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INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM
: To understand the concept of the Fiber-Optic System.
Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to : define the terms optical and light. name six typical communications applications for fiberoptic cable. draw a basic block diagram of a fiber-optic communications system and tell what each part of it does. explain how light is propagated through the fiber-optic cable. name the three basic types of fiber-optic cables, and state the two materials from which they are made.
E3125/2/2 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM
Introduction to Fiber-Optic
Throughout the world, thousands of simultaneous voice conversations are now being transmitted over the fiberoptic cable which has a diameter of less than the diameter of a human hair.
Light wave communication was first considered more than 100 years ago. The implementation of optical communication using light waveguides was restricted to very short distance prior to 1970. Corning Glass Company achieved a breakthrough in 1970 by producing a fused silica (SiO2) fiber with a loss approximately 20 dB/km. The development of semiconductor light source also started to mature at about that time, allowing the feasibility of transmission over a few kilometers to be demonstrated. Since 1970, the rate of technological progress
E3125/2/3 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM
has been phenomenal, and optical fibers are now used in transoceanic service. Besides the long-distance routes, fibers are used in the inter-CO (inter exchange) routes, and the subscriber loop in the final link in what will eventually be the global interconnection chain. Optical fibers are associated with high-capacity communications. A lot of attention is presently being given to optical fibers to provide a very extensive broadband ISDN.
Fiber optics is defined as that branch of optics that deals with the transmission of light through ultrapure fibers of glass, plastic, or some other form of transparent media. From a decorative standpoint, most of us are familiar with the fiber optic lamp, which uses bundles of thin optical fibers illuminated from the base end of the lamp by a light source. The light source is made to vary in color, which can be seen at the opposite ends of the fiber as a tree of illuminating points radiating various colors of the transmitted light. Although the lamp is used for decorative purposes only, it serves as an excellent model of how light can be transmitted through the fiber.
Light Light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation. The basic characteristic of electromagnetic radiation is its frequency or wavelength. Light frequencies fall between microwaves and xrays, as shown in Figure 2.1.
3. 5. Units typically used are the nanometer or micrometer ( 1 micrometer = 1micron).E3125/2/4 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Figure 2. Infrared : Band of light wavelengths that are too long to be seen by the human eye. 3. Light waves are commonly specified in terms of wavelength instead of frequency. In all cases. wide area and local area. Their primary use is in long-distance telephone systems and cable TV system. TV studio to transmitter interconnection eliminating a microwave radio link.1 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum Light frequency spectrum can be divided into three general bands: 1. Fiber-optic cables are no more expensive or complex to install than standard electrical cables. Computer networks. . 2. yet their information-carrying capacity is many times greater. Shipboard communications. 4. Closed-circuit TV systems used in buildings for security. Ultraviolet :Band of light wavelengths that are too short to be seen by the 2. Secure communications systems at military bases. 2. the fiber-optic cables replace conventional coaxial or twisted-pair cables.2 Applications of Fiber-Optic Fiber-optic communications systems are being used more and more each day. human eye. Below are some applications which use fiber-optic cables :1. Visible : Band of light wavelengths to which the human eye will respond.
together together with with coaxial coaxial cable cable is is used used for for the the final final connection connection to to the the subscriber subscriber and and medicine. Utilities ( electrical . Nuclear plant instrumentation. where where optical optical fiber fiber is is used used . Television. medicine. Aircraft controls. 11. and so on) station communications. 10. 7. for for cable cable operators operators networks. gas. 13.E3125/2/5 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 6. Data acquisition and control signal communications in industrial process control systems. Aircraft communications. networks. Television. 12. Cable TV systems replacing coaxial cable. 8. 9. Interconnection of measuring and monitoring instruments in plants and laboratories. College campus communication.
