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Overview: Rake Angle Shear Plane Angle Shear Strain Chip thickness prior to formation Chip thickness after

formation Chip thickness Ratio Length of the shear plane Width Cutting Speed Feed Depth of cut Material Removal Rate

f d

Forces in Metal Cutting: F N R Force Friction Force Normal Force to friction Resultant of Friction Force and Normal Coefficient of friction Friction Angle Shear Force Normal Force to Shear Shear Stress Area of the shear plane Cutting Force Thrust Force

The Merchant Equation:

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Conversion: turning vs orthogonal cutting Turning Operation Orthogonal Cutting Feed f Chip thickness before cut Depth d Width of cut w Cutting speed v Cutting speed v Cutting force Cutting force Feed force Thrust force Power and Energy Relationships in Machining: Cutting Power Cutting Horsepower. hp Gross power of machine tool motor Gross horsepower Mechanical efficiency of machine tool Unit Power Cutting Temperature: Mean temperature rise at the tool-chip interface Specific energy in the operation Volumetric specific heat of the work material Thermal diffusivity of the work material Measured tool-chip interface temperature U K T ( ) .

Turning and Related Operations: N v Rotational speed Cutting Speed Diameter of the part/Orig. diameter of part Final diameter Depth of cut Feed Rate Feed Machining Time Length of the workpart/Length of cyl. part Material Removal Rate d f L Drilling and Related Operations: N v D f Spindle rev/min Cutting Speed Drill Diameter Feed Feed Rate Machining (drilling) time Work thickness Approach allowance Drill Point Angle Hole Depth t A d ( ) Milling: N f Spindle Speed Feed Feed Rate Number of teeth on the cutter Chip Load Material Removal Rate Width of cut Depth of cut Approach Distance Diameter of the milling cutter Time to mill the workpiece f w d A D √ Face Milling: Offset Milling: Face & Offset Milling: √ .