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Copyright © 2010 Hans Wu All Rights Reserved
This book is not intended for the treatment/prevention of disease. My advice does not substitute for medical treatment whatsoever. Everything has been provided for informational purposes only and all recommendations outlined herein shall not be adopted without consultation with a doctor. Use of guidelines in this book is at your own risk and is your responsibility.
The ideas explained and discussed in this book are by no means novel discoveries. Most things have been discussed and researched in the literature and online communities for many years now. This eBook is just an explanation for what I have implemented in my life and recommend for others. For more information visit my blog Beyond Paleo. The url is: http://beyondpaleo.blogspot.com If you have any questions you can contact me at: firstname.lastname@example.org Hans Wu (2010)
If there are still mistakes it is her fault.org) where the participants have already discussed the various ideas laid out in the book before I even had the capability to understand them all. not the highest quality you will ever see but hey it is free. 4 . Sounded crazy at first but the results are undeniable. Last but not least I would like to thank my mother for entertaining these crazy ideas that I have tried to implement in the household.imminst. so I would like to thank Lisa Ma for taking the time to look over the book and correct my numerous mistakes. my home forum is the Immortality Institute (http://www. If you do not know by now. so I would like to thank all the users there. Also thanks for reading the book.Acknowledgements There have been many resources online that I have used to discover many of the issues discussed here. I hate to proofread and my grammar is horrendous.
and articles in the field of nutrition. For years I have been reading books. you know it is something that one definitely wants to avoid. and health. People shun certain foods and eat others with gusto with nothing to base their ideologies on other than the word of the “experts” and how they feel. 5 . If you have every worked in a hospital or experienced the slow unrelenting loss of function that older folks experience. research papers. Henry Ford said that “thinking without constructive action becomes a disease. Over the years I have found that expert opinions are usually conflicting and that how you feel is not a good barometer for your health. Over the years I have tried to combine my interest in science and motivation to live a long healthy life and work my way from the bottom up to determine what in our lifestyle can be beneficial or detrimental to our health. exercise. instead it is to be able to carry my great grandchildren on my shoulders.About This Book Everybody has their own idea of what healthy eating is. the body adapts and the mind overpowers.” This is an attempt at constructive action. My goal is not to be bed bound at 100.
.............. 84 Chapter 10: Paleo Shoes.................... 122 Appendix VI: Soft Tissue Therapy and Stretching ...................... 98 Appendix I: Olive Oil....... 93 Chapter 11: How Much Life Left?...................................... 77 Chapter 9: Perpetual Leanness ................... Posture........................................................................................................................................... 105 Appendix II: Acne and Balding . 9 Chapter 2: The Paleolithic Diet ............. 7 Chapter 1: The State of Nutrition .......................................................................................... 44 Chapter 5: Minimizing Damage ...................................................... 115 Appendix IV: Riskier Supplements ................Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................... and Sitting ...................... 110 Appendix III: Skinny Fat Body Type ............................................................................................................................................................. 53 Chapter 6: The Natural and Supplements . 63 Chapter 7: Maintaining the Body ........................... 30 Chapter 4: Weight Loss/Gain ................ 117 Appendix V: Bodyweight Exercises....................................................... 123 6 ............... 12 Chapter 3: Calories and Nutrients .............. 71 Chapter 8: Biometric Measurements ....
In the past we suffered from infectious diseases. ~Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe Evolution created intelligent but imperfect self-repairing machines.Introduction Take care of your body with steadfast fidelity. The metabolic adaptation that takes place extends maximum lifespan (probably your best bet to achieve 120 years of age). Slowly over the years the gap between our original state and repaired state widen expressing itself as the typical changes of old-age. Only recently has this “gap” come to the forefront. and if they are dim. As we exhaust our cells. and starvation. and overweight. We age because of this incomplete process. In return for our extended lifespan. you are probably more likely to die of the diseases of civilization than the more “tropical” diseases. most of the world still does. It is not exactly my preferred way to live the last half of my life. and dementia. but modern science has focused on the new problem of chronic diseases (that is where the money is). it gets repaired. heart disease. a territory where evolution has not had a chance to act upon. This is a lifestyle where you consume less than you expend but achieve all your required nutrients. but it is never like the original. Modern technology has rid us of many diseases that would otherwise end our lives when we turn 40. but also keeps you younger at the older age. injuries. people now suffer from diabetes. Our cells and tissues are constantly wearing out and being regenerated and most of the time we don’t even notice it. The Okinawans probably 7 . While we have doubled our lifespan in the last century (and will be able to extend it in the next). technology has made us stressed. The soul must see through these eyes alone. One extreme intervention for preventing this suffering is Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition (CRON). For those reading this book. instead we now live until 80. out-of-shape. the whole world is clouded.
and I don’t have a good reason for not doing it. People nowadays want to understand their conditions more than ever. but that’s up to you to decide. It may not seem urgent to keep yourself healthy now. Everyone should try to understand the human body and learn how to treat it well. Am I practicing Calorie Restriction? Not yet. 8 . There is a lot of information out there and it is hard to sift through it all. Instead of implementing CRON. but your actions today will affect you for the rest of your life. The damage may not be apparent when you are young but it is happening and will show itself down the road. the cons are emaciation. Due to the internet and the accessibility of information everyone today is trying to improve their health. Doesn’t seem like a very bad trade-off. My book is just one of many. I cannot guarantee the ideas are right. You don’t have a good reason for not doing it but you still don’t do it. Most want to take an active role in their own health in hopes of living a healthier and happier life. I have tried to develop a lifestyle regimen which is a happy middle ground between an extended health/life-span and the lack of emaciation. The benefits are that it extends health (physical and mental) and life span.went through some form of Calorie Restriction due to poverty from World War II and they are the healthiest and longest living population on earth for now. but it’s like when you know you should write that thank-you letter but you don’t. Despite the attractions of CRON I cannot bring myself to implement it. and this book is my attempt to share it.
if you find that people who eat donuts get more heart disease. This is where multicollinearity comes in. but at the same time that doesn’t mean you won’t come up with an answer. what in the donut is causing the problem? You can do as much math as you want but you won’t find the answer. and determine which ones died of a heart attack (or cancer. By this measurement the science telling us what to eat is only 18 years old. If saturated fat and carbohydrates commonly show up together in food products how do you determine which one is the cause of heart disease? For example. a science in its infancy stage. There are better ways to do these studies such as prospectively. 9 . longitudinally. interventional but I won’t go into detail regarding those. While a lot of work has been done in the field what is right and what is wrong is still under debate. Nutrition and metabolism are intertwined and metabolism is an incredibly complex topic.Chapter 1: The State of Nutrition It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to a profoundly sick society. ~Krishnamurti The modern food guide was not created until 1992. or got Alzheimer’s) then do a lot of complex math and see which ones match. Epidemiological studies are a problem because of mutlicollinearity: some things just go together and make it hard to determine which one is responsible. ask them what they eat. despite what the “experts” will tell you. To settle all this we should base our theories on the results of Random Controlled Trials (RCTs) but this is very hard to perform on humans Most of our data comes from epidemiological studies and experiments performed on rats/mice. In nutritional epidemiological studies they take a group of people.
Beginning in 1992 the US government began recommending a diet high in whole grains and low in animal products (a highcarbohydrate low-fat diet). in our natural environment we eat a certain way. Then the newspapers can say that celery causes heart disease. Some are high-carbohydrate and some are low-carbohydrate. Anthropology shows that we evolved in the equatorial region of Africa for millions of years and the diet present there is probably 10 . The problem is what do rats eat? They are herbivores. We feed it celery for 6 months and we are surprised it died of a heart attack. which suddenly meant that high-carbohydrate diets were good. Let’s say we used lions instead for our studies. The agriculture industry (which provides the grains we use to make processed foods) had developed into a very powerful entity which now greatly influences our food choices. Just like a cow eats grass and lions eat meat. If you look at the advisory panel for the USDA Dietary Guideline recommendations it does not seem very impartial. If we feed it lots of fat no doubt something bad happens. in that way we don’t have to wait decades for the results of a study to come out. mice and hamsters. The problem is that the diversity of the human diet is vast. and then the researchers can use their data and find a relationship between celery and heart disease (I have seen weirder correlations). One dietary regimen that I thought cut through all these problems was the Paleolithic Diet. but this is a recent phenomenon. This began to alter our psychology of what was considered healthy. the only thing left to turn to was carbohydrates and the industry jumped at the idea of low-fat products.The other problem is the data collected from rats. Their natural diet is a bunch of plants with hardly any cholesterol or saturated fat. It is based on the principle that what helps us maintain our health is what we evolved to eat. Mice and rats do have a shorter life. It’s too bad lions don’t have a shorter life-span. we feed it beef for 6 months and they are perfectly healthy with clean arteries. With the fear of saturated fat spreading across the nation.
despite the variation in diets.the diet we are adapted to consuming. Also. This idea of the Paleolithic diet will be the foundation from where we will start and improve our nutritional choices. 11 . there are strong commonalities between them all.
Belovsky (1986) modeled Hunter-Gatherer Foraging and in a table he laid out the calories from meat and vegetables of various tribes (reproduced partially here): !Kung Winter 31 69 740 !Kung Fall 90 10 816 Meat (%) Vegetables (%) Intake (g/ind) Source: Belovsky BE. “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution. We ate both vegetables and meat (especially if we could get our hands on it). that‟s bad for you! ~Tommy Smothers Theodosius Dobzhansky wrote an essay in 1973 titled. We are not made to be vegetarian (like many people would lead you to otherwise believe). who live in equatorial Africa.Chapter 2: The Paleolithic Diet Red meat is not bad for you. Now blue-green meat. 12 . By taking an average of the winter and fall percentages we see that we probably ate half our calories from plant sources and the other half from meat. Gary E. Hunter-Gatherer Foraging: A linear Programming Approach. Journal of anthropological Archaeology. As far as I know we evolved from the tribe of the !Kung. The ratios aren’t that important. 29-76. Through millions of years we consumed foods available to us in nature which have now allowed us to become what and who we are today. What we can see from the table is that we are omnivores.1987. 6. We are what we are because we ate what we ate.” This is the principle that the Paleolithic Diet is based on.
So on and so forth until the meat eating primates’ move somewhere else to find more meat. 4. Before we start I want to say that this is a thought experiment. One day a primate happens upon some meat (I don’t know how) and eats some of it and dies. Extend this process down to minute-details over millions of years and there you have human evolution. but this new primate also utilizes the nutrients better (another mutation) and thus develops bigger muscles and brains. Soon the primate is replaced. So.To understand why this diet has so much appeal you would have to understand evolution. This primate then has children who also have the same quirk. This is because it didn’t have the mechanisms to digest it. Its digestive tract hasn’t evolved to consume raw meat. Here’s a small refresher course that I hope helps. It rained on the rocks for millions of years and turned into soup. This bigger muscled. The first primate died because of the lack of ability to digest meat. by some quirk of the randomness of nature (mutations) this primate has developed not only the digestive capability of digesting meat but also has developed a taste for it. I apologize for any inaccuracies portrayed here. They all eat leaves. I love Kent Hovind’s explanation of evolution: “Twenty million years ago there was the big bang. The vegetarians stay behind to become chimpanzees and apes. and the soup came alive 3 billion years ago. more brained primate is liked by more females thus also has more children with the same quirks. Another day another primate finds some meat and eats some.” This tells you what happened but not how it happened. There are some things that we haven’t developed the mechanisms to digest yet and probably never will (considering human evolution has either completely stopped or at least slowed down incredibly). 13 . the omnivores move on to become us. So your great great great great great great grandpa was soup.6 billion Years ago the earth cooled down. This principle also applies to us. imagine a population of 10 primates living in the jungle.
grandmother effect). We survived because of our brains. tomatoes. Not something we can implement ethically/morally. probably the best the most successful (except maybe insects). other animals survive through sheer size. This is the trade-off we see with CR. speed. but free of disease. That is not to say we should ditch the Paleolithic Diet (PD). Plants also survived. We were designed to die young. most likely because grains and legumes only became a large part of our diet 14 . of old age. venus fly-trap).However the thing about evolution is that it only acts up to the point of reproduction (or maybe a little bit farther. Therefore only those with good enough genes to reproduce at 60 will be able to have children. but most must utilize other methods to protect themselves. – Ernst L Wynder and Marvin M Kristein Note: One way of extending the human lifespan would be to implement a policy stating couples cannot have children until 60. The people with bad genes will not have children thus those won‟t get passed down. Every species has adapted to their environment and there’s balance in the world (at least without us). This would be artificial selection. Vegetables such as broccoli. but there are lessons we can learn from it. sure some are lethal physically (e.g. One method is antinutrients which are found in high amounts from legumes and grains. So while it may provide us with big muscles in the shortterm it probably doesn’t extend it into the long-term. just interesting. kale. or just really good camouflage. Nature did not intend us to grow old and ill. Grain and Anti-nutrients Nature is a battle for survival. However plants are immobile. By restricting calories we signal to the body that it is not a good time to reproduce (bring a child into the world) so the body should try its best to preserve itself until times are more plentiful. etc… seem to have defenses too but we seem to be much better adapted to these than the ones found in grains and legumes.
Agrarian diet and diseases of affluence--do evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance? BMC Endocr Disord. Dole A. where it can then bind to a bunch of other carbohydrates in the blood (like the brain): Jönsson T. Olsson S.g. and may even cause inflammation and autoimmune disorders. This is a special type of anti-nutrient that everyone should take the effort to either destroy or just simply avoid. which is a far cry from the millions of years we have been evolving. You can think of the carbohydrates on your gut as a lock and the lectin as a key. 15 . Could it be that it is our modern consumption of lectin that leads to obesity? The study below speculates that the holes caused by lectin will allow lectin into the bloodstream. When lectin binds it can lead to a host of problems. Lindeberg S. 2005 Dec 10. Lectins are plant proteins that bind to carbohydrate moieties on our cells. so following this train of thought. Normally the lock should not be opened because your gut protects you from the outside world (just like our skin). You would not want your skin to have gaping holes. Ahrén B. When the lectin (the key) binds to the carbohydrates (the lock) it opens a door that leads to malfunctioning membranes and proteins.000 years ago. There are two important classes of antinutrients: class A (the protease inhibitors and lectins) and class B (the antiminerals e. phytate).5:10. Protease inhibitors block your digestive enzymes preventing it from breaking down protein. Bøg-Hansen TC. and of course these carbohydrate groups have other function besides being bound by an anti-nutrient. you definitely do not want your gut to have holes.10. Lectins are dangerous because they bind to carbohydrates found on your gut cells.
Smith MJ. Why not just avoid them? Well because they are just too damn tasty (they also contain nutrients too).By consuming large amounts of lectin (from grains. etc…) you will be opening yourself up to the risk of autoimmune disease: Cordain L. peas). but if you’re not getting enough minerals in the first place large amounts of the anti-nutrients will probably be detrimental. very little tooth decay. The consequences of lectin consumption are not things you want to deal with. peanuts.318(7190):1023-4 Phytates (or phytic acid. or IP6) are a strong acid that binds to divalent and trivalent heavy metal ions which then form insoluble salts (not absorbable). 2000 Mar. rye. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. Both of these classes are found in large amounts in grains (e. A dentist named Weston A. Br J Nutr.g. Hickey MS. calcium. rice etc…) and legumes (e. wheat.g. 1999 Apr 17. There are doubts as to whether class B antinutrients can cause deficiencies in the diets of western societies considering the amount we eat. for e. zinc. Toohey L. Another question we may have: do dietary lectins cause disease? Freed DL. barley. Do dietary lectins cause disease? BMJ. beans.83(3):207-17. The good thing is that we can inactivate these anti-nutrients. Price traveled the world over 60 years ago studying the dental health of isolated populations.g. maize. soybeans. beans. They had proper jaw development. and were all generally 16 . What he found was that many of the people in areas untouched by Western civilization had very healthy teeth. Oxalic acid is another class B anti-nutrient. magnesium and other trace minerals.
Reserve 10% of the soaking liquid (should keep for a long time in the fridge). They removed the bran.in very good health. Stephan over at Whole Health Source. but add the soaking liquid you reserved from the last batch to the rest of the soaking water. Price found that cultures who consumed grains or beans took great effort to prepare them properly. The 17 . so that’s probably why it got utilized from the beginning. For a very detailed overview of fermented cereals around the world the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations published a book in 1999 titled. Repeat the cycle. The process will gradually improve until 96% or more of the phytic acid is degraded at 24 hours. soaking and fermenting is able to inactivate and break-down the various anti-nutrients found in plant material and then heating it finishes of the job for most of them. soaked them and also fermented them. the effort put into grinding. From what I’ve read it has a very pleasing flavor. Discard the rest of the soaking liquid. has this recipe: Soak brown rice in dechlorinated water for 24 hours at room temperature without changing the water. ground the grains. cook the rice in fresh water. “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration” published in 1939. Very simple process that takes very little effort. That seems to be quite a bit of work but the benefits are numerous (and tasty). “Fermented Cereals a Global Perspective”. Amazingly. a blog. The next time you make brown rice. Wheat The wheat we know today traces back to a wild grass called Triticeae. use the same procedure as above. He wrote about his findings in a book titled.
Garrote JA. on the right.56(6):889-90.modern wheat we consume today arose from a variety of wheat called einkorn which had 14 chromosomes. diarrhea. Fernández-Salazar L. which then leads to various other disorders. Gluten is a protein found in wheat. Common symptoms are failure to thrive in children. and nutrient deficiencies. causing addiction (discussed in Chapter 4): Bernardo D. The result is flattening of the villi: On the left the increased surface area increases nutrient absorption. Arranz E. Also it seems that when gluten breaks down it causes opioid-like peptides to be produced. In patients with celiac disease their immune system reacts to gluten and in turn causes immune system to attack the gut. There are beliefs that gluten causes leaky gut syndrome. 2007 Jun. abdominal pain. Riestra S. Through artificial breeding and selection we now utilize a variety of wheat that contains 42 chromosomes. 18 . the surface area is less thus decreasing nutrient absorption. There is speculation (especially in the Paleolithic Diet world) that many react to gluten but just lack the symptomatology. including easier seed collection as well as improved texture from increased gluten content. Is gliadin really safe for non-coeliac individuals? Production of interleukin 15 in biopsy culture from non-coeliac individuals challenged with gliadin peptides. There are numerous reasons for this. Gut.
So even if you do not have out-right celiac disease. Bardocz S. Price discovered cultures who consumed wheat but only consumed it in the form of sourdough bread (which is fermented. This is not good considering that these holes in your gut will allow bacteria and toxins through.41(4):408-19 Beyond the gluten there are the dangers of wheat germ agglutinin (a lectin. Antinutritive effects of wheatgerm agglutinin and other N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins. Di Pierro M.While the Bernardo et al (2007) study is preliminary (only 6 subjects) what they found was that non-celiacs also responded to gluten (had an inflammatory/immune response). Grazia Clemente M. Scand J Gastroenterol. the issue of wheat lectins is definitely not: Pusztai A. Peumans WJ. Br J Nutr. Sapone A. 19 . While the whole issue of gluten is questionable. which may alter the gluten). 2006 Apr. Carroccio A. Brown DS. Tripathi A. zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines.com) that only 0.70(1):313-21 This evidence. D'Agate C. There is an hypothesis by Dr. 1993 Jul.4% of the population is not reactive to gluten because certain proteins (HLAs) found on most of our cells are reactive to gluten and only 0. There are some researchers who think that lectin causes celiac’s disease rather than gluten. combined with the fact that Weston A.Gliadin. you may have some sort of reaction to it. Iacono G. see section above). Grant G. Fasano A. Van Damme EJ. . gives me reason to avoid it. Zampini L. Thakar M. El Asmar R. Catassi C. leading to many problems down the road (possible autoimmune diseases): Drago S.4% of the population do not have those proteins. Ewen SW. Fine (from Enterolab. Stewart JC. Not T.