E3125/2/6 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2.2 Simplified fiber optic communications block diagram The transmitter consists of an analog to digital converter (coder). The three primary building blocks of the link are the transmitter. Fiber Coder Coder Light Light Source Source Repeater Repeater (long (long distance) distance) Light pulses Fiber Light Light Detector Detector Decoder Decoder Figure 2. and a light source.2 shows a simplified block diagram of an optical fiber communications link. The A/D converter is used to convert continuous analog signals such as . and the fiber guide. the receiver.3 Fiber-Optic System Block Diagram Figure 2.
The fiber itself is generally regarded as the core and its cladding. Figure 2.E3125/2/7 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM voice or video (TV) signals into a series of digital pulses. converts the received light pulses back to pulses of electrical current. a cladding. acting as the receiving element. and a protective jacket. the centre core that carries the light. The material composition of these two layers can be any of the following : • • • Glass cladding and glass core Plastic cladding and glass core Plastic cladding and plastic core Coating materials include lacquer. transparent material that confines and propagates light waves shown in Figure 2. where the original voice or video is recovered. 2. Repeaters are used to ensure the signals can be transmitted efficiently when the two stations are separated far enough from each other. The optical fiber consists of a glass or plastic fiber core.3 and Figure 2. The receiver includes a light detector or photocell and a decoder. cylindrical. the cladding layer covering the core that confines the light to the core.The light-beam pulses are then fed into a fiber-optic cable where they are transmitted over long distances. The electrical pluses are amplified and reshaped back into digital form that is fed to a decoder such as a D/A converter. The digital pulses are then used to flash a powerful light source off and on very rapidly.4 Fiber-optic cable construction An optical fiber is a long.4 .3 Typical Fiber Optic Cabling . and acrylates. The light detector is very often either a PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type) diode or an APD (avalanche photodiode). The light source is either a light-emitting diode (LED) or an injection laser diode (ILD). It is comprised of three layers. and the coating that provides protection for the cladding. silicone. The light detector.
at about 1. They are usually less expensive but have higher attenuation (loss) and limited application.003. . The fiber coating is normally colored using manufacturer’s standard color codes to facilitate the identification of fiber. Optical fibers can also be made completely from plastic or other materials.5 and the cladding is slightly less.E3125/2/8 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM The index of refraction in the silica core is about 1.48. The index of refraction of air is 1.
.. Let’s have some activity !!! Yeah….1 The optical spectrum is made up of three parts. OOM. the three parts are infrared. visible and ultraviolet.!!!! VROOOOM…. Solution to Example 2..1 In the optical spectrum.VROO OOM.E3125/2/9 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Example 2.VROO VROOOOM…. Name them.
Air Glass Diamond . True or False.3 The major use of fiber-optic cables is ______________________. c.1 2. a. 2. True or False. 2.4 Voice and video signals are converted into ____________ before being transmitted by a light beam.2 2. Fiber-optic cable has more loss than electric cable over long distance.5 The core of a fiber-optic cable is made of …. lighter. and stronger than electric cable. 2. Choose the letter which best answers each question.E3125/2/10 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Activity 2A TEST OUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! Answer the following questions. b. Fiber-optic cable is smaller.
9 The speed of light in plastic compared to the speed of light in air is…. Computer networks Telephone systems Consumer TV 2. c. b.7 The core of a fiber-optic cable is surrounded by … a. b. Infrared Gamma-rays Ultraviolet 2. c. Cladding Wire braid shield Paper 2. Less More The same . c.E3125/2/11 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2. a.6 Which of the following is not a common application of fiber-optic cable? a. b. b.8 Which of the following is not part of the optical spectrum? a. c.
8 2.7 2.9 telephone systems false true binary or digital pulses c a b a a II have have done done all all the the questions questions in in activity activity 3A 3A successfully. Well Well done! done! And And now now you you can can proceed proceed to to the the next next input. .1 2.5 2.E3125/2/12 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Feedback To Activity 2A 2.3 2.6 2.2 .4 2. successfully. input.
