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NGN HNG CU HI THI TNG QUAN VIN THNG (NGNH: TVT - TRNH : H) I. CU HI LOI 1 IM: Cu hi 1.

1: Nu khi nim c bn v thng tin, truyn thng v vin thng. Thng tin: l cc tnh cht xc nh ca vt cht c tip nhn bi nh quan st t th gii vt cht xung quanh. Truyn thng: l vic truyn thng tin t mt im ti mt im khc, gm c truyn thng c hc (bu chnh) v truyn thng in (vin thng). Vin thng: bao gm nhng vn lin quan n vic truyn thng tin (trao i hay qung b thng tin) gia cc i tng qua mt khong cch, ngha l bao gm bt k hot ng lin quan ti vic pht/nhn tin tc (m thanh, hnh nh, ch vit, d liu, ) qua cc phng tin truyn thng (hu tuyn nh ng dy kim loi, cp quang hoc v tuyn hoc cc h thng in t khc). Cu hi 1.2: Nu nhng khi nim c bn v tn hiu, m ha v iu ch trong vin thng. Tn hiu: l mt dng nng lng mang theo thng tin tch ra c v truyn t ni pht n ni nhn. M ha c chia lm hai loi : M ha ngun (source coding) nn ngunthng tin v m ha knh (channel coding) bo v bn tin khi truyn trn knh. M ha ngun l phng thc m ha tn hiu thnh cc bt thng tin c th truyn i, ng thi cng lm ti a dung lng knh truyn. M ha knh l phng php b sung thm cc bt vo bn tin truyn i nhm mc ch pht hin v/hoc sa li. iu ch: l qu trnh trn ln tn s sng mang vi thng tin cn truyn. Cu hi 1.3: Nu ngha ca vn chun ha trong vin thng.

Cc mng truyn thng c thit k phc v cho nhiu ngi s dng khc nhau vi cc thit b c cung cp t nhiu nh sn xut khc nhau. thit k v xy dng cc mng mt cch hiu qu th cc thit b mng cn thng nht v chun, chng c th lin kt v tng thch vi nhau, cng nh m bo hiu qu v gi thnh. Cc tiu chun gip cho vic kt ni d dng gia cc h thng, thit b v cc mng ca cc nh sn xut, cc nh cung cp v khai thc khc nhau. Cu hi 1.4: Gii thiu cc c im c bn ca vic truyn thng tin trong mng truyn d liu. Cu hi 1.5: Nu khi nim cht lng dch v vin thng (QoS). Cht lng dch v (QoS): l tng hp nhng tham s, kin th hin s hi lng, khng hi lng ca khch hng i vi mt dch v vin thng no . Cu hi 1.6: Nu khi nim hiu nng mng (NP). Hiu nng mng (NP) l nng lc mt mng hoc l phn mng cung cp cc chc nng c lin quan n kh nng truyn thng gia nhng ngi s dng. Cu hi 1.7: Trnh by khi nim v truyn dn n cng, bn song cng v song cng. Ly v d c th cho mi khi nim. Truyn dn n cng l truyn dn thng tin theo mt chiu. V d, vi pht thanh truyn hnh, tn hiu ch c gi i t my pht n thit b u cui l thit b thu v tuyn. Truyn dn bn song cng l truyn dn thng tin theo hai chiu nhng vic truyn tin trn mi chiu ch c thc hin ti mt thi im. V d nh h thng thng tin v tuyn di ng (in m), ngi ni phi xc nhn bng nt chuyn sang ch nghe th bn kia mi c ni. Truyn dn song cng (song cng hon ton) l truyn dn thng tin theo hai chiu trong cng mt thi gian. V d nh thng tin thoi thng thng, hai ngi c th ni chuyn ng thi.

