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GISC9301 Deliverable 3

ArcGIS Applications: Contamination Dangers of Wineries

Photography Provided by: Lisa Atkinson

Lisa Atkinson Niagara College 12/12/2012

December 12, 2012 GISC9301-D3

Janet Finlay Program Coordinator GIS-Geospatial Management Niagara College 135 Taylor Road Niagara on the Lake, ON L0S 1J0

Dear Ms. Finlay, RE: GISC9301 Deliverable 3 ArcGIS: Contamination Dangers of Wineries Please accept this letter as my formal submission of Deliverable 3: ArcGIS Applications: Contamination Dangers of Wineries for GISC 9301 ArcGIS Applications. This deliverable contains one document displaying knowledgeable application of ArcGIS capabilities. Analyses tools were explored and applied to produce several value added cartographic products. Should you have any questions or concerns regarding the enclosed document please contact me at your convenience by email at lisaclaire87@gmail.com or by phone at (705) 499-6768. Thank you for your time and attention. I look forward to your comments and suggestions.

Sincerely,

Lisa Atkinson BA (Honours) Geography, Nipissing University GIS-GM Certificate Candidate L.A./l.a.

Enclosures: 1) ArcGIS: Contamination Dangers of Wineries

GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson Executive Summary Southern Ontario is world renowned for the production of quality wine products. A combination of climate and soil conditions contributes to the economic prosperity of vineyards and wine production. However, wine production is reliant on the natural resources and therefore, there are inherent environmental risks associated with this type of economic endeavour. For the purposes of this study, the unique chemicals utilized in the production of red, white and rose wine will be examined. ArcGIS offers a unique platform to be utilized in the investigation of data and analysis of spatial phenomena. The capabilities for data manipulation and analysis are dynamic, and produce value added products and meaningful conclusions. Using ESRIs ArcGIS, a spatial analysis is conducted upon twelve selected wineries in the town of Niagara-On-The-Lake, and inspires a discussion based on the analyses. This document outlines the methods used to investigate the potential areas of contamination for twelve selected wineries, in the Niagara Region. ArcGIS is utilized as the platform facilitating all methods and analyses. In addition to the compiled Microsoft Access database, new datasets were utilized courtesy of Niagara College. A geodatabase, named AtkinsonL, is created via the ArcCatalog interface to manage many data formats and store multiple feature classes. The methodology for this investigation consists of the tasks necessary to satisfy the listed objectives. The original objectives can be reviewed in the original terms of reference document, within the procedures section, located in Appendix B. This document illustrates the utilization of GIS software to investigate several data formats, manipulate the features to study specific phenomena, and draw meaningful conclusions.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................................... i 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................. 2 3.0 Goal Statement....................................................................................................................................... 3 4.0 Methodology .......................................................................................................................................... 4 4.1 Base Map ........................................................................................................................................ 4 4.2 Importing Winery Microsoft Access Database ............................................................................... 5 4.3 Metadata Creation .......................................................................................................................... 8 4.4 Joining Tables ................................................................................................................................ 10 4.5 Importing Road Network Data ...................................................................................................... 11 4.6 Municipal Boundary Layer ............................................................................................................ 13 4.7 Streams of Niagara-On-The-Lake Region ...................................................................................... 14 4.8 Contaminate Travel Distance ........................................................................................................ 15 4.9 Hydrological Contaminate Impact Threshold .............................................................................. 16 4.10 Overlay Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 17 5.0 Overlay Analysis Discussion ................................................................................................................. 18 6.0 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 19 7.0 Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................... 20 Appendix A ................................................................................................................ Cartographic Products Appendix B...........................................................................................Copy of Original Terms of Reference

List of Figures
Figure 1: Base Map Display in ArcGIS .......................................................................................................... 4 Figure 2: ArcGIS Help Menu Results ............................................................................................................ 5 Figure 3: Create Events from XY Data.......................................................................................................... 6 Figure 4: Winery Location Feature Class Data Export and Display ............................................................. 7 Figure 5: Joining Tables in ArcGIS .............................................................................................................. 10 Figure 6: Defining and Projecting Data ...................................................................................................... 11 Figure 7: Investigating Provided Data........................................................................................................ 12 Figure 8: Projected Municipal Boundary Layer ......................................................................................... 13 Figure 9: Hydrology .................................................................................................................................... 14 Figure 10: Overlay Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 1

List of Tables
Table 1: Metadata Examples........................................................................................................................ 8 Table 2: Contaminate Travel Distances ..................................................................................................... 15