As a result each material has its own Refractive Index which we use to help us calculate the amount of bending which takes place. Refractive index is defined as: n =C Equation 2. This bending of light is called refraction and it depends upon the fact that light travels at one speed in one material and at a different speed in a different material.1 ν where n is the refractive index C is the speed of light in a vacuum .5 Basic Optical Laws When light traveling in a transparent material meets the surface of another transparent material two things happen:a) b) some of the light is reflected some of the light is transmitted into the second transparent material The light which is transmitted usually changes direction when it enters the second material.E3125/2/13 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM INPUT INPUT 2.
E3125/2/14 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM ν is the speed of light in the material The indexes of refraction of several common materials are given in Table 2.1.0-2.0003 ( ≈1.6 Index of Refraction Index of refraction is based on a wavelength of light emitted from a sodium flame (5890 Å) Table 2.42 3.5-1.1 Typical Indexes of Refraction How a light ray reacts when it meets the interface of two transmissive materials that have different indexes of refraction can be explained with Snell’s law.4 3.36 1.0 1. Medium Vacuum Air Water Ethyl alcohol Fused quartz Glass fiber Diamond Silicon Gallium-arsenide 1.2 .0 ) 1.33 1.46 1.9 2. Snell’s law simply states n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 where n1 = refractive index of material 1 (unit less) Equation 2.
Normal θ2 ( n1 < n2 ) ( n1 = n 2 ) Unrefracted Ray ( n1 > n2 ) θ2 Medium n2 Medium n1 θ1 (angle of incidence) Incident ray Figure 2.6. At the interface.E3125/2/15 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM n2 = refractive index of material 2 (unit less) θ1 = angle of incidence (degrees) θ2 = angle of refraction (degrees) A refractive index for Snell’s law is shown in figure 2.5. The critical angle can be derived from Snell’s law as follows: n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 Refracted Ray . This definition pertains only when the light ray is traveling from a more dense medium into a less dense medium. as shown in Figure 2.5. depending on whether n1 is less than or greater than n2 .5 Refractive model for Snell’s law 2. the incident ray may be refracted toward the normal or away from it.1 Critical Angle The critical angle is defined as the minimum angle of incidence at which a light ray may strike the interface of two media and result in an angle of refraction of 90° or greater.
3 Normal n2 less dense n1 more dense θ1=θC (minimum) Incident ray θ2 Refracted ray (more to less dense) Figure 2. −1 n2 Critical Angle : θC = sin n 1 Equation 2. Therefore.5. then θ1 = θC .E3125/2/16 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 n1 When θ2 = 90° which result to sin θ2 = 1.2 Total Internal Reflection .6 Critical Angle Refraction 2.
7 The Total Internal Reflection Total Internal Reflection of Incident Ray . Normal n2 less dense n1 more dense θ1>θC Incident ray Figure 2. In no other situation in nature. We can define the two conditions necessary for TIR to occur: 1. 2. does 100% reflection occur. The refractive index of the first medium is greater than the refractive index of the second one. the angle of incidence is equal to or greater than θc Figure 2. So TIR is unique and very useful. θ1.7 shows the Total Internal Reflection (TIR). This is true for any value of θ1.E3125/2/17 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM The transmitted ray now tries to travel in both materials simultaneously for various reasons this is physically impossible so there is no transmitted ray and all the light energy is reflected. is greater than or equal to the critical angle. The angle of incidence. where light is reflected. θc The phenomenon of TIR causes 100% reflection.
