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B a

Niagara College 135 Taylor Road Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON Rm E308

GISC9216 Assignment 3

Due March 13, 2013

AR D E N B AC H N E R H . B a

Niagara College 135 Taylor Road Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON Rm E308

GISC9216 Assignment 3

Due March 13, 2013

Mrs. Janet Finlay BSc, Ba GIS-GM Professor Niagara College 135 Taylor Road Niagara-on-the-Lake ON L0S 1J0

Dear Mrs. Finlay, Re: Submission of GISC9216 Deliverable 3 Please accept this letter as a formal submission of Deliverable 3: Geometric Correction, Orthorectification and Mosaicking for GISC9216. Attached is the written document for this deliverable. For this analysis we were to look at three aerial photographs taken of the Puslinch area of South Western Ontario. We were to preform two different geometric correction techniques on these photos as to resample the images producing a geometrically correct image. The three photos were then put into a mosaic to display how well the images were resampled. The digital files for this assignment are located under X: GISC9216\Assignment#3 entitled BachnerAGISC9216D3.docx In the event that there is a problem opening or viewing the files please contact me at; ardenbachner@gmail.com. Thank you and I look forward to reading your comments on my assignment. Sincerely,

Arden Bachner, H.Ba G.I.S GIS-GM Candidate 2012-2013 AB/

AR D E N B AC H N E R H . B a

Niagara College 135 Taylor Road Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON Rm E308

GISC9216 Assignment 3

Due March 13, 2013

Executive Summary

In this comparison analysis between Polynomial Geometric Correction and Orthorectification, it has become apparent on the advantages and limitations of both. Polynomial Correction needs relatively less background data then the Orthorectification process. Both take into account ground control points (GCPs) but have different means of using them. Orthorectification requires both fiducial data and a DEM to accurately georeference the input images. Therefore Orthorectification, if done properly, produces a highly accurate image and when mosaicked together produce a uniformed map. The following report includes a step by step description of the processes that it takes to geometrically correct an image and then mosaic a set of images together.

AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ - 1 2.0 Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................... - 1 3.0 Data Acquisition ................................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.0 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... - 2 4.1 Ground Control Points ................................................................................................................................... - 2 4.1.1 Polynomial Geometric Correction........................................................................................................... - 3 4.1.2 Orthorectification ................................................................................................................................... - 4 4.2 Control Point Error ......................................................................................................................................... - 5 4.2.1 Polynomial Geometric Correction........................................................................................................... - 5 4.2.2 Orthorectification ................................................................................................................................... - 5 4.3 Resampling .................................................................................................................................................... - 6 4.3.1 Polynomial Geometric Correction........................................................................................................... - 6 4.3.2 Orthorectification ................................................................................................................................... - 7 4.4 Mosaicking ..................................................................................................................................................... - 8 4.4.1 Polynomial Geometric Correction vs. Orthorectification Geometric Correction ................................... - 8 5.0 Findings and Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... - 13 6.0 Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................. - 14 Appendix A

List of Figures

Figure 1: Different Effects of Distortion .............................................................................................................. - 2 Figure 2: Image distortion when produced ......................................................................................................... - 2 Figure 3: Selection of Ground Control Points from Reference Layer to Image to be Georeferenced .... - 3 Figure 4: Predictive Placement for Polynomial Geometric Correction ........................................................... - 4 Figure 5: Nearest Neighbour Grid ....................................................................................................................... - 6 Figure 6: Mosaic Process with Seams................................................................................................................ - 8 Figure 7: Area of error in joining images ............................................................................................................ - 8 Figure 9: Orthorectification Mosaic ...................................................................................................................... - 9 Figure 8: Polynomial Mosaic ................................................................................................................................ - 9 Figure 10: Polynomial Mosaic Site Locations .................................................................................................. - 10 Figure 11: Orthorectification Mosaic Site Locations ....................................................................................... - 10 -