No Soy for the Boy Besides the anti-nutrients found in soybeans. They are very weak estrogen mimics. The connection between estrogen and breast cancer is conflicting. I have yet to see solid evidence that the isoflavones being consumed confer any benefits. healthy males consumed 60mg of 20 . think of males and postmenopausal females as a thimble with water. and apparently the “healthy” Asians consume tons of it. so is it even worth it to take the risk? For males. there are other substances found in soy that probably have detrimental health effects (this may be more applicable to males than females. but not the isoflavones). On the other hand. Soy is commonly touted as a health food these days because it seems to be a good source of protein (but the anti-nutrients interfere with that). In these studies. It is almost always a side dish. While in pre-menopausal women the phytoestrogens may not have an effect. and most times it has been fermented (which removes the anti-nutrients. While there are numerous speculative mechanisms by which soy could provide health benefits to the consumer. As an analogy. Genistein and daidzein are phytoestrogens found in soy protein. but I strongly caution against soy in either case). think of the young healthy female as a big bucket full of water (estrogen). If you have ever been to some of the Asian countries it is true that they consume tofu (which probably contributes to their shorter stature) but it is not their main source of protein. meaning they do things that estrogen does but much more weakly (so you have to take an larger amount to equal the estrogen your body produces to create the same effect). if you put a drop into it there is a considerably larger effect. it has a marked effect. if anything all I see are risks. If you put a drop of water (phytoestrogen) into it there won’t be a big difference. low in fat (just because it is low in fat doesn’t mean it is good for you). there is research to show that soy consumption leads to decreased sperm production/quality and decreased testosterone production. in post-menopausal women and males.
the soy isoflavon, approximately 30g of tofu per day (2mg of isoflavones per 1g of tofu). This is really not a lot. While there seems to be support for the aging effects of testosterone (eunuchs live longer and castrated dogs also live longer), the decreased testosterone may perhaps be a benefit for longevity. At the same time, I do not think the trade-offs are very impressive. Finally, my biggest problem with soy is the possible effects it has on the brain: White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, Masaki K, Hardman J, Nelson J, Davis D, Markesbery W. Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Apr;19(2):242-55. Here is a prospective epidemiological study (which is a good type of study) showing the effects of tofu consumption on brain degeneration. They found that adults consuming tofu daily had worse memory performance than those who did not consume tofu. This is quite scary because Alzheimer’s is one disease I would rather avoid. There is not enough evidence to speculate on what the possible mechanism may be; it could be the isoflavones, the aluminum, etc. While various soy studies have shown beneficial effects, those were short-term studies; this one was a long-term high quality study. For more information there is a great article: “Soy What? The jury's still out on soy's benefits” by David Schardt. The choice to consume soy is up to you. The benefit/risk ratio does not seem very favorable to me. It really depends on where your goals are: Male – If you want to have breasts, be impotent, and imbecilic then be my guest. Female – If you want to risk breast cancer and brain atrophy then soy is the key.
If vegetables are healthy, shouldn’t vegetable oils be healthy? It really depends. If you can press it out of the plant in question it seems okay. If you must extract it with modern processing, that is another question. By Weight
Polyunsaturated % Monounsaturated % Saturated %
Soybean Oil 57 26 15
Margarine Butter 34 49 17 3 29 56
Olive Oil 8 75 16
Lard 10 44 42
This is a table with some commonly used fat sources. McDonalds used to use lard, but after the saturated fat scare they changed to corn oil (similar to margarine). Others in the food industry did the same and the result was trans-fatty acids. By comparing soybean oil and lard we can see that there is a large difference. The soybean oil (modern processing) has a very high polyunsaturated fat content (very high in omega-6 fatty acids), while the lard is higher in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Based on the Paleolithic Diet we should be consuming a fatty acid profile closer to that of lard rather than margarine or soybean oil. There are many important differences between polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The first is the hormonal effect in the body. The polyunsaturated fatty acids can be split into two groups, the omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) and omega-3 fatty acids (n-3). These are known as the essential fatty acids (EFAs). They are required for important production of various factors our bodies require to survive. Generally n-6 are inflammatory (they cause things to become red and swollen), while n-3s are anti-inflammatory (e.g. fish oil, aspirin). Therefore, if you consume a diet that is high in n-6 and low in n-3 your bodily state is skewed towards 22
inflammation. Short-term inflammation is necessary, its longterm inflammation that can cause problem. If your blood vessels are constantly inflamed something is bound to happen. With the introduction of soybean oil, corn oil, and margarine to replace our traditional fat sources, the n-6/n-3 ratio has been strongly skewed towards n-6 with commonly known dietary ratios today of 20:1. Compare this to our Paleolithic ancestors, who probably had ratios closer to 1:1. You cannot necessarily solve the problem by increasing your n-3 intake. Instead, it is important to bring your n-6 intake down because of the other important differences between the fatty acids type: oxidation and reactivity.
The basis of the fatty acid names are descriptive of how many double bonds each type has. The number of double bonds is important because it determines how reactive it is in the presence of oxygen or free radicals. It’s a tough concept to explain so hopefully you have had some chemistry classes. All you really need to know is that the more double bonds it has the more chances there is for it to “break” (oxidize). There is not only controlled oxidation of fatty acids (beta and alpha), but autooxidation (happens by itself) as well. The type of damage that happens in autooxidation is bad because it perpetuates more damage. Just think about keeping nonhydrogenated margarine at room temperature and butter at room temperature and seeing which one goes rancid faster. The increased rancidity in butter is due to autooxidation, a process that also happens within the body.
leaving polyunsaturated fat consumption to our intake of foods such as nuts. Vitamins are something our body cannot create thus we must obtain it from the diet. The more polyunsaturated fatty acids (the ones more likely to go rancid) causes your body to go rancid (the actual process is a bit more complicated). for in reality it is a hormone. and Activator X (later found out to be Vitamin K2). avocados. 24 . They were Vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 This has actually been misclassified as a vitamin. On the other hand. Weston A. So we should try the same by using safe oils: Coconut Oil Palm Oil Avocado Olive Oil (please see Appendix I) Animal Fats Our diets should be mostly saturated fats and monounsaturated fats. Weston A. and the 3 servings of fish per week (and maybe some flax seed oil). Price Nutrients Through his research he discovered the importance of fat-soluble vitamins and found that there were several nutrients that provided the populations he studied with such incredible dental health. Price was definitely ahead of his time in this field. One of the numerous mechanisms by which CR works is by decreasing the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cells. Vitamin A.The important thing to realize is that the type of fatty acids you consume in your diet ends up being the type of fatty acids your body utilizes. Recently there has been considerable research done on these vitamins.
Start dosing with 20IU/lb of bodyweight for 3 months and then get a blood level test from your doctor. 25 . For more information on the importance of D3 you should visit the Vitamin D Council’s Website (http://www.westonaprice. Sources for K2 usually come from pastured butter. organ meats. K2 is important not just for bone health but for other reasons as well: Supports endocrine function Reduces chronic inflammation Decreases mortality rates Proper development and growth for children There is a great article on the Weston A. A young man near the equator standing naked in the sun for 30 min can produce up to 20.html). This may seem like a lot but under these conditions the body regulates itself (like he was designed to). What we are interested in is the animal form K2. If you are supplementing with Vitamin D3 you should obtain it in a softgel form (because its D3 is fat-soluble and tablets don’t have fat).org/abcs-of-nutrition/175-x-factor-isvitamin-k2. Vitamin K2 The Institute of Medicine has set an RDA for Vitamin K. dairy. and fermented products. but that is for the plant form (phylloquinone) AKA Vitamin K1. Price Foundation website by Chris Masterjohn: On the Trail of the Elusive XFactor: A Sixty-Two-Year-Old Mystery Finally Solved (http://www. There is a lot of research that shows that if you are deficient in Vitamin D3 (which most people in western society are) you are at much higher risks for cancer.vitamindcouncil. osteoporosis. etc. Aim for 3050ng/ml (75-125nM/L). muscle loss. infectious diseases. D3 is a hormone because we produce it from the sun.hormones are closely regulated by our body and are created under the correct circumstances. This is the minimum I recommend.000IU. The government sets the maximum recommended intake at 2000IU.org). many of which we do not consume today.
There are many forms of K2 (due to differences in the length of the carbon chain) but two forms with plenty of research behind them are MK-7 and MK-4.18(1):49-55 From this we see that thousands of years ago our ancestral mothers consumed Vitamin K2 from their organ meats and fermented foods. I seriously doubt that thousands of years ago a baby had to have vitamin K injections to be healthy. Shimamoto T. 1mg per day is needed. the plant form rather than the animal form. Moriyama IS. MK-7 comes from fermented plant products such as natto. There may be some cultural issues involved. if you choose MK-4. allowing the fetus to receive adequate Vitamin K from both the placenta and breast milk and thus side-stepping the need for injections. but one difference that I have seen is that newborns in Japan receive Vitamin K2 (the animal form) while most other countries utilize Vitamin K1. Akada S. The problem may be due to the fact that the majority of the developed world ingests Vitamin K1 instead of K2. 26 . Japan has one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (recently surpassed by Singapore and Sweden).A study on the placental transport mechanism of vitamin K2 (MK-4). and MK-4 comes from the organs of animals. If you choose to supplement with MK-7 45mcg seems to be enough per day. and 2) lack of production of Vitamin K due to sterile gut flora. It seems that K1 has problems passing through the placenta but K2 doesn’t seem to have as much of a problem: Iioka H. Ichijo M. 1992 Mar.Today. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol. I would not say that their standard of care is better than everyone else’s or that their technology is better. Yamada Y. The reason is because nowadays newborns lack Vitamin K due to 2 reasons: 1) poor placental transport of Vitamin K. Hisanaga H. all newborns in developed countries get an injection of Vitamin K.
Most multivitamins have large doses of retinol (Vitamin A) so be careful. either by not ingesting enough beta-carotene. It's commonly used as 27 . because these nutrients are very important for bone health. You may know fructose as the fruit sugar/”natural” sugar. However this is the only data we have for long-term Vitamin A intake so it is better to be safe. or not converting it. Fructose/Sugar Table sugar is half fructose and half glucose. the next one the media stumbles upon will probably be Vitamin K2. There are studies showing the risk of fractures with high intakes. If you do supplement I wouldn’t recommend more than 1500IU a day. then you probably do not need a Vitamin A supplement. If you eat a varied enough diet with enough beta-carotenes and consume meat daily. and you must consume Vitamin D3 and K2 to hopefully prevent possible bone fracture.Just like at one point Vitamin D3 was considered the miracle vitamin. Vitamin A Vitamin A is an interesting vitamin in that it also has hormonal actions on the body. Keratosis pilaris (bumps on the back of your arm) seem to respond to Vitamin A supplementation but the data is scant. If studies come out with data that show those with higher intakes of Vitamin A done in people not consuming D3 and K2 it does not apply to us. It definitely works in synergy with Vitamins D3 and K2. I do not know how you could figure out if you have that polymorphism. There does seem to be evidence that some people with polymorphisms (altered genes) may prevent the conversion of beta-carotene to retinol. but I suspect hyperkeratosis of your skin may be a sign that you are deficient in Vitamin A. but most of that research has probably been done on populations deficient in K2 and D3.
An especially important organ with regards to diabetes. Berglund L. McGahan JP. however.a sweetener as it is almost twice as sweet as glucose. but fructose causes a very different metabolic response than glucose does: Stanhope KL. 28 . Otokozawa S. 2009 May. Hatcher B. this is the type that you measure when looking at skin folds. This is called visceral or central adiposity. Dyachenko A. Consuming fructose-sweetened. Cox CL. Krauss RM. and visceral/central adipose tissue. It also releases inflammatory hormones and interacts with the hepatic portal vein (which is very important in signaling the metabolic state of the body). and it is constantly releasing free-fatty acids (even when in the fed-state). Schwarz JM. Bremer AA. J Clin Invest. Griffen SC. The subcutaneous type is found under the skin. All of this coupled together interferes with the normal processes that should occur when you consume food and when you are not consuming food. Visceral adipose tissue doesn't respond to hormones like normal adipose tissue should. Hellerstein MK. Ai M. Nakajima K. subcutaneous/deep subcutaneous. heart disease and metabolic syndrome in general is the liver. Havel PJ. the fructose group gained it all around their abdomen. beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. Seibert A. The turn-over rate with visceral adipose tissue is very high (even in the presence of insulin). Visceral adipose tissue is located around your organs. Your body has three main types of fat stores: intramuscular lipids. Keim NL. The visceral type is the poisonous type. Graham JL.119(5):1322-34. Nakano T. Beysen C. What was found in this study was that the group consuming fructose gained the same amount of weight as the glucose group. not glucose-sweetened. Zhang W. Schaefer EJ. Chiu S. Waist size is one of the best predictors of metabolic syndrome because that huge belly is a sign that your metabolism is damaged. If you continuously feed this adipose tissue then at some point your body just gives up.
the kidneys have trouble filtering uric acid as well as salt (which leads to high blood pressure). Nowadays most peoples’ glycogen liver stores are constantly full so what happens is that fructose becomes involved in lipogenesis (making of fat) which then leads to fatty livers (like with alcohol). The problem with fructose is that the other parts of the body don’t have the mechanisms necessary to deal with it. So when it passes through the liver the body tries its best to metabolize it. however. This does not mean you shouldn't consume any fruit. under hyperinsulinemia (high insulin levels) due to diabetes/metabolic syndrome. Gout is a painful disorder caused by the crystallization of uric acid in your joints and soft-tissue. Johnson RJ. candies. Usually our kidneys are pretty good at getting rid of it when it’s not needed. but the liver does. Zharikov S. Glushakova O. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. Uric acid is one of our natural antioxidants we utilize when under stress. Kidney problems coupled with the fructose-induced uric acid production leads to gout. Tuttle KR. Herrera-Acosta J. it may be the fructose that is the problem: Nakagawa T.Fructose is commonly found in large amounts in sodas. 2006 Mar. it is also found in fruit. And yes. Block ER. Two servings of fruit a day should be enough to get the benefits. Hu H. A causal role for uric acid in fructoseinduced metabolic syndrome. as fruit has a lot of beneficial factors in and of itself. 29 . Ouyang X. If you suffer from gout. It's just best not to make fruit a central of your diet.290(3):F625-31. Patel JM. Feig DI. and anything that has been sweetened. Short RA.
up-to-date.Chapter 3: Calories and Nutrients „Tis not the eating. and gets the job done.ca/cronometer/): There are tons of different programs available to track your diet but this one is free. ~John Seldon For this section I recommend getting used to the program CronO-Meter (http://spaz. nor „tis not the drinking that is to be blamed but the excess. It’s also open source! 30 .
725 = very active (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week. The resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a measurement of how much energy your body requires in a day if you just sat there for 24 hours.5. approx. 1150 Cal/day) 1.375 = lightly active (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week.5×age + 5 Female: BMR = 10×weight(kg) + 6. approx.5×age – 161 Multiplied by an activity factor: 1. his daily caloric requirement is 2000 calories. The best way to determine your maintenance calorie level would be to observe your normal eating habits for one week by measuring and weighing everything that you eat.550 = moderately active (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week. approx. 590 Cal/day) 1.200 = sedentary (little or no exercise) 1.900 = extra active (very hard exercise/sports and physical job. approx. This equation requires your body-fat percentage.Calories The amount of energy your body burns in a day is represented by the calorie.25×height(cm) . Taking the 31 . The other formula is the Mifflin-St Jeor Equation: Male: BMR = 10×weight(kg) + 6. which most people don’t know. 1580 Cal/day) A male who is 70kg. and including his activity factor (1. Everyone’s RMR is different (just like everyone’s set-point is different) but there are equations out there that can help you estimate your daily requirements. and 20 years old has a BMR of 1667. 870 Cal/day) 1. 170cm. The most accurate equation is probably the Katch-McArdle formula which is based on lean body mass (LBM).25×height(cm) .200).
average amount per day out of those 7 days would be your required daily caloric intake for weight maintenance. I’ve done this many times and the Mifflin-St Jeor equation is actually very close to my number.
Protein, carbohydrate, and fat are the macronutrients. In terms of calories this is how it breaks down: 1g of protein = 4 calories 1g of digestible carbohydrate = 4 calories 1g of fat = 9 calories Others: 1g of fiber = 1-2 calories, 1g of alcohol = 7 calories In the end, calories do count. If you want to lose weight you have to eat below maintenance; if you want to gain weight you eat above. While it is calories that account for your overall weight, there are factors we can manipulate that hopefully increase our non-fat mass while decreasing fat mass (discussed in Chapter 9)
Protein is an essential nutrient, our bodies can make the fats and carbohydrate we require but without protein we cannot survive. While very low carbohydrate diets and very low fat diets are possible, a very low protein diet is not; this would lead to protein deficiency (Kwashiokor) and result in death. Consequently, when designing a proper diet the first consideration should be protein intake. The RDA for protein is 0.8g/kg of bodyweight, however Flango et al. (2010) have recently shown that there is “evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated,” and that the RDA should probably be closer to 1.0g/kg.
