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M E T H O D TEACH-EACH-OTHER ENGLISH
ESTÁGIO 7 L I Ç Õ E S 93 – 109 P Á G I N A S 566 – 685
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The Callan™ Method was first developed and published in 1960. It was then published, for restricted use only, in 1963. This edition was published, for the international market, in 2011. Copyright R.K.T. Callan 1960 First Edition 1960 Second Edition 1963 This Edition 2011 Teach-Each-Other English Stage 7 'Callan' is a registered trademark of R.K.T. Callan Conditions of sale All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwise be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. Published by CALLAN PUBLISHING LTD Orchard House 45 Mill Way Grantchester Cambridge CB3 9ND England in association with CALLAN METHOD ORGANISATION LTD and THE CALLAN SCHOOL Berwick House 139 Oxford Street London W1D 2JA www.callan.co.uk
This document is protected by copyright. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.
LIST OF CALLAN™ METHOD MATERIALS
1. Stages 1 to 12 of the Method that can be individually or collectively downloaded from the Callan Method website (www.callan.co.uk) 2. Audio to accompany 11 Stages 3. Demonstration DVD showing how the Method is taught 4. Callan Method Handbook – giving lesson instructions and information about the Method
OTHER AVAILABLE MATERIALS
The following is a list of Callan Method materials still available to schools using the Callan Method for teaching classes of students. 1. Teacher’s Handbook (Training Manual) 2. Teacher’s Demonstration CD (Audio) or DVD (Video) 3. Student’s Handbook – containing a detailed explanation of how and why the Callan Method works 4. Director’s Handbook – showing anyone how to set up a school using the Callan Method
a Universidade de Cambridge afirma o seguinte: “O Preliminary English Test (teste de Inglês preliminar) tem como objectivo testar as competências de comunicação escritas e faladas em relação à capacidade de ler e de ouvir. por sua vez. PROVA DOS ARGUMENTOS DE CALLAN No seu panfleto intitulado “Informações para Centros e Candidatos". proporciona-lhe o KET em 40 horas e o FCE em 160 horas. a um nível representando cerca de 350 horas de estudo a partir do nível de principiante. . um quarto do tempo.This document is protected by copyright. Para os outros dois exames de Cambridge. com uma garantia escrita de que. divididas por um período de um ano. no caso de reprovar nos exames. isto é. O Método Callan. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. o aluno médio consagra cerca de 175 horas para o KET e 640 horas para o FCE – dependendo da sua nacionalidade. a escola do Método Callan em que estude lhe facultará aulas gratuitas até que obtenha aprovação. O Método Callan obtém o mesmo resultado em 80 horas. Key English Test (KET) e First Certificate in English (FCE).” Em seguida afirma que as 350 horas são de estudo “dedicado” – que geralmente se reparte por um período de 4 ¼ anos.
This Stage and the next are relatively easy... I don't think . or . + No.. and should not be too difficult to understand. I realized .. or . I haven't . 566 . IN SOME LARGE CITIES IN THE WORLD. WHEN A MAN MURDERS SOMEONE....... DID YOU REALIZE THAT. or . The little grammar they contain is not of major importance. I've got . In addition to the grammar there are about another 250 words of basic vocabulary in each of the Stages.. I think that ...... I don't think that . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ Yes. THERE ARE MORE RATS THAN PEOPLE? + Yes. or .This document is protected by copyright. No..... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. No. HE REALLY REALIZES WHAT HE IS DOING AT THE TIME AND REALIZES THE CONSEQUENCES OF HIS ACTIONS ?/ Yes. No.. I didn't realize HAVE YOU GOT AN AMBITION ? + WHAT'S YOUR AMBITION ? DO YOU THINK YOU'LL EVER REALIZE YOUR AMBITION ? Yes. LESSON 93 REALIZE perceber CONSEQUENCE consequência RAT rato AMBITION ambição DO YOU THINK THAT. I think I'll .
THE PRONUNCIATION OF "ED" IN THE PAST –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS PLEASE (v) por favor ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– When the Past Tense of a regular verb ends in the letters "ded" or "ted" the final sound is pronounced .This document is protected by copyright.or x before the letters . when the Past Tense of a regular verb ends in the letters c . Generally.p ."ed" the final sound is pronounced -t. For example: DECIDED: INCLUDED: CONSISTED: POINTED: WAITED: DEPENDED: NEEDED CORRECTED: COUNTED: LASTED: DIVIDED: ENDED: PROTECTED: WANTED / TASTED: REPEATED: The teacher need only pronounce the first three words of each group in order not to bore the students. In other words.ss . For example: COMMENCED: DANCED: ––––––––––––– LUNCHED: ––––––––– ASKED: ––––––– SMOKED: REACHED: PLACED TOUCHED LIKED: LOOKED: COOKED: KICKED: THANKED: WALKED: 567 WORKED . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.k . it is pronounced "t".sh . After most other letters. the "ed" is only pronounced "id" after a "t" or a "d"."id".ch .
decided. WHEN THE PAST TENSE OF A REGULAR VERB ENDS IN "DED" OR "TED". PLEASE .p .. PLEASE . as in the verb "please".sh . the "s" were pronounced "z". + consisted. HELPED: –––––––– CROSSED: ––––––––– BRUSHED: ––––––––– BOXED: ––––––– STOPPED: DRESSED: FINISHED: TYPED PRACTISED WASHED MIXED / The word "practised" has only one "s"..ss .k . we pronounce + the final sound "-id" GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES.This document is protected by copyright. + lunched.commenced. corrected . x. those which do not end in "t" or "d" GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES. in other words. IN WHAT KIND OF VERBS IS THE FINAL SOUND PRONOUNCED .T ? The kind of verbs in which + the final sound is pronounced "t" are those which end in the letters c . crossed. but the final "d" is still pronounced "t". HOW DO WE PRONOUNCE THE FINAL SOUND ?/ When the . then the final sound would be pronounced "d" and not "t". brushed. asked. however.....ch . or. depended.or... boxed 568 . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. If. helped.
WHICH WE THOUGHT MIGHT BE FULL OF GHOSTS. AND WE CAME TO AN OLD HOUSE STANDING ALONE IN THE COUNTRY. if it were .... WHERE'D THE ROAD LEAD ME TO ? + If you .. WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ .. I'd be quite .. or ... lead . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. IF IT WERE NIGHT TIME.... I'd say I'd led a . WOULD YOU SAY YOU'D LED A FAIRLY COMFORTABLE LIFE ? + EVENTUALLY eventualmente Yes. which we thought ... WOULD YOU BE QUITE WILLING TO LEAD THE WAY INTO THE HOUSE ? Yes..... if it were.. LEAD ... or . means ...LED .. AND VERY DARK. I wouldn't say I'd led a .LED levar (guiar) ..This document is protected by copyright. WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF "LEAD" ? The paradigm of ..levado WHAT DOES THE VERB "TO LEAD" MEAN ?/ The verb .it'd lead you . 569 ... No. For example.led .levou .. but we don't know exactly when.led IF I TRAVELLED NORTH ALONG THE MAIN ROAD LEADING OUT OF THIS TOWN.. No. TAKE CARE OF tomar conta de We generally use the word "eventually" when we know that something is going to happen in the future... and we came . afraid ..
SUPPLY fornecer DO YOU HAVE TO SUPPLY YOUR OWN PEN AND PAPER FOR DOING DICTATIONS OR DOES THE SCHOOL SUPPLY YOU WITH THEM ?/ Yes.. [I suppose] it'll eventually rain again IF YOU HAD A CAR AND YOU DIDN'T TAKE CARE OF IT AS YOU SHOULD.but we don't know when".one day in the future . WHAT'D EVENTUALLY HAPPEN ?/ + If . I know where ...... it'd eventually stop going WHAT DO YOU SUPPOSE WILL EVENTUALLY HAPPEN TO THE WORLD ? I suppose the world will eventually become a better place to live in .. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. + GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. No.This document is protected by copyright. I don't know where ... I have to supply . "We shall all eventually die ./ WHEN DO WE GENERALLY USE THE WORD "EVENTUALLY" ? We generally ..... PLEASE We shall eventually be + able to speak English very well WILL IT EVENTUALLY RAIN AGAIN ? WHEN ? We don't know Yes. or . I don't have to .. + No. or . the school supplies me with them DO YOU KNOW WHERE THIS TOWN GETS ITS WATER SUPPLY FROM ? Yes.... 570 .. when we know ..... it gets its … from .
TIDE maré WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HIGH TIDE AND LOW TIDE ? The difference between .. might have been able to get into a boat. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.... is that + high tide's when the sea comes into the land and low tide's when it goes out away from the land... SINK .. sink . WOULD IT FLOAT ? No.. or .. If not. but they hurry across the sky CONQUER conquistar DO YOU THINK THAT ONE DAY IN THE FUTURE ONE COUNTRY WILL CONQUER ALL THE OTHERS ?/ + Yes.. they drowned .. No.. if they were lucky.sunk WHAT HAPPENED TO PEOPLE WHEN A SHIP WAS SUNK DURING THE LAST WORLD WAR ? When a ship + was sunk during . if I put .SANK ..This document is protected by copyright. DO CLOUDS FLOAT ACROSS THE SKY WHEN IT'S A VERY WINDY DAY ? No.. clouds don't float ...SUNK FLOAT boiar afundar – afundou – afundado WINDY com vento..sank .. 571 .. I don't think that . but it'd sink + WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO SINK" ?/ The paradigm of . or float on a piece of wood. I think that . people. ventoso DROWN afogar-se IF YOU PUT A PIECE OF IRON ONTO WATER.
GOVERN governar HOW IS YOUR COUNTRY GOVERNED ? + DICTATION 51 UNEATABLE My country is governed by ./ Smoking is a bad habit. não comestível As he has won/ several thousand pounds.. EMPIRE império ROMAN romano DID THE GREEK EMPIRE COME BEFORE OR AFTER THE ROMAN EMPIRE ? The Greek ./ they had to catch it. before . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file../ He loosened his jacket/ and sat down.... 572 .This document is protected by copyright./ Is there anywhere/ I can buy a daily paper?/ Before they could ride the horse../ three feet make a yard. + LITERARY literário WHO DO YOU THINK'S THE GREATEST LITERARY FIGURE OF TODAY IN YOUR COUNTRY ? I think ../ The wire cut into his skin/ and hurt him badly./ and now it is completely uneatable./ The cook let the meat boil/ for too long.../ You'll need a lot more bricks/ to finish that wall. + is the greatest ./ he now has no need/ to borrow/ someone else's car:/ he can now own one himself../ The cost of living/ seems to be constantly rising./ Twelve inches make a foot.