Cu hi 1.8: Nu ngha ca vic ghp knh. Phn loi cc phng php ghp knh. ngha ca vic ghp knh: Ghp knh l qu trnh kt hp nhiu tn hiu truyn dn ng thi trn cng 1 ng truyn dn.Hu ht cc h thng truyn dn trong mng vin thng c dung lng ln hn dung lng yu cu bi 1 ngi s dng n l v nh hn tng dung lng yu cu ti a ca tt c ngi s dng. Do , nng cao hiu qu truyn dn v gim chi ph, ngi ta thc hin chia s bng tn sn c ca cc h thng cp ng, cp quang hay h thng v tuyn(h thng n l dung lng cao) cho nhiu ngi s dng. Phn loi cc phng php ghp knh Ghp knh theo tn s(FDM) bin tn s mi tn hiu ln 1 tn s sng mang khc nhau. Cc tn hiu iu ch c i qua cng 1 knh truyn v b lc n bng s phn chia cc tn hiu khi n bn thu. Bng tn ca h thng c chia thnh nhiu cc knh hp khc nhau, mi knh dnh cho 1 nguwofi s dng trong ton b thi gian truyn tin (thng s/d cho truyn tin thoi). Bng vic thay i b la chn tn s pha thu ta c th thay i nhn thng tin t a im pht khc. Ghp knh theo thi gian(TDM) l phng php ghp knh mi hn FDM phng php ny a cc bn tin khc nhau Ghp knh theo bc sng(WDM) c dng cho truyn dn cp quang. Vic s dng ghp knh phn chia thi gian c nhiu hn ch i vi yu cu dung lng truyn dn nn WDM c thay th. Ghp knh theo bc sng cho php knh c truyn ti nhng bc sng khc nhau cho cng 1 hng hay c 2 hng trn cng 1 si quang.L 1 bin dng ca ghp knh tn s. t c tc bit ln hn 10Gbit/s ngi ta kt hp ghp knh theo thi gian vi ghp knh theo bc sng. Cu hi 1.9: Nu ngha v chc nng ca chuyn mch. Hin ti thit b chuyn mch phi c kh nng iu khin cc dch v nhiu hn trc y boa gm m thanh ct lng cao, Video theo cc tiu chun khc nhau, thng tin LAN ni LAN, truyn ti cc tp d

liu ln v cc dch v tng tc mi trn mng truyn hnh cp. c nhiu cc thng tin chuyn mch lin quan n ngi s dng dch v. Tnh phong ph v k thut chuyn mch trong mng ni ht tng. Ngy nay chng ta dng k thut chuyn tip khung v 2 kiu chuyn mch t bo theo truyn ti khng ng b ATM v bus kp hng i phn tn Cc phn t chuyn mch c th iu khin c a vo trong mng truyn dn nh gip cho vic truyn dn thc hin vi tin cy cao hn v tr nh hn. B u ni cho s gi y thay th cc khung phn tn v cc b ghp knh s l cc phn t truyn dn truyn thng

Cu hi 1.10: Trnh by ngha v chc nng ca bo hiu trong vin thng. Trong mng vin thng bo hiu c coi l 1 phng tin chuyn thng tin v cc lnh t im ny n im khc, cc thng tin v cc lnh ny c lin quan n thit lp, gim st v gii phng cuc gi. Bo hiu thc hin 3 chc nng chnh: Chc nng gim st: gim st ng thu bao, ng trung k Chc nng tm chn: chc nng iu khin v chuyn thng tin a ch Chc nng khai thc v vn hnh mng: phc v cho vic khai thc mng 1 cch ti u nht Thng thng bo hiu c chia lm 2 loi ty thuc vo phng thc x l tn hiu bo hiu v ng dng ca n l bo hiu cho mng chuyn mch knh v bo hiu cho mng chuyn mch gi. Cu hi 1.11: Nu ngha ca ng b trong mng vin thng. Mng ng b l 1 mng chc nng khng th thiu c trong mng vin thng quc gia s hin i. Cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca cc h thng chuyn mch s, truyn dn s, cng ngh SDH, ATMvai tr quan trng ca vic ng b mng vin thng ngy cng gia tng. Yu cu v ng b mng l iu kin quan trng cn thit trin khai v khai thc hiu qu cc cng ngh mi cht lng cao trn mng li.