Athletes regularly consume 2.2g/kg of protein per day to achieve higher performance and muscle mass. This can be accomplished via two important pathways: insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Both pathways are involved in causing growth. However, this may be detrimental to long-term health. Calorie restriction inhibits these pathways, and while they may not be the main mechanisms through which CR acts, they are definitely important. Excess calories and dietary protein (specifically leucine and methionine) activate these pathways. I have chosen to consume a more moderate amount (between 1.0-1.25g/kg/day) because personally, I’m not interested in growing; I am interested in extending my health-span. While 1.0g/kg of protein is good enough to maintain a moderate amount of muscle, it’s decidedly not enough for significant muscle growth. Osteoporosis High protein intake is usually explained as bad because of the increase in acid it causes the body. When things head to your kidneys to be filtered it is either in the form of an acid or a base, and protein causes more acid at the kidneys. Acid is supposed to be bad because the only way your body can buffer it is by removing calcium from the bones (which is basic) thus neutralizing the acidity, but this causes calcium loss which then leads to bone loss (osteoporosis and osteopenia). It definitely makes sense, but as always the body is much more complicated than that and we should be consuming more than the RDA rather then less. Osteoporosis is a disease where your bones are not as strong as they should be. If a teenager tripped and fell, he would be able to get back up without an issue, however if a senior with osteoporosis tripped and fell they have a very high chance of fracturing/breaking a bone. If they happen to break a very big bone (e.g. pelvis) they die. So this is something we have to try 33
our best to avoid. Some commonly recommended prevention interventions are weight-training (stresses the bones causing them to grow) and increased calcium intake from supplements. While the former has supporting data, the latter is conflicting. As you read in Chapter 2 Vitamin K2 and Vitamin D3 are very important for bone health. While things are changing, most calcium supplements do not contain these other vitamins and most people do not take enough of K2 and D3 to have a large effect. So while calcium intake is important, you have to also consume K2 and D3 (note: avoid supplements that contain magnesium and calcium, because they compete with each other for absorption). Most of the studies that the acid-base theory was based on did not reflect reality (pure protein instead of whole food protein sources, small sample size, and errors in the methods). It is fairly clear now that adequate protein is required for calcium homeostasis and hormonal support for the bones: Hunt JR, Johnson LK, Fariba Roughead ZK. Am .Dietary protein and calcium interact to influence calcium retention: a controlled feeding study. J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1357-65. This was a random controlled trial (very good) showing that higher dietary protein intake was associated with greater retention of calcium than the lower dietary protein intake. For older folks it is recommended that they consume over the RDA (>0.8g/kg) thus I recommend 1g/kg as mentioned above: Cao JJ, Nielsen FH. Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Aug 16 Whether this whole acid base theory has any relevant significance I do not know. Long term metabolic acidosis definitely seems bad for the bone, but it also seems protective against heart disease. 34
it’ll burn off the 2000 (unless you are diabetic). and I would have to agree. To tap into the fat stores you must create a caloric deficit. When you eat pure carbohydrates (not including fructose). Your body stores carbohydrates and fats in 3 places: muscles. fat oxidation is bumped up because of the lack of carbohydrate. but you should definitely eat within your body’s ability to deal with the load. This is not to say that you should not eat any carbohydrates whatsoever. your body goes into carbohydrate oxidation mode and shuts down fat oxidation (saving the fat). do some weight-training. and the liver. If you consume 1000 calories of carbohydrate and 1000 calories of fat. the carbohydrate is preferentially burned and the fat gets stored. Diabetes is a disease of insulin resistance that comes about due to overloaded energy stores. and the liver stores it as glycogen (but pathologically can also store tons of fat). When you eat a mixture of carbohydrate and fats. and you consume 2000 calories of carbs. Carbohydrates Many people blame excess sugar and carbohydrate intake for the increase in chronic diseases today. If you eat pure fat. adequate protein (1g/kg). The adipose tissue stores it as lipids. you’ll burn it all off but you would never tap into your fat stores. the extra carbohydrates and fats you consume in your diet float around in the blood causing a host of problems (hyperglycemia). If your metabolic rate is 2000 calories a day. adipose tissue. muscles have the ability to store it both as glycogen and lipid droplets. the body has to have a reason to tap the fat on your body. Now this all sits on a spectrum. 35 .Get your RDA of all nutrients. and get the fat soluble vitamins (K2 and D3) and you might stave of osteoporosis. When the adipose tissue is full and the skeletal muscles are full.
and as a result he balloons up to 250 pounds of mostly fat. if they did they would just gain more and more weight. Glycolysis is where you use the glucose as fuel. It’s not that their metabolism is slow. In the end. glycogenesis. One way to avoid this fate is to ensure you glycogen stores are low. Ingested glucose shunts to 3 pathways: glycolysis. instead. Bad news: even though he’s eating much less. and when you eat lots of carbohydrates your glycogen stores are full. Good news: he won’t gain anymore weight. 36 . and the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). their body’s ability to defend the set-point in the face of excess calories is not as effective as a lean person’s. he goes back to his original 2000 calories/day diet. If your glycogen stores are low your body has space to store the incoming carbohydrate. glycogenesis is where you build more glycogen.g. if anything it is a bit higher (fat is metabolically active too). they don’t eat 4000 calories per day forever. This way if you ever do consume junk-food high in sugar/carbohydrates (e. and HBP activation leads to insulin resistance. today’s society suffers from excess energy intake. As mentioned before. he still won’t lose the weight. While that may have previously been true.It is common belief that obese people eat a ton of food. and HBP helps signal your cellular energy levels (among many other functions). To lose weight you must tap into your body’s fat source. When you satisfy your caloric needs glycolysis is full. Let’s say a male who is 180 pounds with a metabolic rate of 2000 calories consumes 4000 calories for a couple of months because of stress. the only pathway left is HBP. but in reality their metabolic rate divided by their lean body mass is very similar to normal people. pasta) on special occasions. After this. A lot of people claim they have a slow metabolism. your depleted glycogen stores can be utilized to sidestep the excessive glucose intake (and maybe even offer a margin of safety in caloric intake).
I actually intermittently enter ketosis due to fasting and resistance training which depletes glycogen. Beyond these facts. This means 100-120g is set for everyone. Fiber Fiber also falls into the group of carbohydrates so it will be discussed here. Hyperglycemia is a very damaging condition because of the reactivity of sugars like glucose (causes glycation. For a 70kg male that turns out to be 1050g of carbs (4200 calories). Much of the anti-nutrients I discussed above are present in the bran of grains which people love to consume as a 37 . this is a considerably large margin of safety in case you cheat that day. see Chapter 5). That means 2200 calories over maintenance. When glucose is absent or low. Considering our lower protein intake. There may be benefits to ketones but I haven’t been fully convinced as of late.Human glycogen stores are around 15g/kg of bodyweight. so we all utilize similar amounts of glucose. I choose to stay at the border into ketosis at 100-120g of carbohydrate a day (excluding fiber). and the safety of long-term ketogenic diets are untested. One interesting aspect of low-carbohydrate diets is ketosis. This also helps save our muscles from being catabolized to provide the amino acids. there’s also the danger of hyperglycemia (aka high blood sugar). Everyone’s brain is around the same size. it would be best to save the amino acids for what the body requires and provide the glucose directly from our diet. which is the creation of glucose from amino acids and glycerol. Ketones are a break-down product of fatty-acids and many tissues in the body can utilize it as an energy source. the body produces ketones so that glucose can be saved for the brain. It’s important to get the 100g of carbohydrate because this circumvents the need for gluconeogenesis. The important thing on that day would be to not consume any fat because it would just get stored.
In reality. yogurt. but it may also be the phytate that helps prevent colon cancer.). not enough fiber and too much gluten. cheese. Fats So far we have established that a 70kg man should be consuming 70g of protein. Something that has been spreading in naturopathic magazines and journals is the concept of the leaky gut.fiber supplement. excess sugar intake. I’m not certain as to what the optimal fiber intake is. They are a part of us and help us regulate our metabolism and protect us from the outside environment.g. if he incorporates this lower38 . 100g of digestible carbohydrate and 30g of fiber. Without them we would die. etc. so it is important to keep your gut bacteria happy and healthy. However. Basically. which turns out to be 140g. Intake of indigestible carbohydrates does have other benefits besides keeping you regular and promoting satiety through volume. sauerkraut. One of them is the production of butyrate in the colon and the maintenance pf healthy flora in the gut. because of damage to the gut through consumption of lectins (remember chapter 2). I prefer to get my fiber from non-grain sources such as green-leafy vegetables. root vegetables. mushrooms. It may be multicollinearity again. kimchi. but I have found that 30-40g of fiber from fibrous vegetables is needed to help reach the RDA of all the nutrients. and nuts. Considering he probably requires 2000 calories a day to maintain his weight that leaves 1260 calories for dietary fat. There is extensive research connecting fiber and the prevention of colon cancer. In total I get 30-40g of fiber a day. This can be accomplished by getting your fiber and consuming fermented food products (e. your gut is only supposed to allow nutrients through and keep toxins and poisons out. holes develop in our intestinal wall allowing everything to get through. I don’t know if leaky gut syndrome actually exists but this certainly illustrates the importance of your gut flora (gut bacteria). This total caloric intake comes out to 740 calories. leading to various problems.
cell damage. so maybe we can get some benefits of calorie restriction after all. leading to DNA damage. This would cause loss of body fat (granted if he performs resistance exercise and watches his nutrient timing). Studies show that low-carb diet spontaneously help patients decrease their caloric intake. so if you are missing one of them or some of them the mechanisms involved in keeping you alive are not functioning optimally. without optimal nutrition the body sacrifices short-term survival at the expense of long-term survival. Unlike the anti-nutrients in grains. the phytonutrients have probably been consumed by our 39 . the fats help keep our body functioning smoothly as it helps support hormone and neurotransmitter levels. some fatty cuts of meat and some flax seed oil and you’re there. Each micronutrient your body uses is involved in some important process to keep you alive. gives us better skin. By using the program Cron-O-Meter and measuring your food intake for a week you should get an idea of which vitamins and minerals you are deficient in. Phytonutrients are the substances found in vegetables which seem to confer health benefits upon the consumer. fat is satiating which helps control caloric intake. The other component is the phytonutrients. Basically. Micronutrients/Phytonutrients Dr. Firstly.carbohydrate/moderate protein intake diet he will spontaneously decrease his caloric intake. some olive oil on your salad. who has done considerable research on Alpha Lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-Carnitine. provides us with more stable energy levels throughout the day. this diet automatically becomes a high-fat diet. some cheese. This is good for several reasons. especially considering our use of intermittent fasting in all this. Bruce Ames. has also established a theory of aging: Triage Theory. etc. Considering the carbohydrate intake and protein intake. Secondly. oxidative damage. etc. Some nuts.
a measurement of the antioxidant capacity of substances in a test tube. and allicin from garlic have other functions beyond their antioxidant capacity. With value investing. a very common principle is the margin of safety. If you are getting the 30-40g of fiber from fibrous vegetables then you should be getting plenty of phytonutrients. it’ll be better if you spent 50cents just in case your estimate is wrong.ancestors for millions of years as hunter-gatherers. so what I recommend is either soaking the vegetables/fruit in water with a very light amount of soft detergent or purchasing one of those all-natural vegetable washers or detergents. This really has very little to do with how the same substances function inside our bodies. In terms of micronutrients it’s probably best to aim for 1. There is an interesting theory about xenohormesis which suggests that as environment conditions worsen. Heck I even eat the orange peel because of the benefits of d-limonene (if you ever have heart burn give some orange peel a try). ECGC from green tea. meaning that if you want to buy something you think is worth 1 dollar. I would say that the 40 .5x the RDA just in case. we want phytonutrients which have strong evidence backing their benefits such as I3C from broccoli. You’ve probably heard about ORAC values. We are not looking at ORAC scores. plants alter their phytonutrient content and thus mammals that consume these plants begin to prepare their bodies for the tough times ahead. Some fruits and vegetables with research supporting their benefits and should be eaten often are: Broccoli Blueberries Green Tea Dark Chocolate Olive Oil Many of the beneficial phytonutrients are found in the peel of the fruit. Many people are afraid of the chemicals and other substances on it.
Heidland A. It is suspected that lack of taurine might be the cause. There are various carninutrients that we consume which are beneficial. This whole scare probably started with Ancel Key’s 41 . As you are also aware of now. A lot of research has been done with regards to vegans/vegetarians because of their lack of meat intake. long-term vegetarians and subjects on a western mixed diet.40(6):275-81. meat has carninutrients which have beneficial properties. Schinzel R. The orthodox view of our society is that saturated fat causes heart disease. meat has carninutrients (carni. Eur J Nutr.use of Cron-o-meter and relying on your measuring and weighing skills definitely constitutes an estimate. If they don’t consume meat they don’t get the following carninutrients: Taurine Carnosine Creatine Vitamin B12 There are many more but these are just some of the important ones.stands for carnivore). This study found that vegetarians have higher plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (see Chapter 5). Faist V. Is Meat Bad For You? If you have read the Paleolithic diet chapter you know we probably evolved on meat. Klvanová J. Carninutrients Just like plants have phytonutrients. Take taurine as an example: Sebeková K. Krajcoviová-Kudlácková M. If you do decide to be vegetarian make sure to get your bases covered by supplementing with the carninutrients. 2001 Dec. Plasma levels of advanced glycation end products in healthy.
which should then lead to heart disease. There are different classes of lipoproteins. Fatty acids don’t flow through the blood by itself.“Seven Country Study. What causes this accumulation of fatty streaks and macrophages? It is probably oxidized LDL (oxLDL). but as the fatty streaks get worse (and your blood vessel get more inflamed due to other factors) macrophages invade the blood vessel and eat up the fat. the body utilizes it less effectively and thus it floats around. Nowadays we use cholesterol levels as a risk factor for heart disease. My understanding of heart disease is this: As you get older you accumulate fatty streaks (this is normal). it is usually attached or contained in lipoproteins. When it changes shape.” Then came the “China Study” by Colin Campbell which blamed fat consumption on the various diseases in Chinese populations. As it gets more and more oxidized. The fatty streaks are deposited by lipoproteins. OxLDL is bad because the fatty acids get damaged then become small. As they eat the fat they get bloated and become foam cells (which are found in plaques). saturated fat causes heart disease. and triglycerides (I will be discussing these in the biometric chapter). LDL. and that is where you get HDL. Then we do a bunch of studies showing that saturated fat raises cholesterol. 42 . the fat becomes sticky and attaches to the blood vessel. With this bias the problem of multicollinearity took its place and we have this connection today. leaving time for the fat to become oxidized in the blood. This leads to shrinkage in the size of the LDL particle and a change in shape. As you can see the blood vessel shrinks and become much smaller (on the right). and we use the reasoning that saturated fat raises cholesterol and cholesterol causes heart disease.
the type of fatty acid most likely to become oxidized is polyunsaturated fatty acids (the one with lots of double bonds). namely its high fat and protein content. but it doesn’t have to look charred for it to be burnt! 43 . baking. it’s the way that it is prepared that is bad. If you consume lots of saturated fats you get saturated fats in your lipoproteins. There is one thing that makes meat bad. oxidation is rampant and the formation of glycative-damaged products is very high. Your lipoproteins are in the contents of whatever you are eating. It’s not that meat in and of itself is bad. Cooking fats with protein at high temperatures (grilling. frying. etc. We all know consuming burnt material isn’t good. This is due to the methods by which meat is usually prepared these days. It’s true that the plaques (that block the blood vessels) are made out of fat (and various other materials) but blaming it on saturated fats is jumping the gun.) is a very bad idea because at these high temperatures.If you remember from chapter 2 on the Paleolithic Diet. What is it then? Is it the protein that’s bad for you? Well you need that protein so no. if you eat tons of PUFAs you’ll get tons of PUFAs in your lipoproteins.
they are more likely to become active and increase exercise and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (such as tapping their legs and fidgeting). If I ever wanted to get down to the single-digit body fat levels I would be required to decrease my caloric consumption down to probably 1700-1800 average daily. like 2600 calories a day. This is the Thrifty Gene Hypothesis: those more likely to store energy are more likely to survive. If you have tried a diet before you know how hard it is to lose weight and keep it off. ~English Proverb Eating and storing is much more evolutionarily advantageous than not eating and not storing. You probably seen those very thin people who eat a ton and yet stay thin. and I would gain weight. 44 . If one day they eat a ton. On an average daily basis I consume 2100 calories to maintain this composition. Everyone’s body tries its best to defend a set-point. It is much harder to lose fat than gain fat. my metabolism will go up. I am 5’10” and weigh 175lbs at 10-11% body-fat. it is much more complicated than that. We all have a programmed set-point. For example. less likely to exercise. dreaming about food. shot libido. While your body does gain weight when you eat more and lose weight when you eat less. If I eat over setpoint. loss of muscle mass. While I may be able to achieve those caloric intakes for a while soon metabolic adaptations will take place that will make me colder. I will have more energy. all which are the result of going below your set-point because the body is trying its best to conserve energy and make you eat. and every person has a different in response when defending the set-point. they have a very good defensive mechanism.Chapter 4: Weight Loss/Gain Don't dig your grave with your own knife and fork. It is a weight range that our bodies fight to maintain.
your brain is used to a higher dopamine level and when you try to stop smoking. As you can see set-points usually go up. For example. it has to adapt to a lack of signal. If you eat and your stomach is full or your body knows it’s gotten enough calories your appetite gets suppressed. if you have ever been stressed or got dumped you are much more likely to eat sweets and carbohydrates. it’s hard because your dopamine levels drop. The reward pathway has to do with how happy you feel after eating. Set-point is by feedback to the brain and in general I consider there to be two pathways: the Reward pathway and the Fed pathway. they just use “willpower” to overcome it. that feeling of happiness overrides the fed pathway. It stop workings because of the reward pathway.” So what happens is that one day you start consuming a lot of junk food constantly stimulating the reward pathways (which the body likes) and a few months later your 15lbs heavier (freshman 15). today you’re not as hungry so you spontaneously eat less. the person never “breaks” the addiction. so most people begin to eat. but sooner or later they start smoking again. 45 . If you ate an extra 1000 calories the day before and didn’t exercise it off. but on the way down it has nothing to adapt to because if set point were to move lower. ever hear of the saying “there is always room for desert. but doesn’t come back down (just like weight gain). After smoking for months. The Fed pathway is where the body tells itself it is full. this is because on the way up the body is adapting to stronger signals (more dopamine).The big problem here though is that our set-points are much more likely to go up. thus eating. but they will always crave it under similar circumstances. Then why do we get fat if the Fed pathway works. Under these conditions the reward pathway is below its natural set-point so the body tries to raise it by any means necessary. than it is to go down. The simple reason for this effect is that these types of foods raise dopamine. One thing you see with addiction is that. This pathway is usually responsible for addiction to drugs such as cocaine and nicotine.
Today we do have access to these supernormal stimuli. Weight loss is a long-term goal. But if you have gained the weight there are some things we can utilize that might fix the system a bit. it evolved to be in the presence of berries and potatoes. occasional fruit. It is the supernormal stimulus that causes the reward pathway to shortcircuit our fed pathway. and fats. wheat. No one is looking for a shortterm fix. insulin resistance) and we suffer the consequences (diabetes. 1988 Jul 1. This is commonly seen in those who diet and then suddenly gain back more weight than they started with. anyways yo-yo dieting probably isn’t the best thing for your metabolism: Steen SN. sure you can follow it for a couple of months at best but sooner or later our body wants to get back to set-point. obesity). Oppliger RA. This is why most diets never work. JAMA. We have existing mechanisms which are supposed to respond to thing in nature like sweetness (sweet potato. heart disease. What can we do then? The first thing is not to gain the weight in the first place. but today this response becomes exaggerated because our access to it is exaggerated. in nature we do not have constant access to concentrated sugar. 260(1):4750 What the study found was that wrestlers who cycled their weight up and down had a slower metabolism compared to those who did not.Why would nature develop such a detrimental mechanism? In our natural environment it is not detrimental at all. Brownell KD. It is known as the rebound effect and is present in many systems in the body. Our bodies did not evolve to be in the presence of donuts and cookies. rare access to honey). sooner or later our fed pathways get damaged (leptin resistance. 46 . Metabolic effects of repeated weight loss in wrestlers.