. I say to you that I have a few books at home. however.. and./ For example. HOW MANY ? LITTLE • pouco 573 A LITTLE um pouco de . "I have a few books" HAVE YOU GOT FEW PICTURES HANGING UP ON YOUR WALLS AT HOME... and you might feel sorry for me. I have some: perhaps enough for my purposes. but not many" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH. and you might say that you are pleased to hear it. OR A FEW PICTURES ?/ I've got . hanging up on . although I haven't many. PLEASE "I have few + books". If. it means I haven't many: perhaps only two or three.. if I say to you that I have few books at home. + is that the word "few" means "not many" whilst the words "a few" mean "some. but not many". whilst the words "a few" mean "some. LESSON 94 FEW • poucos (as) A FEW uns/ umas poucos (as) FEEL SORRY FOR SOMEONE sentir pena de alguém The word "few" means "not many". it means that./ WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WORDS "FEW" AND "A FEW" ? The difference between . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.This document is protected by copyright..
HOW MANY PIECES WOULD YOU SAY I ATE ? PRESS apertar If you said . it means that although I haven't much money... The difference between "little" and "a little" is the same as that between "few" and "a few"../ WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WORDS "LITTLE" AND "A LITTLE"? The difference between + the words "little" and "a little" is the same as that between "few" . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. but not much". GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF EACH. PLEASE "I have little + money". in fact. I say I have a little money. I'd say you ate about two or three normal pieces CONTROL controle 574 ... IF I SAID TO YOU THAT I ATE A LITTLE BREAD FOR MY LUNCH. The word "little" means "not much". For example.This document is protected by copyright. and. HOW MANY PIECES WOULD YOU SAY I ATE ?/ If you said that . poor... If. however. it means I haven't much and am. whilst the words "a little" mean "some. It means that I am not poor. "I have a little money" IF I SAID TO YOU THAT I ATE LITTLE BREAD FOR MY LUNCH.. if I say to you that I have little money. The word "little" means . I have some and perhaps I have enough for my purposes. I'd say you ate about one or perhaps two small pieces NOW.
..... I don't have to .... WHAT AM I DOING ?/ + You're pressing your thumb on the table WHAT DOES IT MEAN "TO PRESS SOMEBODY FOR THE MONEY WE HAVE LENT THEM" ? "To press somebody + for the money we have lent them" means to keep asking for it back CAN WE ALWAYS BELIEVE EVERYTHING WE READ ABOUT FAMOUS PEOPLE IN THE PRESS ? Yes. 575 .. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file... steps to walk from .... I have to walk . No.This document is protected by copyright. pisar em falso passo (degrau) ABOUT HOW MANY STEPS WOULD YOU HAVE TO TAKE TO WALK FROM ONE END OF THIS ROOM TO THE OTHER? I'd have to take about . I might fall DO YOU HAVE TO WALK UP ANY STEPS WHEN YOU COME TO THE CLASSROOM ? / Yes. IF NOT.... I don't think . DO YOU THINK THERE SHOULD BE SOME CONTROL OVER WHAT THE PRESS WRITES ABOUT SUCH PEOPLE ?/ STEP STEP OFF Yes. or . or ..... we + can . WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN IF YOU STEPPED OFF A BUS WHILST IT WAS STILL MOVING ?/ + If I stepped off a .. I think there should be . No.. or . No.. we can't .
. I think she ought . or are sometimes given the value of half a new word... For example. .. HOW MANY STEPS ARE THERE UP TO THIS CLASSROOM? + There are about . STUDENTS READ LESSON 87 ON PAGE 512 BILL conta COME TO chegar PER por QUARTER um quarto PASS (A LAW) aprovar (a lei) ACT / ato IF A GIRL GOES TO A RESTAURANT WITH HER BOYFRIEND. if a girl. be considered as a new word? The words "go". per . I don't think she .) ?/ My electricity bill + generally ........ WHY OR WHY NOT ? ABOUT HOW MUCH DOES YOUR ELECTRICITY [TELEPHONE OR GAS] BILL GENERALLY COME TO PER MONTH (OR PER QUARTER ETC.. meaning "explode". DO YOU THINK SHE OUGHT TO PAY HALF THE BILL ? Yes. 576 . if a girl goes .This document is protected by copyright.. No. It should be pointed out here that the counting of each fifty words throughout the Method is only very approximate.. It is very arguable as to what constitutes a new word. up to.. or . so why not "go off" ? Generally speaking. "off" and "explode" are considered as new words.... throughout the Method such words are sometimes looked upon as new words.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. about .... should the verb "go off " .
WHAT HAPPENS TO A BILL AFTER IT HAS BEEN PASSED BY THE GOVERNMENT ? After a bill has been + passed by the government. I used to play + . I didn't used to . It will be noticed that. it becomes an act USED TO • acostumado a PLAY TRUANT matar aula We use the words "used to" for a repeated action in the past. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. DID YOU EVER USED TO PLAY TRUANT WHEN YOU WERE A SMALL CHILD AT SCHOOL ? Yes.. for a repeated + action in the past. "I used to go to the cinema every Saturday afternoon (but I don't now)". For example.. the "d" in “used to” is often silent. It means that I was in the habit of going to the cinema every Saturday afternoon.. and it generally means that the action is now finished GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. No. but I used to speak it worse . WHY OR WHY NOT ? 577 . PLEASE + I used to go to the cinema .. I never used to .. AND WHAT DO THEY MEAN ? We use . Probably because it is difficult to pronounce a “d” and a “t” sound together.... DID YOU USED TO SPEAK ENGLISH BETTER IN THE PAST THAN YOU SPEAK IT NOW ?/ No. in conversation... and it generally means that the action is now finished. or ..This document is protected by copyright../ WHEN DO WE USE THE WORDS "USED TO"...
+ "Anno Domini" (from the Latin) meaning … "After Christ" TRIAL julgamento. means 500 years after Christ..D. B.... WOULD YOU LIKE TO LIVE A LIFE OF ADVENTURE ? + Yes. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.C.. tentativa IS IT WISE TO JUDGE SOMETHING BEFORE WE GIVE IT A TRIAL ? No. a.D d. or . + WHY NOT ? INTRODUCE introduzir FROM ABROAD do estrangeiro WHAT'D YOU LIKE TO SEE INTRODUCED INTO YOUR COUNTRY FROM ABROAD ? + ADVENTURE aventura I'd like to see . "500 B..This document is protected by copyright." means 500 years before Christ.. 578 .. I'd like to live a ." MEAN ? The letters . No. I wouldn't like to . although we usually think of this as meaning "After Christ".C.D.C.. For example... WHAT DO THE LETTERS "B." MEAN ? + The letters .c. "Before Christ" WHAT DO THE LETTERS "A." mean "Before Christ".. A." mean "Anno Domini" (from the Latin) meaning "in the year of our Lord". whilst the letters "A.c.D. introduced into my .. it isn't wise to . CHRIST Cristo LORD / Senhor The letters "B. whilst 500 A.C....
bore – borne DO YOU THINK YOU COULD BEAR SOMEBODY ACROSS A RIVER ON YOUR BACK ? Yes.carregado. is the verb "to bear" WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO BEAR" ? The paradigm of . I don't think ..aguentado. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.suportado WHAT'S ANOTHER VERB WE CAN USE INSTEAD OF THE VERB "TO CARRY" ? Another verb we ..suportou .agüentou .BORNE carregar .. bear . or who eat with dirty hands etc.. No. agüentar .. WHY OR WHY NOT ? SEED semente WHAT DO WE MEAN BY "SEED-TIME" ? By "seed-time" we mean the time of the year when we put seeds into the land . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ WHAT KIND OF THINGS CAN'T YOU BEAR ? The kind of things I can't bear are such things as people who make too much noise..... suportar .This document is protected by copyright.carregou . I think I + could bear .... LESSON 95 BEAR .BORE . or . 579 .
+ WHEN WAS IT ?/ ON sobre UPON sobre There's no difference between the words "on" and "upon" except that the word "on" is much more common.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. YOUR SISTER. was . WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WORDS "ON" AND "UPON" ? There's no difference between .. life was . I wouldn't say that ...This document is protected by copyright. No.. worse than ... was ...... LIFE WAS BETTER TODAY THAN IT WAS IN THE PAST ? Yes.. + WHOLE inteiro (integral) ON THE WHOLE em geral (no todo) COULD YOU EAT A WHOLE CHICKEN ?/ Yes. No. WHAT'S THE GREATEST PHYSICAL PAIN YOU'VE EVER BORNE ? The greatest physical pain I've ..or . ON THE WHOLE. WHO WAS THE LAST CHILD YOUR MOTHER BORE: YOUR BROTHER. OR YOU ? The last child .. I'd + say that . life was ......... or . I couldn't .. WOULD YOU SAY THAT... I could eat. 580 ...
/ HOW CAN WE AVOID MAKING A MISTAKE IN A DICTATION BY CONFUSING THE DIFFERENCE IN PRONUNCIATION BETWEEN THE WORDS "ALL" AND "WHOLE" ? .'s WHICH SHOP DID YOU GET YOUR WATCH (OR PEN) FROM? I got my watch from .. It is not necessary to use the word "shop" in such sentences: it is enough just to put an apostrophe and an "s" after the name of the shop.. by remembering that "all" is followed by the Definite Article. whilst the word "whole" is preceded by it.This document is protected by copyright.g./ WHERE DID YOU BUY YOUR SHOES FROM ? I bought my shoes from . we say "all the chicken" but "the whole chicken". You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.AND GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE We can avoid .. "all the chicken" but "the whole chicken" POSSESSIVE CASE FOR SHOPS • –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– In the sentence "I bought my suit from Simpson's". As it is sometimes easy to confuse the difference in pronunciation between the words "all" and "whole" in a dictation.. For example.'s + 581 ... whilst the word "whole" is preceded by it: e. it is well to remember that the word "all" is followed by the Definite Article. we understand that "Simpson" is the name of a shop.
