting free vibration when the system is given an initial displacement x1 (0) = 5.73⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = A⎨ ⎬ sin(ω1t +ψ 1 ) + B ⎨ ⎬ sin(ω2t + ψ 2 ) ⎩1.731⎫ ⎨ ⎬ =⎨ ⎬ sin ω2t ⎩ x2 ⎭2 ⎩1. Example: Let us consider the same spring-mass problem (figure 4) for which the natural frequencies and normal modes are determined.

731⎫ ⎧−2.731⎫ ⎧−2.233 ⎨ ⎬ cos ω1t − 1.233 B=-1.233 Hence the resulting free vibration is ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎧0.731⎫ ⎧ −2.731⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ = A⎨ ⎬ sinψ 1 + B ⎨ ⎬ sinψ 2 ⎩1 ⎭ ⎩1 ⎭ ⎩ x2 (0) ⎭ ⎩1 ⎭ ⎧ x1 (0) ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎧0.000 ⎭ ⎩ x2 ⎭ Normal modes from eigenvalues The equation of motion for a two-degree-of freedom system can be written in matrix form as (28) M x + K x=0 where M and K are the mass and stiffness matrix respectively.2. Now to find the normal modes. x1 = X 1eiωt .731⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = A⎨ ⎬+ B⎨ ⎬ ⎩1 ⎭ ⎩1 ⎭ ⎩1 ⎭ 0. Now pre-multiplying M −1 in both side of equation 6. one may get I x + M −1 K x = 0 (29) (30) or.731B= 5 A+B =1 A= 2. x2 = X 2 eiωt . the above equation will reduce to [ A − λI ] X = 0 217 (31) . I x + Ax=0 Here A = M −1 K is known as the dynamic matrix. x is the vector of generalized co-ordinates.731⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = 2.00 ⎭ ⎩1.731⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ = ω1 A ⎨ ⎬ cosψ 1 + ω2 B ⎨ ⎬ cosψ 2 ⎩1 ⎭ ⎩1 ⎭ ⎩ x2 (0) ⎭ ⎩0 ⎭ cosψ 1 = cosψ 2 = 0 =>ψ 1 = ψ 2 = 900 Substituting in 1st set: ⎧5⎫ ⎧0.731⎫ ⎧−2.⎧ x1 (0) ⎫ ⎧5⎫ ⎧0.731A-2.233 ⎨ ⎬ cos ω2t ⎩1.

where X = { x1 x2 } and λ =ω 2 . and assuming small angle of rotation. the above equation becomes ⎞ ⎡ 2mlg 0 ⎤ ⎛ θ1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ml 2 ⎤ ⎛ θ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎜θ ⎟ = ⎜ 0 ⎟ 0 mlg ml 2 ⎦ ⎝ θ ⎣ ⎦⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2⎠ ⎞ ⎡ 2 1⎤ ⎛ θ ⎡ 2 0⎤ ⎛ θ1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ 1 or. T From equation (31) it is apparent that the free vibration problem in this case is reduced to that of finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A. Example: Determine the normal modes of a double pendulum. ml 2 ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ + mlg ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎣1 1⎦ ⎝ θ 2 ⎠ ⎣0 1⎦ ⎝θ2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎡ 2ml 2 ⎢ 2 ⎣ ml ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ g ⎛ 2 −1⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 −1⎞ ⎟ mlg ⎢ ⎟ ⎥= ⎜ 2 ⎜ ml ⎝ −1 2 ⎠ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ l ⎝ −2 2 ⎠ To find eigenvalues of A. Now A = 218 . the equation of motion can be written in matrix form as ⎞ ⎡(m1 + m2 )l1 g 0 ⎤ ⎛ θ1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎡(m1 + m2 )l12 m2l1l2 ⎤ ⎛ θ 1 +⎢ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ 0 m2l2 g ⎥ m2l2 ⎦ ⎝ θ 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝θ2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎣ m2l1l2 Now considering a special case when m1 = m2 = m and l1 = l2 = l . Solution Kinetic energy of the system = 1 2 + 1 m (l 2θ 2 2 2 T = m1l12θ 1 2 1 1 + l2 θ 2 + 2l1l2θ1θ 2 cos(θ 2 − θ1 )) 2 2 Potential energy of the system = U = m1 g (1 − cos θ1 ) + m2 g {l1 (1 − cos θ1 ) + l2 (1 − cos θ 2 )} = g {( m1 + m2 )l1 (1 − cos θ1 ) + m2l2 (1 − cos θ 2 )} θ1 θ2 l1θ1 l2θ 2 θ 2 − θ1 l1θ1 So Lagrangian of the system = Figure 5 L = T −U 1 2 + 1 m (l θ = m1l12θ 1 2 1 1 + l2θ 2 + 2l1l2 cos(θ 2 − θ1 )) − g {( m1 + m2 )(1 − cos θ1 ) + m2 (1 − cos θ 2 )} 2 2 So using Lagrange principle.