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 1.0 Introduction Southern Ontario is world renowned for the production of quality wine products. A combination of climate and soil conditions contributes to the economic prosperity of vineyards and wine production. Specifically, the Niagara Region is host to several respected vineyards. Lake Ontario operates as a temperature regulator: heating the winter air currents and cooling the summer air currents (Wineries of Niagara, n.d.). The Niagara Escarpment topology facilitates constantly circulating air currents to reduce the threat of frost or early ripening (Wineries of Niagara, n.d.). A prolonged growing season, generated by air currents and regulated temperatures, encourages a diverse production of wine type and increases economic opulence. The soil of the Niagara Region, enriched by glacial sediments, facilitates the health of the grapes produced by the wineries (Wineries of Niagara, n.d.). However, wine production is reliant on the natural resources and therefore, there are inherent environmental risks associated with this type of economic endeavour. Environmental impact assessment is the investigation and evaluation of the risks associated with an endeavour. The objective is to discern if the environmental risks can be minimized without hindering economic growth. Water is a non-renewable resource. Hence, if the source of fresh water is contaminated, it may be treated but it is impossible to generate a new fresh water source. One of the main risks associated with agricultural production is runoff water. Runoff is often contaminated with chemicals used in the production of wine and equipment cleaning, and therefore, presents a considerable threat to the health of natural hydrological features (Department of Water: Government of Australia, 2006). For the purposes of this study, the unique chemicals utilized in the production of red, white and rose wine will be examined. ArcGIS offers a unique platform to be utilized in the investigation of data and analysis of spatial phenomena. The capabilities for data manipulation and analysis are dynamic, and produce value added products and meaningful conclusions. More specifically, ArcGIS can interpolate results based on several layers of data, including attributes, in multiple formats. This document reports on the utilization of ArcGIS to display the unique distances that contaminates travel for each wine type produced. Hence, the conclusions drawn in this investigation are the product of a sophisticated process, intent on investigating several aspects of multiple data sets to glean true and meaningful results.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson

2.0 Background This document outlines the methods used to investigate the potential areas of contamination for twelve selected wineries, in the Niagara Region. ArcGIS is utilized as the platform facilitating all methods and analyses. The data, pertaining to specifics of each winery, is assembled into a database using Microsoft Access. Economic data, representative of each winery within the database, is purely fictional and does not reflect actually production levels or sales. However, the location of each winery was scientifically acquired. Using a handheld GPS unit, coordinates were recorded using UTM NAD 83 projection. Therefore, the spatial display of each winery is based on true values, accurate to real world spatial references. A geodatabase, named AtkinsonL, is created via the ArcCatalog interface. Geodatabases permit the management of a variety of data formats (Ormsby, 2010). In ArcCatalog, varying data types may be organized into feature classes, and subsequently displayed as an ArcMap layer, in ArcGIS. This investigation requires the creation of a geodatabase to manage many data formats and store multiple feature classes. This provides additional relevant information, essential to interpretation of data analysis. In addition to the compiled Microsoft Access database, new datasets were utilized courtesy of Niagara College. These datasets include the following: DOI raster imagery of the Niagara Region to serve as the base map for this investigation; National Topographic Database Series (NTDBS) Single Line Road Network (SLRN) tiles; Hamilton/Niagara Municipal Boundaries data in an AutoCAD Release 2000 format; And Niagara-On-The-Lake Hydrology data in an ArcInfo Version 7.x Coverage format.

The range of data formats reinforces the rationale to create a geodatabase in ArcCatalog. The raw data provided can be transformed to ArcMap layer formats as feature classes. Interpolated data may be derived via ArcGIS functions, or tools, and displayed visually for interpretation. Finally, the data stating the relevant contamination travel distance associated with each wine type is provided by Niagara College, and recorded within the procedural instructions of the original terms of reference, located in Appendix B.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 3.0 Goal Statement Using ESRIs ArcGIS, a spatial analysis is conducted upon twelve selected wineries in the town of Niagara-On-The-Lake, and inspires a discussion based on the analyses. The findings are based on the output results produced following the completion of the outlined methodology. This document achieves a comprehensive understanding of ArcGIS capabilities, and an ample summary of the environmental dangers associated with the agricultural sector; specifically, vineyards.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.0 Methodology The methodology for this investigation consists of the tasks necessary to satisfy the listed objectives. The original objectives can be reviewed in the original terms of reference document, within the procedures section, located in Appendix B. 4.1 Base Map In order to provide spatial reference of geographic features, a base map is required. The base map, displayed as Figure 1, is a DOI raster image (Mr. Sid compressed image). This image is not included in the geodatabase provided as digital content, attached to this report. Requirements dictate the inclusion of the base map on all cartographic hard copies appended to this document. Hence, the DOI raster image is added to the display window by connecting to the original data storage folder. ArcGIS users refer to this process as drag and drop. This is represented by Figure 1, shown below. The image is presented as UTM Zone 17N, NAD 83 projection. Figure 1: Base Map Display in ArcGIS