STUDENTS READ LESSON 88 ON PAGE 519 RACE (v) apostar corrida DO YOU LIKE TO SEE TWO CARS RACING EACH OTHER ALONG THE ROAD ? WHY OR WHY NOT ? Yes... by the fact that the earth moves round the sun and turns round and round as it does so. one side of the earth is facing the sun. for the next half.. . No.. ACCOUNT FOR explicar a razão SPEND gastar WHAT DOES THE VERB "TO ACCOUNT FOR" MEAN ? The verb "to account for" means "to explain the reason for" HOW DO WE ACCOUNT FOR THE FACT THAT IT'S LIGHT DURING THE DAY WHILST IT'S DARK DURING THE NIGHT?/ + We account for the fact .. I couldn't .This document is protected by copyright... No. I like to see two . I could race you . 582 .... or .... whilst.. it is away from the sun DO GOVERNMENTS USUALLY HAVE TO ACCOUNT TO THE PUBLIC FOR ALL THE MONEY THEY SPEND ? + Yes. For about half the 24 hours.. governments usually .... it's too dangerous COULD YOU RACE ME TO THE STATION AND BACK WITHOUT STOPPING ? Yes. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. I don't like . + or .
sinal tirar (sacar dinheiro) Yes... PLEASE Finland is a northern ... Georgia etc.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. I think eastern . is Texas (Florida.. the state in .) DOES THE STATE IN YOUR COUNTRY GIVE FREE EDUCATION ? Yes. I don't think . OR DRAW OUT OF CHEQUE cheque RELIGION / 583 religião . IF YOU RACED AGAINST A HORSE. SOUTH... TELL ME THE NAME OF A SOUTHERN STATE IN AMERICA ? + The name of . EAST" AND "WEST" ?/ The adjectives . DO YOU THINK EASTERN ART IS MORE BEAUTIFUL THAN WESTERN ART ?/ + SIGN assinar.. No.." NAME ME A NORTHERN EUROPEAN COUNTRY.. DRAW FROM..This document is protected by copyright. WHO'D WIN ? If I raced . or . the horse'd win WHY ? NORTHERN do norte Because a horse can run faster than I can SOUTHERN do sul EASTERN oriental WESTERN ocidental STATE estado WHAT ARE THE ADJECTIVES OF THE NOUNS "NORTH. or . the state in .. are "northern ... No.........
. WHAT MUST WE DO BEFORE THE BANK WILL GIVE US THE MONEY ? + When we draw ..... 584 . SIZE tamanho TAKE usar WHAT SIZE SOCKS (OR STOCKINGS) DO YOU TAKE ?/ + I take size . I think life's more . socks (or stockings) VIOLENT violento (a) DO YOU THINK LIFE IS MORE VIOLENT THESE DAYS THAN IT WAS IN THE PAST ? Yes. we must sign for the money on a piece of paper or a cheque before the bank will give us the money WHAT KIND OF SIGN AM I MAKING ?/ You're making a sign which means "come on" or "come here" IF A MAN HAS ROUGH SKIN ON HIS HANDS. I don't think life's .. WHAT IS THAT PROBABLY A SIGN OF ? If a man has ... it's probably a sign that he does physical work or works with his hands WHAT IS THE SIGN OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION ? + The cross is . The teacher should pretend to sign a piece of paper WHEN WE DRAW MONEY FROM THE BANK.. + or ...This document is protected by copyright. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.... No.
I wouldn't like . ROCK rocha (estreito) GIBRALTAR Gibraltar CLUB clube WHAT'S THE NAME OF THE PIECE OF LAND... etc.. there aren't the remains of . some old .. No...... No.. THAT WE PASS AS WE SAIL FROM THE ATLANTIC OCEAN INTO THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA ? + 585 The name of the piece .. WHICH IS REALLY JUST A ROCK... is the Rock of Gibraltar . TEMPLE templo REMAINS ruínas ARE THERE THE REMAINS OF ANY OLD TEMPLES NEAR WHERE YOU LIVE ? Yes. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. + or .... WHAT KIND ? NAVY marinha WOULD YOU LIKE TO JOIN THE NAVY ?/ Yes.This document is protected by copyright. I can .... there are . or . I'd like + ..: there's Constantine's Arch in Rome . WHY OR WHY NOT ? ARCH arco CAN YOU THINK OF ANY FAMOUS ARCHES IN THE WORLD? Yes.
/ but some people/ do it nowadays./ Don't forget/ to remind me/ to take my suit/ to the cleaner's/ before the shops shut./ even though he should be/ if he wants to make/ any progress. and "will"./ It is not worth travelling/ on a long journey/ just for the week-end. LESSON 96 SPECIAL VERBS • –––––––––––––––– BE: HAVE: SHALL: CAN: MAY: DARE ousar DIFFER diferir DARE: MUST: DO: NEED: WILL OUGHT: USED TO: There are twelve verbs in the English language which we call "Special Verbs".This document is protected by copyright./ Life in the old days/ was often just one long struggle/ for existence./ Although he is a Member of Parliament. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file./ whilst "soon" means in a short time./ Therefore./ "At once" means immediately./ Good. They are called "special" because they are not generally used in the same way as other verbs./ Do you wish to suffer/ from illness ?/ No. you will have to make sure/ you keep in good health. of course not. These verbs are the verbs "be: can: dare: do: have: may: must: need: ought: shall: used to"./ he is not a member/ of any political club./ 586 . CLEANER faxineiro PROGRESS progresso DICTATION 52 The man was/ a complete stranger to me.
are.. "Speak you English ?" For the interrogative of "speak" we must use the word "do". Other verbs cannot do that. did: have . AND OF "WILL" ? The Pasts of .does. are "be. and "will" WHAT ARE THE PASTS OF "CAN". may.would". have. can. ought. The Special Verbs are different in nine ways from other verbs. was. are + "could. We must not.This document is protected by copyright. used to". OF "SHALL". in nine ways Three of the ways in which the Special Verbs are different from other verbs are as follows:1) They form their interrogatives by putting the verb before the subject. is.could: do . forget the past tense and third and other persons of these verbs which are "be . should" and "would" IN HOW MANY WAYS ARE THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER VERBS ? The Special Verbs are . of course. had: may .. for example.. and say "Do you speak English ?". OF "MAY"..has... "Am I your teacher ? Will you come here tomorrow ?" etc. were: can . dare.might: shall . We cannot say. HOW MANY SPECIAL VERBS ARE THERE ? There are 12 Special Verbs WHAT ARE THE TWELVE SPECIAL VERBS ?/ The twelve . need. 587 .should: will .am. do. shall. must. For example. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. might.
This document is protected by copyright. for example. It might not rain" etc.. PLEASE / CAN WE SAY "THESE PENS BREAK NOT EASILY" ? + No. we can't say . we can't . "I cannot understand it. Other verbs cannot do that. "You have a pen. 588 ... For example. We cannot say. "Do you speak English?" instead WHAT'S THE SECOND WAY IN WHICH THE SPECIAL The second way ." 3) They are the only verbs that can be used in "Tail Questions".. is that they form their negatives just by adding "not" He ought not to smoke so much GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.. "He remains not here after the lesson": we must say. is that they form their interrogatives by putting the verb before the subject GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. PLEASE / CAN WE SAY "SPEAK YOU ENGLISH" ? + WHAT MUST WE SAY INSTEAD ? + VERBS DIFFER ? Dare you hit that big man ? No. 2) They form their negatives just by adding "not". We . TELL ME THE FIRST WAY IN WHICH THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFER FROM OTHER VERBS ? The first way in which .. lies not he ?" We must say "doesn't he?". We cannot say "He lies in bed all morning..... For example. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. "He does not remain here after the lesson. haven't you ?".
.This document is protected by copyright. DOES IT MATTER VERY MUCH WHAT KIND OF FOOD WE EAT ?/ Yes... will he ? CAN WE SAY "THEY SANG NOT WELL. is fruit. vegetables etc. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. WHAT KIND OF FOOD OUGHT WE TO EAT ? The kind of food we . SANG THEY" ?/ + No. 589 . did they ?" instead STUDENTS READ LESSON 89 ON PAGE 524 MATTER (v) = TO BE IMPORTANT importar ser importante OCCASIONALLY ocasionalmente WHAT IS THE MATTER ? qual é o problema? NO MATTER não importa PLEASE (v) agradar/ convir TASTE (n) gosto IF WE WANT TO LIVE A HEALTHY LIFE.. fish. we can't . WHAT MUST WE SAY INSTEAD ? We must say "These pens + do not break easily" instead WHAT'S THE THIRD WAY IN WHICH THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFER ? The third way in ... WHAT MUST WE SAY INSTEAD ? We must say "They did + not sing well.. PLEASE He won't come.. is that they are the only verbs that can be used in "Tail Questions" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.. + it matters very much . if we want to .
. IF I SUDDENLY WENT LIKE THIS.. that is. I find that . WHAT'S THE NAME OF A COUNTRY RIGHT IN THE NORTH OF EUROPE ? The name of a . COMPLETELY completamente FINISH UP terminar POINT (PLACE) ponto (lugar) WHAT'S THE TIME RIGHT NOW ? The time right now is . YOU CAN'T PLEASE EVERYONE ? WHY IS THIS SO ? RIGHT = ENTIRELY inteiramente Yes.... ideas and opinions .. DOES IT MATTER VERY MUCH IF WE OCCASIONALLY MAKE A SMALL MISTAKE IN OUR DICTATIONS ? No.... WHAT WOULD YOU ASK ME ?/ If you suddenly . is Finland + 590 . Because people have different tastes. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file..This document is protected by copyright. if it is only occasionally The teacher can hold himself as if in pain for the next question. I'd ask you + "What's the matter ?" DO YOU FIND THAT. NO MATTER WHAT YOU DO. it doesn't matter very much . of course...
. + or .. in fact. I don't . is "choose . TO SHOW THAT SOMETHING MATTERS TO US VERY MUCH.. myself .... I've never .CHOSEN escolher – escolheu – escolhido WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO CHOOSE" ? The paradigm .... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. WHY NOT ? Because.. I've sometimes chosen . My ..chosen" WHO CHOSE THE SHOES YOU'RE WEARING ? I chose the shoes . or had chosen in too much of a hurry PERSUASION persuasão DO YOU BELIEVE THAT MORE IS GAINED BY FORCE THAN BY PERSUASION? Yes. IN FACT.. being round.. we couldn't.... or . 591 . No..CHOSE . WE MIGHT SOMETIMES SAY "I'D GO RIGHT TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH FOR IT". No. WHY IS THIS ?/ FORCE força Because I had not chosen well. + or ... the earth has no ends. BUT COULD WE... I believe that more . HAVE YOU EVER CHOSEN CLOTHES THAT LATER YOU FOUND YOU DIDN'T LIKE AND SO HAD TO THROW AWAY ? Yes. go . and we would finish up at the point from which we started CHOOSE .This document is protected by copyright. chose .... GO RIGHT TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH ?/ + No..chose .