ng b c nh hng ln n n nh v cht lng dch v ca mng thng tin. Vic mt ng b hay km ng b gy nn rung pha, tri pha, trtlm suy gim cht lng dch v, mc nh hng. II. CU HI LOI 2 IM: Cu hi 2.1: Phn tch v so snh u nhc im ca vic truyn thng s dng tn hiu s so vi tn hiu tng t. Tn hiu s(Digital Signal): l tn hiu c hu hn gi tr dng in c ngha v mt m ha thng tin,nhng gi tr khc khng c ngha mang thng tin.Dng tn hiu thng dng l tn hiu nh phn ch c 2 gi tr l 0 v 1.Vi cc chc nng x l nh :m ha,ti to,lu tr,iu ch,xo trn,nn gin,sa li Tn hiu tng t(Analog Signal) l tn hiu c v s cc gi tr trong khong i(max)-i(min) u c ngha v mt thng tin.Vi cc chc nng x l nh:khuych i tuyn tnh,lc,iu ch,nn,gin c trng ca x l s l thao tc trn linh kin c chc nng nh, c th l trn thanh ghi (register); dn n cho php thi gian x l c th ko rt di, qu trnh x l c th rt phc tp, chc nng x l rt phong ph nhng b li l h thng c th khng c tnh cht thi gian thc (real time - p ng ca h thng c rt nhanh, khi c tn hiu ng vo th gn nh c lin tn hiu ng ra). Trong khi , x l tng t li khng c linh kin nh (ch c th lm delay trong thi gian ngn) dn n qu trnh x l phi tht nhanh, n gin v do chc nng x l cng n gin hn so vi x l s nhng b li h thng c tnh cht real time. u im ca tn hiu s: (1) tnh n nh. Vi cng mt ng vo th ng ra ca mt qu trnh x l s lun ging nhau. N khng nhy cm i vi lch (ofset) v s tri tn hiu (drift). (2) Kh nng lu tr. (3) Tch hp mt cao cc cng logic trn chip Nhc im: (1)Mo lng t khi chuyn t s sang tng t.(2)Tnh tr. u im ca tn hiu tng t :m phng chnh xc ci th gii thc s bn ang sng. nhng m trong o lng th thit b ch to kh c chnh xc cao. Nghe m thanh t tn hiu tng t l trung thc nht

trong ci th gii bn ang sng Nhc im: X l tn hiu tng t khng d, khng t kt qu cao nh l x l tn hiu s.

Cu hi 2.2: Gii thiu tn, lnh vc chun ha ca cc t chc chun ha ITU, IEEE, IETF, ISO. Lin minh vin thng quc t (ITU) l mt c quan chuyn mn ca lin hp quc chu trch nhim v vin thng. N bao gm gn 200 nc thnh vin v cng tc chun ho ca n c chia thnh cc phn chnh: ITU-T: xy dng cc tiu chun v cc mng vin thng cng cng (v d nh ISDN). ITU-R: xy dng cc tiu chun v v tuyn nh vic s dng tn s trn th gii v cc c tnh k thut ca cc h thng v tuyn. Vin nghin cu k thut in v in t (IEEE) l mt trong cc c quan chuyn mn ln nht trn th gii v to ra nhiu tiu chun quan trng v vin thng. Lc lng c nhim v k thut Internet (IETF) quan tm ti vic chun ho cc giao thc TCP/IP cho Internet. T chc chun ho quc t (ISO) l mt t chc chung chu trch nhim v chun ho cng ngh thng tin.

Cu hi 2.3: Gii thiu cc c im c bn ca mng in thoi hot ng trn phng thc chuyn mch knh. S dng h thng PCM(Pulse Code Modulation) c chc nng bin i tn hiu tng t sang tn hiu s thng qua vic m ha cc xung bin tn hiu v truyn dn theo khe thi gian c di c nh. Trn cc lin kt ta chia thnh cc knh thng tin tch bit nhau ,vn c bn ca kiu chuyn giao ny l to ra 1 kt ni.Cc nt mng thc

hin chc nng chuyn mch.Thit b chuyn mch ti 1 nt s chuyn tn hiu t knh vo n knh ra.Trn cc lin kt ,h thng c chia thnh cc knh thng tin nh cc mch trung k trong mng in thoi.Cc chung k l ti nguyn ca h thng ph v chung. Duy tr kt ni s dng bo hiu(bo hiu thu bao v trung k) Khng linh hot v bng thng Khng c pht hin li. Thch hp vi Thoi,video v d liu tc thp

Cu hi 2.4: Nu s khc bit ca IPv4 v IPv6 theo cc tiu ch: khng gian a ch, nh dng tiu , kh nng m rng, kh nng bo mt.
IPv4 IPv6

Khng gian a ch

a ch di 32 bit.

a ch di 128 bit. S dng nh dng tiu mi, trong cc ty chn c tch khi phn tiu c s v nu cn c thm vo gia phn tiu c s v d liu. Do vy, lm n gin v tng tc x l nh tuyn v hu ht cc ty chn u khng cn c router kim tra. c thit k cho php m rng khi c yu cu

nh dng tiu

Kh nng m rng Khng h tr mt m v chng thc

Ty chn mt m v chng thc trong

Kh nng bo mt

IPv6 cung cp tnh ton vn v tnh bo mt ca gi.