Folder connection allowing for a drag and drop placement of raster image.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.2 Importing Winery Microsoft Access Database The methodology for importing an existing Microsoft Access database into ArcGIS is developed, via the help menu in ArcGIS. The specific steps are displayed in Figure 2, outlining the results for the help menu search. The database was imported as an OLE DB via the database connections folder (ESRI Canada, 2010). Figure 2: ArcGIS Help Menu Results

Search Results for Microsoft Access in the ArcGIS help menu.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson The newly added OLE DB contains XY coordinates, thus defining the geographic placement of each of the twelve wineries. The coordinates collected are recorded as UTM Zone 17N NAD 83 projection; identical to the base map projection. Hence, XY events, created by displaying the XY data from the appropriate database table, are displayed atop the base map providing location reference. Figure 3 displays the specified input values required to create events, displaying the location of the twelve wineries in ArcGIS. Figure 3: Create Events from XY Data

Input values based on data from the OLE DB.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson Finally, the created events are exported as a new feature class called Winery_Locations and stored within the personal geodatabase, called AtkinsonL, created in ArcCatalog. This is necessary to ensure that the feature class appears as an element of the personal geodatabase. Figure 4 displays the process of exporting data to create a new feature class within a specified personal geodatabase. Figure 4: Winery Location Feature Class Data Export and Display

Name of Personal Geodatabase Created in ArcCatalog.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.3 Metadata Creation Metadata provides information about a dataset and may include such elements as coordinate system, spatial context and a brief description of its attributes (Ormsby, 2010). Metadata provides credibility to the data and analysis of the project. Table 1 summarizes metadata, created in ArcCatalog, for the database and a selection of feature classes. All metadata entries, and edits, can be reviewed via the digital copy of the personal geodatabase, provided on disk accompanying this report. Following Table 1 is a detailed listing of all the geodatabase components. Table 1: Metadata Examples Title AtkinsonL Thumbnail Created Yes Tags hydrology, municipalities, roads, winery locations, buffer, union, intersect, dissolve, contamination, area, red wine, white wine, rose wine, Niagara Region Summary This personal geodatabase contains several types of data, transformed into feature classes, utilized to adequately perform an analysis on the potential contamination areas at risk from wineries producing res, white and rose wine. Raw data provided by Niagara College of hydrology features for the Niagara Region. Buffer of streams depicting the distance of contamination impact (1200 meters). Hydrology feature class with defined projection as UTM Zone 17N, NAD 83. Buffer performed on wineries producing red wine to define potential contaminant travel distance (1.6 km). Locations for wineries producing red wine. Location of twelve wineries within the Niagara Region based on the OLE DB XY coordinate data. Dissolve of all contamination travel distance buffers for the twelve wineries being examined within the Niagara Region. 8|Page ArcGIS Applications: Contamination Dangers of Wineries

Hydrology

Yes

line, rivers, Niagara Region

Hydrology_Buffer

Yes

hydrology, rivers, buffer

Hydrology_Proj

Yes

rivers, hydrology, projected, Niagara Region buffer, red wine, area, Niagara region

Red_Buffer

Yes

Red Wine Production Locations Winery_Locations

Yes

point, winery locations, red wine, Niagara Region point, location, l wineries, Niagara region

Yes

Wine_Dissolve1

Yes

dissolve, wine production, contamination, buffer, area, Niagara Region

GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson Components of personal geodatabase AtkinsonL, including the creation of a new feature class to distinguish provided data from projected data: Hydrology Hydrology_Buffer Hydrology_Proj Municipalities Municipalities_Proj Red_Buffer Red_Wine_Produced Roads Roads_Revised Roads_RevisedProj Rose_Buffer Rose_Wine_Produced White_Buffer White_Wine_Produced Wine_Dissolve1 Wine_Intersect1 Wine_Union Winery_Locations

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.4 Joining Tables The descriptive information in an attribute does not necessarily include all elements required for map display (Ormsby, 2010). Descriptions are required to identify each winery by name and type of wine produced. Therefore, a second table from the Microsoft Access database must be joined to the current attribute table, specifying XY coordinates. A join appends the non spatial attributes to a layer attribute table, coalescing pertinent information. This process depends on matching records common to both tables identified to be joined (Ormsby, 2010). In this investigation, the Winery_ID record is utilized to join the Wines table from the Microsoft Access database to the Wineries_Location attribute table in ArcGIS. Figure 5 displays the methods used in ArcGIS to join two tables together based on a common field. Figure 5: Joining Tables in ArcGIS