No. SPEECH discurso HAVE YOU EVER MADE A SPEECH IN PUBLIC ? + Yes..This document is protected by copyright.. EXERCISE 40 592 .. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.... we don't say in my . No..... I've never . of my country is .... APPLE maçã DO YOU SAY IN YOUR OWN LANGUAGE THAT "AN APPLE A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY" ? + Yes. or .. WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE INVENTED? + I would like to have invented . + BOW arco IS A BOW ANY USE WITHOUT ARROWS ? + INVENT inventar No. a bow isn't . I've made a . we say in our ... REPRESENT representar REPRESENTATIVE representante WHAT'S THE NAME OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FOR YOUR TOWN IN THE GOVERNMENT OF YOUR COUNTRY ?/ The name of the .. or ....
You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. I think it'd . we can say "no books".".. DO YOU THINK IT'D LEAVE A MARK BEHIND IT ? Yes....drawn" IF YOU DREW THIS TABLE ACROSS THE FLOOR.desenhado RECOGNISABLE reconhecível WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO DRAW" ? + The paradigm .. WHAT CAN WE SAY INSTEAD OF "NOT ANY BOOKS" ? + We can say "no books" instead of "not any books" GIVE ME ANOTHER EXAMPLE. I suppose it'd .desenhou .. For example.DRAWN arrastar .... desenhar . I don't think . if I drew your . IF YOU DREW MY FACE..drew . if I drew . No. or ...... is "draw . if + I drew this . "I have not any books" or "I have no books".. PLEASE / "There's not any (or there isn’t any) sugar in my tea" or "There's no sugar in my tea" DRAW .. 593 .arrastado....arrastou .. I don't suppose . No.This document is protected by copyright. if I .. or ..DREW . LESSON 97 NOT ANY BOOKS nenhum livro NO BOOKS nenhum livro Instead of saying "not any books etc.. DO YOU SUPPOSE IT'D BE RECOGNISABLE ? + Yes..
. "lastly" or "at last". whilst "finally" means 594 . ABOUT HOW LONG AGO IS IT SINCE EVERYTHING WAS DRAWN BY HORSES ? It's about . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ Because I draw well . whilst in some ways it is used differently. PLEASE We have finally + reached the end of the book The word "eventually" means "in the end".. such as "Ah! you've finally arrived" we could not say "Ah! you've eventually arrived". You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file... in a sentence...This document is protected by copyright. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WORDS "EVENTUALLY" AND "FINALLY" ? The difference . For example. FINALLY finalmente LASTLY finalmente AT LAST finalmente The word "finally" is in some ways similar to the word "eventually". whilst "finally" means "lastly" or "at last" GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORD "EVENTUALLY" IN IT. Because I can't draw very well . is that "eventually" means "in the end". PLEASE Don’t worry! you will eventually succeed GIVE ME A SENTENCE WITH THE WORD "FINALLY" IN IT..... since everything .. or ..
You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. COULD YOU CLAIM DAMAGES AGAINST HIM ? Yes... I'd have to take him to court IF A RELATION OF YOURS DIED AND LEFT YOU SOME LAND.. TO COURT levar à corte LAWYER advogado PROPERTY propriedade LOST PROPERTY OFFICE escritório de achados e perdidos DAMAGE dano IF I CLAIMED TO BE A MILLIONAIRE.. IF HE REFUSED YOUR CLAIM. WHAT'D YOU DO ? If he refused .This document is protected by copyright.. WOULD YOU BELIEVE ME ? No. STUDENTS READ LESSON 90 ON PAGE 532 595 .. if someone hit .. WHERE'D YOU HAVE TO GO IN ORDER TO CLAIM IT LEGALLY ? If a relation of mine .. CLAIM (v and n) clamar (clamor) TAKE .. OR OTHER PROPERTY..... if you claimed . I could . + I wouldn't .... I'd have to go to a lawyer's office to claim it legally WHERE MUST YOU GO IN ORDER TO CLAIM THINGS THAT YOU'VE LEFT ON THE TRAIN ? I must go to the + Lost Property Office in order to claim . WHY NOT ? Because you would not be teaching here now IF SOMEONE HIT YOUR CAR AND IT WAS HIS FAULT....
Many people will add an "s" in certain sentences when followed by a plural noun and not in others. HAPPIER ETC. For example....This document is protected by copyright. are driving a fast car or flying a fast plane . others do not.. The teacher can explain this to the students if they notice that sometimes the "s" is used and sometimes it is dropped. otherwise he can leave the matter until the students come to read. THAN THE YOUTH OF THE OLD DAYS ? Yes. as too many "s" sounds together are not very pleasant to the ear.. I think that the youth of . Some people put an "s" on. Most people prefer to drop the "s" where possible (saying "six million".. SENTENCES ––––––––––– GROUP grupo 596 TO MAKE SENSE fazer sentido . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. It will be noticed in this last question that the word "kind" has no "s" on the end. WHAT KIND OF JOBS CAN A YOUTH DO BETTER THAN AN OLD MAN ?/ The kind of jobs a youth can do + . for example. or. a lot depends on whether something sounds pleasant to the ear and is easy to pronounce.. No.. YOUTH 1550 juventude THE YOUTH Os jovens (a juventude) A YOUTH Um jovem DO YOU THINK THE YOUTH OF TODAY IS BETTER EDUCATED. they might say "What kinds of jobs can a youth do better than an old man ?" but "What kind of books do you like reading ?" As with so much in English. I don't think . instead of "six millions")...
"I always go home at eight". For example. WHAT IS A SENTENCE ? A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense by itself WHAT ARE THE TWO KINDS OF SENTENCES ? The two kinds .. gerund or participle./ For example. as opposed to the infinitive. There are two kinds of sentences: simple sentences and compound sentences. A simple sentence contains only one finite verb.This document is protected by copyright. COMPOUND composto FINITE definido CONJUNCTION conjunção MOOD humor AS OPPOSED TO em oposição a A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense by itself. For example./ A compound sentence is a sentence that consists of two or more sentences joined together by a conjunction (or conjunctions) such as the words "and" or "but" etc. number. tense or mood. "I am going to Scotland tomorrow"."/ A Finite Verb is a verb that is limited by person. "(I always go home at eight) and (have dinner at about a quarter past eight) but (I do not watch TV until about nine). This does not need to be explained to the students in any great detail.. are the simple sentence and the compound sentence WHAT IS A SIMPLE SENTENCE ? A simple sentence is + one which contains only one finite verb 597 . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.
tense or mood ./ In order for a clause to make sense.. whilst the second part is called the Subordinate Clause.) WHAT IS A CLAUSE ? A clause is a group of words which does not make complete sense by itself 598 . please) but (do not read until I tell you to ) CLAUSE frase PRINCIPAL principal SUBORDINATE subordinada RELATIVE PRONOUN relativo pronome A clause is a group of words which does not make complete sense by itself. PLEASE (Open your book. PLEASE "I do not understand him" WHAT IS A FINITE VERB ? A Finite Verb is a verb that is limited by person. "which I like. John said that he could not do it.. when I am very tired". You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. WHAT IS A COMPOUND SENTENCE ? A compound + sentence is one that consists of two or more sentences joined together by a conjunction. "That is the car which I like. when etc. A Subordinate Clause is joined to the Principal Clause by a conjunction or relative pronoun (which. such as the words "and" or "but" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. we must put another clause together with it. GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE."/ The first part of these sentences is called the Principal Clause. For example.This document is protected by copyright. that he could not do it. that. number. For example. I sleep deeply when I am very tired.
PLEASE Which I told you about... or . GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES.. No. That is the car which I like descida GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.. you don't have to . that etc. when she realized she had been seen WHAT ARE THE TWO KINDS OF CLAUSES ? The two kinds of clauses are Principal and Subordinate HOW ARE SUBORDINATE CLAUSES JOINED TO PRINCIPAL CLAUSES ? Subordinate Clauses are . "descent" HOLY sagrado JERUSALEM jerusalém WHAT.. IS THE HOLY CITY ?/ For someone + who believes ..This document is protected by copyright. you have to .. + by conjunctions or relative pronouns SUCH AS ? because.. which.. when. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. WHAT'S THE NOUN OF THE VERB "DESCEND" ? The noun of ... FOR SOMEONE WHO BELIEVES IN THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. that they were French.. PLEASE DESCEND descer DESCENT DO YOU HAVE TO DESCEND TO GO FROM THIS ROOM TO OUTSIDE THE BUILDING ? Yes. Jerusalem is the Holy City 599 .
. I don't think the father . or ./ I suddenly felt a pain in one arm. it is quite true/ that we get wool from sheep./ He was so afraid./ It is strange/ how we often think/ that famous people/ are quite different/ from ourselves/ when often they are not./ The plural of tooth/ is teeth. if I'm not able ... I don't think it's .. No. or .This document is protected by copyright. SHORE margem WHICH'S SAFER: TO BUILD A HOUSE ON THE SEA SHORE OR ON THE SHORE OF A LAKE ? It's safer + to build ./ but was certain that the pain/ would soon pass. of a lake WHY ? Because the weather would not be so rough passar PASS (GO AWAY) DICTATION 53 MADMAN louco My father said/ I needed a haircut.. CONFESS confessar IF YOU ARE NOT ABLE TO DO SOMETHING. I think it's ... if I'm not able ../ there are several people here/ who've never heard/ of such a writer. 600 ./ He just flew down the street. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file... BIRTH nascimento DO YOU THINK THE FATHER SHOULD BE ALLOWED IN THE ROOM AT THE BIRTH OF HIS CHILD ? + Yes..... I think the father ./ Despite the fact/ that it may seem strange... No./ he really ran like a madman.. DO YOU THINK IT'S BETTER TO CONFESS TO THE FACT ? + Yes../ Yes./ The temperature begins to fall/ towards evening.
LAID botar – botou – botado colocar. + ABOUT HOW MANY TIMES A YEAR DO MOST BIRDS LAY THEIR EGGS ? Most birds ..laid . is "lay" WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO LAY" ? The paradigm .. lays + the table in . I don't think it's possible for . LESSON 98 LAY .... I lay the .....colocou.This document is protected by copyright...colocado LAY AN EGG botar um ovo LAY THE TABLE pôr a mesa WHAT'S ANOTHER WORD WE CAN USE INSTEAD OF "PUT"? Another word we can . lay .. SINGLE único (a) (s) GO THROUGH ir através ENTIRE inteiro DO YOU THINK IT'S POSSIBLE FOR A PERSON TO GO THROUGH HIS ENTIRE LIFE WITHOUT TELLING A SINGLE LIE ? No...laid WHAT DID I LAY ON THE TABLE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE LESSON ? You laid your books on the . once a year + WHO LAYS THE TABLE IN YOUR HOUSE ? My ... 601 .LAID . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. or ..