List of Tables

Table 1: Polynomial Orders .................................................................................................................................. - 3 Table 2: RMS Total Error for Polynomial Geometric Correction ..................................................................... - 5 Table 3: RMS Total Error for Orthorectification Geometric Correction .......................................................... - 5 Table 4: Output Cell Size for Polynomial Geometric Correction ..................................................................... - 6 Table 5: Comparison of Cell Sizes ...................................................................................................................... - 6 Table 6: Output Cell Size for Orthorectification Geometric Correction .......................................................... - 7 Table 7: Comparison of Cell Sizes ...................................................................................................................... - 7 Table 8: Comparison Chart for Areas of Interest in the two Mosaicked Images ........................................ - 11 -

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

1.0

Introduction

Geometric correction of high-resolution removes terrain distortions to produce reliable image data in support of GIS applications. One process that benefits most from geometric correction is image mosaics which become easier to perform and more accurate as they have coordinates and a point of reference to accurately When the user has an unreferenced image, there is distortion across the image caused by distortions from the sensor and the earth's terrain. By geometrically correcting an image, the distortions are removed by the process of stretching the image to match the spatial accuracy of a map by considering location, elevation, and sensor information.

2.0

Purpose

To better understand the fundamentals of geometric correction (orthorectification specifically) and mosaicking process. Orthorectification will be performed on 3 photos and then mosaicked, for comparison; a polynomial geometric correction will be performed to compare results of the two types of correction (Finlay, 2013).

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

3.0

Analysis

3.1 Ground Control Points

For the geometric correction process to be successful in correcting image geometric distortions, there needs to be ground control points (GCPs) established. Geometric correction removes distortions that occur when the aerial images are being taken from the plane. Figure 1 demonstrates some of the ways the plane can distort the images being taken. Whereas Figure 2 shows how the image is physically distorted when produced.

(UC Santa Barbra, 2003)

Geometric correction removes these distortions by measuring the images coordinates of the known ground control points (reference points) and then computes the coefficients which are used to transform image coordinates (pixel values) into ground referenced coordinated (x,y) (ArcGIS Desktop, 2012).

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

Ground control points should be taken from a wide area of the original image to be referenced, this allows for a better calculation of the coefficients to produce the ground referenced image. When selecting points the user should select prominent locations or features, like lines, points, corners, but the best locations are on the ground (Finlay, 2013). Buildings can create distortion on corners as the areal image might have lean distortion. Figure 3 illustrates the selection of ground control points.

Figure 3: Selection of Ground Control Points from Reference Layer to Image to be Georeferenced

(Finlay, GISC9216: Digital Image Proc; Week6 - Geometric Correction, 2013)

The process of polynomial geometric correction requires GCPs, but the number of GCPs depends on which polynomial order has been selected for the analysis (Table 1).

Table 1: Polynomial Orders

Order of Transformations 1 2 3 4

For this correction first order polynomial was used, but 10 GCPs were collected. The pixels for the selected GCPs are used to calculate transformation formulas, which are the relationships between pixel locations and rectified pixel locations (Finlay, 2013). When the 10 GCPs are collected the RMS Errors will be calculated, for each point the RMS error should not be over 0.05 to achieve an accurate resampled output image.

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

After entering 4 GCPs the prediction process gave a good localization of the GCPs that were entered. This is because the 1st order transformation was selected, the required number of point for a 1st order is 3 and on the 4th GCP the calculation is used to place the point. Figure 4 shows the prediction for the 5th point. The predictive point is close to where it should be but needs moved to its correct location. The algorithm being used to place the points is using the points

already established, if there is a greater RMS error the algorithm will not compute the point in the right place. The user should never assume that the predictive point is accurate. The more points added to the original image, the better accuracy the output resampled image will be.

3.1.2 Orthorectification

The process of Orthorectification is different than that of Polynomial Geometric Correction. Orthorectification, or Camera selection in ERDAS, is a physical geometric model as it has information from the original image known and the use of a digital elevation model (DEM) for elevation to be added to the reclassified image (Finlay, 2013). A non-physical model like Polynomial Geometric Correction only uses algorithms to assign points, it takes no outside knowledge into the resampled image. Orthorectification requires the location of the fiducial markers on the image (pixel location), and 8 markers are used for highest accuracy. The focal length of the camera is also known and imputed for the calculation. The DEM is used for elevation reference.