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.5 Importing Road Network Data The National Topographic Database Series (NTDBS) Single Line Road Network (SLRN) tiles, 30M03 and 30M06, are loaded into the display window of ArcGIS and exported to create two new feature classes, within the personal geodatabase. This transforms the data from one format to another. When a feature class is created, the user must specify spatial reference (Ormsby, 2010). The first tile does not appear atop of the base map. Since the dataset is missing coordinate system information, the coordinate system must be defined prior to projection. A dataset must be defined in order for data transformation (projection) to be successful. In this instance, the data is defined as UTM Zone 17N NAD 27, and projected to UTM Zone 17N NAD 83. The result can be observed in the flow chart below, Figure 6. The projected layer is exported to a new feature class within the geodatabase, complete with defined spatial reference. Figure 6: Defining and Projecting Data

Define Coordinate System

Project to Output Format

Final Display atop Base Map

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson As indicated in the copy of the original terms of reference, located in Appendix B, the procedures for objective five indicate both tiles are displayed in geographic coordinate systems (NAD 27). However, the second created feature class, appears atop the base map prior to any data transformations. This indicates that this tile is defined and projected to UTM Zone 17N NAD 83. The evidence is displayed in Figure 7. Assuming that stated instructions are correct, will invite error into the investigation. This could have dire consequences when analyses are conducted. Falsehoods may be presented as truths if the GIS expert does not have an intrinsic understanding of the data. Figure 7: Investigating Provided Data

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.6 Municipal Boundary Layer Similarly, the provided AutoCAD Release 2000 format drawing for the Niagara-On-The-Lake is exported to create a new feature class within the geodatabase. The original geographic coordinates were defined, and the data was projected to UTM Zone 17N NAD 83. The rationale for this methodology is present in the previous subsection of this document. Figure 8 displays the municipal boundary projected layer displayed atop the base map. Figure 8: Projected Municipal Boundary Layer

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.7 Streams of Niagara-On-The-Lake Region The Niagara-On-The-Lake hydrology data, in the format of ArcInfo Version 7.x coverage is exported from ArcGIS, to create a new feature class within the geodatabase. Once again, the data is defined and projected to UTM Zone 17N NAD 83. Figure 9 displays the projected hydrology feature class atop the base map. Map 1 summarizes the projected data, and can be reviewed as map 1: The Location of Twelve Selected Wineries Located on the Niagara Peninsula, in Appendix A. Figure 9: Hydrology

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.8 Contaminate Travel Distance Table 2 outlines the contaminate travel distances for each wine type produced. A buffer represents a critical zone, such as contamination travel distance. Each wine type produced defines different buffer distance parameters. Therefore, three new feature classes are created from features selected based on wine production attributes: wineries producing white wine, wineries producing red wine, and wineries producing rose wine. Each of the three newly rendered feature classes are buffered: wineries producing white wines are buffered with a threshold of 500 metres, wineries producing red wines are buffered with a threshold of 1600 metres, and wineries producing rose wines are buffered with a threshold of 2500 metres. Thresholds are defined in metres based on the display units for UTM Zone 17N NAD 83 projection. Each buffer is saved as a new feature class within the geodatabase. The final result of this buffer analysis can be reviewed as map 2: Potential Area of Contamination for Vineyards Producing Red, White, or Rose Wines for Twelve Selected Wineries Located on the Niagara Peninsula, located in Appendix A. Table 2: Contaminate Travel Distances Wine Type Rose Red White

Contaminate Travel Distance 2.5 kilometres 1.6 kilometres 0.5 kilometres

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.9 Hydrological Contaminate Impact Threshold All streams in the Niagara Region are estimated to be impacted by contaminates up to 1200 metres from the centreline. Thus, a buffer analysis is executed for the projected hydrological features, with a defined threshold of 1200 metres. The buffer is saved as a new feature class in the geodatabase. This threshold value is stated in the copy of the original terms of reference, located in Appendix B. The final buffering analysis for the hydrological features in the study area can be reviewed as map 3: Defining Area for Potential Contamination Impact of Hydrological Features Located on the Niagara Peninsula, located in Appendix A.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 4.10 Overlay Analysis