5. is called the Numerical Aperture.3 Numerical Aperture One of the properties of a fiber. A numerical aperture of 0 means that the fiber gathers no light (corresponding to θA = 0o). which we need to know.4 and Also. Where NA n1 n2 θA NA = 2 n12 − n2 Equation 2. The numerical aperture is defined as: Equation 2. Any light entering the fiber at less than this angle will meet the cladding at an angle greater than θc.E3125/2/18 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2. 2. If light meets the inner surface of the cladding (the core-cladding interface) at greater than or equal to θc then TIR occurs. A numerical aperture of 1 means that the fiber gathers all the light that falls onto it (corresponding to θA = 90o). The ray then crosses to the other side of the core and because the fiber is more or less straight.5 sin −1 NA = θ A = = = = numerical aperture (unitless) refractive index of the glass core (unitless) refractive index of the cladding (unitless) acceptance angle (degrees) It is a measure of the light gathering power of the fiber. the ray will meet the cladding on the other side at an angle which again causes TIR.6 Light Ray Propagation in a Fiber-Optic Cable The angle θA in the Figure 2. The ray is then reflected back across the core again and the same thing .8 is called the Acceptance Angle. It lies between 0 and 1. So all the energy in the ray of light is reflected back into the core and none escapes into the cladding.
In this way the light zigzags its way along the fiber. In a graded-index fiber there is no cladding. Multimode step-Index Fiber The index of refraction step from the core Multimode Graded-Index down to the cladding Fiber Optical fibers whose index of refraction of the core is manufactured to be .8 Propagation of light in a fiber-optic 2. If there is only one path for light to take down the cable. Where by the index profile of an optical-fiber is a graphical representation of the value of the refractive index across the fiber. it is called multimode. Cladding n=1. If there are more paths that can be used in a fiber-optic cable.5 Figure 2. There are two basic types of index profile: Step and graded. A step-index fiber has a central core with a uniform refractive index less than that of the central core. and the refractive index of the core is non-uniform.47 TIR θ1 θA Core Cladding n=1.1 Mode of Propagation and Index profile In fiber-optic terminology.E3125/2/19 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM happens. the word mode can be defined as path.6. This means that the light will be transmitted to the end of the fiber. it is called single mode. it is highest at the center and decreases gradually with distance toward the outer edge.
multi-mode step index and multimode graded index. For short distance Easy to work with.9.9 Core index profiles: (a) single-mode step index. Essentially.7 Difficult Classification of Fiber to work with. LANs For very high pulse rates Figure 2. (c) multi-mode graded index .graded from the center out to the cladding interface E3125/2/20 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM For long distance 2. LANs Provides more bandwidth than (c) Most common and widely used type For short distance Easy to work with. (b) multi-mode step index. as companies shown in figure 2. fiber-optic can be classified into three types of configurations: Phone companies single-mode and CATV step index.
5 . let medium 1 be glass and medium 2 be ethyl alcohol. determine the angle of refraction .E3125/2/21 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM HINTS & HELPThe Example 2. direction of reflected light can be predicted by applying the law of reflection : the angle of incidence is equal to In figure 2. n2 and θ1 gives us .36 n2 (ethyl alcohol) = Rearranging Equation 2.2 From Table 2.5 1.2 and substituting for n1.2 The simplest way of manipulating light is to reflect it. For an angle of incidence of 30° . Solution to Example 2.1. n1 (glass) = 1.
2.4.3 Determine the critical angle for the fiber describe in Example 2.5 sin 30 = 0.5514 = sin θ2 1.3 Using the Equation 2.47° Example 2. Solution to Example 2. −1 2 θ C = sin n 1 n θC= 1.2.5514 = 33.36 sin −1 1 . .E3125/2/22 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM n1 sin θ1 = sin θ2 n2 1.05° Example 2. Solution to Example 2.2.36 θ2 = sin −1 0.4 Determine the numerical aperture for the fiber describe in Example 2.4 Using the Equation 2.5 = 65.