ω2 = 1.g −λ l A − λI = 0 ⇒ g −2 l 2 2 − g l g 2 −λ l 2 =0 g ⎛g⎞ ⎛g⎞ Or. λ − 4 λ + 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 0 l ⎝l ⎠ 2 2 g ⎛ g⎞ ⎛g⎞ ± ⎜ 4 ⎟ − 8⎜ ⎟ l g ⎝ l ⎠ ⎝l⎠ = (2 ± 2) Or. In the second mode they move in opposite direction Figure 6 One may solve the same problem by taking x1 and x2 as the generalized coordinates. Figure 7 show the free body diagram of both the masses.7653 . 4 ⎜ ⎟ − 4 λ + λ 2 − 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 0 l ⎝l ⎠ ⎝l⎠ g ⎛g⎞ Or. Here x1 is the horizontal distance moves by mass m1 and x2 is the distance move by mass m2 . λ = 2 l g g Hence natural frequencies are ω1 = 0.8478 l l The normal modes can be determined from the eigenvalues. T1 y y T2 θ1 1 m1 x x θ2 2 m2 x m2 g x θ2 m1 g T2 Figure 7 219 . The corresponding principal modes are obtained as 4 2 2 g ⎛ θ1 ⎞ 1 l = = ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ θ 2 ⎠λ =λ1 (2 − 2 + 2) g l g ⎛ θ1 ⎞ 1 l = =− ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ θ 2 ⎠λ =λ2 (2 − 2 − 2) g l It may be noted that while in the first mode Both the pendulum moves in the same direction.

From the free body diagram of mass m2 . sin θ1 = tan θ1 = θ1 = x1 / l and sin θ 2 = tan θ 2 = θ 2 = ( x2 − x1 ) / l Hence T2 = m2 g . T1 cos θ1 − T2 cos θ 2 = m1 g T1 sin θ1 − T2 sin θ 2 + m1 x2 = 0 Assuming θ1 and θ 2 to be small. the above equation becomes x1 ⎞ g ⎡ 3 −1⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎟+ ⎢ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎜ ⎥⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ l ⎣ −1 1 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ 220 . T2 cos θ 2 = m2 g T2 sin θ 2 = − m2 x2 Also from the free body diagram of mass m1 . and T1 = (m1 + m2 ) g ⎛ ⎛ ( m + m2 ) g ⎞ m2 g ⎞ − m2 g m1 x1 + ⎜ ⎜ 1 x1 + x2 = 0 ⎟ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ l1 l2 ⎠ l2 ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎛x −x ⎞ m2 x2 + m2 g ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ = 0 ⎝ l2 ⎠ Hence in matrix form ⎡ m1 ⎢0 ⎣ ⎡⎛ ⎛ (m1 + m2 ) g ⎞ m2 g ⎞ ⎢⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟+ x1 ⎞ ⎢⎜ 0 ⎤ ⎛ l l2 ⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎢ m2 ⎥ x −m2 g ⎦⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎢ l2 ⎢ ⎣ −m2 g ⎤ ⎥ l2 ⎥ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ x 0 m2 g ⎥ ⎥⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ l2 ⎥ ⎦ Considering the case in which m1 = m2 = m and l1 = l2 = l .