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

One advantage of this correction method is that there is a limited number of GCPs needed, as the 8 fiducial markers count towards the calculation and there are very accurate map coordinates (x,y). The drawbacks are that the process needs more known data about the image, and it requires a DEM (Finlay, 2013). For the Orthorectified image, there was predictive process giving the location of GCPs, which was slightly more accurate than that of the Polynomial Geometric Correction. The user can check the accuracy of the point placements with the RMS errors. Because this process does not solely rely on the subset image, and instead uses a known DEM, there is more data for the program to create the algorithm to reclassify the image.

Control point error, or in ERDAS calculated into root mean square (RMS), is the distance or difference between the desired output coordinate for a GCP and the actual output coordinate for the same point if it were to be transformed with the selected geometric correction (ERDAS Inc., 2010). It produces this value so that the user is aware that the point could have inaccuracies that would affect the resampling. The total control point error is an average of the RMS error values and the values again should be less than 0.05.

The georeferencing of the Polynomial Geometric Correction produced the following RMS errors and total control point errors for the original three photographs in Table 2.

Table 2: RMS Total Error for Polynomial Geometric Correction

Photo Number 1 2 3

Number of GCPs 10 10 10

3.2.2 Orthorectification

The RMS error values and total control point errors for the Orthorectification images (Table 3) are different from those of the polynomial correction because there are already the fiducial marks incorporated into the georeferencing.

Table 3: RMS Total Error for Orthorectification Geometric Correction

Photo Number 1 2 3

Number of GCPs 4 4 4

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

3.3 Resampling

Once there are a suitable number of ground control points, the resampling can commence to achieve the ground referenced image. Nearest Neighbour Interpolation is the easiest and fastest to compute compared to Bilinear Interpolation and Cubic Convolution Interpolation. The digital values for a given pixel in the original image, are altered in relation to the nearest new pixels location in the corrected image, and is therefore given the new value (Finlay, 2013). For example though, Cubic Convolution calculates a distance weighted average of a block of 16 pixels and then assigns that value to the new image. See Figure 5 for visual representation of how Nearest Neighbour applies the new geographic coordinates to the original image.

(Finlay, GISC9216: Digital Image Proc; Week6 - Geometric Correction, 2013)

Even though all of the aerial photos were acquired under the same sensor, under the same conditions, the selection of the GCPs has an effect on the output cell size. If all of the GCPs were in the exact same locations in all three of the photos then there should be minimal variation or no difference at all between cell sizes. But because there is only a small area consistent in each of the photos, it could not be done to accurately represent the total area in each photo. The RMS errors contribute to the differences between cell sizes as shown in Table 4, and Table 5 shows the difference in cell size between all three photos.

Table 4: Output Cell Size for Polynomial Geometric Correction

Photo Number 1 2 3

Table 5: Comparison of Cell Sizes

Difference

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

3.3.2 Orthorectification

There is a difference between the output cell size for the Polynomial Geometric Correction and that for the Orthorectification image (Table 6). The average difference in the Orthorectified cell size has been calculated in Table 7. Even though their average differences are very small, they still have an impact on the resampled image, potentially resulting in vector layers to not fit properly. The difference between the two photos is 0.006693, which again might not seem like a large difference, but that number makes the Orthorectified resampled image more accurate than the Polynomial Geometric Correction resampled image.

Table 6: Output Cell Size for Orthorectification Geometric Correction

Photo Number 1 2 3

Difference

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

3.4 Mosaicking

The mosaic process offers the ability to stitch images together so that the input images are made into one broad image of the area (Figure 6). It is necessary for the images to contain map and projection information, but they do not need to be in the same projection or have the same cell sizes (ERDAS Inc., 2010).

(Finlay, GISC9216: Digital Image Proc; Week7-Mosaicking & Orthorectification, 2013)

MosaicPro in ERDAS offers the most options and allows for a more user directed mosaic. There are a number of features in MosaicPro to aid in creating a better mosaicked image, like the option for cut lines and seems. Automatic Weighted Seams was selected in ERDAS to perform the two mosaics located in Appendix A and Appendix B.