Cu hi 2.5: Nu khi nim dch v vin thng. Nu v d v mt dch v c th hin nay Vit Nam (tn dch v, m hnh kt ni, cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng dch v). Dch v vin thng l dch v truyn k hiu, tn hiu, s liu, ch vit, m thanh, hnh nh hoc cc dng khc ca thng tin gia cc im kt cui thng qua mng vin thng. Cu hi 2.6: Nu v phn tch xu hng pht trin dch v vin thng hin nay.( trang 82 trong ti liu) Cu hi 2.7: Trnh by khi nim nh tuyn trong mng gi. So snh u nhc im ca nh tuyn tnh v ng. nh tuyn l mt cng vic quan trng trong qu trnh truyn tin qua mng. N c thc hin tng mng (tng 3 theo m hnh tham chiu OSI). Mc ch ca nh tuyn l chuyn thng tin ca ngi s dng t im ngun n im ch. Qu trnh nh tuyn (routing) bao gm hai hot ng chnh, l: xc nh ng truyn (path determination) v chuyn tip thng tin (forwarding) theo ng (cn c gi l switching). Vic truyn thng tin i theo con ng chn c th ni l kh n gin (v mt thut ton), trong khi , vic xc nh ng truyn phc tp hn rt nhiu. Trong cc mng thng tin khc nhau, vic xc nh ng truyn cng din ra khc nhau. Tuy nhin, cch xc nh ng truyn no cng bao gm hai cng vic c bn. Th nht l thu thp v phn pht thng tin v tnh trng ca mng (v d nh trng thi ng truyn, tnh trng tc nghn...) v ca thng tin cn truyn (v d nh lu lng, yu cu dch v...). Cc thng tin ny s c s dng lm c s cho vic xc nh ng truyn. Th hai l chn ra ng truyn kh dng (cng c th l ng truyn ti u) da trn cc thng tin trng thi trn. ng truyn kh dng l ng truyn tho mn mi yu

cu ca thng tin cn truyn (v d: tc ) v iu kin ca mng (v d: kh nng ca ng truyn). Cn ng truyn ti u (theo mt tiu chun no ) l ng truyn tt nht trong nhng ng truyn kh dng. So snh u nhc im ca nh tuyn ng v tnh: nh tuyn tnh hay nh tuyn khng thch nghi l k thut nh tuyn trong vic nh tuyn ch phi thc hin mt ln khi xy dng mng. Sau , cc thng tin v vic nh tuyn c lu trong cc bng nh tuyn cho cc nt. Sau ny, khi mng hot ng, nu gi tr ca link thay i th cc bng nh tuyn ny cng khng c cp nht li. Nu mun thay i cc thng tin trong bng nh tuyn, ngi qun tr mng phi trc tip ra lnh thc hin cc thut ton nh tuyn to ra thng tin nh tuyn mi. Thng thng, vi nh tuyn khng thch nghi, bng nh tuyn c th a ra mt s tuyn ng thay th khi tuyn ng chnh gp s c (qu ti, hng). nh tuyn ng hay nh tuyn thch nghi l k thut nh tuyn trong vic tnh ton ng truyn ti u c thc hin nhiu ln trong khi mng hot ng. C sau mt khong thi gian quy nh trc hoc mi khi mng c s thay i v cu hnh, trng thi th thng tin v mng li c gi ti nhng ni c nhim v thc hin nh tuyn tin hnh nh tuyn li. C mt loi thut ton nh tuyn c gi l nh tuyn thch nghi cch ly. Theo cch nh tuyn ny, cc nt khng gi, cng khng nhn thng tin thay i v tnh trng mng. Cc nt la chn con ng tu theo kt qu ca nhng ln truyn trc c phn hi li.

III. CU HI LOI 3 IM: Cu hi 3.1: V m hnh h thng truyn thng v nu chc nng cc khi c bn. Ly v d thc t v phn tch. M hnh h thng truyn thng. Bn Tin Tn hiu pht Tn hiu thu Bn tin

Ngun Tin

TBC pht

Mi Trng Truyn Dn

TBC Thu

Nhn Tin

a, Truyn thng mt chiu

Bn Tin
Pht/ Nhn Tin

Tn hiu pht
Mi Trng Truyn Dn

Tn hiu thu
TBC Thu/pht

Bn tin
Nhn/ph t Tin

TBC pht/thu

b, Truyn thng hai chiu Hnh 1. M hnh h thng truyn thng. Chc nng ca cc khi c bn. Hnh 1 cho ta s khi ca HTTT, thng tin truyn qua h thng c th l mt chiu truyn n hng (Hnh 1.a) hoc trao i hai chiu truyn hai hng (Hnh 1.b). Thng tin t ngun tin i ti thit b u cui (TBC) pht chuyn thnh tn hiu. Tn hiu ny c truyn qua mi trng truyn dn (knh truyn thng) ti TBC thu. Ti y, tn hiu c bin i ngc li thnh thng tin v a ti ni nhn tin. Ty thuc vo tin tc, thit b u cui trong HTTT c th c cc cu to khc nhau, s dng cc phng php bin i tin tc tn hiu khc nhau (v d: TBC l micro chuyn ting ni thnh tn hiu thoi, l loa chuyn tn hiu thoi thnh ting ni).