4142 Figure 8 The different modes are as shown in the above figure.4142 2.4142 − + 3 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠λ =λ 3 − λ1 1 l Now g ⎛ X1 ⎞ 1 1 l = = =− = −2. x Solution: The resulting free vibration can be considered to be the superposition of the normal modes.4142 ⎜ ⎟ g 0.A= g l ⎡ 3 −1⎤ ⎢ −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 − g l g −λ l and A − λ I = 0 ⇒ g Hence − l 2 g −λ l =0 Or. conditions x1 (0) = x2 (0) = 0. Example Determine the equation of motion if the double pendulum is started with initial 1 (0) = x 2 (0) = 0.4142 ⎜ ⎟ g X 2. λ1 = 2 − 2 and λ2 = 2 + 2 l l ( ) ( ) Same as those obtained by taking θ1 and θ 2 as the generalized coordinates.5.4142 ⎝ X 2 ⎠λ =λ 3 − λ2 3 − 2 − 2 2 l 1 1 -0. the time solution can be written as 221 . For each of these modes. g ⎛ X1 ⎞ 1 1 l = = = = 0. λ 2 − 4 g ⎛g⎞ λ + 2⎜ ⎟ = 0 l ⎝l ⎠ g g or .

4142 ⎞ A⎜ ⎟ sin(ω1t +ψ 1 ) + B ⎜ ⎟ sin(ω2t + ψ 2 ) 1 ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ where A and B are the amounts of first and second mode’s participation and ψ 1 andψ 2 are the starting values or phases of the two modes.1036 . Substituting the initial conditions in the above equation ⎛ 0.6035 ⎜ ⎟ cos ω1t − 0.4142 ⎞ ⎛ −2.6035 and B = −0. so that ψ 1 = ψ 2 = 900 . Hence A = 0. cosψ 1 = cosψ 2 = 0 .4142 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.4142 ⎞ A⎜ ⎟ sinψ 1 + B ⎜ ⎟ sinψ 2 1 ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ 0.4142 ⎞ ⎛ −2.⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ X 1 ⎞ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ X 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ sin ω1t ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ sin ω2t ⎝ x2 ⎠1 ⎝ X 2 ⎠1 ⎝ x2 ⎠2 ⎝ X 2 ⎠ 2 The general solution for the free vibration can be written as ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎛ 0.4142 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = Aω1 ⎜ ⎟ cosψ 1 + Bω2 ⎜ ⎟ cosψ 2 1 ⎠ ⎝0⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ For the second set of equations to be satisfied.1036 ⎜ ⎟ cos ω2t 1 ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ x2 ⎠ Damped-free vibration of two-dof systems Consider a two degrees of freedom system with damping as shown in figure k1 x1 m1 k2 c2 m2 x2 k3 c3 c1 Figure 9 Now the equation of motion of this system can be given by x1 ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 ⎡ m1 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎟+⎢ ⎢ 0 m ⎥ ⎜ 2 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎣ − k2 −k2 ⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎡ c1 + c2 ⎜ ⎟+⎢ k 2 + k3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ −c2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ −c2 ⎤ ⎛ x ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ ⎥ c2 + c3 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ (32) 222 .4142 ⎞ ⎛ −2.4142 ⎞ ⎛ −2.5 ⎠ and ⎛0⎞ ⎛ 0.5 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟= ⎝ 0. So the equation for free vibration can be given by ⎛ 0.