If you consume 500 calories your body has to digest and process those 500 calories. This is where fasting comes into the picture. lets say 50. What we want is a way to increase the flexibility of the diet. The environment causes you to lose control and again you give up on the diet. Fasting is where you do not eat for a set number of hours. The smart thing to do would be to just not ingest those calories in the first 47 . I mean it does make sense but the problem is that just because it makes sense doesn’t mean its right. you are dieting and one day you are invited to a party with lots and lots of food. There’s lot of talk out there about not skipping meals. Or another example. it’ll hurt you gut. If your body utilizes 500 calories to digest 500 calories that is a very inefficient storage system (goes against the thrifty gene hypothesis). By planning this cheat day ahead of time we can mentally prepare ourselves for the repercussions and take steps to offset that day.So we don’t want a short-term solution. so it must take less to digest 500 calories. but it doesn’t slow down to zero. your metabolism will slow down. Later you suddenly realized what you’ve done and decide to give up on the diet. Of course your metabolism slows down compared to when you were eating. we want it before the fact. Sure your metabolism is faster by consuming that meal but it doesn’t speed up enough to overcome the extra 450 calories stored. At this point the mental stress caused by this low-calorie eating breaks your will-power causing you to give up on the diet and binge 2000 calories over your limit. we don’t want a plan after the fact. Then we store 450 calories. bad for your health. blah blah blah blah blah. Let’s say you are on a low-calorie diet trying to cut fat. A long-term solution has two qualities that make it work: Flexibility (rigidity causes to much mental stress) Adherence (you have to be able to follow it long-term) A big reason why diets fail is because of the rigidity imposed by the rules. one day you eat a couple cookies and all of a sudden your 500 calories over your limit. I consider fasting to be greater than a 16 hour period where you do not ingest calories.
which means less sugar for your brain so your brain wants you to eat. What about for health? I have never read anything about how constantly exposing your arteries to influx of dietary products is healthy. That way you just created a deficit of probably 2000 calories. because of that quick spike in your blood sugar levels. It doesn’t take too much willpower (this also ties into flexibility) and is also a diet you don’t feel deprived of. Why not just create a huge caloric deficit the day before or on that day. Don’t be too hard on yourself when you fall of the bandwangon. and then do your thing on Friday. There is a lot of damage that occurs in the post-prandial state (after eating) and there is a lot of research about how to minimize post-prandial damage (see Chapter 5). excess insulin was produced which causes your blood sugar to fall below baseline. one day isn’t going to put a huge dent in your lifetime. not fasting is harmful. Blood glucose helps regulate your appetite. I discussed many of the issues in the previous chapter but I will go over them again. It has to be a diet you can follow.place. This is the whole 48 . That hunger you get after eating a highcarbohydrate snack isn’t “real” hunger in the sense that you should eat something because your body is running below its setpoint. So let’s say you are going to a big party where you know you can’t resist. If anything it is damaging. after the fast eat a normal sized meal. This is where the low-carbohydrate diet comes into the picture. but for now all you have to know is that fasting is beneficial. If you throw in some resistance training on Friday in the morning or before the party that’s even better for calorie partitioning (more on this later too). The next part of a successful long-term diet is adherence. If the party is on Friday. Because if it doesn’t you die. Your brain is a very selfish organ and it always gets what it wants. No it’s “fake” hunger. You have 100 years to live. I will discuss this concept of fasting more in a later chapter. fast for 16 hours on Wednesday and Thursday.
because excess will become glucose. What it leads to is consumption of sweets and constant grazing throughout the day. Humans probably went through periods of fasting. Our bodies have adapted without the need for a constant infusion of glucose. While if you consumed the same amount of calories on a high-carbohydrate diet you would be humungous. in my honest opinion (At most the metabolic advantage seems to be 300 calories). The metabolic advantage is a state that lowcarbohydrate dieting confers upon its user by allowing intake of unlimited about of fat/protein in the absence of carbohydrate but still leads to weight loss. 49 . and probably leads to aging (more on this later). either protein or fat. This leads into a hotly debated topic of the Metabolic Advantage (MAD). where they hunted (exercised) and then consumed after a successful hunt.low-blood sugar thing people experience when they are hungry. So if the metabolic advantage probably doesn’t exist on the low-carbohydrate diet why do I recommend it? I recommend it for its other qualities: It’s tasty More satiety Stable blood sugar Breaks the supernormal addiction (at least gives you the willpower) If you are consuming low-carbohydrate. The reason people rely on snacks nowadays is because this constant grazing has shut-down fat-burning mechanisms. Now protein isn’t a good idea. then the calories has to be made up with something else. the metabolic advantage probably doesn’t exist. I’m sorry but we are not cows or apes. So what is left is fats. There probably is a metabolic advantage for those with a derangement in their leptin/insulin signaling systems but outside of those folks. There’s good points on both sides but from my reading of the research it definitely doesn’t seem like unlimited calories.
Carbohydrate loading is easy and also fun while we’re doing it. It usually specifies the type of body that people have naturally. By combining exercise. Remember I said set-point doesn’t go lower. a low-carbohydrate diet also has benefits that will prevent the damage of your cells. I could easily eat a whole box of cereal in one sitting (depending on the box probably 2000 calories) but could you eat 2000 calories of cheese? The funny thing is that I would probably be hungry after the box of cereal (resulting low blood sugar) but with the cheese I would be full and disgusted for the day. Body Types You probably heard of the term endomorph. The other benefit of a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet is it turns up fat-burning machinery (this doesn’t mean you burn more fat from your body. mesomorph. The ketones may also have beneficial properties themselves. and a lowcarbohydrate diet a body fat percentage for males below 15% and for females below 25% should be fairly easy to attain and maintain. This is important for the prevention of chronic illnesses as we get older. fasting. By lowering your carbohydrate intake you not only stop consuming the junk-food but it allows you to increase the fat content of the diet which keeps your blood sugar level and satiety centers satisfied. and ectomorph. The endomorph has a very easy time gaining weight as 50 . This spares glucose for the brain while the rest of the body runs on fats (ketones). Athletes and bodybuilders can easily consume over 3000 calories of carbohydrate in a day. Beyond the ability of low-carbohydrate high-fat diets to control your caloric intake. Left out of the discussion is the importance of exercise. There’s something unsatiating about carbohydrates. that will depend on your caloric intake). well it seems when exercise is applied it does go lower (it also seems that way with fasting too).
An ectomorph would gain more muscle than fat (if they can gain) and a mesomorph gains equal amounts of both. Dulloo AG. Some people control it really well. their metabolism is less likely to compensate for the extra calories they consume and they are more likely to gain fat instead of protein. Your metabolism is actually made up of a couple of parts. the thermic effect of food (it takes calories to digest food) and the biggest factor.fat. While the movements may seem small it adds up over the entire day. some people don’t. Girardier L. Jacquet J. the more you exercise the more you burn). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Autoregulation of body composition during weight recovery in human: the Minnesota Experiment revisited. thus putting them on the spectrum between ectomorph and endomorph somewhere. fidgeting your hands. NEAT can actually burn off up to 700 calories a day depending on the person. This ratio of fat and protein is called the Pratio (protein/fat). Apart from the P-ratio there are two more components that determine your body type: speed of your metabolism and how effectively you unconsciously control calorie intake. There is the thermic effect of activity (the activity factor you multiply by. The other component is how well you control your caloric intake around your set point. the non-exercise thermic effect of activity (NEAT) which are movements outside of exercise such as shaking your leg.20(5):393-405 This study shows from the famous Minnesota Experiment that every individual has there own P-ratio. 51 . bouncing up and down in your seat. There is there basal metabolic rate (BMR) I mentioned in the beginning of Chapter 3. 1996 May.
Recently a new phenotype has been described and that is the skinny-fat bodytype. While other people would gain weight. but I believe they can be overcome with hard and smart work (Chapter 9). the skinny-fat person does not gain weight but can still end up with Type II diabetes (discussed in Appendix III). The skinny-fat body type are the people that are thin but have metabolic dysregulation just like someone that is overweight with insulin resistance. 52 .Endomorph Low P-ratio Low NEAT Does not control caloric intake well Ectomorph High P-ratio High NEAT Controls caloric intake well Mesomorph In the middle What determines your body type? In the end it is probably genetics and the environment in which you grew up.
Vlassara H. 100% of the rats are alive. 53 . every cell in your body gets worn-out. you can’t replace your cells with new parts. 2007 June. ~Gloria Pitzer Aging is a disease because of damage. He JC. The damage created is just a part of being alive. Source: Cai W. It just makes a lot of sense that we should minimize damage to our bodies. but they also aren’t good for humans. we’ll use the black line. the CR benefits are abolished (no lifespan extension). On the x-axis (horizontal) you have age of death (or some function of time) and on the yaxis you have the percent still alive. Am J Pathol. Even though we cannot prevent all the damage from occurring we can try our best to minimize it. Zhu L. AGE definitely is not good for mice. we don’t need to increase the speed by which we age. Wallenstein S. Reduced Oxidant Stress and Extended lifespan in Mice Exposed to a Low Glycotoxin Diet. Unlike a car though. Lesson on Survival Curves Kaplan Meier survival curves are useful because they allow you to look at how a population is doing. At the very left up top. Clearly this type of damage should be minimized. So for example. 170(6):1893-1902 In this study Cai et al show that the group of mice consuming a lower AGE diet lived longer. Strike GE. There is also a study showing that by combining a high AGE diet with CR. Our body tries our best to fight the entropy but evolution just did not have the need to act on the parts that would keep us alive forever. Chen X. Just like the transmission of a car gets worn-out.Chapter 5: Minimizing Damage About the only thing that comes to us without effort is old age.
if your glucose levels are too high. How well you body responds to your carbohydrate intake depends on many factors such as source of carbohydrate. glucagon. the AGE-fed mouse is the blue line and the controls were the black line (a CRmice would be the red line). So in our example above with mice and AGE diets.g. The other way it can move is parallel.by the time you move along the line and get to the middle 50% are alive. then at the bottom 0% is alive. but high glucose levels eventually lead to diabetes. epinephrine). nothing acute happens. The body keeps blood sugar regulated in a fairly narrow range through various hormones (e. meaning less rats die near the beginning. There are two sources for this type of damage: your blood sugar levels and the damaged intermediates you consume in your diet. insulin. Blood Sugar High blood sugar is a dangerous thing. or that there is a very high death rate throughout the lifespan creating the blue line (not accurate because the blue line also shows a decrease in lifespan). but then suddenly drop off at around the same age (like humans). the graphs could shift to the right showing that at each time period the rat is living longer. thus extending life span. how 54 . It can become more square. So the lines can take different paths. If your glucose levels are too low you die (the brain needs glucose). glucocorticoids.
which are then absorbed through the hepatic portal vein and released into blood for all the cells in your body. etc. For many reasons. 55 . However. protein. making matters even worse. how long since you last ate. and fat you consume. consuming too many calories and excess carbohydrates leads your muscles. which is released when you eat in preparation for storage. adipose tissue. and liver suck it up from the blood to prevent it from doing damage. Your body cannot really burn off all the carbohydrates at one time. exercise.much fiber. Since your liver cannot respond to insulin anymore. it believes that you don’t have enough glucose in the blood. When you ingest a bowl of white rice (which is just starch and water). the amylase (enzyme) in the mouth begins digesting the starch molecules. This absorption of glucose from the blood depends on a hormone called insulin. This can lead to high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and then diabetes. which continue to be broken down in your small intestine. the major factor is your insulin sensitivity. It then gets broken up into tiny glucose molecules. which then causes it to start pumping out glucose into the blood. adipose tissue and liver to stop responding to insulin. so now the muscles.
PUFAs are very reactive. Glycative damage is actually one reason oxLDL are produced. If the protein’s shape is changed it will no longer work properly (the key doesn’t fit). The more glucose you have in the blood. and under high temperatures they are reactive with sugars too. If they get damaged. From this you can find the percentage of hemoglobin that is damaged. The picture on the right is the same protein but with a glucose molecule attached to it (the circle). new undamaged ones are made to replace them. inflammation occurs and more macrophages are produced. It becomes attached through a reaction known as the Maillard reaction. if you change its shape you change the protein. Hemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. but what we are worried about are the proteins that stay with us forever. so as the hemoglobin gets damaged and removed. they don’t get removed or replaced. As the arteries get damaged by the excess sugar. thus it shares its environment with glucose. By damaging the protein and lipids of the body. It can also cause damage to fats. A good way to measure this type of damage is testing glycated hemoglobin. Usually for a protein to do its job it has to fit into another protein that accepts its shape (like a key and lock). Protein does its job because of its shape. by attaching a sugar to the protein it alters its shape. the higher the percentage. Glycation doesn’t just end with the proteins.Glucose may not sound damaging. such as the proteins that make up our arteries and the proteins that make up our neurons. and the shape is no longer allowed to do its job (it becomes damaged). but in large amounts it is. This may not seem like such a big deal since new protein can be created and usually old protein can be broken down. 56 . In the picture above (on the left) you have a normal shaped protein. more and more damage occurs in a vicious cycle. Red blood cells have a turnover rate of 120 days.
This would be a useful tool if everyone ate only one food at a time. Also make sure to get your exercise and consume a lower-carbohydrate diet because this depletes glycogen stores. however if you are already diabetic aiming for below 7% is good. this is what gives it the flavor when you grill it. Post-prandial meaning after eating. white rice 57 . Te Maillard reaction is what leads to browning and it is also what leads to burning. Meat undergoes the Maillard Reaction. it usually follows what you consumed. consume fiber with your carbohydrate sources (vegetables) and have some fats to slow digestion. In normal healthy individuals. You preferably want a level between 4% and 6%. The higher your blood sugar goes.To get this test go to your doctor and ask for it. Glycemic Index The glycemic index is a measurement for how different food types spike your blood sugar level. glycated hemoglobin is a good measure of how well you handle post-prandial hyperglycemia. To prevent blood sugar spikes. increasing insulin sensitivity (the emptier your energy stores are the faster and more they can store). This process occurs in the body. If you happen to have a blood glucose meter I prefer to keep post-prandial glucose below 120mg/dL. and the longer you stay in that environment the more “browning” and “burning” occurs to the cells in your body. more normal glucose levels slow down the damage you accumulate. If you ate 250g of carbohydrate then your blood glucose will spike much more than if you ate 100g. Here’s another example to further stress the damaging nature of glycation. If you cook your meat at a very low temperature it takes the meat longer to burn into nothing. but I consider it a moot point considering people consume mixed meals. Your blood glucose doesn’t spike up and down randomly throughout the day for no reason. this is where my 130g of carbohydrate a day number also came from. Sure.
2004 Aug.has a high glycemic index. bread crust. In the study I mentioned at the beginning of the chapter.e12 58 . Here’s a table showing the AGE content of a selection of foods: Food Pasteurized skimmed milk Pasteurized whole milk Evaporated whole milk Butter Cheese Raw minced beef Boiled miced beef Fried minced beef White bread crust AGE 0. it showed that the AGEs in your diet matter.2 37. Fried meat.02 11. 2010 Jun.104(8):1287-91 For a more recent list it can be found in this study: Uribarri J. Uribarri J.110(6):911-16. some meat. Cai W. J Am Diet Assoc. Striker GE. Yong A.2 0. Woodruff S. J Am Diet Assoc.1 Source: Goldberg T. Advanced glycoxidation end products in commonly consumed foods.52 46. Peppa M. Pyzik R. Vlassara H. and fruit. Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet. you should also be worried about the glycation in the food you digest outside of your body.80 0. Cai W. Chen X. but when you eat it with a bunch of broccoli. Vlassara H.37 5. Baliga BS. Damaged Food-Products Besides the glycation that occurs inside your body. what is the glycemic index measuring exactly? The glycemic index diet probably works because it tells you to eat more vegetables and less sugar. Goodman S. Dardaine V.72 5. and evaporated milk are all processed at high temperatures which lead to excessive glycative damage.35 0.
so I think keeping your blood sugar under control is more important. Between time and temperature. breads. legumes. meat has carninutrients we should be getting. You can quickly heat them on a pan with water then add the oil later if necessary. the rate of chemical reaction is usually exponential with temperature and linear with time. then higher temperature for short periods. there really is no reason to be frying your vegetables in oil. breads. What we learn from all this is that high temperatures for long periods of times are damaging. 59 . Basically. and legumes all the time? Firstly. which one is more important? Well. Why don’t we just consume grains. and milk are the lowest in AGEs Another interesting point in the paper was that if you marinate your meat in acidic vinegar the AGE content is reduced by 50%. Diabetes is a disease due to high blood sugar. stay away from processed foods (high temperatures. vegetables. so it is better to cook at lower temperatures for longer. We should cook in moist heat and lower temperatures. fruits. especially evaporated products like infant formula) and when you cook meat.What was found in the study by Uribarri et al (2010) was that: Fats contain more AGEs Meat is the largest contributor Carbohydrate groups contain the lowest Grains. always use moist heat to make dishes. Also. steam it or boil it after marinating it in vinegar and various spices. and we must also be aware of balancing blood sugar and the consumption of dietary AGEs.
A prospective study of plasma ferritin level and incident diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Hoogeveen RC. The problem with many supplements and fortified foods is that they are very high in iron. diabetes. Couper D. but people go out of their way to purchase extra iron supplements. Ballantyne CM.165(9):1047-54. We can see that excess iron is a bad thing. Guallar E. Iron causes all these problems because of its interaction with the free radicals that are produced from metabolism. There may be many explanations as to why women live longer than men (~7 years longer. however. The free radicals by themselves are not that damaging.g. our bodies are actually fairly good at regulating iron stores. Pankow JS. when combined with free iron the damage is increased. and liver disease are all associated with increased iron stores in their respective locations. disposition) but one interesting possible reason is that men get overloaded with iron as they age and women do not (until they hit menopause). Alzheimer’s. Here is a prospective study showing the association between high iron stores and atherosclerosis: Jehn ML. Dietary iron is usually not a big problem (as long as you implement the interventions 60 . Clark JM. 2007 May 1. but it also reacts with it causing the production of free radicals. estrogen. At the same time. Mixing Vitamin C and iron together is bad because not only does Vitamin C increase iron absorption. Overall.Iron Levels Women have monthly cycles which cause them to lose ~30mg of iron every month while males gain ~1mg of iron per day after the end of their growth period. diabetes. hemachromatosis (a disease which causes iron overload in humans) shows us the dangers of excess iron: liver damage. Harris ZL. the more damage that occurs. heart disease. The more iron there is. Duncan BB. Nowadays many people also take multivitamins which contain Vitamin C. Not only that. Am J Epidemiol. arthritis. e.
Exercise is good for getting rid of iron because just by sweating and breaking our cells we lose 1mg from exercise (so you have to sweat!). decreasing dietary iron should not be the goal because dietary iron helps outcompete cadmium and lead in our intestines thus preventing heavy metal toxicity. 1997 Aug. Most multivitamins include the entire RDA for iron.g.discussed below) because it comes with substances that protect the body from the damage (e. Heart. men do not have cycles). Non-heme iron makes up ~85% of dietary intake. 61 . Absorption of non-heme iron really depends on the environment where various fatty acids. carnosine. Wilson JE. Based solely on this we can conclude that we should not consume any meat. There are two types of iron: heme-iron (found in red meat) and non-heme iron (found in vegetables. However. so if you are eating a wholesome diet you are getting 2x the RDA. Possible association of a reduction in cardiovascular events with blood donation. protein See Chapter 2). In my opinion. and vitamins/minerals can affect its absorption. Strickland D. but overall the absorption of non-heme iron is not very good. McManus BF. Seburg JK. it provides more iron to our bodies than nonheme. Maloley PA. phytochemicals. Yet just like many things regarding your health. taurine). Instead we should be focusing on how to get rid of the excess in men (unlike women. just because too much is bad does not mean that none of it is better (e.g. it is better to be on the lower side than the higher side. Heme iron is absorbed very well thus while it only contributes ~25%. The other thing we can do is to donate blood: Meyers DG. grains. legumes). proteins.78(2):188-93 What was found in this study was that men who donated blood were less likely to have heart attacks (which is a good thing).
other phytonutrients also work (such as those found in green tea). Not only do you help others but you also help yourself in the process. We want it on the low side. So if you do plan to supplement with phytate. but not past it.Donating at least twice a year is good. but the thing to watch out for is to not go overboard (or else you get anemia). The other thing you can do is to supplement with an iron chelator such as phytate (see Appendix IV). Phytate is very good at binding iron. make sure to get your ferritin (this stores iron) levels checked. 62 .