Mi trng truyn dn : c hai loi l hu tuyn (c dy) v v tuyn (khng dy). Mi trng truyn dn hu tuyn bao gm cc loi ng dy thng tin nh cp ng nhiu i, cp ng trc, si quang Mi trng truyn dn v tuyn l khong

khng bao quanh tri t, chnh l cc tng kh quyn, tng in ly v khong khng v tr khc (khng phi chn khng). Ngun tin : l ni sn sinh ra tin hay cha cc tin cn truyn.V th ngun tin c th l con ngi hoc cc thit b thu , pht m thanh , hnh nh, cc thit b lu tr v thu nhn thng tin pht i. TBC pht :la thit b thay i tp tin thnh tp tn hiu tng ng. TBC thu :la thit b lp li thng tin t tn hiu nhn c. Nhn tin :c 3 chc nng : - Ghi gi tin - Biu th tin :Lm cho cc gic quan ca con ngi hoc cc b cm bin ca my cm th c x l tin. - X l tin : Bin i tin a n v dng d s dng. Chc nng ny c th thc hin bng con ngi hoc bng my. Pht tin :

V d thc t v phn tch

Cu hi 3.2: So snh phng thc chuyn giao kiu gi vi knh trong qu trnh truyn thng tin qua mng, v hnh minh ha.

Cc tiu ch so snh

Chuyn giao kiu knh

Chuyn giao kiu gi

nh ngha

- H thng ny c thit k cho phng thc chuyn knh CS (Circuit Switch) v truyn dn

- Chuyn giao kiu gi c ngha l thng tin c chia

theo khe thi gian. S phn chia vo cc khe thi gian yu cu thng tin c chia vo cc khi c cng di bng khe thi gian. Nu mt khi pht t in thoi, n c biu din bng mt mu, th n cng c th cha lu lng d liu, Telex, tn hiu cnh bo... Phng thc chuyn knh khng cn bit ph nhi vo thng tin. Khi c gim st bi phng tin bo hiu.

thnh cc gi ( di gi c th khc nhau) v gi c gn nhn truyn ti qua mng. Nhn l tiu v c th gm c ui gn thm vo cui gi (nh ui gn cc lp 2-3 trong m hnh OSI). Nhn c dng cho vic chuyn mch knh v pht hin li... Mng phi c trch nhim chuyn giao gi n ng ch v theo ng th t, m bo thi gian tr cho php.

c im

- Trn cc lin kt ta chia thnh cc knh thng tin tch

bit nhau v vn c bn ca kiu chuyn giao ny l to ra mt kt ni. Cc nt mng thc hin chc nng chuyn mch. Thit b chuyn mch ti mt nt s chuyn tn hiu t knh vo n knh ra v th ngi ta gi l chuyn mch knh. Trn cc lin kt, h thng c chia thnh cc knh thng tin (trunk circuit) nh cc mch trung k trong mng in thoi. Cc knh trung k l ti nguyn ca h thng phc v chung. Tc chuyn giao - Tc chuyn giao cc lin kt i vi phng thc chuyn knh lun lun bng nhau - Tc chuyn giao cc lin kt i vi phng thc chuyn gi c th khc nhau.

S khc nhau gia phng thc chuyn knh (CS) v phng thc chuyn gi (PS) . Tc chuyn giao thng tin ca phng thc gi bng tc chuyn knh v phng thc chuyn knh mng khng a cc bit ph vo. Nhng i vi phng thc chuyn gi, tc chuyn giao thng tin nh hn tc knh truyn v mng a thm cc bt ph to tiu v hot ng theo c ch iu khin lung. V vy nh gi tc knh ngi ta a