Substituting (33) in (32) . the motion will die out with time. here also the solution of the above equations can be written as x1 = A1e st and x2 = A2 e st (33) where A1 . for non-zero values of A1 and A2 . In this case the characteristics equation becomes (ms 2 + cs + 2k )(ms 2 + cs + 2k ) − (cs + k ) 2 = 0 223 . Example: Find the response of the system as shown in figure 9 considering m1 = m2 = m.3.e..3. This equation is to be solved to get four roots. ( m1s 2 + (c1 + c2 ) s + k1 + k 2 )( m2 s 2 + (c2 + c3 ) s + k2 + k3 ) + (c2 s + k 2 ) 2 = 0 which is a fourth order equation in s and is known as the characteristic equation of the system. the determinant of their coefficient matrix must vanish. The general solution of the system can be given by x1 = A11e s1t + A12 e s2t + A13e s3t + A14 e s4t x2 = A21e s1t + A22 e s2t + A23e s3t + A24 e s4t (37) Here A1i . i = 1. Solution.As in the previous case. It may be recalled that. one may write ⎡ m1s 2 + (c1 + c2 ) s + k1 + k2 ⎢ −c2 s − k2 ⎣ ⎤ ⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎥⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ m2 s + (c2 + c3 ) s + k2 + k3 ⎦ ⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ −c2 s − k2 2 (34) Now for a nontrivial response i. 4 are four arbitrary constants to be determined from the initial conditions and the coefficients A2i . 2. the motion will be oscillatory. all the four roots must be either real negative numbers or complex number with negative real parts. if the roots contain complex conjugate numbers. i = 1. Hence m1s 2 + (c1 + c2 ) s + k1 + k2 −c2 s − k2 m2 s 2 + (c2 + c3 ) s + k2 + k3 −c2 s − k2 =0 (35) (36) or. k1 = k2 = k3 = k and c1 = c3 = 0 and c2 = c . 4 are related to A2i and can be determined from equation (34) as A1i c2 si + k2 = 2 A2i m1si + (c1 + c2 ) si + k1 + k2 (38) For a physical system with damping. 2. A2 and s are constant . For a stable system.

m 2 s 4 + 2mcs 3 + (4mk + c 2 − c 2 ) s 2 + (4kc − 2kc) s + 4k 2 − k 2 = 0 or . x1 m1 x2 m2 I1 k θ1 θ2 I2 Figure 10 Figure 11 From figure 10 the equation of motion of the system is x1 ⎞ ⎡ k ⎡ m1 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎟+⎢ ⎢ 0 m ⎥ ⎜ ⎣ −k 2 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ −k ⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ k ⎥ ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ (39) Assuming the solution x1 = A1eiωt and x2 = A2 eiωt (40) ⎡ k − m1ω 2 ⎢ ⎣ −k ⎤ ⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎥⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ k − m2ω ⎦ ⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ −k 2 (41) So for non-zero values of A1 . (ms 2 + k )(ms 2 + 2cs + 3k ) = 0 Hence the roots are s1. A2 . m 2 s 4 + 2mcs 3 + 4mks 2 + 2kcs + 3k 2 = 0 or .(ms 2 + cs + 2k ) 2 − (cs + k ) 2 = 0 or . 224 . One can show that the following two systems are degenerate systems. (ms 2 + k )(ms 2 + 2cs + 3k ) = 0 or . ms 2 (ms 2 + 2cs + 3k ) + k (ms 2 + 2cs + 3k ) = 0 or .4 = − ± ⎜ ⎟ − 3 m m m ⎝m⎠ 2 So the system has a pair of complex conjugate SEMI-DEFINITE SYSTEMS The systems with have one of their natural frequencies equal to zero are known as semidefinite or degenerate systems.2 = ±i k c k ⎛c⎞ and s3.