. "fight .... Milk will make you strong" etc.fought .. WHY NOT ? Because every now and again it may be necessary to tell a small lie ABOUT HOW WIDE IS A SINGLE BED ? A single bed is + about 3 feet (or 90cm) wide WHEN TRAVELLING. For example. in the past (SUBJECT) + VERB + OBJECT + ADJECTIVE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Some sentences contain the construction "verb + object + adjective".. IS IT USUALLY CHEAPER TO BUY TWO SINGLE TICKETS OR A RETURN TICKET ? + When travelling. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. for a week 602 .This document is protected by copyright.. "The wind keeps us cool.lutado WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO FIGHT" ?/ The paradigm . FOUGHT lutou . GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF THE CONSTRUCTION "VERB + OBJECT + ADJECTIVE" ?/ "Work makes us tired" – LOOK AFTER cuidar (tomar conta de) WHICH WOULD YOU RATHER LOOK AFTER FOR A WEEK .fought" WHAT COUNTRIES HAS YOUR COUNTRY FOUGHT AGAINST IN THE PAST My country has fought + against .A BABY OR A HORSE ? I'd rather look after a + . it's usually cheaper to .
This document is protected by copyright. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.
WHY ? BEHAVE
WHY IS IT THAT CHILDREN SO OFTEN DO NOT KNOW HOW TO BEHAVE THEMSELVES WHEN THERE ARE NO ADULTS TO WATCH OVER THEM ?/ I think the + reason children so ... is that they want to do things that are neither good for themselves nor for others ... or that they don't know the difference between right and wrong ... etc. WHAT HAPPENS TO CHILDREN WHO BEHAVE BADLY ? Children who behave badly are sometimes sent to bed without food ... etc. IF ONE BEHAVES WITH KINDNESS TO ANOTHER PERSON, DOES THAT PERSON USUALLY RETURN THE KINDNESS ? Yes, if one behaves ... that person ... IF YOU WERE WALKING PAST A BANK AT NIGHT AND SAW A MAN OUTSIDE IT BEHAVING RATHER STRANGELY, WHAT'D YOU THINK, AND WHAT'D YOU DO ?/ If I was walking ... I'd perhaps + think he had the intention of breaking into the bank, and so I'd probably inform the police
ON WHAT KIND OF OCCASIONS ARE PEOPLE USUALLY ON THEIR BEST BEHAVIOUR ? The kind of + occasions on which people ... are at a party; on public occasions; when they go for a job etc. STUDENTS READ LESSON 91 ON PAGE 537 FAR •
A LONG WAY
AS FAR AS
tão longe quanto
The word "far" is generally used in interrogative and negative sentences, whilst "a long way" is used in positive sentences; but this is only very general./ GIVE ME FIRST THE NEGATIVE AND THEN THE POSITIVE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:+ HOW FAR IS IT FROM HERE TO THE NEXT TOWN ? + It isn't far. It's a long way DID YOU WALK VERY FAR THIS AFTERNOON ?/ + No, I did not walk very far …or…Yes, I walked a long way
Sometimes the word "away" is added to the word "far", especially at the end of a sentence. For example, "Is the sea far from here ? - Yes, it's a long way. No, it isn't far away". Another use of the word "far" is with the meaning of "much". For example, "Richard is far more careful now" means the same as "Richard is much more careful now."/ WHAT'S ANOTHER USE OF THE WORD "FAR" ? Another use of ... is with the meaning of "much" ... GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE She eats far less now than she used to Yes, I think that ... or ... No, I don't think that ...
DO YOU THINK THAT A CHILD'S LIFE IS FAR BETTER THAN THAT OF AN ADULT ? + WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ Two other sentences with "far" in them are : "They drove as far as the lake and back" and "It's too far to go by foot; it'd be better to go by car." We generally use the word "distant" instead of "far" as an adjective before a noun in such sentences as: "The sailor came from a distant country" and "He is a distant relation of mine." We can also say "A far distant country: a far distant relation" etc., if we wish to make our meaning stronger./ WHEN DO WE GENERALLY USE THE WORD "DISTANT" INSTEAD OF "FAR" ? - AND GIVE ME AN
... No... as an adjective before a noun .. or . OR DO YOU BELIEVE THERE ARE REAL BASIC DIFFERENCES ? I believe that people .. I don't believe that people are . I've sometimes gone .. I've never gone .. I'd like to see myself rich.. THROUGHOUT através CHOICE escolha IF YOU HAD HAD THE CHOICE OF BEING BORN IN ANY PERIOD THROUGHOUT HISTORY.. WHAT'D YOU LIKE TO SEE THERE FOR YOURSELF AND FOR THE WORLD GENERALLY ?/ + If I could . WHICH PERIOD WOULD YOU HAVE CHOSEN ? If I had had the . EXAMPLE. healthy and happy. but I believe there are ... and the world at peace . or . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. PLEASE + We generally ..This document is protected by copyright..... 606 . etc.... in such sentences as "I could see some sheep in a distant field" IF YOU COULD LOOK INTO THE FAR DISTANT FUTURE.. I'd have chosen . WHY ? HAVE YOU EVER GONE THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE WINTER WITHOUT CATCHING A SINGLE COLD ?/ + Yes..... DO YOU BELIEVE THAT PEOPLE ARE ALL MORE OR LESS THE SAME THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. I'd like . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ KINGDOM reino (reinado) WHAT IS A KINGDOM ? A kingdom is a country or land which + has a king or a queen as its head 607 . we mean that someone says people ought to do certain things..... Sometimes it even adopts a foreign language for this purpose PREACH pregar WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY SOMEONE DOES NOT PRACTISE WHAT HE PREACHES ? When we say + that . the government of that country adopts one of these languages for official purposes... OFFICIAL oficial WHAT DO WE MEAN BY "A GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL" ?/ By "a government official" we mean someone who works for the government. No. + or .. but he does not do them himself PRIEST padre (pregador) WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE A PRIEST ? Yes. I wouldn't . usually with a certain amount of power WHAT DO WE MEAN BY "THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE" OF A COUNTRY ? By the "official .This document is protected by copyright..." we mean + that when the people of a country speak two or three different languages.
PLEASE Hang on a minute. the teacher should get the students to give the meaning first in English and then in their own language. It is usually used for something small The teacher should go through the Idioms. given the students' limited vocabulary and the difficulty of putting an idiom into other words. WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "HANG ON" MEAN ? The idiom "hang on" means "wait" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. Where possible. As the Idioms are not essential to the learning of basic English. I think I have his address in my book somewhere 608 . very quickly. Hang on a minute whilst I go and get my coat from the next room. the teacher should translate the Idioms into the students' own language and also try to explain their meaning in English as best he can. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. a little house in the country etc.This document is protected by copyright.g. They are only intended to show the students the nature of idiomatic English. When asking for the meaning of the Idioms. IDIOM 1 HANG ON = wait esperar e. PRETTY bonito (a) WHAT DO WE USE THE WORD "PRETTY" TO DESCRIBE ? We use the word "pretty" to + describe a little girl. the teacher could eliminate them from the oral question-answer work and only deal with them when the students come to read them. and certainly not to the passing of the Cambridge exams. which are to be found at the end of each of the following lessons.
LESSON 99 PROPER próprio (correto) PLAYER jogador DOORWAY porta SIDE ado WHAT IS THE PROPER NUMBER OF PLAYERS ON EACH SIDE FOR A GAME OF FOOTBALL ? + The proper . 609 . eleven a side IS IT CONSIDERED IMPROPER BEHAVIOUR IN THIS COUNTRY FOR A MAN TO GO THROUGH AN OPEN DOORWAY IN FRONT OF A WOMAN ?/ + BACKWARDS para trás FORWARDS para frente para os lados para baixo SIDEWARDS (OR SIDEWAYS) UPWARDS para cima DOWNWARDS 1600 Although the word "sideways" can be used instead of "sidewards". forwards and sidewards on his chair.This document is protected by copyright.. WHAT AM I DOING ? WHAT AM I DOING ? You're moving backwards and forwards You're moving sidewards For the above questions the teacher can rock backwards. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. it is better for the moment for the student to learn the word which follows the same pattern as the other words ending in "-wards"..
WHAT DO THE WORDS "BACKWARDS. WHY NOT ? Because English.." + mean "towards the back .. WHAT'S MY HAND DOING ? Your hand's moving upwards and downwards COUNT THE NUMBERS IN ENGLISH FROM TEN TO FIFTEEN BACKWARDS QUICKLY ?/ 15.. towards the side" etc. FORWARDS. sidewards" etc. mean "towards the back. towards the front. MEAN ?/ The words "backwards ... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. PLEASE Then to another student he asks IS HE LOOKING UPWARDS OR DOWNWARDS ? He's looking upwards The words "backwards. in some ways. 14. 12. but there are fewer . is 610 . SIDEWARDS" ETC... 13.. there aren't . 11.This document is protected by copyright." RULE regra AS A RULE como uma regra ARISTOCRACY aristocracia PAY FOR pagar por ARE THERE AS MANY RULES OF GRAMMAR IN ENGLISH AS THERE ARE IN MOST OTHER LANGUAGES? No. forwards. 10 + WHAT'S HE DOING ? He's counting the numbers + in English from 10 to 15 backwards quickly The teacher asks a student to LOOK UP AT THE CEILING.
When English became the official language of England once more. For nearly three hundred years.. when . when uneducated people speak a language. English and its grammar were similar to German... it lost most of its rules because. Today it has a vocabulary of over 600. was the last king to . CAN WE ALWAYS USE A RULE IN ENGLISH IN EVERY CASE ? No. There are very often cases when we cannot use a rule WHAT USUALLY HAPPENS WHEN A PLAYER BREAKS THE RULES OF A GAME ? Usually. it was not a written language and was only spoken by the common uneducated people. 611 .. Before 1066. we can't . During the three hundred years. and neither is the teacher expected to explain it word for word. DO PEOPLE IN YOUR TOWN GO TO THE CINEMA MORE ON SATURDAY EVENINGS THAN ON SUNDAY EVENINGS OR VICE VERSA ?/ As a rule. whilst the Church spoke Latin... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file../ The student is not expected to say all the above in his answer.This document is protected by copyright... it took many words from French and Latin. The aristocracy spoke French.. + people . the game + stops and the player has to pay for his mistake WHO WAS THE LAST KING TO RULE YOUR COUNTRY ? .000 words. which gave it the largest vocabulary of any language. they do not always keep to the rules. from the year 1066. + WHO RULES YOUR COUNTRY NOW ? . It is intended more for the student when he comes to read. In this way English became a fast and expressive language: very easy for a foreigner to learn at the beginning of his studies. rules my country now AS A RULE. rather like a dialect...