Chapter 6: The Natural and Supplements Better to hunt in field. amino acids. and consume them without knowing that there could be consequences down the road. for health unbought. ergo what is natural cannot do any harm. thus entirely safe. If everything in nature was good for you. so when you consume something it should definitely have a very high benefit to risk ratio. than fee the doctor for a nauseous draft. ~John Dryden A lot of this book has discussed the Paleolithic diet: we evolved in nature to eat certain things. We aren’t supposed to be looking for what is natural. and other ingredients. if you want to take that risk. If you walk into a supplement store today you will see numerous herbal extracts. take them home. This is the naturalistic fallacy. If you ask the sales clerk if all this stuff is safe they would say. Let’s take aspartame and stevia for example. Every supplement you consume outside of whole foods means taking a risk. vitamins. Both are zero calorie sweeteners commonly used in products today for those who do not want to consume sugar. minerals. I prefer my drinks with aspartame. Now safety is not something that can always be judged. why are there poisonous plants and mushrooms? Clearly we need to view what is “natural” with a more skeptical eye. the trade-off better be beneficial. Aspartame is regularly blamed for causing cancer. one should definitely apply a more skeptical eye to what they are buying. and stevia is championed as being all-natural. we want to look for what is safe and effective. When you spend money on something that is supposed to make you healthier. this type of data doesn’t have any edge on 63 . therefore it may seem like what is natural is best. While stevia has been used by for generations by South American Natives. “oh yeah it’s all natural” and the customer will buy the supplements.
Walker R. prospective epidemiology). Kroes RM. and toxicological and epidemiological studies. many rats died prematurely). After a week of tracking with Cron-OMeter you should have a good idea of what you are deficient in. 2007. In other words aspartame did not cause more deaths despite what the conclusion of the study states (the data was probably due to chance because the researches were just really bad at taking care of the rats.5x the RDA for each 64 . The most convincing study is this one that has life-span data: Source: Soffritti M. regulations. Belpoggi F. Tibaldi E.clinical data (outcome trials. sucrolose. and so far aspartame. the female group seemed live longer when fed aspartame. If for some reason you can’t reach 1. Just because it has been used historically doesn’t mean that it’s safe. Lambertini L. Marsh GM. Environ Health Perspect.37(8):629-727. How is one generation supposed to link cancer 40 years down the road to their ingestion of stevia leaves? If stevia caused diarrhea I can see how they would make the connection. Supplements The supplements you should be taking should really be determined by your diet. What they show in the study is that the rat fed aspartame and the control rats had the same lifespan. Pariza MW. splenda all have this type of data behind it while stevia does not. Spencer PS. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels. Burdock GA. So for the occasional treat I see no reason why I would choose regular soda over diet-soda (30 grams of sugar or couple 180mg of aspartame). To determine what is safe and effective we must turn to the scientific method. If anything. Crit Rev Toxicol. Williams GM. animal toxicity data.: Magnuson BA.114(3):379-85. Waddell WJ. 2006 Mar. First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to SpragueDawley rats. Degli Esposti D. Rigano A. Doull J.
This is by no means an exhaustive list but you should be aware of what you are putting in your mouth. Fatty acids. because not only do you have to buy the right form of the ingredient. like polyethylene glycol. Buying a supplement is a hard decision. or stearates. Beyond the “active” ingredient in the pill. such as starch that increases the bulk of a product. Binders. Disintegrators. you can decide to take a supplement. The less it takes to make the pill. which speed up manufacturing. If you take a look at pharmaceutical drugs most pills don’t have more than 5 of these other ingredients. Diluents.vitamin and mineral. the higher quality the pill usually is. Promotes cohesion. Fillers. you should also try your best to buy a high-quality supplement so that you get what you are paying for. it can also contain other ingredients that are used to fill up the pill and also make it easier for the machines to pack the pill: Lubricants. Some other ingredients I stay away from are: Propylene Glycol Artificial Colorings Sweeteners Sodium Benzoate Aluminum Silicate While ones I consider safe are: Magnesium Stearate Gelatin Stearic Acid Lecithin 65 . Cellulose or sodium lauryl sulfate that help the pill breakdown.
So the first thing you should be supplementing with is at least 2000IU of Vitamin D3. D3. and maybe cancer. damage. You can read more about Vitamin D and the Vitamin D Council website. Which supplements should you be taking then? Well there iss the Weston A. and K2 (MK-7 or MK-4) and maybe some magnesium and a source of omega-3s.000IU of Vitamin D3. when we go outside we cover ourselves up. Back near the equatorial region of Africa we probably produced tons of Vitamin D3 due to exposure from the sun. I have found some very pricey supplements with 8-10 other ingredients. vitamins A.Cellulose Di-Calcium Phosphate Glycerin These lists are by no means extensive but just keep an eye out for how other ingredients there are. because modern diets are usually deficient in these nutrients. In 20 minutes our bodies have the capacity to produce 20. and tablets don’t have any fat. and slap on sunscreen. stay in the shade. What should optimally be done is to supplement with 25IU/lb of bodyweight then get blood tests performed measuring your levels to ensure that you are in the optimal range >30ng/ml and less than 50ng/ml. Vitamin D3 This is not actually a vitamin but a hormone that our bodies require to function optimally. Price nutrients. When you purchase the supplement ensure that it is in a softgel form because Vitamin D3 is fat-soluble. yet for most of us. but doesn’t do much for our Vitamin D status. 66 . These are actually fairly smart things to do considering that UV light causes skin aging.
it has an array of other benefits: Cancer Neuroprotection Cardiovascular health Dental health There are two forms: MK-7 and MK-4. In the distant past. Beyond just bone health. Vitamin K2 helps activate Vitamin K dependent (VKD) proteins allowing the body to bring the calcium to where it is needed. If you take MK-7 take 45mcg a day. the majority of our magnesium was probably from our water intake. Supplementing with 250mg of extra magnesium a day would benefit a lot of people in terms of bone health. Also ensure that it is in a softgel form. instead of letting the calcium float around in the body possibly leading to calcification (heart disease). Nowadays we filter our water and it basically has no minerals in it. and diabetes. cardiovascular health. MK-7 comes from fermented soybeans while MK-4 is the endogenous animal form.Vitamin K2 We are animals so we use K2. This means we should probably supplement with it. but K2 is found mainly in cheese. if MK-4 take 1mg a day. and fermented soybeans. organ meats. It takes conscious effort to design a diet sufficient in magnesium so most people would rather supplement with it. many foods people do not consume today and because of modern processing even if you do they are not present in large enough amounts. Most people associate vitamin K with bone health and this is true. Magnesium If you’ve analyzed your diet you are probably deficient in magnesium. Even though I do achieve the RDA I choose to supplement with some extra to get over the RDA just in case. 67 .
The more fish oil you consume the more long chain PUFAs in your body. but 68 . What do we supplement instead? Well get your fish three times a week. Basically what has been found is that species with more long chain PUFAs in their membranes live a shorter life than those with less PUFAs. While the oxide form is the most popular. For an introduction to this aging theory read here: Hulbert AJ. It is interesting to note that CR also reduces the incorporation of long chain PUFAs into the membranes. double bonds are more likely to react and oxidize. 2008 Sep. Omega 3 Fatty Acids I actually don’t recommend fish oil unless you have neurological problems. it’s not as absorbable as other forms. I am not saying that omega-3s are not beneficial.Explaining longevity of different animals: is membrane fatty acid composition the missing link? Age (Dordr). just that I would rather get my n-3s from shorter chain fatty acids. If you remember the section on vegetable oils in Chapter 2.There are many different forms of magnesium but a cheap and absorbable form to take would be magnesium citrate. Well. Make sure to stay away from magnesium oxide. and the rest of the days supplement with 6g of flax seed oil (1 tablespoon). Common arguments against this are that flax seed oil conversion into animal form omega 3 fatty acids are inefficient (~10%). The reason oxide is used is because the pills are smaller than if you used citrate.30(2-3):89-97. The reason for this is that the very long chains of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil will be incorporated into the inner mitochondrial membrane and possibly reduces your lifespan. the PUFAs in fish oil have the most double bonds you will find.
too much copper can lead to dementia. you do ingest nutrients. too much pre-formed Vitamin can double your risk of fractures. a partial dose will do. 2010 Mar. too much folic acid and thiamine will cause cancer down the road. but if you find it hard I suggest topping it up with a multi-vitamin. The Rest of the Nutrients It’s preferable if you get the rest of your nutrients from food. Prospective studies of dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.21(3):347-55 It looks at prospective studies (which is good) and they found no connection. Grosclaude P. Cancer Causes Control. well a new study out in March 2010 showed that there is no connection: Carayol M. Delpierre C. Most of the multivitamins designed nowadays follow the principle “the more the better. Research has placed optimal amounts of omega-3 intake at around 250mg (which comes out to 3 servings of fish per week). One tablespoon of flax seed oil is enough to make 250mg. Most multi-vitamins these days contain a lot of these vitamins and 69 . If it is the lignans in the flax seed. I only suggest a partial dose because unless you are munching on sugar all day. If it is the actual oil itself. Don’t take the full-dose. but it is not good for you. too high of a zinc-copper ratio leads to prostate cancer. the oil doesn’t have any lignans so it doesn’t matter.just because it is inefficient doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen at all. As I mentioned in chapter 2.” which is good for the companies because that’s what people will buy. The only good brand of multivitamins out there is AOR. This may seem like a mechanistic argument (which is bad) but there is also research to show that flax seed oil has just as good cardiovascular outcomes as fish oil. extra selenium (and most multivitamin has a lot of that) can lead to diabetes. You may also have heard of the flax seed and prostate cancer association.
because these vitamins and minerals are what customers actually seek out. most vitamins use alphatocopherol which can decrease your body’s stores of the other forms of Vitamin E (in nature the gamma-tocopherol is the one that is consumed in higher amounts). but at best you are just wasting your money. The RDA is set for food intake not supplement intake. Be careful out there because your life and health depends on it.minerals. There are eight forms of Vitamin E. if you consume 100mcg from supplements you absorb 100mcg. inclusion of various herbal extracts with no evidence backing up its safety or efficacy. if you consume 100mcg of folic acid from food you absorb 50mg. Many also include green tea extract. As I said. Please see Appendix IV for more risky supplements that I believe may also beneficial. 70 . and one of them I trust is AOR. However. I only know a couple of companies that design their multivitamins and do not suffer from these deficiencies. Just a quick note on folic acid. It’s the design of the multivitamin that is also something one should pay attention too. If someone buys a multivitamin it is not rare to see them taking an extra b-vitamin supplement (way too many b-vitamins) and some extra zinc. and also inclusion of various phytonutrients that are beneficial but not in high enough dosages to have an effect (included for cosmetic purposes). Toxicity is not the only problem. as well as magnesium oxide instead of the other forms because it fits into a smaller pill. it is not absorbed properly. The beta-carotene is usually synthetic (cheaper to make). which binds to minerals decreasing absorption. Not only is taking a full dose and badly designed multivitamin incredibly dangerous.
“That which does not kill us makes us stronger. toxins. eating vegetables (xenohormesis). our body is capable of up-regulating protective mechanisms. Plants also elicit these mechanisms in us. some more controversial ones are radiation and small doses of poison. fasting. There is evidence to show that alcohol intake probably leads to better cardiovascular health (20g or so a day). lack of food). ~Philippus Paracelsus Our world is full of stress. intermittently in various forms.” to a degree. Some examples of hormesis are: exercise. exercise is good for you. As I mentioned in the anti-nutrient section of Chapter 2. but too much leads to overtraining and down the road your body is going to breakdown. free radicals.g. 71 . As we all know. oxidative stress) and external stress (e. is probably good for us in the long-term. plants develop defensive mechanisms to protect themselves from predators. the physician within. This is called hormesis. While we may not be adapted to grains we may be adapted to the various green vegetables and fruits found in nature that we would feed on. which we can then utilize when the stress disappears. So it seems like the right amounts of stress. perhaps through the production of hydroxytyrosol (which is also found in large amounts from high quality olive oil). so we've adapted to these poisons. We experience internal (e.g. Many people assume that no stress is best but that may not be true. Our bodies are very adaptive and when exposed to various stimuli.Chapter 7: Maintaining the Body Fasting is the greatest remedy. alcohol.
Kahn CR. It is the utilization of oxygen that produces the free radicals that everyone takes antioxidants to prevent them from damaging our cells. This is a very good example of the difference between “it makes sense that it should do this” vs. For an example of the importance of hormesis we will use exercise. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Bluher M. Kiehntopf M. Our bodies are constantly making new enzymes. Oberbach A. “does it actually do this. Also 72 .Hormesis probably played a role in our evolutionary history by selecting those who had mechanisms in place that could be upregulated when exposed to stress. Stumvoli M. Quite intuitive. that's not what happens. thus preparing them for larger stresses in the future. the beneficial effects of exercise was blocked. cells. Kloting N. Our bodies aren't perfect so it’s bound to make numerous mistakes in our lifetime. isn’t it? Take antioxidants that soak up free radicals so no damage is done and thus we are healthier. When you exert yourself your blood starts pumping and you take more breaths because your body requires more oxygen. Birringer M. and other stuff all the time. telling the body it has to adapt. which is to help up-regulate stress coping mechanisms (and exercise is a stress). Those without the gene that leads to upregulation probably died off when those large stresses came about. 106(21):8665-70 What they found was when vitamin C (an antioxidant) was given to an untrained individual performing exercise.” Autophagy and Fasting Calorie restriction may also work its magic through autophagy (self-eating). Zarse K. It seems that free radicals help signal. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans. But no. 2009 May 26. In this study: Ristow M. There's an evolutionary reason for these free radicals.
So as you can see. the body tries to leave the glucose for the brain and instead breaks down fatty acids into ketones. which we will do with resistance training. We are constantly in a fed state. Today we are taught to eat 3 square meals a day and maybe even have some snacks when hungry. Smith SR. During the 24 hours your body still needs to run on something so it taps into your body’s own energy stores. Basically. So let’s say you don't eat for 24 hours (fasting). its most likely the crap that doesn't work and instead is floating around in your cells and body. calorie restriction). or never eat below maintenance (i. While our body does have mechanisms by which to deal with some of it. and never have a chance to enter the fasted state. If your liver glucose stores are low. We are always trying to build and store nutrients instead of breaking them down. Another source of glucose would also be amino acids. by not eating your body decides to recycle the garbage. we never get into the optimal state to remove the garbage. Chapter 6. if you never fast. There are some common myths associated with not eating and I will address the two important ones here: Metabolism slows down: FALSE Heilbronn LK. Anton SD.considering the damage we do to it by the crap we eat and the stress we experience. This allows other tissues to use ketones while the allimportant brain can still get its glucose. Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on 73 .e. and low-carb diets). it is a surprise we don’t age faster. Also there's the added benefit of ketones (if your liver glycogen stores are depleted. you never get to take out the garbage. Ravussin E. Martin CK. But this isn't amino acids from your muscles. The only times that we may be in the fasted state is when we are asleep but that doesn't take into account the fact that lots of people eat very late night snacks. It requires glucose for the brain. which the body can produce by breaking down liver glucose stores.
bodyweight. Then choose another day to do that. I've actually included my fasting schedule 74 . by finishing the fast with a 1200 calorie meal. Do you really expect your metabolic rate to slow down to 1200 within 24 hours? Muscles will break-down: FALSE Norrelund H. Moller N. Diabetes. Nair KS. which has the effect of helping you retain your muscle mass. Am J Clin Nutr. The protein-retaiing effects of growth hormone during fasting involve inhibition of muscle-protein breakdown. body composition and energy metabolism. it wouldn't slow down enough to overcome the deficit you created that day. finish your last meal at 6pm then don't eat until 6pm the next day. Jorgensen JO. and some carbs. You need muscles to hunt and survive. periods of nutrient depletion are required. On Monday. it definitely seems like for effective muscle growth to occur. This may be due to the rebound effect the body experiences when going from the fasted state to the fed state. A 24 hour fast would work like this. It doesn't make any sense for your body to directly attack your muscles and start breaking them down for energy. Christiansen JS. On that day you created an 800 deficit. If anything. 2005 Jan. 2001 Jan. It also showed that the use of fats as energy increased (as it should). and some meat. then ending the fast with tons of vegetables. 81(1):69-73 What this study shows is that the metabolic rate did not slow down. Even if metabolism did slow down.50(1):96-104 So by fasting you actually increase growth hormone. At a minimum I recommend fasting 2x per week for 24 hours.
Quick M. Sarkar S. Imarisio S. One bowl of vegetables with about 20g of carbohydrate and 1 serving of lean chicken breast. and fiber. protein. Just like Vitamin C inhibited the beneficial adaptations of exercise. the type of autophagy that happens on a regular basis. It may be that it is the increased free radicals (just like with exercise) that provide the benefits. GarcíaArencibia M. Heard P. When I say small. excess antioxidants may even prevent basal autophagy. I mean very small.into a larger scheme combining calorie cycling and resistance exercise. Rubinsztein DC. However. Murphy MP.19(17):3413-29. Rose C. Supplementation During Fasting On fasting days. breaking a 24-hour fast with one meal may put quite a bit of stress on the body. What I have been doing over the past couple of months is consuming a small meal beforehand with some carbohydrate. O'Kane CJ. especially if your meal contains carbohydrates. Hum Mol Genet.Antioxidants can inhibit basal autophagy and enhance neurodegeneration in models of polyglutamine disease. Korolchuk VI. 2010 Sep 1. It extends life but you 75 . usually just a salad with a small sweet potato. Renna M. A research paper published in 2010 found this: Underwood BR. Fleming A. Better rethink those antioxidant supplements. Insulin resistance is beneficial under this circumstance because the glucose should be saved for the brain. Fasting versus Calorie Restriction Intermittent fasting (IF) is commonly described as calorie restriction without the calorie restriction. Krishna G. or some oats with lean chicken breast that will return insulin sensitivity before I consume my larger meal. do not consume antioxidants. One problem with fasting is that it brings you into an insulin resistant state because you are burning fat during that 24-hour period.
Wan R. but one of the most recent and well-done studies done in humans has shown that IF does not provide the benefits of CR if calories consumed are the same (and weight is maintained). There has been research done comparing different measurements such as insulin sensitivity between CR and IF. Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. The data is conflicting. Careful analysis of the data shows this is probably not true. J Nutr Biochem. 76 . and looking at the autophagy data those that lost the most bodyweight due to fasting had the most autophagy. Fasting and calorie restriction are not the same thing. however. 2005 Mar. one difference that has been shown is that IF may offer greater protection of the brain than CR: Mattson MP. This agrees with the rat/mice data (IF does not extend life without calorie restriction).16(3):129-37. While IF may not provide the life extending benefits of CR. there are benefits and it is better than not doing anything at all.still get to eat the same amount of calories as before. there is simply no life extension without loss of bodyweight (implying reduced caloric intake). and I am not recommending you consume all the calories you didn’t eat one day in the day after.