After creating the two mosaicked images and observing them in detail, it was determined that there are no geometric problems with the Polynomial mosaicked image, but there was a very small error in the Othorectificated image. All join areas/overlapped areas are flush and continuous for the Polynomial and most of the Orthorectification correction. The only area of the Orthorectified image with an error was in Figure 7 , the roads do not line up properly. This could potentially be from human error from the GCPs, in addition to potential yaw of the original air craft.

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

In Figure 8 and Figure 9 are the two mosaicked images, and on first glance appear to be identical. But when the vector layers are applied it is shown that there are shifts between the data and the mosaicked images. The explanation for these shifts and differences between the two layers could be caused by a number of reasons; human error when creating both mosaic and vector files, distortion on original image, and potential differences in projections.

On the following page, Figure 10 and Figure 11 highlight different areas on the mosaicked images of interest. They also contain the corresponding locations to the comparisons in Table 8 on pages 11 through 13 with descriptions about the selected area.

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

Site 2 Site 1

Site 3

Site 2 Site 1

Site 3

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Figure 11: Orthorectification Mosaic Site Locations

AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

Table 8: Comparison Chart for Areas of Interest in the two Mosaicked Images

Site Number

Polynomial

Orthorectification

Discussion

This area in the north east corner of the mosaic showed shifts and innacuracy on both Polynomial and Orthorectification corrected images. This is potentially caused by human error when creating the vector file, and potentially because it is a vector and thus curves in the road are harder to define. The other error that had nothing to do with the orthorectification was the merging of two roads, this occurs nowhere on this stretch of road.

Discussion

This area of road seems to not belong anywhere as here are no road features close to resmebling this shape. Two explanations could be human error, or that this vector layer is outdated as the area highlighed is a newer subdivision.

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

Discussion

The area above has a slight shifting error, but also has a road continuing on where is shouldnt, again assuming that the vector data is outdated.

Discussion

This area is an example of shift in the western side of the mosaicks. The Polynomial image actually has less shift then the Orthorectification, which is related to the users GCPs.

Discussion

The houses above are located somewhat centrally in the mosaics. This is another example of shift and possible outdated data. The house polygon second from the left is the only building standing, but it is also shifted north on both images. But this time the Orthorectified image has less of the shift.

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

Discussion

Again located centrally in the mosaicked images, not all of the buildings have polygons, but there is less shift in both images.

Discussion

Finally, these buildings are located in the eastern area of the mosaics and there is shifting on both and missing polygons. There is more of a shift in the Polynomial mosaic then the Orthorectified

4.0

The mosaicked images for the Polynomial Geometric Correction and the Orthorectification can be located by following this file path X:\Students\JBACHNER1\GISC9216\Assignment#3. Both Mosaicked set of images produced a very similar result, with minor variations in how the vector layers sat, as shown in Table 8. It is apparent that there are benefits to both types of geometric correction; it depends on how much information the user has on the original images. Through this analysis the Orthorectification method provided the better point prediction and overall mosaicked image.

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

5.0

Bibliography

ArcGIS Desktop. (2012, 07 30). Help for Previous Versions. Retrieved from ArcGIS Resources: http://help.arcgis.com/en/arcgisdesktop/10.0/help/index.html#//009t000000ms000000 ERDAS Inc. (2009). ERDAS IMAGINE Essentials - Tour Guides. Norcross, Ga. ERDAS Inc. (2010). ERDAS Filed Guide. Norcross, Ga. Finlay, J. (2013). GISC9216: Digital Image Proc; Assignment 3 Terms of Reference. Retrieved from Niagara College Blackboard: https://niagara.blackboard.com/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_1_1 Finlay, J. (2013). GISC9216: Digital Image Proc; Week6 - Geometric Correction. Retrieved from Niagara College Blackboard: https://niagara.blackboard.com/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_1_1 Finlay, J. (2013). GISC9216: Digital Image Proc; Week7-Mosaicking & Orthorectification. Retrieved from Niagara College Blackboard: https://niagara.blackboard.com/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_1_1 UC Santa Barbra. (2003, 10 14). Camera Systems. Retrieved from UC Santa Barbra Geography: http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~jeff/115a/lectures/camera_systems.html

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AR D E N B AC H N E R

GISC9216 - Assignment 2

Due February 13, 2013

APPENDIX A

Formal Maps for the Mosaicked Images

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