STUDENTS READ LESSON 92 ON PAGE 544 USE OF THE "TO" INFINITIVE –––––––––––––––––––––––––––– We use the "to" infinitive..This document is protected by copyright. "We have had nothing to eat all day. For example. GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF A "TO" INFINITIVE + AFTER AN ADJECTIVE They were pleased to hear the news He will be very interested to know what you have told me There are no good films to go and see this evening She has nobody to speak to 612 AFTER A PAST PARTICIPLE AFTER A NOUN AFTER A PRONOUN . For example. For example." After a past participle. "I have a good book to show you.:1) 2) 3) 4) After an adjective. For example. "to go.." After a pronoun. get him to invent his own examples. "She was glad to see him. to come" etc. "I was surprised to find him still there. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. a past participle. after an adjective. or a pronoun When the student reads. a noun."/ WHEN DO WE USE THE "TO" INFINITIVE ? We use the ." After a noun.
desperdiçar Perform the action of throwing something away. The kind of things I consider to . I think it's ..This document is protected by copyright. I never . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. No.. I don't think it's . desperdício.. or . No. I never ... I sometimes ... are . WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE PAPER ?/ We throw + waste paper away DO YOU THINK IT'S A WASTE OF TIME LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE WHICH IS LITTLE SPOKEN IN THE WORLD ? + WASTE OF TIME DOING ?/ Yes... I sometimes . No. WHY ? DO YOU EVER WASTE YOUR MONEY ? Yes..... 613 ... or .. perda.. ON WHAT ? DO YOU EVER WASTE YOUR TIME ? HOW ?/ Yes.. WASTE usado (a)... WHAT KIND OF THINGS DO YOU CONSIDER TO BE A WHAT KIND OF THINGS DO YOU CONSIDER TO BE A WASTE OF MONEY BUYING ? The kind of things I consider to be . or .. are ......
.. is . For example. WHEN DO WE USE CONTRACTIONS AND WHEN DON'T WE USE THEM ?/ We use contractions in + conversation. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. No. he said...."I'm. also use them in a letter to a friend.This document is protected by copyright.. LEADERSHIP liderança WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE THE LEADERSHIP OF YOUR COUNTRY IN YOUR HANDS ? Yes. .. IMPROVE melhorar HOW CAN WE IMPROVE OUR ENGLISH ? We can + improve our English by practising a lot and reading a lot . but not in writing. except when we are repeating exactly what someone has said TERRIBLE terrível WHAT DO YOU THINK'S THE MOST TERRIBLE THING THAT CAN HAPPEN TO SOMEONE ? I think the + most terrible thing that . you've. USE OF CONTRACTIONS ––––––––––––––––––––––– In conversation we nearly always use contractions . of course.but we seldom use them in writing.. "I'm the only one who'd know"... WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ 614 . except when we are repeating exactly what someone has said.. I'd like to have the . We can. he'd" etc. I wouldn't .. or .
/ I just can't describe to you/ how beautiful it was. PLEASE ! DICTATION 54 Some people consider/ a black cat to be lucky. I'm just fed up with everything 615 ./ I suppose/ we'd all die of thirst./ If there were/ no water in the world.. we have a ./ I'm not ready yet./ I'm too busy at the moment/ to do anything../ In the old days. IDIOM 2 FED UP = sick and tired.g./ you'll have to wait a few minutes.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file./ you could easily recognise a sailor/ by the way he walked:/ as if on a ship at sea.. and bored cansado (chateado) e. and bored" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE./ it's my own life./ Shut up and let me choose/ what I'd rather do myself. we don't . I'm fed up with hearing him say the same old thing every time we meet WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "FED UP" MEAN ? The idiom .. MARKET mercado (feira) DO YOU HAVE A MARKET-PLACE IN THE MIDDLE OF YOUR HOME TOWN ? Yes. No../ Listen. "sick and tired../ and so I should be free/ to decide things for myself. or + ../ After all./ Kick the ball to me.This document is protected by copyright.
.. WHAT DO YOU SUPPOSE WILL HAPPEN TO YOU IN THE FUTURE ? I suppose that .... No.. I've never .. No. or ... I always . I sometimes . 616 .This document is protected by copyright.. maravilha WONDERFUL maravilhoso SO MANY muitos PYRAMID pirâmide BABYLON TOMB Babilônia túmulo MAUSOLUS Mausoléu DIANA (ARTEMIS) Diana (Ártemis) EPHESUS Efésos COLOSSUS Colossos RHODES Rodes STATUE estátua JUPITER (ZEUS) PHIDIAS Júpiter (Zeus) Fídias FAROS ALEXANDRIA Farol Alexandria DO YOU EVER WONDER WHAT'LL HAPPEN TO YOU IN THE FUTURE ?/ Yes..... or + . No. or . LESSON 100 ENJOY gostar (divertir-se) WHAT KIND OF THINGS DO YOU ENJOY DOING MOST OF ALL ? The kind of things I enjoy doing most of all are .. HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED WHY SOME PEOPLE ARE RICH WHILST OTHERS ARE POOR ? Yes...... I don't . I never .. DO YOU ALWAYS ENJOY YOURSELF AT A PARTY ? + Yes. WHY OR WHY NOT ? WONDER pensar. I've sometimes . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file..
Green) 617 . WHAT'S THE MOST WONDERFUL THING THAT HAS EVER HAPPENED TO YOU IN YOUR LIFE ? The most wonderful thing that . They were eating).g.This document is protected by copyright. and 7) The Mosque of San Sofia in Istanbul. or their passive voice (e.. Long may he live). The Temple of Diana at Ephesus... their moods (e.g.... The Faros of Alexandria.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.) –––––––––––––––– CONSTRUCTION construção END CONSTRUCTIONS construções finais SO HAVE I assim eu tenho NEITHER HAVE I nem eu tenho FOR INSTANCE / por exemplo Another three ways in which the Special Verbs differ from the other verbs are as follows:1) They are used as auxiliaries. is that so many things are new to them . There is also an alternative list consisting of 1) The Coliseum (or Colosseum) of Rome 2) The Catacombs of Alexandria 3) The Great Wall of China 4) Stonehenge 5) The Leaning Tower of Pisa 6) The Porcelain Tower of Nanking.. The Colossus of Rhodes. SPECIAL VERBS • (cont. that is. The Statue of Jupiter by Phidias. they help other verbs to form their tenses (e.g. The boy is taught by Mrs. WHY ARE CHILDREN MORE OFTEN FILLED WITH WONDER THAN ADULTS ?/ I think the reason + children are more . NAME ME ONE OF THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD ? The Pyramids are one of the Seven Wonders of the World The others are:The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. was . The Tomb of Mausolus.
. he won't 618 . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.This document is protected by copyright. Long may she rule. WILL HE ?/ + Yes. Will you help me cook the dinner please ? . TELL ME THE SECOND OF THE SECOND THREE WAYS IN WHICH THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFER FROM OTHER VERBS ?/ The second of the .Yes. His translation was corrected by the teacher 2) They are used for short answers.. he will No. is that they are used for short answers GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES. PLEASE:+ HE WILL COME TOMORROW. I will. is that they are used as auxiliaries GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES. Who is the best student in the class ? . WON'T HE ? + HE WON'T COME TOMORROW.. PLEASE They have taken.g.Yes I ought to. e. TELL ME THE FIRST OF THE SECOND THREE WAYS IN WHICH THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFER FROM OTHER VERBS ? The first of the second three .No.Richard is. PLEASE Oughtn't you to be careful when you cross the road ? . I daren't GIVE ME THE SHORT ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS. Dare you hit a bigger man than yourself ? ..
and are joined to the sentence with the words "so. neither" or "nor".This document is protected by copyright. We cannot say for instance "John speaks German. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. John said "I speak German" and Mary answered "And so do I". John said "I do not speak Chinese" and Mary answered "And neither do I". My brother has not got a car.. John must go home. "My brother has got a car. neither" and "nor".. and neither must Mary. No.. ARE YOU GOING TO SEND HIM A LETTER ? Yes. I + am .g. Mary is going to London tomorrow. and so does Mary". We must notice that in these sentences. I'm not STUDENTS READ LESSON 93 ON PAGE 566 3) They are used in "End Constructions": that is. John must not go to the cinema. e.. 619 . after the words "so. e. "And so have I"./ "Nor" however is probably less used than "neither". the subject follows the verb.g. is that they are used in "End Constructions" . TELL ME THE THIRD OF THE SECOND THREE WAYS IN WHICH THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFER FROM THE OTHER VERBS / The third of the .. and so must you.. they add something to the end of a sentence. and nor have I./ Remember that we cannot use other than the Special Verbs in such sentences. and so is John. or . and so have I. and so speaks Mary": we must say "John speaks German..
... GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES.. WHAT CAN WE SAY INSTEAD OF "NEITHER DO I: NEITHER HAS SHE" ETC. my town .... and so can I .. DEFEAT perda. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. He is not a very nice person.. No.. or . PLEASE I have to go to the hairdresser's. and neither must you Instead of saying "neither do I: neither has she" etc. we can say "I don't either: she hasn't either" etc.. and + so might my mother (friend etc. and neither can I . and nor (or neither) could I GIVE ME SOME "END CONSTRUCTIONS" FOR THESE SENTENCES.) SHE CAN PLAY THE PIANO WELL ..... + .... my town .... derrotar ELECTION eleição POLITICS política IS YOUR TOWN USUALLY DEFEATED AT FOOTBALL ? Yes. and neither is his wife../ . ?/ Instead of .. + SHE CANNOT PLAY THE PIANO WELL .. and so has my sister. WHY OR WHY NOT ? 620 . we can + say: I don't either . PLEASE :+ I MIGHT GO TO THE CINEMA THIS EVENING ..This document is protected by copyright. She could not break it. + WE MUST NOT BE LATE .
. ENGLAND.. OR DON'T WORLD POLITICS INTEREST YOU ?/ Yes.. WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "SNAG" MEAN ? The idiom .g. THRONE trono WHAT DO WE CALL THE CHAIR A KING SITS ON ? We call the chair ... I know which . I don't know . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.I have no money EXERCISE 41 LESSON 101 PHRASE frase COLLECTION coleção 621 . No. GERMANY.. The job's quite easy...].. because world politics . AMERICA ETC. PLEASE I would invite you to the cinema this evening. "a problem" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.This document is protected by copyright.. + or .. DO YOU KNOW WHICH POLITICAL PARTY SUFFERED DEFEAT IN THE LAST ELECTIONS IN FRANCE [ITALY.. a throne IDIOM 3 SNAG = a problem (usually a small one) problema e. but there's just one snag . There shouldn’t be any snags.