The buffered features satisfy the parameters to begin an overlay analysis. In order to identify potential areas of contamination, the three buffer feature classes for wineries are exported as one new feature class within the geodatabase. The wine type causing contamination is irrelevant for the final analysis, hence the use of the union tool in ArcGIS. This new union feature class contains several polygons. A dissolve creates a new layer, in which all polygons are transformed to a single feature with a specified attribute (Ormsby, 2010). Hence, the union is dissolved to signify contamination travel distance. The dissolve is necessary to perform an overlay analysis. Intersect overlays identify areas of overlap between two features, and create a new feature class where only the geometry of the overlapping features is preserved (Ormsby, 2010). Therefore, to discover potential areas of contamination, based on the travel distance of contaminates, and the impact extent of streams, the intersect tool is utilized in ArcGIS. The polygons defining areas of potential contamination must be common to both input feature classes of an intersect operation. The overlay analysis process and result can be reviewed in Figure 10. Figure 10: Overlay Analysis

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 5.0 Overlay Analysis Discussion The following discussion is based on the information presented on map 4: Areas and Hydrological Features Likely to Experience Contamination Caused by the Selected Twelve Wineries Located on the Niagara Peninsula, located in Appendix A. Identified areas of potential contamination appear as wedge shapes, representing an interesting phenomenon. The map displays a portion of a hydrological feature may be contained within the potential contamination area. This suggests that an entire stream may be contaminated, since a portion is located within a potential contamination area, caused by the production of wine. The map also displays that potential contamination areas are more prevalent in proximity to Lake Ontario. There are an abundance of wineries located in proximity to Lake Ontario. As mentioned in the introduction, Lake Ontario acts as a temperature regulator, which prolongs the growing season and minimizes frost damage. The agriculture sector requires fresh water sources for irrigation. These facts explain the grouping of wineries close to Lake Ontario. However, the contamination level is not subject to inflation. In reference to the final map product, several wineries are located within a finite area. Thus, a winery producing white wine, with a contamination travel distance of 500 metres, is located within the contamination travel distance of a rose producing winery (2500 metres). This overlap does not produce a contamination travel distance of 3000 metres. Therefore, more chemicals do not immediately suggest a greater contamination area. The winery producing white wine is completely contained within the contamination travel distance of the winery producing rose wine. Contamination areas appear to be more prevalent in proximity to the town of Niagara-On-The-Lake. The compact network of roads indicates that this area supports major infrastructures, characteristic of a tourist destination. The community is host several amenities such as hotels, restaurants and cultural attraction, such as the Shaw Theatre Festival. The wineries are located on the periphery of the community to accommodate the space needed for agricultural practices, but also within reasonable access to the buyers of wine (hotels and restaurants) and tourists. Finally, contamination areas cross municipal boundaries, as indicated on the map. Therefore, municipal governments and private organizations must work collaboratively, in order to minimize environmental damage. Since the Niagara Region is host to eco-tourism, but dependant on the tourist attractions presented in the form of wineries, it is in the economic benefits of all parties to cooperate and encourage long term economic, environmental, and cultural prosperity within the Niagara Region.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 6.0 Conclusions This investigation reflects the successful application of ArcGIS knowledge. Including, but is not limited to, the appropriate use of projection, ArcCatalog, metadata creation, feature class and geodatabase creation, buffer and spatial analysis. An insightful discussion section, based on the methodology, reiterates the achievement of the goals outlined in the goal statement. The discussion section presents educational observations, validating explanations and is supported by respectable secondary sources. This document illustrates the utilization of GIS software to investigate several data formats, manipulate the features to study specific phenomena, and draw meaningful conclusions. The applications of this investigation include: the creation of municipal political cohesion, examination of economic prosperity and environmental quality control, prompting a new investigation to find wine production chemicals less harmful to the environment and finally, the creation of a new resource to aid in the placement of potential new wineries. However, more specifically, GIS technologies can be used in almost every profitable sector to glean value added products and new information.

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GISC9301-D3 December 12, 2012 Lisa Atkinson 7.0 Bibliography Department of Water: Government of Australia. (2006). Water Quality Protection Note: Wineries and Distilleries. Retrieved December 9, 2012 from http://www.water.wa.gov.au/PublicationStore/first/82578.pdf ESRI Canada. (2010). ArcGIS [Computer software]. Ontario: North York. Ormsby, Napoleon, Burke, Groessl, & Bowden. (2010). Getting to Know ArcGIS: Desktop. Redlands, California: ESRI Press. Wineries of Niagara. (n.d.). About Wineries of Niagara. Retrieved December 9, 2012 from http://www.wineriesofniagara.com/

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Appendix A Cartographic Products