one obtains ⎡ k11 − m11ω 2 k12 − m12ω 2 ⎤ ⎛ X 1 ⎞ ⎛ F1 ⎞ = sin ω t ⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ sin ωt 2 2 ⎝0⎠ ⎣ k21 − m21ω k22 − m22ω ⎦ ⎝ X 2 ⎠ ⎡ k11 − m11ω 2 k12 − m12ω 2 ⎤ ⎛ X 1 ⎞ ⎛ F ⎞ or . and.k − m1ω 2 −k k − m2ω 2 −k =0 2 2 2 (42) =0 or. the system is a semi-definite or degenerate system. So the system will have a rigid-body motion. Vibration Absorber Consider a system excited by a harmonic force F1 sin ωt expressed by the matrix equation x1 ⎞ ⎡ k11 k12 ⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ F ⎞ ⎡ m11 m12 ⎤ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎢ ⎢m ⎥ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ sin ωt ⎣ 21 m22 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ k21 k22 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ Since the system is undamped. ω 2 ( m1m2ω 2 − k ( m1 + m2 )) = 0 ⇒ ω1 = 0. ⎢ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ 2 2⎥⎜ ⎣ k21 − m21ω k22 − m22ω ⎦ ⎝ X 2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ (50) (51) 225 . ω1 = 0.. ω2 = k (m1 + m2 ) m1m2 Hence. Similarly one may show for the two-rotor system. For the second mode frequency A1 k km1m2 km1m2 m = = = =− 2 2 A2 k − m1ω km1m2 − m1k ( m1 + m2 ) − m1km1 m1 amplitude ratio is inversely proportional to the mass ratio the system. i. θ1 I =− 2 θ2 I1 (47) (48) the ratio of angle of rotation inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of the rotors. the solution can be assumed as (49) ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ X 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ sin ωt ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ X 2 ⎠ Substituting equation (50) in equation (49). k − m1ω 2 ( )( k − m ω ) − k (43) (44) (45) (46) or. Forced harmonic vibration. k 2 − k ( m1 + m2 )ω 2 + m1m2ω 4 − k 2 = 0 or. Corresponding to the first mode frequency.e. A1 = A2 .

x1 F sin ωt k2 x2 k1 m1 m2 k3 Figure 12 Solution: The equation of motion of this system can be written as ⎡ m1 ⎢0 ⎣ x1 ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎢ ⎥ m2 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ −k2 −k2 ⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ F sin ωt ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ k 2 + k3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ x1 ⎞ ⎡ 2k ⎡ m 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎟+⎢ ⎢ 0 m ⎥ ⎜ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ − k −k ⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ F sin ωt ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ 2k ⎥ ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ So assuming the solution 226 . Find the response of the system when m1 = m2 and k1 = k2 = k3 .⎛ X 1 ⎞ ⎡ k11 − m11ω 2 ⎜ ⎟=⎢ 2 ⎝ X 2 ⎠ ⎣ k21 − m21ω k12 − m12ω 2 ⎤ ⎛ F ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ k22 − m22ω 2 ⎦ ⎝ 0 ⎠ −1 ⎡ k22 − m22ω 2 − k12 + m12ω 2 ⎤ ⎛ F ⎞ ⎢ ⎥⎜ ⎟ −k21 + m21ω 2 k11 − m11ω 2 ⎦ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎣ = k11 − m11ω 2 k12 − m12ω 2 k21 − m21ω 2 k22 − m22ω 2 (52) Hence X1 (k = 22 − m22ω 2 F Z (ω ) ) . k12 − m12ω 2 ⎤ ⎥ k22 − m22ω 2 ⎦ (53) ⎡ k11 − m11ω 2 where [ Z (ω ) ] = ⎢ 2 ⎣ k21 − m21ω X2 (k = 21 − m21ω 2 F Z (ω ) ) (54) Example Consider the system shown in figure 12 where the mass m1 is subjected to a force F sin ωt .

As studied in case of forced vibration of single-degree of freedom system. where ωn = k1 / m1 2 −ω2) m(ωn (55) which will be maximum when ω = ωn. subjected to a force F sin ωt . Tuned Vibration Absorber Consider a vibrating system of mass m1 .⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ X 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ sin ωt and proceeding as explained before ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎝ X 2 ⎠ ⎡ 2k − mω 2 Z ( ω ) = [ ] ⎢ ⎣ −k 2 2 ⎤ ⎥ 2k − mω 2 ⎦ −k 2 2 4 2 2 2 4 k 2 k2 Z (ω ) = ( 2k − mω ) − k = m ω − 4mkω + 3k = m (ω − 4 ω + 3 2 ) m m k k 2 or. one may add a secondary spring and mass system as shown in figure 13. stiffness k1 . m m Hence. k1 F sin ωt m1 k2 m2 Figure 13 x1 x2 227 . ω12 = and ω2 = 3 are normal mode frequencies of this system. when ω 2 = 2k / m . the system will have a steady state response given by F sin ωt x= . Also it may be observed that X 1 = 0. ω = ω2 . Now to absorb this vibration. Z (ω ) = m 2 (ω 2 − )(ω 2 − 3 ) = m 2 (ω 2 − ω12 )(ω 2 − ω2 ) m m k k 2 where. X1 = X2 = ( 2k − mω ) F 2 2 ) m 2 (ω 2 − ω12 )(ω 2 − ω2 kF 2 m (ω − ω12 )(ω 2 − ω2 ) 2 2 So it may be observed that the system will have maximum vibration when ω = ω1 or .