ra khi nim thng lng (throughput), n ph thuc vo cht lng ng truyn v kch thc gi. Tc chuyn giao cc lin kt i vi phng thc chuyn knh lun lun bng nhau, song i vi phng thc chuyn gi c th khc nhau. Tuy nhin, trong truyn s liu phng thc chuyn gi c u im hn so vi phng thc chuyn knh nh tc gi v tc phin nhn c th khc nhau v thi gian ca phin truyn thng ngn. Phng thc chuyn knh thun tin cho thng tin thoi v mt cuc gi c con ngi tham gia thng din ra trong khong thi gian vi pht nhng truyn d liu l hai my trao i t ng, thi gian chuyn giao thng tin thng rt ngn (c giy) do vy nu phi thit lp kt ni bng quay s th hiu qu khng cao. Mt nhc im ca phng thc chuyn knh l n s dng knh khng hiu qu bng phng thc chuyn gi. V d, trong dch v thoi, k c khi hai bn u cui khng c thng tin trao i th knh vn b chim hon ton (64kb/s) trong khi nu l truyn theo kiu gi th trong khong thi gian khng c thng tin trao i, ngi ta c th s dng knh kt ni chuyn gi thng tin ca cc dch v khc.

Cu hi 3.3: Nu v phn tch ngha ca c ch phn tng (layer) khi xy dng mng. ngha ca c ch phn tng(layer): gim phc tp ca vic thit k v ci t cc mng trao i thng tin c xy dng theo quan im phn tng (layering). Mi h thng thnh phn ca mng c xem nh mt cu trc a tng (tng n c xy trn tng kia). S lng cc tng cng nh tn v chc nng ca tng tng l ty thuc vo cc nh thit k. Nguyn tc chung l mi tng tip nhn cc dch v t tng di n,ng thi li cung cp mt b cc dch v cho tng pha trn. Vic cc dch v ny c cung cp nh th no th cc tng trn khng c bit.

Cch phn tng trong cc mng c th khc nhau, song trong cng mt mngth cc h thng thnh phn phi c cu trc tng (s lng tng, chc nng mi tng)l nh nhau. Nhng tc dng khc ca cc tng c chun ho: - Thit k d dng hn (cc h thng phc tp c chia thnh nhiu h thng nh d qun l) - Hiu qu hn cho vic pht trin sau ny (thay th mt tng) - Vic nh ngha trch nhim ca mi tng s gip cho vic chun ho cc chc nng mi. - Nhng chc nng nht nh s thuc v mt giao thc ca mt tng nht nh.

Cu hi 3.4: Nu v so snh phng thc truyn thng theo kiu chuyn giao hng kt ni (CO) vi chuyn giao phi kt ni (CL), v hnh minh ha. Phng thc truyn thng theo kiu chuyn giao hng kt ni: Vi phng thc ny tt c thng tin tn hiu ca mt phin truyn thng c nh tuyn trn cng mt ng trong mng (mi tn en trong Hnh ). Qu trnh chuyn giao c chia lm ba giai on : o Thit lp kt ni: u tin l thng tin xc lp kt ni c gi cng vi cc b a ch. Thng tin a ch dng s ca knh logic (LCN) c lu tr trong mi nt n i qua, khi mt ni kt o (logic) c thit lp. o Duy tr kt ni (Truyn dn d liu): ch c a ch dng LCN c gi km theo cc gi d liu. Khi nt mng c LCN s bit l u gi gi tin. o Gii phng kt ni: mt gi gii phng c gi yu cu xo thng tin a ch (LCN) cc nt gii phng kt ni. Phng thc truyn thng theo kiu chuyn giao phi kt ni Khi chuyn giao phi kt ni c s dng th cc gi lun lun s dng ng i ph hp nht thng qua mng (mi tn trng trong Hnh ). Chuyn giao trong trng hp ny ch c mt giai on l truyn dn d liu. Do mi gi d liu u c b thng tin a ch (a ch c ngun v ch) y .

Trong chuyn giao phi kt ni, cc gi khng nht thit phi n ni theo th t, bi v chng i trn cc ng khc nhau c tr khc nhau. Bn thu phi theo di th t ca cc gi nn s phc tp hn nhiu.

V d m t kiu chuyn giao nh hng kt ni v phi kt ni l so snh hai phng thc trong chy ua nh hng. Gi s rng trong mt i ngi chy u tin s nh du con ng ca anh ta xuyn quc gia ng i ca anh ta chy ti ch. Ngi chy cui cng s xo cc du (tng t nh chuyn giao hng kt ni). Trong i khc, mi ngi s t phi tm con ng cho mnh ti ch (tng ng vi chuyn giao phi kt ni). So snh: Hng kt ni Phi kt ni -Qu trnh chuyn giao c chia lm 3 giai on: Thit lp kt ni,duy tr kt ni (Truyn dn d liu),gii phng kt ni -Tt c thng tin tn hiu ca mt phin truyn thng c nh tuyn trn cng mt ng trong mng - Trong duy tr kt ni (Truyn dn d liu): ch c a ch dng LCN c gi km theo cc gi d liu -Chuyn giao ch c mt giai on l truyn dn d liu

- Cc gi khng nht thit phi n ni theo th t

-Mi gi d liu u c b thng tin a ch (a ch c ngun v ch) y .