Some tests I wish I could afford are the genetic screening provided by 23andme and the Biophysical250. but there are some important ones that you can easily ask your doctor to prescribe and then interpret yourself. Take 20IU/lb of bodyweight for 3 months then get a blood test and aim for 30-50ng/ml (75-125nM/L).47mmol/L (211mg/dL) HDL: 2. triglycerides (TG). An alternative would be to just pay for one from the Vitamin D Council Website (as of August 2010 it costs 65USD). which tests 250 biomarkers (basically most of them in existence).Chapter 8: Biometric Measurements Friend to Groucho Marx: “Life is difficult!” Marx to Friend: “Compared to what?” Modern medicine has provided us with many ways to measure our health.51mmol/L (45mg/dL) 77 . high density lipoprotein (HDL).69mmol/L (104mg/dL) (calculated) TG: 0. total cholesterol (TC).53mmol/l (98mg/dl) LDL: 2. This is my lipid profile as of July 2010: TC: 5. Lipid Profile This test gives you 4 numbers. Vitamin D3 I discussed the importance of Vitamin D3 in Chapter 2. To judge your health you do not need all those 250 markers. If your doctor doesn’t want to give you that blood test either try and convince him (read the Vitamin D Council Website) or find another doctor. low density lipoprotein (LDL).
Ronald M Krauss determined two patterns for the lipid profile.91mmol/L (74mg/dL). Dibaj SM. Tajik P. Boroumand MA. instead it is estimated from the Friedewald equation which estimates LDL based on TC. and as low as most low-carbohydrate dieters are. and maybe even educated them on these new findings. Friedewald (1972) Formula: LDL = TC . Arch Iran Med. The impact of low serum triglyceride on LDLcholesterol estimation. make sure to provide them with the real numbers. It is actually inaccurate when TG are as low as mine are.11(3):318-21. oxLDL is bad.HDL . so Pattern B is very bad. Since most doctors do not prescribe VAP tests to actually measure LDL size and particle number we have to estimate. Gohari-Moghaddam K. TG. As you know. Pattern A is usually present if you TG are low and your HDL is high. This can be represented in the TG/HDL ratio.TG/5.1 – 38 (mg/dL) Using the new formula my LDL is actually 1. A and B. Pattern B is present if TG are high and HDL are low.The LDL number is not actually measured. looks more like a band-aid to me) is large and buoyant.19 + TG/1. which is lower the American Heart Association guideline! If you are low-carbohydrate dieting and your doctor is trying to interpret your profile.0 (mg/dL) Iranian (2008) Formula: LDL = TC/1. 2008 May. 78 . So pattern A is good and pattern B is bad. Dr. Pattern A is what we want. OxLDL are the small dense LDL of pattern B. The A pattern profile is where the LDL (the socalled “bad” cholesterol.9 – HDL/1. there has been a new equation for low TG created: Ahmadi SA. HDL. which is one of the most accurate predictors of heart disease based on your typical lipid profile test.
not Pattern A.67-78 79 . Also. it definitely seems like the whole lipid profile thing was just a measurement of your carbohydrate intake. exercise increases HDL and decreases TG. your triglycerides are high. which represented your intake of processed junk foods. micronutrients. the high carbohydrate intake also somehow decreases HDL (by somehow increasing an enzyme that breaks down HDL). No. but the TG/HDL ratio is low only when you are consuming saturated fat and low carbohydrate (with an exception. Tsuji H. If you consume lots of carbohydrates. instead of focusing on the profile itself. 1 pp. Magnesium and various other nutrients also seem to have a connection with the lipid profile but the mechanisms are not clear yet. We want Pattern B.14mmol/L[160mg/dL]): Kirihara Y. Ogushi Y.Diet. After knowing this. government and medical society recommendations are still to lower TC. Even after knowing all this. The triglycerides are very representative of your carbohydrate intake. The Relationship between Total Blood Cholesterol Levels and All-cause Mortality in Fukui City. and Meta-analysis of This Relationship in Japan. 17 (2008) . then LDL didn’t tell much and now its TG/HDL. A study in 2008 done in Japan found that cholesterol levels above 5. Shirasaki S. Journal of Lipid Nutrition Vol. Hamazaki K. Saturated fat also helps boost HDL. If you consume the American Heart Association (AHA) low-fat diet you will inevitably end up with Pattern B (ironic eh?). and exercise determine your lipid profile. but just know it’s important to get your nutrients. which is calorie restriction). After a couple years they found that total cholesterol didn’t tell much so they then focused on LDL. if you consume low-carbohydrate high saturated fat you will end up with Pattern A.18mmol/L (200mg/dL) were at lower risk of dying than those with lower cholesterol levels (<4. Hamazaki T.
Glucose Related Tests There are two tests in this category you should get if you can: HbA1c and fasting glucose My results (as of August 2010): HbA1c: 4. I consider excess inflammation bad.3% Fasting Glucose: 4. Since I consume around 100-120 grams of digestible carbohydrate per day. my fasting glucose is fairly low.5mmol/L (81mg/dL) In Chapter 5 on minimizing damage I discussed HbA1c.8g/kg of carbohydrate per day (excluding fiber) your fasting glucose may be as high as 5. and if you don’t have enough you are more likely to die. It is basically a test of how much damage is done by the glucose in your blood. 80 . and possibly the faster you age. Fasting glucose is a test of your insulin sensitivity. The higher the percentage.5mmol/L (99mg/dL). Best to keep it below 5%. I like the CRP near the lower end of the range. but below 6% is good. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) This is a measure of inflammation. because this is an actual measure of damage. Doesn’t seem like a very good trade-off to me. While the data is conflicted about its importance in real life diagnosis.By depleting your body of cholesterol you may not be able to build the plaque (controversial still). but at the same time your body requires the cholesterol for other functions. The important number is HbA1c. the more damage being done. If you consume less than 0. which is nothing to worry about because you are in a non-pathological insulin resistant state.
If you are getting fatter you should see it in the mirror and also on the calipers. it is taking up space and pushing out the organ (e. Another measurement that can be utilized is the waist to hip ratio.7 and men <0. So I have opted for how you look in the mirror and calipers to make sure you are not getting fatter. When doctors find out that their patients have high blood pressure the common advice given is to decrease salt intake. Optimal blood pressure would be near or below 120/80 (systolic/diastolic). Blood Pressure This is an interesting biometric that lots of people have problems with.Body Fat I wish there was an easy and inexpensive way to test your body fat percentage but there is not. 81 .g. Measure waist circumference at the belly button and hip circumference at the widest part. If you have a lot of visceral adipose tissue your waist circumference will be larger. Resting Heart Beat My resting heart rate is 60 beats per minute. Faster heart rates are usually due to excess stress and inflammatory factors.9. people are even becoming iodine deficient (most modern diets source of iodine comes from salt). Women should have a waist to hip ratio <0. From all the literature I have seen decreased salt-intake does not work that well. I also wish we had a test for visceral adipose tissue but I do not know of one (CRP maybe?). and because this folk wisdom has been passed around. Cheap calipers may be very inaccurate but it is useful to gauge relative change. ideally it should be below 70. beer belly).
It definitely makes sense that by decreasing salt intake blood pressure should go down:
On the cup at the top left you have a semi-permeable membrane separating the two sides with different amounts of salt. The semipermeable membrane only allows water through but not the salt. In the beginning the water level is the same on each side, but as the water flows through the membrane, more water accumulates on the right so that it can dilute the salt concentration until it is the same as the left. The reason for this is diffusion. If you place a drop of blue dye into water it tends to expand uniformly until the water is a homogenous blue. This is because it takes energy for the blue dye particles to stay together so they float apart because nothing is keeping them together. This also occurs with water; by having more salt on one side there is “less” water, so the water from the left flows to the right (because it takes energy to concentrate water). The bottom half of the picture is your blood vessels. On the right is a person without hypertension with normal amounts of salt. On the right is someone with hypertension and for some reason has more salt, thus water flows into the blood vessel, increasing the volume and it pushes again the blood vessel (like filling a balloon with water). The extra pressure causes the heart to work harder than the heart on the left (this leads to left ventricular hypertrophy, which is bad). What causes excess salt to accumulate in the blood? This is where the renal system comes into play. Your kidney produces 82
your urine. Urine is concentrated byproducts your body doesn’t require anymore and this includes excess salt. If you have too much salt in your body it is probably because your kidney is not doing its job properly. There is a very strong connection between diabetes and hypertension; there is lots of data to show that excess sugar causes damage to the arteries leading to the kidney, and also that hyperinsulinemia (high insulin levels) prevent the kidney from filtering uric acid and salt: Muscelli E, Natali A, Bianchi S, Bigazzi R, Galvan AQ, Sironi AM, Frascerra S, Ciociaro D, Ferrannini E. Effect of insulin on renal sodium and uric acid handling in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1996 Aug;9(8):746-52 If you have hypertension check your insulin levels, if it is high, lower your carbohydrate intake. Apart from insulin, magnesium and potassium intake are also involved. Your fluid balance is closely tied to your salt balance (as shown in the picture provided up top). The internal balance of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium are all very important. Some common deficiencies in the average diet include magnesium (as I mentioned in Chapter 6) and potassium. Instead of decreasing sodium intake, everyone should be checking their intake of magnesium and potassium (yams and vegetables are a very good source of potassium).
Chapter 9: Perpetual Leanness
The idler never attains great age. ~Thomas Easton Exercise is not going to extend you life into the extreme. On average, I suspect maybe 2 years at most: Paffenbarger RS, Lee I. A natural history of athleticism, health and longevity. Journal of Sports Sciences, Volume 16, Supplement 1, 1 May 1998 , pp. 31-45(15) What the study found was that those from the Harvard Alumni who remained active gained 1.5 years by age 90. However, exercise is something everyone should still be doing; while it does not extend life it does decrease your chances of dying prematurely. By exercising you protect yourself from many chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. The improvement in strength and endurance you achieve applies to all parts of the body: improved heart function, increased bone strength and a more robust brain. It lowers blood pressure, burns up fat, controls weight, and helps improve your lipid profile. Finally, exercise not only makes you feel good, but it also makes you look good which is what most people are interested in. How does one remain lean 24/7/365? We are all aware of the cyclical dieting that many people go through. When summer is over, they pack on the weight, pack on more weight at the holidays, then try their best to cut down for the beach season again (but most fail). As I mentioned in Chapter 4 on weight loss, this up and down cycle is not very good for your metabolism. It probably increases the likelihood of gaining weight when you are older. What I am more interested in is maintaining a lean state all year round. Now, each person’s natural state of leanness is different, but this is mainly due to genetics and the environment one grows up in (remember Set84
and it also seems that loss of muscle leads to loss of bone.0 14. If you see more definition and fewer lumps you are heading in the right direction. weight lifting) and endurance training (e.6 4.0 Swimming (fast crawl) 4.0 Weight Training (strength) 10. There is resistance training (e. Of course.5 5.9 Walking (5.4 13. We don’t want to die of a simple fracture due to tripping over a tiny rock).Point).5 km/h) 4. What I hope is that I have created is a regimen that helps you maintain your muscle mass and helps cut body fat. Even if you take into account excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) it will not compare to 1 hour of cardio. Each type of exercise/activity burns a different amount of calories: Acivity and Calories/min 123lb woman 170lb man 11.4 6. You can run for 1 hour but you can’t do interval training for 1 hour. There are various ways to measure body fat (the accurate ways are expensive) but to keep it simple let the mirror be your friend.g. Many types of different training can be performed and they differ in their metabolic effects on the body.3 15. My focus is more of the positive metabolic effects of 85 . jogging) (yoga and pilates like activities can also be another separate category). and women achieve 25% and lower (unless pregnant). my focus is not to burn calories (you should watch how many calories you put into your mouth in the first place.g.9 Cycling (8. Steady state is much more effective at burning calories.2 Rope Skipping (fast) As you can see. the most effective calorie burner is aerobic exercise.9 km/h) 10.7 Weight Training (circuit) 3. cardio is great for emergencies and cutting to single digit body-fats). However.0 Running (8min/mile) 8. Extra fat is not good and loss of muscle is not good either (we need it as we get older.7 12. My recommendation is that men achieve 15% or lower.
which is what your doctor uses) they found that the marathon runners’ scores were lower than that of age-matched controls.exercise and I think resistance training offers all those without the possible detrimental effects of cardio. Heusch G. Halle M. and the very occasional 5km run. Budde T. If cardiovascular exercise is good for the heart we would expect to see marathon runners with a lower risk of heart disease: Eur Heart J (2008) 29 (15): 1903-1910. My activities consist of resistance training. Erbel R They looked at 108 healthy male marathon runners (ran at least 5 marathons in previous 3 years). perhaps 1 hour of cardio a day is beneficial and more is worse. Nassenstein K. the occasional basketball/soccer game. However. Exercise is not the cure to aging. 4 marathon runners had a heart attack as well as very high CAC scores). the higher the risk of heart attack. Mann K. It could be a matter of intensity. it was found that the more marathon runners ran. as well as the crap that runners eat to support their energy intensive activities (all those carbohydrates). However. It may be the speed at which they run. when the researchers looked at coronary artery calcium and late gadolinium enhancement (probably the best predictors of heart attacks. Möhlenkamp S. Lots of people I know do marathons for healthy reasons. In a later paper by the same authors. Running: the risk of coronary events: Prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. Barkhausen J. Cardio has become synonymous with heart health. When they compared Framingham Risk Score (FRS. I choose resistance training not only because it provides 86 . Lehman N. Bröcker-Preuss M. it is definitely beneficial. Jöckel KH. Breuckmann F. second to the actual heart attack itself) the marathon runners were actually at higher risk (and 21 years down the road.
The more repetitive movements you perform the more likely you are to get injured. Weighted Squats --> Weighted Pushups -> One-legged Squats --> One-armed Pushups --> Weighted pull-ups or One-arm Pull-ups --> Ab Wheel on Toes -> etc. but also because I find it more enjoyable and it doesn’t cause the injuries that might occur if you do lots of cardio. which includes fasting and low-carbohydrate eating? The Schedule Low Intensity High Volume (LIHV) Total Duration: 30 minutes 4-5 sets. Squats --> Pushups --> Lunges --> Pull-ups --> Ab Wheel on Knees --> etc. 87 . Alternating lower-body and upper-body. and finally bone stress (which thus signals maintenance and improvement of bone mass).more benefits than endurance training. strength maintenance... High Intensity Low Volume (HILV) 30 min workout: 2-3 sets.. Your body is meant to move in various ways. signal maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (which tend to die off as you get older). 3-6 reps. running locks you into one way for a long period of time. muscle maintenance (which probably doesn’t help with sarcopenia. How does resistance exercise fit into the picture of perpetual leanness.. but if it does help. Alternating lower-body and upper-body. By injuries I mean the ones caused by the repetitive motion of running for long periods of time. The benefits of resistance training are numerous: increased insulin sensitivity in the muscles (upregulated GLUT4). it is much better than cardio). 10-20 reps.
GLUT4 upregulation). 6:00pm Eat dinner. I do not workout on fasting days because that would just speed up muscle catabolism. I workout on days that I eat. Eat largest 12:00pm meal of No more Eat first the day eating meal of after the day 8:00pm 6:00pm Start (better If you do eating for want to again sleep). Stop eating food every night at 8:00pm though. include whenever. When you exercise there are a lot of beneficial adaptations that take place in terms of nutrient portioning and body composition (increased blood glow. one day but stop of eating by cheating 6:00pm this is the day to do it. but stop eating by 6:00pm 6:00pm 8:00am Rest day Eat HILV dinner. Low intensity high volume days are interspersed with fasting days because this helps with glycogen depletion. Monday 8:00am LIHV Workout Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8:00am LIHV Workout Saturday Sunday Rest days.Note: please see Appendix V for discussion of some bodyweight principles. a Workout 24 hour 12:00pm fast. hopefully the nutrients get taken up by the muscles instead of the fat. a 24 12:00pm hour Eat fast. Fasting on this day is up to you. There are 2 (sometimes 3) 24 hour fasts in the week. largest meal of No the day more eating 6:00pm after Start 8:00pm eating (better again for whenever. So if you consume your meals after working out. instead. By depleting 88 . Sometimes I do sometimes I don't. sleep).
For now this seems optimal to me. fasting. and recovery. For example. Then comes Friday. where you crank up the intensity which then sets into motion muscle building factors and you can take a break for 3 days to allow for adequate recovery.” Most people continuously switch between various products and brands because they just do not see the claimed effects. Exercise Supplements If you walk into a supplement stores you find various workout supplements. postworkout. Since that is not my goal I have settled on this schedule to allow for workouts. I am sure that if you included carbohydrate in the rest days (Friday-Sunday) you would actually be able to increase muscle mass without gaining fat (a lean bulk). There are pre-workout. Many of the expensive brands contain 50 or more ingredients and the amounts/dosages are all hidden under the term “proprietary formula. intra-workout. by 89 . so how proprietary can it really be? These claims include: Increase muscle mass by 300% Boost testosterone by 800% Gain 6 lbs of lean mass in two weeks Lose 2 inches of your waist in 2 days Third party research/Backed by Science These claims seem unlikely. By depleting our calorie stores between Monday to Thursday we take advantage of the low calorie days to burn fat. pre-sleep formulas and many more. and to tell you the truth they are. The resistance training is meant to help you retain your muscle mass and not lose it in the 4 days.glycogen it leaves room for the extra carbohydrate days that might come on Friday (for example if you cheat). They aren’t false but they aren’t true either. I do not know if this actually works but I have seen beneficial effects over the last couple of months.