You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. and "to look after". A phrase is part of a sentence. When we are in a train.. before opening the window. we say to the other passengers "Excuse me. cano BABYSITTER babá DO YOU MIND ? / você se importa? The verb "to mind" means "to object to.. WHAT IS A PHRASE ? A phrase is part of a sentence. "to object to" ... or a bus. It is a – collection of words that does not make complete sense by itself GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.This document is protected by copyright. It is a collection of words that does not make complete sense by itself. to obey". A phrase has no finite verb in it. For example. to be careful of. to consider. over a high building" etc. would you mind if I opened the window ?" (or Do you mind if I open the window ?) 622 . PLEASE MIND (v) importar-se At high speed PASSENGER passageiro OBJECT (v) opor-se EXCUSE ME desculpe-me NON-SMOKER não fumante PIPE charuto. "on the floor. WHAT DOES THE VERB "TO MIND" MEAN ? The verb .
I'd mind if I + were .. I always + considered. WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN ? If I didn't mind what ... but do you mind not smoking ?" WHAT'D HAPPEN IF YOU FELL ASLEEP IN A ROOM WHERE A GAS PIPE HAD BROKEN ? If I fell asleep + in a ....would you mind if I opened the window ?" WOULD YOU MIND IF YOU WERE A NON-SMOKER AND YOU WERE SITTING IN A NON-SMOKING TRAIN. I didn't always . WHAT WOULD YOU DO ?/ If I did mind. OR IN THE NON-SMOKING PART OF A TRAIN. or ... I'd probably never wake up DID YOU ALWAYS MIND WHAT YOUR MOTHER SAID WHEN YOU WERE A CHILD ?/ Yes. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. IF YOU DIDN'T MIND WHAT YOU SAID IN PUBLIC.... or a policeman might take me to the police station . 623 . WHAT DO WE SAY TO THE OTHER PASSENGERS BEFORE OPENING THE WINDOW OF A TRAIN OR A BUS ?/ + Before opening the window of a train or a bus. someone might hit me. I wouldn't mind if .This document is protected by copyright. No. No. IF YOU DID MIND.. or . I'd say to the person "Excuse me... AND SOMEONE BEGAN TO SMOKE A PIPE ? Yes... obeyed or followed what my mother said ..we say to the other passengers "Excuse me.
or . For example. WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ WHEN PARENTS HAVE TO GO OUT TOGETHER IN THE EVENING. "It is not –– very easy to speak a foreign language well...... DO YOU MIND WHAT OTHER PEOPLE SAY OR THINK ABOUT YOU ? (THAT IS... WHO USUALLY MINDS THEIR BABY ? + When parents have to . a babysitter usually minds their baby SWITCH ON .. No. I don't mind what . WHAT DO WE MEAN BY A PREPARATORY "IT" ? – By a preparatory "it" we mean that the word "it" is used to prepare ourselves for a phrase which is going to follow 624 .This document is protected by copyright. IS IT IMPORTANT TO YOU ?) + Yes." ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– This is called a preparatory "it". I mind what other people .SWITCH OFF ligar . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.desligar WHAT AM I DOING ? + WHAT AM I DOING ? + PREPARATORY "IT" –––––––––––––––––– You're switching the light on You're switching the light off PREPARE preparar USUAL / comum We sometimes use the word "it" in order to prepare ourselves for a phrase which is going to follow.
. Was it usual for him to come here every Sunday ? Is it common to find that kind of bird in this part of the country ? TO BE DETERMINED ser determinado EVEN THOUGH embora DETERMINED (adj) determinado SUCCESS sucesso LUCK sorte INTELLIGENCE inteligência The teacher could thump the table with his fist when he says the word "determined" in the following question in order to help show its meaning... PLEASE / It is very difficult to understand what he says... when I start to do something like . EVEN THOUGH WHAT YOU HAVE STARTED IS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT ?/ Yes. No. when I start to do . WHAT HAVE YOU DETERMINED TO DO ? 625 . ARE YOU USUALLY DETERMINED TO CONTINUE TO THE END.. WHY NOT ? OR. I've + determined what . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. No. GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES.... or .. WHEN YOU START TO DO SOMETHING LIKE LEARNING A LANGUAGE OR DOING A JOB OF WORK..This document is protected by copyright.. I haven't determined . I'm not usually determined . I'm usually determined ... HAVE YOU DETERMINED WHAT YOU'RE GOING TO DO FOR YOUR NEXT HOLIDAYS ? Yes.. or ..
. steal .. OR INTELLIGENCE ? For success in life generally.This document is protected by copyright. HARD WORK.stole ... I think .. is . FOR SUCCESS IN LIFE GENERALLY. HAVE YOU THE RIGHT TO STEAL SOMEONE ELSE'S ? No...... IF SOMEONE STOLE A BOOK FROM A SHOP AND WAS CAUGHT DOING SO.STOLEN OWNER roubar – roubou – roubado proprietário THE POLICE a polícia WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO STEAL" ?/ The paradigm . WHO'S THE MOST DETERMINED PERSON YOU KNOW..stolen IF SOMEONE STEALS YOUR UMBRELLA. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. 626 . I haven't the right ..STOLE .. is more important than anything else STUDENTS READ LESSON 94 ON PAGE 573 STEAL .. LUCK. WHICH DO YOU THINK'S MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANYTHING ELSE THE DETERMINATION TO SUCCEED. OR HAVE EVER MET ?/ + The most determined person . the owner of the shop would probably call the police . WHAT'D PROBABLY HAPPEN ? + If someone stole . if + someone steals my ...
..... or + .. a bicycle ..... or ... No.. etc.. GIFT presente WHAT KIND OF GIFT WOULD YOU GIVE A BOY OF FIFTEEN ? The kind of gift I'd give . I'd organise . No. I'm not good at .. for them ARE YOU GOOD AT ORGANISING THINGS ? Yes. I've had something (or some things) stolen from me . I'm good at .. ativo (a) ACTIVE ACTIVITY atividade WOULD YOU SAY YOU WERE A RATHER ACTIVE KIND OF PERSON ? Yes. WHAT KIND OF ACTIVITIES INTEREST YOU MOST OF ALL ? The kind of activities that + interest ... No. (sport. are .. or ... I'd say I was a .. politics etc) ORGANISE organizar STAY ficar STUDENT estudante SUPPOSING A GROUP OF FOREIGN STUDENTS CAME TO STAY WITH YOU FOR THE WEEKEND... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.... I wouldn't say I was a . + would be a football... HAVE YOU EVER HAD ANYTHING STOLEN FROM YOU?/ Yes. WHAT WOULD YOU ORGANISE FOR THEM ?/ Supposing + a group of foreign .. 627 . I've never had anything .This document is protected by copyright.
.... WHAT DID YOU DO ?/ When I wanted to do ... or .. WHAT DO YOU DO ?/ When + I feel sad. I don't know . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file....g. in + STEAM vapor HOW'S STEAM PRODUCED ? + OPPOSE opor-se Steam is produced by boiling water WHEN YOU WANTED TO DO SOMETHING AS A CHILD AND YOUR PARENTS OPPOSED YOUR PLANS. BARREL barril WHAT DO WE USE FOR KEEPING LARGE QUANTITIES OF WINE IN ? We use a barrel for .This document is protected by copyright. + I know how a . The noise those children make gets on my nerves. No.. I . I . 628 . SAD triste WHEN YOU FEEL SAD. ENGINE motor DO YOU KNOW HOW A CAR ENGINE WORKS ? Yes... + IDIOM 4 GET ON ONE'S NERVES = make one feel angry and nervous fazer alguém ficar nervoso e..
./ Although he sang to himself in the bath. that is our seat.. She is always making things difficult. sentar-se. sentar A chair is an object which has a place to sit on.. LESSON 102 SEAT (n & v) assento..This document is protected by copyright. PLEASE Mary's very nice. DICTATION 55 If one takes a dog/ on a bus. whilst a seat is .. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CHAIR AND A SEAT ? + The difference ./ It is a real pleasure/ to hear him sing. is that a chair is . If we sit on a chair. whilst a seat is just anywhere we sit. WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TO GET ON ONE'S NERVES" MEAN ? The idiom ../ The best way/ to do this job/ is by following a system./ but not at studying../ one usually has to buy/ a ticket for it./ he has never sung in public./ Making a big profit in business/ is often mainly/ a question of luck./ They are fairly good at football.. four legs and a back. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file./ and could not remember any more. but her sister gets on my nerves. Even if we sit on the floor. means "to make one feel angry and nervous" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. 629 ./ It was a great loss to him/ when his wife died./ He hit the table/ with his head. that too is our seat.
passengers WHERE'S THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT IN THIS COUNTRY ? The seat of . to which the reply might be "I hope so" or "I hope not". or No. "Is James coming to the party tomorrow ?". + I THINK SO eu acho que sim I HOPE NOT eu espero que não passar (um exame) REPLY responder PASS (AN EXAM) / We use the words "so" and "not" in order not to have to repeat a whole sentence that someone has just said.. For example.... someone says to us "Did you remember to shut the door ?" and we reply "Yes... The average bus seats about . or ./ 630 . The word "so" saves us repeating the whole sentence "Yes.. DO MEN IN THIS COUNTRY STAND UP AND OFFER THEIR SEATS TO WOMEN ON BUSES ?/ Yes.. I think I have shut the door" or "No. No. For example. I don't think so".. I think so" or "No... is in .. men in .. I don't think I have shut the door".This document is protected by copyright. I think they . DO YOU THINK THEY OUGHT TO ? WHY OR WHY NOT ? ABOUT HOW MANY PASSENGERS DOES THE AVERAGE BUS SEAT ? Yes.. I don't think .. The same is true of the word "not". men in . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file..
if someone makes a statement and says "Peter has passed his exams". PLEASE Is that right what James said ? + I'm afraid not./ WHEN DO WE USE THE WORD "SO" AT THE BEGINNING OF A SENTENCE ? We use . I hope so. For example.SHOT . we reply "So we've been told" SHOOT .. Jones has gone to Australia" and. and if we already know this fact. PLEASE / Is that right what James said ? + I'm afraid so. I hope not. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.This document is protected by copyright. PLEASE Someone says to us + "Mr.. in order not to have to repeat a whole sentence someone has just said GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES OF THIS USE OF THE WORD "SO". we can reply with "So I have heard". WHY DO WE USE THE WORDS "SO" AND "NOT" ? WHEN REPLYING TO SOMETHING SOMEONE HAS SAID ? We use the . I don't think so We can also use the word "so" at the beginning of a sentence. I suppose so. I don't suppose so.when someone + makes a statement we already know about GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.. WHAT AM I DOING ? + You're shooting at the window 631 .. knowing this fact. I think so GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF THE WORD "NOT".SHOT atirar – atirou – atirado Pretend to shoot at the window with a rifle.