Cu hi 3.5: Phn tch nhng tham s hiu nng mng (NP) nh hng ti cht lng dch v vin thng (QoS). kh dng: sn sng phc v ca mng. Mt mng l tng lun sn sng phc v 100% thi gian. Nhng doanh nghip truyn thng uy tn lun n lc cho kh nng sn sng ti 99,999%, tng ng khong 2,6 giy mng khng hot ng c trong vng mt thng hay khong 5 pht mng khng hot ng trong mt nm. Thng lng (Throughput): y l tc truyn ti d liu thc t c tnh bng bit/s, Kb/s hoc Mb/s. i lng ny hon ton khc vi dung lng cc i hay tc trn ng dy ca mng v thng b nhm ln vi bng thng ca mng. Vic dng chung mt mng s lm gim thng lng do vic phi a thm vo tiu ca tt c gi cc bit nhn dng v cho cc mc ch khc. Nh cung cp dch v phi m bo mt tc thng lng ti thiu cho khch hng. T l mt gi: Cc thit b mng, nh cc chuyn mch v router, i khi phi gi cc gi d liu trong cc hng i khi c mt lin kt b nghn, nu lin kt ny b nghn trong mt thi gian qu di th hng i s b trn v d liu s b mt. Cc gi b mt cn c truyn li v tt nhin s lm tng thi gian truyn dn. Trong mt mng c qun l tt th t l mt gi thng nh hn 1%/thng. Tr: l thi gian d liu i t ngun ti ch. Nu khng c tuyn truyn dn v tinh trong kt ni th tr ca mt cuc gi thoi c khong cch 5000Km qua mng PSTN l khong 25ms. Vi mng Internet, ngoi tr do khong cch truyn dn th tr ca mt cuc gi thoi c th d dng b vt qu 150ms do cn phi c thi gian x l bo hiu v thi gian xp hng ca cc gi truyn trn mng. Jitter (rung pha-bin thin tr): Jitter xy ra do mt s nguyn nhn nh: nhng bin ng v thi gian xp trong hng i, cc bin ng trong thi gian x l cn thit sp xp li cc gi, cc gi n ch khng theo ng th t do chng i theo nhng tuyn khc nhau v cc bin ng trong thi gian x l cn thit khi phc cc gi b ngun gi phn mnh. Cu hi 3.6: So snh u nhc im v ng dng ca mi trng truyn dn s dng cp quang vi v tuyn trong vin thng. Truyn dn cp quang u im Truyn dn v tuyn

-Thng tin quang c trin -Khng cn bt k mt ng dy khai trong c mng ng di dn no. Cc h thng v tuyn (lin tnh v quc t) v mng c lp t nhanh gn, khng

ni ht. - So vi cc mi trng truyn dn khc, cp quang c rt nhiu u im nh: nh v linh hot, c kh nng chng nh hng ca trng in t,c dung lng truyn dn ln, suy hao t v khng dn in,kch c ca cp nh, khng b xuyn knh,khong cch gia cc b lp xa,gim kh nng li

cn o xi, chi ph u t t.

Nhc im

-Ni cp kh khn dy cp dn cng thng cng tt

-Trong mng vin thng ngy nay, cc h thng v tuyn chuyn tip thng s dng nhng tn s v tuyn t 1GHz n 4GHz. Cc tn s ny c hi t bng cc anten parabol v p dng cho khong cch thng tin t vi km n 50 km tu thuc vo tn s s dng v c tnh ca h thng.Sng v tuyn ti nhng tn s ny truyn thng, gi l truyn dn tm nhn thng,d b tc ng bi vt chn. -Tn s cng cao th suy hao cng cao v khong cch truyn cng ngn. -Ti cc tn s rt cao, cc iu kin thi tit tc ng n suy hao v cht lng truyn dn gy hn ch di tn kh dng ph hp vi truyn dn v tuyn. -Mo tn hiu pht i do hn ch

v ph tn ca n(nng lng tp trung di tng i hp) - Mt nhn t quan trng lm hn ch s dng truyn dn v tuyn l s cn kit v tn s do ngy cng c nhiu h thng v tuyn xut hin v hu ht cc tn s thch hp c s dng.