Tarpenning KM. For example. Don’t waste your money on these products. by supplying excess arginine which is then converted to NO by your body. Not only that. the NO pathway is involved with many different processes. 1999 Aug. instead it may even decrease GH after your workout. you may be suppressing your endogenous production of NO later on in your life when you discontinue the arginine. A commonly utilized ingredient in workout supplements is arginine. In my opinion the risk is too high and the benefits are nil. and by supplementing with arginine you are basically short-circuiting that process. again interfering with a possible adaptation to exercise. It is used because it is a precursor to nitric oxide (NO) that dilates blood vessels and gives users that “pump” they feel when they exercise. Lose five inches? By not eating for two days I can drop 2 inches (I just urinated it out). Another claim for arginine is that it boosts growth hormone: Marcell TJ. Remember our benefit to risk ratio.00003 gain 6lbs of lean mass? Water is lean mass too. blood vessel dilation under stress: the ability of your blood vessels to react is very important for your survival. Wiswell RA. well in these situations it is really low. If there are benefits they are incredibly small. are they saying that if you have 100lbs of lean mass you will suddenly have 300lbs of lean mass by taking their supplement. 90 . Hawkins SA. This study shows that arginine does not increase growth hormone. because they just do not do that much.claiming an increase of lean muscle mass by 300%. Kohlmeier L. and the risks you’re taking are incredibly big. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Oral arginine does not stimulate basal or augment exerciseinduced GH secretion in either young or old adults.54(8):M395-9. or do they mean they found in some obscure study done on rats where the circumference of their forelimb increased from 0. NO is actually a very important molecule inside of your body. I can drink 6 lbs of water pretty easily. Pyka G. Taaffe DR. Marcus R.00001 to 0.
and especially the shoulders). knees. there are only three things you need: whey protein. This helps to extend the chest and hips. ligaments and for them to function optimally and without pain everything must be in balance so that the joints are not pulled apart (e. connective tissue. and caffeine. Stretching and Balancing Our joints are supported by muscles.The other widely sold product is branched chain amino acids. and squats and if not balanced can cause muscular imbalances. pushups.g. hips. The pushup for example depends on the contraction of your chest and hips so to balance this we throw in a stretch that is very similar to the plank exercise for abs except the other way around: So you basically make yourself into a table. (I won’t go over all the forms of creatine but the monohydrate form is the tried and tested one. creatine monohydrate. BCAAs are expensive and useless if you are ingesting adequate protein. ankles. If you consume adequate protein (especially in the form of whey) you are getting a large amount of BCAAs already (whey is 25% BCAA while beef is 15%). Commonly utilized bodyweight exercises are pull-ups. If you truly want to gain muscle. I doubt we truly require these isolated. However there are benefits. but that is probably because it doesn’t work). sure the other ones don’t cause bloating. if you don’t ingest adequate protein BCAAs will help with retaining muscle mass and might also boost your immune system in times of sickness when you cannot ingest enough food. It is sort of like the opposite of a pushup. At 91 .
Now to balance the pull-up we also use another position from Yoga called the downward dog: This position activates your back muscles to help support the position.first you may have tightness in your shoulder not allowing you to flatten out completely but with practice you’ll get there. The squat relies on the contraction of your psoas muscles and many others in the front of your body. Ensuring muscular balance helps prevent pain and injuries that will occur down the road as our bodies wear out. There are many other therapies just as trigger point therapy and soft tissue massage which I will refer you to better resources in Appendix VI. 92 . thus to counteract that we utilize a back bend (which I took from Yoga): This helps extend the front of the body.
Our ancestors most likely all moved in an optimal state with optimal positioning. Shoes Running shoes are terrible. Vivo Barefoot shoes. we evolved with our bare feet touching the dirt and rocks on the ground. while bare feet our foot position is more relaxed and its more of a front-mid foot strike. For example. This chapter will explore some of these issues. nor did we have folk wisdom guiding our posture. then try it bare foot. With shoes we tend to flex the foot and strike the heal. go run on the grass with your thick-soled. We did not evolve in the presence of running shoes. The mechanics of motion when wearing shoes and not-wearing shoes are different. and Sitting In our natural state we did not have chairs to sit in.Chapter 10: Paleo Shoes. We ran barefoot. we walked barefoot and we stood and sat barefooted. There’s Vibram Five Fingers and then for something more natural. supported arch. or even shoes in general. raised heel running shoe. The ground from before is not smooth and homogenous like the floors we experience today. it’s quite a different experience. Related to barefoot states. By evolving barefoot our bodies have also developed mechanisms that react to various stimulations of the foot: 93 . What I have done is bought some very expensive shoes to mimic our natural state. It’s much more varied and for the uninitiated its also much more painful but you’ll get used to it. However. you’ll thank yourself for spending the money. Posture. our feet have also been in contact with the ground. Both are well made but pricey. The way you feel by activating the proper muscles and technique for walking/running is something worth spending the money on.
Fisher KJ. which causes an excessive curve in the lower back. So. To counteract the weight backwards we must lean forward (think caveman like) then we pull our head up and back. Shoulder’s back head up. Also.” Hip back until you can drop a straight line down from the hip socket to the ankles. make sure to read the section on sleeping (stretch lying on the side). Harmer P. Nike can’t improve upon something that evolution has taken millions of years to perfect. when we “do our business” we sit on a toilet rather than squat over a hole. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Aug. The posture on the left is held up by your muscles and ligaments while the posture on the right is held up by each and every bone sitting on top of another. Posture The picture on the right is the posture most people today are told is the proper posture.53(8):1305-12. For more information read Esther Gokhale’s book “8 Steps to a Pain-Free Back” (it is accessible for free on Google Books). Sitting Today we sit on reclining chairs and stools.Li F. The 94 . But in reality based on traditional populations the posture on the right is more “natural. Improving physical function and blood pressure in older adults through cobblestone mat walking: a randomized trial. If you have children you will notice that this is how your children stand. This gives us a much straighter spine. every once in a while go walk on some rocks/pebbles.
then take your glutes straight to the floor. Here’s a research paper using X-rays to study the quality of the spines comparing indigenous populations to Western society: Farhni WH. Comparitive Radiological Study of the Spines of a Primitive Population with North American and Northern Europeans. If you can get all the way down. What is the indigenous squat? You keep your heels flat on the ground. Many people have problems with this at first.back problems and hip problems commonly found among people today may have roots in the lack of indigenous squatting done today.47:552-5 It is probably the squatting that provided indigenous populations with their higher quality spine. This is tightness in your hips. their behind cannot pass parallel. 1965 Aug. If you have problems. Every day you should take some time to get down into this position and open the hips and stretch the spine. J Bone Joint Surg Br. it is more of a stability issue (not activating the right muscles). With practice you will get there. 95 . try holding onto something in front while squatting down. Feet a bit wider than shoulder width apart. Trueman GE.
and much more. leptin. diabetes. Sleeping and Circadian Rhythm Just like in the past we did not have chairs and shoes to alter our physical form. In humans we can see the diurnal rhythms in our hormone levels (e. What has been shown is that by deviating from this 24 hour synchronicity humans can develop all forms of metabolic disorders (e. Hilton MF. 2009 Mar 17. heart disease. Lifting the heels defeats the purpose. plants. By developing an internal 24 hour clock our bodies can carry out processes at the right time of the day and night.If you watch Western people squat.Proc . and mammals shows that it probably confers some type of advantage which helps species survive. cortisol). This is probably why shift workers and night-workers are associated 96 . we did not have constant sources of light throughout the day. The earth rotates within a 24 hour period. all things we are trying to avoid): Scheer FA. increases glucose levels. body temperature. The presence of circadian rhythms in bacteria. These internal timers can be found all the way down to cyanobacteria who upregulates photosynthetic machinery during daylight hours so it can absorb the most of amount of light. cancer. reptiles. and alter lipid homeostasis which is all associated with metabolic syndrome (which we want to avoid). In the study by Scheer et al what they show is that by extending the human circadian rhythm from 24 hours to 28 hours decreases leptin levels. Natl Acad Sci U S A.Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment.g.g. behavior. to get their posterior down to the ankles they have to lift their heels from the floor. In nature certain things happen when there is light and certain things happen when it is dark. liver metabolism. increases insulin resistance.106(11):44538. Mantzoros CS. Shea SA .
Not only that.with increased risk of heart disease. Selman C. 2010 Apr 14. thus the association between altered circadian rhythm and obesity. You should go to sleep at around the same time everyday.stereopsis. Also ensure that lights are turned down later in the day. Some things I implement in my life to improve sleep quality is to use black-out shades (because I do prefer to sleep later). Hazlerigg DG.lux (http://www. and fats do alter the rhythm too). obesity. 97 . caffeine. protein. Lots of factors affect your internal clock (such various nutrients. Also ensure that you do not consume food later in the day (because glucose. Speakman JR. and cancer. Coogan AN. Biol Lett. alcohol) but one of the ways your internal clock synchronizes to the rotation of the earth is through light. Association between mammalian lifespan and circadian freerunning period: the circadian resonance hypothesis revisited. So it is important to make sure that you do not alter your circadian rhythm too much. I also utilize a program called f.com/flux/) which dims the computer screen thus decreasing the amount of light into the eyes when the sun is down. wake up and make sure you get exposure to enough natural light in the morning. diabetes. what has also been shown is that species who deviate from the 24 hours the most also have decreased lifespan: Wyse CA.
What this shows is that extensive longevity has a very strong genetic component. The rest of us probably have no chance of reaching such an advanced age. blood pressure. triglycerides. What is interesting is that calorie restriction takes a person without centenarian parents and alters the biochemistry and metabolism of the practitioner to match those of the very longliving. Considering that CR actually slows 98 . measurements of serum glucose. triglycerides. insulin.Chapter 11: How Much Life Left? Storing your car in New York is safer than entering it in a demolition derby. it is not pathological in centenarians and CR-folk). lower blood glucose. and maybe even have to do both. allows for the same cholesterol profile (high HDL. suggesting TSH resistance. ~Daniel S. One population study of 420 Caucasian families which included long-living members has turned up some very interesting data. by today’s measurement this would be hypothyroidism. 122 years. For example. Numerous studies have been released looking at various health factors (remember Chapter 8) and it was found that the children of centenarians have similar biometrics as their parents. low LDL. with normal T4. The Leiden University Medical Center has studied populations of older individuals. CR increases insulin sensitivity. low blood pressure. and overall low cholesterol). which is just shy of the record holder Jeanne Calment. and the same thyroid hormonal profile (high TSH. Greenberg Currently maximum human lifespan is thought to be 125 years. however. thyroid hormone and insulin sensitivity were all much more favorable than matched partners (such as the centenarian’s son’s wife who does not have centenarian parents). But not much. To become 120 years old you would have to have incredible genetics (look at the supercentenarians that smoke and drink) or implement calorie restriction.
down the rate of aging. What is healthy aging in the 21st century? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. while centenarians probably do not practice ON.44). If you plot human survival curves it definitely seems very square. I think that CR-folk can probably reach up to 110-120 years old depending on their genetics and when they started practicing. Life Span It may seem like we have extended our lifespan in the last 1000 years. CR done today is practice in conjunction with Optimal Nutrition (ON). No.5 years every decade in a straight line with no plateau in sight. but the squaring effect stopped at about 1950 (figure 3 in the study below) and seems to be shifting parallel: Westendorp RGJ. Romans. As I said in the beginning 99 . 2. Remember Chapter 5? In 1950 we reached the black line and now the survival curve seems to be moving like the red one. If those who are genetically gifted practiced CRON. Its seems we easily doubled our life span and if you plot it. and Egyptians had a life expectancy of 30. it looks like we are gaining a solid 2. earlier being better. Vol. The ancient Greeks. now we can expect to live up to 80 (Japanese women can expect to live up to 86. 404S409S. I would suspect that they could live beyond 120. 83.
pulse rate. 53. stroke. infectious diseases. health care. 32-37 Mackenbach et al (1979) determined that by preventing heart disease. and so far the only way to slow that down is through calorie restriction. cancer. hematocrit value. body mass index. diabetes. how long can we expect to live? Luckily the math has been done: 100 . it had to do with eliminating factors that kill us (e. The previous gain in life expectancy isn’t something we should expect to see again because now it is different. If we made all these measurements into the lowest risk factor group. blood glucose. 1999). with the interventions in this book it may be possible to live to 98-100.of the chapter. sex. you have to prevent your metabolism from killing you. vital capacity index. serum cholesterol. Here is some data to back it up: Mackenbach JP. With the help of modern technology we have eliminated most causes that kill us prematurely and now we are exposed to aging itself. The jump in life expectancy had nothing to do with our understanding of the biology and underlying mechanisms of aging. smoking. Lautenbach H. Instead of preventing the bacteria from killing you. How long can you expect to live by implementing my suggested changes into your lifestyle? If CR-folk can reach the age of 110120. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (1979-). Kunst AE. Vol.g. No. starvation) and securing things that keep us safe (e. Gains in Life Expectancy after Elimination of Major Causes of Death: Revised Estimates Taking into Account the Effect of Competing Causes..g. and left ventricular hypertrophy. etc…) one can expect to gain 10 years in their life expectancy. and various other diseases (e. acute injuries. pp.g. 1 (Jan. sanitation). Oei YB. What if we were to try our best to optimize ALL our risk factors? Let’s take 11 of them: diastolic and systolic blood pressure. maximum lifespan seems to be 125 years and I suspect that this has always been the case for thousands of years. refrigeration. food. Bijlsma F.
Japan has the longest healthy life expectancy: Takeda S. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi.54(1):25-31 It seems the longest health span is 80-84. Just a big fat guess but I feel confident about this number. optimized the 11 risk factors above and predicted that life expectancies up to 100 years old can be achieved.44 (not saying I’m a 101 . From all the research. Limits to Human Life Expectancy: Evidence. This is quite close to the life expectancy of 86 (I know I’m mixing up data but close enough). health span and life span are closely correlated.. 4 (Dec. then cancer for 10. and Implications.[Healthy life expectancy and the standardized mortality ratio for the elderly in Japan's 47 Prefectures] [Article in Japanese]. Since models are usually wrong. pp. For example.Manton KG. 1991). Population and Development Review. 603637 Manton et al. Vol. Your healthy life expectancy from birth is only 75. Healthy life expectancy is the number of years one can live with minimal morbidity. Stallard E. healthier people just tend to live longer. I would still implement the lifestyle described in this book. and regarding age people like to be optimistic. as well as factoring in the “luck of the draw” (genetics) I estimate that I can personally live to 90-95 years old (10% down adjustment). No. Even if I were to only achieve 86. But as lifespan begins to reach the maximum (outside of anti-aging interventions) morbidity will be compressed as people get healthier. Prospects. 17. Health Span Even if we took the pessimistic view of 90. Tolley HD. let’s say you live until 90 but have diabetes for 15 years. 2007 Jan.
When I am 80 years old I still expect to be able to walk on my two feet without help. diabetes. heart disease. Where to Now? Research in the field of aging is exploding. This seems like a tall order but it is definitely possible. “Ending Aging”). and Alzheimer’s.Japanese woman. The common interpretation of anti-aging interventions is that you will be 120 years old but be more decrepit than a 90 year old (which is really bad). I have volunteered at a care home for over 4 years and had the chance to work at a hospital for 1 year. Of course. The first development that will come will probably be CR-mimetics. The new technologies being developed will not make you “older. pick up my great-greatgrandchildren. after that it will be Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS) (read Aubrey De Grey’s book on this matter. death is “natural”) but sooner or later we will have interventions that will expand both our health span and our life span. lift weights. If the damage is gone then the cause of aging is diminished. 102 . it goes beyond that in that it is trying to go into our bodies and fix/reverse/remove the damage that happens. just that this is a number for the healthy) I would be glad that I gained 10 years of healthy lifespan where I am not suffering from cancer. SENS isn’t about trying to mimic the effects of CR.” instead it will extend you lifespan by making you younger. the way that seniors spend the rest of their lives in these situations is not something I want to go through. To do that you must keep your body and mind healthy at a young age. get out of a chair. and debate/discuss with the younger generation. there has been some resistance (hey. These are pharmacological interventions that will mimic the metabolic altering effects of CR. but this is not how these interventions will work.
103 . the only other place to enter now is the world of the extreme. and this is important because of the speed at which science advances. I am not saying that these interventions will be created in my lifespan or yours. hunger. (If you plan on practicing CR make sure to do tons of research. you will not be able to survive the application of the new technologies. Science and technology build upon themselves and with each new block they reach farther heights than ever before.It is because of SENS that I have put serious thought into adopting CRON (please donate to SENS). It is the only way of ensuring maximally robust lifespan. “The Singularity is Near”). if you are 70 years old with robust health (like with CRON) then you can. and now it permeates almost every facet of our world. but it is best to decide sooner rather than later. and it would be best to not only live as healthily as possible. and so on and so forth. read Ray Kurzweil’s book. Let’s say the intervention extends your life by 10 years. until immortality is reached (this is by no means farfetched). Less than 20 years ago we did not have the internet. more will come and within those 10 years another intervention will come along extending life another 20 years. As far as I know the downsides are: loss of libido. calorie restriction with optimal nutrition. because of that one discovery. but the thing is that you never know. social struggles and emaciation) I think that I have taken this lifestyle as far as it can go. I don’t know yet. If you reach the age of 70 but can hardly move and have dementia. but to live as long as possible. Will I enter that realm. To take advantage of these new discoveries from SENS one has to have a body that is robust enough to deal with the effects of these new drugs/interventions. However. The only way to achieve the maximum is through caloric restriction (this speeding up of technology is known as the Singularity. Roy Walford‟s book “Beyond the 120 Year Diet : How to Double Your Vital Year” is a good place to start.
but not too much. Even if you wanted to end it you couldn’t because you have basically disappeared. The regimens laid out in the book will help with preventing this. allow the body to take out the garbage. Just take Alzheimer’s for example: lifeless eyes with no sense of self. I saw how much pain they can cause to everyone. time. The basic principle of this book is: eat the right foods. screw the USDA Food Guide and the American Diabetes Associate Diet.Concluding Thoughts My goal when I started researching all this was to try my best to prevent the chronic illnesses. Everyone’s goal in this life is different. a dreadful disease with a slow progression that places strain on yourself as you lose your soul as well as strain on your family. throw out common “wisdom” and rely instead on hard science. and exercise. friends and society. but I am certain that no one wants to end up in such decrepitude. or place. 104 . be conscious of what you put in your body.
and the USA. red blood cells. the best selling brands are the ones with the name of countries like Italy. Iacono JM.S: Dougherty RM. Galli C. Lipid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma. Am J Clin Nutr.Appendix I: Olive Oil There has been a Slow Food movement in our Western culture. 1987 Feb. quality is very important. Ferro-Luzzi A. Comparing the monounsaturated fat intake of the U. because without it you are just consuming another plain old oil without the flavor. In terms of olive oil. after learning about the Paleolithic diet and looking at the research. and Greece plastered on the front signaling the source of the oil and providing a connection between the consumer and the country of origin. olive oil is still a best seller. the health benefits of olive oil were pretty clear. and platelets and how they are affected by dietary lipids: a study of normal subjects from Italy. as well as the proliferation of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) are both prime examples of this movement. The idea that we can access authentic traditional cuisine through local food. Finland. Today. saturated fat does not seem to be a problem. The Mediterranean diet definitely seemed to confer lots of health advantages to the user and olive oil seemed to be the difference (among many others). even though everyone is afraid of fat nowadays. However. Is it the monounsaturated fat and low saturated fat in the olive oil that provides the health benefits? Well. large producers have taken advantage of our love of olive oil and many of your purchases today are not as high a quality as you would think. aroma. Spain. After reading an article on olive oil and then doing some research. or the health benefits of olive oil that has been used for hundreds of years. 105 . Thus.45(2):443-55.
The polyphenol content varies depending on the quality of the olive oil. but of course not all oils are tested and as individual consumers it is fairly hard to get all the oils in your grocery tested. fruitiness and bitterness. de la Torre R. chemical tests have been developed to determine if the oil is adulterated. beta-carotenes and other things to vegetable oils to make it look like olive oil. Muñoz-Aguayo D. Covas MI.g. While a high-quality olive oil may cost 20-30 dollars per 500ml. Tasting works because many of the polyphenols provide differing flavors to the oil. we can nowadays buy it for less than 10 dollars per liter. at what maturity level was the olive. corn oil. how it was grown. how it was harvested. and aroma of the oil. Fito M. many companies and producers have been adultering the oils we purchase in stores. milling. taste.It was probably not the monounsaturated fat so that left the polyphenols: Konstantinidou V. which in turn depends on many factors: where the olive was grown. FASEB J. Some things I have read about is mixing olive oil with cheaper oils like soybean oil. adding chlorophyll (green color). packaging and storing all affect the polyphenol content. Saez G. Ruiz Mendez MV. In the past couple years. Toledo E. quality. Tormos Mdel C. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial. Over the past couple years there has been huge scandals involved in sham olive oils 106 . labeling normal lowquality olive oil as extra virgin olive oil. However. and various other polyphenols and substances found in olive oil provide various effects such as pepperiness. Buying high quality olive oil is important because since the popularity of olive oil increased. which is tasting. 2010 Jul. there is another way to determine the content. Marti A. the transportation. oleuropin is bitter. hazelnut oil (which made me sick considering how much I try to avoid those oils). when it was harvest and grown. e.24(7):2546-57. RuizGutiérrez V. Khymenets O.