2.12 Total internal reflection takes place if the incident ray strikes the interface at an angle with what relationship to the critical angle? a.E3125/2/23 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2 2 NA = n1 − n2 = (1. Light is a type of _________________ radiation.11 The device that converts the light pulses into an electrical signal is a _________________.36) 2 = 0. Less than Greater than Zero . 2. c. b.633 Activity 2B TEST OUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! Answer the following questions.5) 2 − (1. Choose the letter which best answers each question.10 2.
c. c Multimode step-index Single-mode step-index Multimode graded-index 2. c. Speed factor Index of reflection Index of refraction 2.E3125/2/24 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2. Reflection Dispersion Absorption 2.14 Which of the following is not a common type of fiber-optic cable? a.15 The ratio of the speed of light in air to the speeds of light in another substance is called the a. b. c.18 Which type of fiber-optic cable is best for very high-speed data? .17 Which type of fiber-optic cable is the most widely used? a. b.13 The operation of a fiber-optic cable is based on the principle of … a. Single-mode step index Multi-mode graded index Single-mode graded index 2. b.16 Refraction is the a. c. b. b. Reflection of light waves Distortion of light waves Bending of light waves 2.
b.12 2.16 2.18 2.13 2.11 2.10 2.E3125/2/25 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM a.19 light detector or photocell electromagnetic c b a b c c a c CONGRATULATIONS !!! Now you can proceed to the next activity .15 2. c.17 2. Multimode step-index Single-mode step-index Multimode graded-index Feedback To Activity 2B 2.14 2.
3. This cable is also the easiest to make and the least expensive of the fiber-optic cable.E3125/2/26 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM KEY FACTS 1. governing how light rays propagate through a transparent medium by reflecting off its boundaries. . The multimode step index fiber cable is widely used at short to medium distances at relatively low pulse frequencies. Fiber-optics is a communications technology using transmission of light over glass or plastic fibers. Total Internal Reflection is a used in fiber-optics. 2.
E3125/2/27 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM .
Question 2-2 a.62. critical angle and total internal reflection.604.θc . It surrounded by cladding material having an index of refraction of 1. Fiber-optic communications system is primary used in _________________________. A glass fiber has an index of refraction of 1. c. Question 2-1 a.41) interface and an angle incidence of 38°. Question 2-4 a.55 is surrounded by water whose index of refraction is 1. b. Compute the critical angle. the critical angle and the numerical aperture for the cable. Outline the primary building blocks of a fiber-optic system. above which total internal reflection occurs in the glass slab. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on SelfAssessment given on the next page.E3125/2/28 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM SELF-ASSESSMENT You are approaching success. Define the following terms : refractive index.5) / quartz (n=1. θc. A glass fiber has an index of refraction of 1. Question 2-3 a. e. . Briefly describe the construction of a fiber-optic cable. List three general bands in the light frequency spectrum. For a glass (n = 1. determine the angle of refraction. Compute the critical angle. d.33. State Snell’s law for refraction and outline its significant in fiber-optic cables. b.
the centre core that carries the light. check our answers now. Infrared. Answer 2-4 a. a.E3125/2/29 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Feedback To Self-Assessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. visible and ultraviolet. Answer 2-2 Coder Light source Fiber Optic Cable Decoder b. Answer 2-3 a. the cladding layer covering the core that confines the light to the core. Snell’s law simply states n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 where n1 = refractive index of material 1 (unit less) . Long-distance telephone systems and cable TV system. Answer 2-1 a. and the coating that provides protection for the cladding. Light Light Detector Detector It is comprised of three layers .
critical angle : The minimum angle of incidence at which a light ray may strike the interface of two media and result in an angle of refraction of 90° or greater. The angle of incidence. e. θc b. refractive index undergoes : Determines the amount of bending that light when entering a different medium. The refractive index of the first medium is greater than the refractive index of the second one. θ1. : The principle of how light rays propagate through a transparent medium by reflecting off its boundaries.512 . is greater than or equal to the critical angle.E3125/2/30 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM n2 = refractive index of material 2 (unit less) θ1 = angle of incidence (degrees) θ2 = angle of refraction (degrees) Snell’s law is applied in TIR concept when : i. d. c. total internal reflaction. ii. θ2 = 41° θC = 59° θC = 82° θC = 70° NA = 0.