-Mt ng dng ca sng v tuyn l truyn dn v tinh.

ng dng

-Mi trng truyn thch hp trin khai cc ng dng mng s a dch v tch hp bng thng rng -ng trung k khong cch xa -Trung k th -Trung k tng i nng thn -Mng cc b

Cu hi 3.7: So snh u nhc im v ng dng ca mi trng truyn dn s dng cp ng vi cp quang trong vin thng. Ging nhau:u l mi trng truyn dn hu tuyn Khc nhau: Truyn dn cp ng u im Truyn dn cp quang -Mi trng truyn tn -Thng tin quang c trin khai trong c hiu in

-R -D dng thao tc

mng ng di (lin tnh v quc t) v mng ni ht. - So vi cc mi trng truyn dn khc, cp quang c rt nhiu u im nh: nh v linh hot, c kh nng chng nh hng ca trng in t,c dung lng truyn dn ln, suy hao t v khng dn in,kch c ca cp nh, khng b xuyn knh,khong cch gia cc b lp xa,gim kh nng li

Nhc im

-Ni cp kh khn dy cp dn cng thng cng -Tc truyn dn Khng cn bng (Bt i tt xng, Download > -Chi ph hn ni v thit Upload). Ti a 20 Mbps b u cui cao hn so -Khong cch gii hn vi cp ng -Bo mt Thp, do l cp ng tn hiu in nn c th b nh cp tn hiu trn ng dy. Mt khc c th truyn dn st, d nh hng n my ch v h thng d liu. -Tc thp v chiu upload khng th vt qu 01 Mbps.

- n nh B nh hng nhiu ca mi trng, in tsuy gim theo thi gian.Tn hiu suy gim trong qu trnh truyn dn nn ch t c 80% tc cam kt. -Cp truyn hnh -kt ni vi cc thit b khong cch gn cn ng truyn tc cao -Mng cc b -Kt ni cc h thng my tnh khong cch gn

ng dng

-Mi trng truyn thch hp trin khai cc ng dng mng s a dch v tch hp bng thng rng -ng trung k khong cch xa -Trung k th -Trung k tng i nng thn -Mng cc b

IV. CU HI LOI 4 IM: Cu hi 4.1: V s minh ha v gii thch qu trnh truyn v x l thng tin qua cc mi trng truyn dn trong vin thng. Cu hi 4.2: Nu v phn loi cc mi trng truyn dn trong vin thng. Ly v d c th v cc mi trng ny trong mt s mng vin thng (nh PSTN, GSM, Internet).Trang 99nu v d phn on no trong mng s dng cp ng, cp quang,v tuyn Cu hi 4.3: Trnh by nguyn l ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian v theo tn s. V hnh minh ha v ly v d c th trong vin thng. Ghp knh theo tn s: Pha thu: cc b lc bng ti nhnh pht v nhnh thu ca mi knh c bng tn nh nhau. u vo nhnh thu c N b lc bng ni song song v ng vai tr tch knh. B iu ch ti nhnh pht s dng sng mang no th b gii iu ch ca knh y cng s dng sng mang nh vy. Tn hiu knh c gii iu ch vi sng mang v u ra b gii iu ch ngoi bng m tn cn c cc thnh phn tn s cao. B lc thp loi b cc thnh phn tn s cao, ch gi li bng m tn. Ghp knh theo tn s c u im l cc b iu ch v gii iu ch c cu to n gin (s dng cc diode bn dn), bng tn mi knh ch bng 4 kHz nn c th ghp c nhiu knh. Chng hn, my ghp knh cp ng trc c th ghp ti 1920 knh. Tuy nhin do s dng iu bin nn kh nng chng nhiu km. Ghp phn chia theo thi gian TDM Khi c nhiu tn hiu c tn s hoc bng tn nh nhau cng truyn ti mt thi im phi s dng ghp knh theo thi gian. C th ghp knh theo thi gian cc tn hiu analog hoc cc tn hiu s. Di y trnh by hai phng php ghp knh ny. Cu hi 4.4: V hnh v m t hot ng c bn ca k thut chuyn mch knh v gi. So snh cc c im chnh ca hai loi k thut chuyn mch ny.( trang 60-61 trong ti liu v tham kho them trong sch k thut chuyn mch gi km) Cu hi 4.5: Phn loi bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch knh. Trnh by khi nim bo hiu lin i trong mng chuyn mch knh. So snh bo hiu

knh kt hp (CAS) v knh chung (CSS) trong mng chuyn mch knh( trang 126..) Cu hi 4.6: Trnh by v so snh cc phng thc ng b mng vin thng (khi nim, u nhc im, phm vi ng dng). V hnh minh ha cho mi phng thc.( trang 131. Trong ti liu)