The first thing is that the oil has to lack defects.thus necessitating the need to create ways to detect them. However. ask the producer to provide us with independent tests they have performed (and not all companies are happy to oblige) or we try our best to use our senses to taste for extra virgin olive oil qualities. and if it is inedible it is labeled as lamp oil (scary thought that lots of people may be consuming lamp oil grade). which can get expensive. but are just there to ensure that the oils are deemed edible. and passed rigid taste tests. I have had experiences with oils 107 . If there is a defect the oil is labeled as virgin. Thus we either have to pay independent labs to test our oils. On the picture you can see the various defects. be fault free. but regulatory bodies do not have the capacity to test all oils so it is left up to the consumer to be able to determine what is real extra virgin olive oil. these tests aren’t exactly in place to ensure quality. Tasting Why is the label “extra virgin” important? This is a term from the International Olive Oil Council that signifies that the oil must have passed certain chemical tests. which there are many of now.
Sour: Vinegar Metallic: Metal on teeth (try some Epsom salts). sour. while the pungency is the pepperiness you will feel when swallowing that stings the back of your throat. lactic acid. perfumy. The bitterness and fruitiness should be a flavor you taste/smell in good extra virgin olive oil. tonic water. apple. Always check for a date on the product you are buying.that have tasted rancid. Below is an example of each category: Defects Fusty: Brined olives. There is a process to tasting olive oil (just like wine) and this is due to the fact that our noses and our tongues are connected (oil should be at around room temperature): 108 . it is a very bad sign). lemon. wet soil. leafy. Pungent: chili. These positive attributes are important because it is the health conferring polyphenols that provide these various palates. buttery. pepper. eucaplyptus. hot. making sure it is not too old (also taste for rancidity. or visit a gourmet store and ask if you could taste the various olive oils on the shelf (some are happy to oblige). almond. Rancid: stale oil (try leaving raw walnuts in a room for a couple of days) Positive Attributes Fruity: Grass. orange. Bitter: grapefruit rind. but were labeled as extra virgin. baby vomit. nutty. and metallic. Musty-Humid: Mouldy Muddy: Stale muddy water. The positive attributes are harder to get used to and it would be best if you go to an olive oil tasting session. makes you cough.
which are actually acids. One tablespoon in small container with lid Swirl: releases aroma Smell it: you should have a fruity smell Slurp: this brings in air which spreads the flavor/aroma Swallow: it should sting and last for a bit. Fats are usually in the form of triglycerides. 4. This is a measurement of how damaged the fats are (due to heat. creating acidity. light. While we can taste for polyphenols it is not the most accurate way to determine the concentration. So COAs testing olive oil usually give an acidity value that should be lower than 0. 5.” Chemical Tests Some producers do have certificates of authenticity (COAs) on hand that might show the free fatty acid level and peroxide levels.1. For more information buy Deborah Krasner’s book. Many of the studies seem to show that consuming polyphenol oils with content of 300mg/kg and above are the best. that would be great. 2. preparation). These are important because it tells you how well the oil is stored and how “fresh” it is. 109 .8%. “The Flavors of Olive Oil: A Tasting Guide and Cookbook. When the fat becomes red. If the producer is willing to provide a test on the polyphenols. 3. part of it breaks off (bad storage) the fats. We don’t want damaged lipids so this value should be 20mEq/kg or less. The other important value is oxidation/peroxidation.
Acne In western populations acne affects up to 95% of adolescents and 50% over the age of 25. Hurtado M. Hill K. Arch Dermatol. acne.Appendix II: Acne and Balding There are a couple disorders that affect our self-esteem today that our ancestors probably did not have to experience. Lindeberg S. However in huntergatherer/traditional populations there have been no reports of acne in the anthropological reports: Cordain L. The economic and psychological effects are undeniable and best avoided. First the gray stuff gets produced in to large amounts. Acne vulgaris (vulgaris meaning common) develop because of many factors: 1) pores get clogged because excess skin cells clog the pores (hyperkeratinization). By setting up a lifestyle that can prevent metabolic syndrome we can prevent the damaging psychological effects these disorders have and hopefully be on our way to achieve a healthy body image. Eaton SB. 2002 Dec. It is commonly stated that acne has no relation to diet and that it is mainly genetic but taking into the account that acne is fairly recent phenomenon genetics just does not explain the pervasiveness of this ailment in western society. obesity. 2) increased sebum production (which is the waxy/oily substance your skin produces to protect/maintain itself). BrandMiller J. Below is a picture I drew depicting the usual path that a pimple takes. 3) Propionibacterium acnes colonizes follicles causing inflammation. Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization. and balding.138(12):1584-90. which then clogs the pores as 110 .
This leads to elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and decrease insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) [which bind IGF-1. it activates pathways which then results in increased androgen production. By elevating insulin with a high carbohydrate diet. PCOS patients often struggle with acne. It then causes and the bacterium is allowed to proliferate which then causes the big red bump all over your face. The metabolism goes awry because of your hormones and hormones depend on diet (and genetics but only in special cases). 2008 Apr. Varigos GA.more gets produced and as sebum gets produced. So to stop this progression we have to lower insulin and we lower insulin through a low111 . J Dermatol Sci. Our skins should not have evolved so that everyone gets acne.50(1):41-52. Mann NJ. The diet is a very important factor that determines insulin levels. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects women and is characterized by excess androgen (male hormones). thus resulting in more free IGF-1]. and insulin resistance. it should only occur to signal to the other sex that something is wrong with the metabolism. too much insulin. Braue A. Somehow this leads to low amounts of retinoids in the skin which is responsible for keeping cell proliferation at proper levels (thus the use of retinoids to treat acne). These hormonal profiles are associated with acne in “healthy” people and by correcting the hormone levels acne lesions decrease: Smith RN. The effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne vulgaris and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides.
Without the environment of excess growth (caused by IGF-1. While DHT is one of the many culprits the whole pot of risk factors which is metabolic syndrome is in my opinion the greatest cause of MPB: 112 . Male Pattern Balding (MPB) Here is a disorder that men will pay thousands and thousands of dollars per year to prevent and hopefully reverse. while another will lead to a low carbohydrate intake (mostly vegetables). Milk chocolate is not “real” chocolate in the sense that most of it is sugar and milk. Chocolate is not a problem unless you are consuming milk chocolate. One low glycemic index diet can lead to an overall high carbohydrate intake (grains). I suspect that milk might be a problem because of the growth factors present in the milk (which also raises IGF1. and androgens) the bacteria is not allowed to grow excessively. insulin. Some of the most common drugs utilized today are DHT lowering drugs which stops the enzyme that converts testosterone to DHT. This is probably the reason why the studies are equivocal. excess sebum production and even lower inflammation.carbohydrate diet (like the one espoused in this book). If you like chocolate go for 90% and above dark chocolate and the acne problem should go away. Note: Foods like milk and chocolate have also been implicated in causing acne. I briefly discussed the glycemic index in chapter 4. For now totally reversing hair loss is a dream (except for maybe implantation) and slowing it down and stalling it has nightmarish side effects (depending on the method implemented). possibly so if you are trying to get rid of acne you should probably stop the milk intake). Many studies on acne these days utilize the glycemic index instead of actually controlling total digestible carbohydrate intake. By lowering insulin we prevent the hyperkeratinization. So just make sure to keep you blood sugar and insulin levels under control and your acne will soon go away.
Villarreal-Pérez JZ. The way most hormones work is that they are created by cells but also present in the blood stream is a binding factor that inactivates the hormone. fat mass) is correlated with MPB. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Chen TH. What this all points too is that in general metabolic syndrome causes hair loss because of the inflammation. Lavalle-González FJ. and inflammatory levels. This is done so that there are always hormones in the blood but when needed the binding factor can be broken down to release more hormone instead of making more hormone from scratch. Ocampo-Candiani J. acne. Epub 2010 Apr 23 From what I have seen metabolic syndrome (e. Mancillas-Adame LG. Br J Dermatol. higher DHT levels. and insulin resistance: González-González JG. Gómez-Flores M. 2009 Oct.Su LH.71(4):494-9 This connection has only recently been studied and there are many issues to tease out. Association of androgenetic alopecia with metabolic syndrome in men: a community-based survey. 2010 Aug.g. Fernández-Reyes M.163(2):371-7. probably has to do with the damaging diet they consume. Also it seems that those who consume low-fat diets and exercise a lot (such as marathon running) are also predisposed (remember Chapter 9. beer belly. Androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance in young men. glucose. bad diet. Metabolic syndrome may decrease total testosterone but free testosterone could be higher or the conversion to DHT could be higher or sensitivity of the 113 . Treatments such as DHT lowering agents do seem to work so it does have an effect but for all I know it is preventing the damaging effects of high insulin. large waist circumference. Some studies show that those with MPB have higher levels of testosterone but metabolic syndrome decreases total testosterone and sex-hormone binding globulin. exercise does not prevent illness!).
hair follicles to DHT is higher. 114 . But one thing for sure is that if you want to keep your hair. do not use steroids and do not get metabolic syndrome.
but most are surprised that China is also suffering an epidemic. the ones that stay “ripped” while consuming 8000 calories and another softer ectomorph: these are the skinny types. Asia's big problem. but obesity describes body fat. most Asians fall into the skinny fat phenotype (I think it is probably the lack of proper nutrition in most Asian countries). So. It is true diabetes is usually associated with obesity. There are two types of ectomorphs. waist size and body mass index. Nat Med. Cyranoski D. This phenotype is due to genetics (mainly your predisposition towards an anxious personality) and probably undernutrition while in the womb and as an infant: 115 . I know many people who eat like shit all the time and they say it is no problem because they are not fat.g. and thin people can be fat too. not only for those trying to gain muscle but also as a health policy subject. Mandavilli A. 2004 Apr. people see a country of all underweight people and assume there is no problem.Appendix III: Skinny Fat Body Type The skinny fat body type has become a problem over the years. The individuals themselves also assume there’s no problem. While these are good measurements for most Westerners.10(4):325-7 China’s diabetes problem (now 1 in 10) went undetected because the measurements we utilize today only apply to Caucasians e. We are not surprised when someone says that the United States is suffering from a diabetes epidemic. and they are doing just as much damage to their bodies as the obese are. But they are fat.
you can find a picture comparing the body fat between a normal weighted Caucasian man and a typical skinny-fat south Asian. Sparing of the brain in neonatal undernutrition: amino acid transport and incorporation into brain and muscle. Katz M. I suspect they have very high amounts of visceral adipose tissue. I have seen them from all cultures. and the skinny-fat Asian has 20% (but by all means the Asian looks much thinner than the Caucasian). There is also a decrease in fast-twitch muscle fiber. The Caucasian man has 10% body fat. Skinny fat types are not just a problem for Asians. Your best bet would be to get the blood tests (in Chapter 8) and determine your health. Fish I. and when it doesn’t. decreasing the amount of tension you can place on the muscle. Morgano L. In the study above about China.Freedman LS. other tissues are not allowed to develop properly such as the muscle tissue. For some reason. Science 1980 Feb 22. this body type leads to tall and long bone structures that stretch the muscle. 116 . The moral of the story is that even though you are thin you are not safe. Samuels S.207(4433):902-4 The brain gets what it wants. Lange B. This also stresses the body probably priming your neural circuitry for a less stress-robust personality (leading to overproduction of cortisol which is a hard environment to build muscle in and also decreases anabolic hormones). which leads to the soft look many skinny-fat types have. Schwartz SA.
What the study shows is that populations with more lithium in the drinking water are happier and at less of a risk of suicide. Lithium: occurrence. nutritional essentiality. Br J Psychiatry. It seems our unofficial RDA for lithium is probably around 1mg/day. but those are pharmacologically high dosages greater than 120mg per dose.Appendix IV: Riskier Supplements Some other supplements that I personally take that I think are worthwhile are: Lithium Phytate (IP6) Beta-alanine Taurine Acetyl-L-Carnitine and Alpha Lipoic Acid Lithium [1. dietary intakes. Iwata N. Lithium levels in drinking water and risk of suicide.21(1):14-21 We most likely got the lithium from our drinking water: Ohgami H.25mg/day] This mineral is not on the Institute of Medicines official list of essential vitamins and minerals but there is convincing evidence that humans do require it and consumed it in times past: Schrauzer GN. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 May. Shiotsuki I. 2002 Feb. discussion 446. Ishii N.194(5):464-5. Most people know of lithium as an anti-depressent. 117 . Terao T.
Beckera K. consume it away from food. Phytate (IP6) [2g/day] In Chapter 2. two hours after a meal or two hours before. I take 1. 2004. I break it down in my legumes and grains but I also choose to supplement with it as a pill. If you eat over the RDA some phytate in your grains and bran should not be a problem. Makkara HP. Dietary roles of phytate and phytase in human nutrition: A review. Issue 4. Sinhab AK. phytate was labeled as an antinutrient. 118 . modulates the immune system and has an anti-inflammatory effect.Lithium is interesting because of the neuroprotective properties is can confer at higher dosages but there is speculation that this also occurs at lower dosages: Chuang DM. If you do choose to supplement it. but it probably transfers to humans in this case).25mg per day because the pills usually come in 5mg dosages. Phytate does have numerous benefits and the research has been going on for years and years. Neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of the mood stabilizer lithium: can it be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases? Crit Rev Neurobiol. Food Chemistry Volume 120.16(12):83-90. Pages 945-959 It is very effective in preventing colon cancer (at least in rats. Besides the anti-cancer effect. 15 June 2010. the prevention of calcification of tissues (which Vitamin K2 also prevents) as well as the decrease in iron content in men can be a benefit in the long-term. IP6 binds to covalent ions rendering them inabsorbable thus wasting them. but for me I would rather not dump my minerals in the toilet. Kumara V.
9(6):72833 Vegetarians lack taurine. 119 . Taurine is involved in many activities: preventing atherosclerosis. osmoregulation. Taurine [250mg/day] The reason for supplementing with taurine is a paleolithic one. and possibly even preventing the transfer of diabetes from the mother to the fetus: Bouckenooghe T. preventing glycation. Al-Azzawie HF. Reusens B. Carnosine prevents cell damage and aging. Cooking also destroys about half of it from the meat we commonly consume today. Is taurine a functional nutrient? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. I prefer to utilize beta-alanine because 1) it is cheaper and 2) the human data showing tissue elevation of carnosine is very extensive. 2006 Nov.27(1):86-9 While you can buy carnosine in a supplement. Taurine is found in high concentrations from seafood and organ meats. While some mammals produce taurine by themselves. Vegetarians lack beta-alanine. Abbas FK.Beta-alanine [2g/day] This altered amino acid is a precursor to the dipeptide carnosine. other mammals such as cats and humans rely on dietary ingestion. Decreased formation of advanced glycation end-products in peritoneal fluid by carnosine and related peptides. 2007 JanFeb. modulating intracellular calcium. it also prevents glycation end-products: Alhamdani MS. Perit Dial Int. Remacle C.
The data regarding ALCAR in humans also shows its safety. The data on the long-term safety of these supplements are lacking but the benefits sure seem impressive. Ames BN. Therefore there is speculation that ALCAR deficiency may cause insulin resistance because the fat trapped in the muscle has nowhere to go. Smith MA. L-Carnitine is something we consume in our diet from meat. however. It is involved in transporting long chain fatty acids from the outside of the mitochondria to the inside of the mitochondria where it gets burned. Obrenovich ME. Shenk JC. 2009 Feb. Most studies use alpha lipoic acid and acetyl-l-carnitine together because they are synergistic (carnitine also seems to increase free radical production while alpha lipoic acid soaks them up. Gasimov E. Liu J. Chen SG. I use it as a preventative measure to keep my mitochondria healthy. J Cell Mol Med. Perry G. Richardson AG.Acetyl-L-Carnitine (250mg) and Alpha Lipoic Acid (150mg) These two are in my opinion the riskiest of them all. the studies used very high dosages of l-carnitine.13(2):320-33. My main reason for supplementing lipoic acid is for the post-prandial effects as it definitely seems to help with glycative products in type II diabetics: 120 . Ward WF. Fischbach K. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is just Lcarnitine with an acetyl group attached. much higher than what we consume). making it more absorbable and also helping it reach the brain better. Neuronal mitochondrial amelioration by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats. Most studies are done in humans regarding Alzheimer’s disease and weight loss. Pacheco GJ. The data in rats regarding mitochondrial regeneration is very impressive: Aliev G. While the positive effects seem very weak.
Francesconi M. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 121 . Wolzt M.Mittermayer F. Pleiner J. We are interested in the R form because the racemic (normal) form contains the Sform. There are two forms of Alpha Lipoic Acid you can purchase: racemic (normal) or the stabilized R form. 2010 Jan. which is not found in nature.155(1):6-9. Transl Res.
cutting the distance you have to move by a couple inches makes it easier. but it would be better to activate as many muscles as possible. what we want to do is reach the top and try and reach more. Let’s take the pushup for example: As you move down your hips should not sag downwards. and make sure to activate the various muscles around your shoulders and ribs. Keep them up by pushing the glutes up. 122 . Hopefully you can feel the difference.Appendix V: Bodyweight Exercises An important part of various exercises is to utilize the full-range of motions. and also try to extend up as far as possible. Sure. Most people just wait until their elbows lock and then head back down. The chest should touch the floor then when you go up and reach the very top.
using keyboards and mice. with Posture and Pain by Florence Peterson Kendall (Editor). These can be injured just like your muscles can. tendons. etc. Anatomy Trains: Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists Thomas W. sitting in front of the computer and playing sports I have developed pains in various part of my body. Over the years of playing video games. It wasn’t anything excruciating. I don’t know if huntergatherer/traditional populations required soft tissue therapy and stretching. and playing console games with controllers by contorting their body in weird positions then keeping it there for hours on end. it was just very annoying. but they didn’t sit in front of a computer in a chair. ligaments. This usually goes away when I exercise but would later come back with a vengeance. Mary McIntyre Rodgers (Author). Second Edition Clair Davies (Author). Elizabeth Kendall McCreary (Author). Amber Davies (Author). William Anthony Romani (Author) The Trigger Point Therapy Workbook: Your SelfTreatment Guide for Pain Relief. sitting in between everything else. Myers LMT NCTMB ARP Certified Rolfer (Author) 123 . Patricia Geise Provance (Author).Appendix VI: Soft Tissue Therapy and Stretching Beyond your muscles and bones there is connective tissue. Soon I discovered soft tissue therapy and it has been a godsend: Muscles: Testing and Function.
These three books are great in terms of helping you understand where the pain comes from and also helping you solve it. 124 .