it is clear that. Hence. k21 = − k2 . which can be given by 2 ⎧ ⎛ k1 k2 k2 ⎞ kk ⎪⎛ k1 k2 k2 ⎞ λ1.. Hence. (59) (60) k2 . and k 22 = k . Z (ω ) = k1 + k2 − m1ω 2 −k2 − k2 k2 − m2ω 2 = k1k2 − m1k2ω 2 − k1m2ω 2 − k2 m2ω 2 + m1m2ω 4 (57) = m1m2 (λ1 − ω 2 )(λ2 − ω 2 ) where λ1 and λ2 are the roots of the characteristic equation Z (ω ) = 0 of the freevibration of this system.5 ⎨⎜ + + ⎟± ⎜ + + ⎟ −4 1 2 m1 m2 m1 ⎠ m1m2 ⎝ m1 m2 m1 ⎠ ⎪ ⎩⎝ Now from equation (53) and (54) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (58) X1 (k = 22 − m22ω 2 F Z (ω ) ) (k = 2 − m2ω 2 F Z (ω ) ) . k12 = − k2 . X 1 = 0. m21 = 0. For ω 2 = 2 . m2 Z (ω ) = k1k2 − m1k2 k2 k k k k − k1m2 2 − k2 m2 2 + m1m2 2 2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 k2 k2 2 2 = k1k2 − m1 2 − k1k2 − k2 + m1 2 = − k2 m2 m2 and X 2 = − k2 F F = 2 − k2 k2 (61) (62) 228 . by suitably choosing m2 X2 = − k2 F Z (ω ) From equation (59). k11 = k1 + k2 . when ω 2 = the stiffness and mass of the secondary spring and mass system. m12 = 0. m11 = m1 . vibration can be k completely eliminated from the primary system. m22 = m2.The equation of motion for this system can be given by x1 ⎞ ⎡ k1 + k2 ⎡ m1 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟+⎢ ⎢ 0 m ⎥ 2 ⎦ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎣ − k2 − k2 ⎤ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎛ F sin ωt ⎞ ⎥⎜ x ⎟ = ⎜ 0 ⎟ k2 ⎦ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ (56) Comparing equation (49) and (56).2 = 0.

parallel and normal to r. For the absorber to be effective. the exciting torques are proportional to the rotational speed ‘n’ which may vary over a wide range. Placing the coordinates through point O’. for example in case of an automobile engine. sin φ = φ . cos φ = 1. But in many cases. The characteristics of the centrifugal pendulum are ideally suited for this purpose. so + 2 φ ⎜ θ ⎟φ = − ⎜ ⎟θ ⎝r ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎛R ⎞ ⎛ R+r ⎞ (65) If we assume the motion of the wheel to be a steady rotation n plus a small sinusoidal oscillation of frequency ω . one may write θ = nt + θ 0 sin ωt θ = nt + ωθ 0 cos ωt ≅ n = −θ ω 2 sin ωt θ 0 (66) (67) (68) Substituting the above equations in equation (65) yields. 2 2 r = 0 M O′ = m ⎡ (64) ⎣ Rθ sin φ + Rθ cos φ + r (θ + φ ) ⎤ ⎦ Assuming φ to be small.Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber The tuned vibration absorber is only effective when the frequency of external excitation equals to the natural frequency of the secondary spring and mass system. its natural frequency must also be proportional to the speed. the line r rotates with +φ ) angular velocity ( θ ˆ j ˆ i r R O O′ The acceleration of mass m 2 2 i cos φ + r (θ + φ ) 2 ⎤ ˆ ˆ Rθ 2 sin φ + Rθ am = ⎡ ⎣ − Rθ cos φ + Rθ sin φ − r (θ + φ ) ⎤ ⎦ +⎡ ⎣ ⎦ j (63) Since the moment about O′ is zero. 229 .

⎛R 2⎞ ⎛ R+r ⎞ 2 n ⎟φ = ⎜ ⎟ ω θ 0 sin ωt ⎝r ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ Hence the natural frequency of the pendulum is + φ ⎜ (69) ωn = n R r (70) and its steady-state solution is (R + r) / r φ= ω 2θ 0 sin ωt −ω 2 + ( Rn 2 / r ) (71) It may be noted that the same pendulum in a gravity field would have a natural frequency of g . given by m times the i 2 2 i ˆ + R sin φ ˆ ˆ T = R cos φ i j ×m⎡ ⎣ − Rθ cos φ + Rθ sin φ − r (θ + φ ) ⎤ ⎦ 2 2 2 2 = − mRφ ⎡ ⎣ − Rω θ 0 sin ωt sin φ − Rn − rn − rφ − 2rθφ ⎤ ⎦ ( ) (72) Now assuming small angle of rotation T = −m ( R + r ) n 2 Rφ Now substituting the (73) in (72). This possesses some difficulties in the design of the pendulum. (73) T= −mR( R + r ) 2 n 2 / r 2 ω θ0 sin ωt ( Rn 2 / r ) − ω 2 (74) ⎡ m( R + r ) 2 ⎤ θ = J eff θ = −⎢ 2 2⎥ ω 1 / r Rn − ⎣ ⎦ Hence the effective inertia can be written as ⎡ m( R + r ) 2 ⎤ m( R + r ) 2 = − J eff = − ⎢ 2 2 2 ⎥ 1 − (ω / ωn ) ⎣1 − rω / Rn ⎦ (75) which can be ∞ at its natural frequency. the pendulum must meet the requirement ω 2 = (4n) 2 = n 2 R / r . Torque exerted by the pendulum on the wheel With the ˆ j component of am equal to zero. ˆ component of am . as the length of the pendulum r = R /16 becomes very 230 . For example to suppress a disturbing torque of frequency equal to four times the natural speed n. Hence. the pendulum force is a tension along r . So it may be noted that for the centrifugal pendulum the gravity r field is replaced by the centrifugal field Rn 2 .

In a certain refrigeration plant. Also determine the position of the nodes. The moments of inertia of the pump impeller and the motor are 1600 kg. (v1 and v2 are velocity) determine the equation of motion.m2 respectively. a section of pipe carrying the refrigerant vibrated violently at a compressor speed of 232 rpm. 4. If the system is started with the following initial conditions: x1(0) =x2(0) = X. To eliminate this difficulty. what must be the weight and spring stiffness? 2. For a trial test. find the frequencies of torsional oscillations of the system.m2 and 500 kg. θ1 m1 L2 m2 x2 L1 x1 θ2 Figure P1 5. 3. Neglecting the inertia of the gears. determine the response in terms of normal modes. Develop a matlab code for determination of free-vibration of a general two-degree of freedom system. A centrifugal pump rotating at 500 rpm is driven by an electric motor at 1200 rpm through a single stage reduction gearing. and their diameters are 100 and 50 mm respectively. for a 905 gm. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the systems. The lengths of the pump shaft and the motor shaft are 450 and 200 mm. Derive the equation of motion for the double pendulum shown in figure p1 in terms of θ1 and θ2 using Lagrange principle. Exercise problems 1. To avoid this one may go for Chilton bifilar design.small it will be difficult to design it. 231 . Absorber tuned to 232 cpm resulted in two natural frequencies of 198 and 272 cpm. If the absorber system is to be designed so that the natural frequencies lie outside the region 160 to 320 cpm. If the lower mass is given an impulse F0 δ (t). Derive the normal modes of vibration of a double pendulum with same length and mass of the pendulum. v1(0) =v2(0)=0. it was proposed to clamp a cantilever spring mass system to the pipe to act as an absorber.

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