touch. WHICH'D YOU CHOOSE ? If I had to do without one . No. I've seen ..This document is protected by copyright.. are the Colosseum.. shoot . STUDENTS READ LESSON 95 ON PAGE 579 632 .... the Forum... or . WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO SHOOT" ? / The paradigm .] + Some of the sights .... I've never . PARIS ETC. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file..shot . the Vatican . WHY ?/ TELL ME SOME OF THE SIGHTS ONE MIGHT SEE IF ONE WENT TO ROME [LONDON. I'd choose the sense of .. hearing and sight IF YOU HAD TO DO WITHOUT ONE OF THESE FIVE SENSES. SIGHT vista SENSES sentidos TASTE (n) paladar (gosto) TOUCH (n) tato DO WITHOUT (OR GO WITHOUT) WHAT ARE THE FIVE SENSES ? + ficar sem The five senses are taste. smell..shot HAVE YOU EVER SEEN ANYONE SHOT IN REAL LIFE ? + Yes...
is the brightest object . WAS IT A DULL DAY YESTERDAY ?/ 633 ....This document is protected by copyright.... WHY ? Because of the repetition . it does.. duller .. but. I'm one of . No... WHAT'S THE BRIGHTEST OBJECT IN THIS ROOM ? + The . No. or .. or . Yes. it isn't brighter .... it's brighter in ... generally speaking..... ARE YOU (OR WERE YOU) ONE OF THE BRIGHTEST PUPILS IN YOUR CLASS AT MATHEMATICS ?/ Yes.. No. DO YOU PREFER BRIGHT COLOURS OR DARK COLOURS ? I prefer . BRIGHT brilhante DULL estúpido FIRST THING primeira coisa REPETITION repetição The word "bright" does not always mean the contrary of the word "dull".. I + usually feel .... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. it wasn't a . I'm not one of .. but I usually feel duller WHAT KIND OF JOB DO YOU THINK IS THE DULLEST ? + I think factory work .. No. DO YOU USUALLY FEEL BRIGHTER IN THE EVENING THAN FIRST THING IN THE MORNING ? Yes. I don't usually . or ...... or . it was a ......./ IS IT BRIGHTER IN THIS ROOM THAN OUTSIDE ? Yes.
634 ... is. WHY DO YOU THINK IT IS THAT SOME STUDENTS ARE BRIGHT AND OTHERS ARE DULL ? I think the reason that some students . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. I don't think . that some students listen to the teacher more than others A GREAT DEAL OF uma grande quantidade de SPEND TIME gastar tempo Instead of the word "much" we can use "a great deal of ". WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ PERSONAL pessoal INDIVIDUAL individual DO YOU THINK THAT THE PERSONAL FREEDOM OF THE INDIVIDUAL IS IMPORTANT.... or .... OR DO YOU THINK THAT THE INDIVIDUAL OUGHT TO BE MADE TO DO THE SAME THINGS AND LIVE IN THE SAME WAY AS OTHER PEOPLE ?/ + FIERCE feroz I think that the personal . but I think that . DO YOU EVER SPEND A GREAT DEAL OF YOUR TIME DOING NOTHING ? Yes. No......This document is protected by copyright.. "a great deal of water" etc. or ... very often. I never . For example. I sometimes + spend .
DOWN IN THE MOUTH. to feel unhappy GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. but when her letter arrived I felt much better 635 .I feel very low. PLEASE I was feeling very down in the mouth that morning. WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TO FEEL DOWN IN THE DUMPS... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. You're looking down in the dumps. WHAT DO WE MEAN BY A FIERCE ANIMAL ? By a fierce animal we mean a dangerous and wild one WHAT KIND OF THINGS MAKE YOU REALLY FIERCELY ANGRY ? The kind of things that make me really fiercely angry are . mesmo assim NONETHELESS (OR. What's wrong ? . Nothing seems to be going right these days. but nonetheless I shall go to the cinema this evening e. OR LOW" MEAN ? The idiom .. NONE THE LESS) MAKE A SENTENCE USING THE WORD "NONETHELESS" + IDIOM 5 FEEL DOWN IN THE DUMPS: FEEL DOWN IN THE MOUTH: FEEL LOW = feel unhappy/ sentir-se infeliz I haven't very much money.This document is protected by copyright.g..
. LESSON 103 HAD BETTER o que é o melhor a fazer WHAT HAD WE BETTER DO IF WE WANT TO GET HIGH MARKS IN AN EXAMINATION ? We had better study hard if we want to get ..... WOULD YOUR HOUSE-DOOR KEY FIT THIS DOOR ? No.This document is protected by copyright.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. 636 . one had better . No.. properly. warm clothes etc. I + take them back and try to change them .. I've .. if one .... HADN'T ONE BETTER DRINK LESS IF ONE DOESN'T WANT TO GET DRUNK ?/ Yes.. my house-door .... or .. I haven't . WHY NOT ? Because my house-door key's a different size HAVE YOU ANY BROTHERS OR SISTERS ? Yes. WHAT DO YOU DO ?/ If I buy .. WHAT HAD YOU BETTER DO IN ORDER TO AVOID CATCHING A COLD ? I'd better + look after myself by wearing thick. in order to avoid catching a cold FIT ajustar (servir) FIND OUT descobrir TAKE BACK devolver OPEN UP abrir FIT UP caber / servir IF YOU BUY CLOTHES AND FIND OUT LATER THAT THEY DON'T FIT YOU PROPERLY..
This document is protected by copyright. DO THEIR CLOTHES FIT YOU ? WHY NOT ? Yes. eat plenty of fruit and vegetables.. go to bed early... IF YOU OPENED UP A LANGUAGE SCHOOL.. WHAT'D YOU HAVE TO FIT IT UP WITH ? If I opened up a . Perhaps I'm fit to teach. take walks in the open air. or .... WHY ? Because he doesn't know how to do anything properly ... their clothes fit me .. No. and not smoke or drink ... chairs.... with tables.. I think it's possible for a foreigner to . + I'd have to . etc. SO . WHAT'S THE BEST WAY TO KEEP FIT ?/ The best way + . but it happens very seldom... THAT • tão … que DO YOU THINK IT'S POSSIBLE FOR A FOREIGNER TO LEARN ENGLISH SO WELL THAT PEOPLE WOULD THINK HE WAS ENGLISH ? Yes. is to do physical exercises every morning. Because they take a different size from me .. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file... It often depends a lot on whether the foreigner's own language is similar to English 637 . their clothes .... ARE YOU FIT TO TEACH ENGLISH ? / + WHICH PERSON IN THIS WORLD WOULD YOU SAY WAS FIT FOR NOTHING ? I'd say the person in + this world who was fit for nothing was my brother… etc. pictures..
AT WHAT TIME OF THE YEAR DO THEY GATHER THE FRUIT IN THIS PART OF THE WORLD ?/ They gather the fruit in .. HOW DO THE POLICE GATHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE MURDER ? + When a man has been murdered.. I . WHAT DO YOU DO IN THE EVENING WHEN IT'S SO COLD THAT IT'D BE UNPLEASANT TO GO OUT ?/ In + the evening .. you gather up those .. STUDENTS READ LESSON 96 ON PAGE 586 GATHER reunir (juntar) DO I GATHER UP THESE BOOKS ON THE TABLE AT THE END OF THE LESSON ? Yes.. so cold that . the police gather information about the murder . in this part of the world WHEN A MAN HAS BEEN MURDERED... are (or were) at the beginning and end of each school year etc. WEIGH pesar ABOUT HOW MUCH DOES YOUR BOOK WEIGH ? + My book weighs about ...... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.This document is protected by copyright. from his friends and relations and anyone who last saw the man alive ON WHAT OCCASIONS DO (OR DID) ALL THE PUPILS IN YOUR SCHOOL GATHER TOGETHER ?/ The occasions on which all ... 638 ...
the order of words is often determined by rhythm. it means you can't expect too much from life. have your cake and eat it . You can't.. but.. then you eat it.first you have it. spend your money and still expect to have it ... or . No. Because I can't live without my comforts . in fact. For the same reason."YOU CAN'T HAVE YOUR CAKE AND EAT IT" ?/ The literal meaning. But you definitely cannot first eat your cake and then still have it. for example. I'm not the kind .. especially one like English.. we say the "Oxford and Cambridge" boat race and not the "Cambridge and Oxford" boat race. because you can. or . The above expression should really be "You can't eat your cake and have it". I'm the kind .. CAKE bolo LITERAL literal WHAT DOES IT MEAN . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. as an expression. + of course. 639 .. etc. RELAX relaxar WHAT DO YOU DO WHEN YOU WANT TO RELAX ?/ + When I want to relax. is that you can't eat your cake and still expect to have it on your plate or in your hand.. there are more important things in life . COMFORT conforto ARE YOU THE KIND OF PERSON WHO PUTS THE COMFORTS OF THE HOME BEFORE EVERYTHING ELSE? + WHY OR WHY NOT ? Yes...... of "You can't have your cake and eat it". As with so much in a language. I .This document is protected by copyright..
No. AUDIENCE platéia DO YOU THINK THERE'S ANY DIFFERENCE IN CHARACTER BETWEEN A CINEMA AUDIENCE AND A THEATRE AUDIENCE ? Yes. WHAT ? CHIMNEY chaminé WHAT'S THE USE OF A CHIMNEY ? The use of a chimney is to carry the smoke from the fire up into the air and away from the house CRY chorar.. I think there's a + difference in .. whilst we use the 640 .This document is protected by copyright. we use the Past Simple when the action is finished and the time is finished... choraminguar... I don't think there's . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. bradar GIVE ME SENTENCES SHOWING THE TWO MEANINGS OF THE WORD "CRY" / + 1) The film was so sad that the girl cried the whole time. or . 2)"Be careful how you cross the road!" the child's mother cried USE OF THE PAST SIMPLE IN PLACE OF THE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– PRESENT PERFECT –––––––––––––––––– IRREGULARITY irregularidade IN PLACE OF no lugar de As we have already seen.
. IDIOM 6 LET SOMEONE DOWN = fail someone who is decepcionar alguém depending on us e. we are thinking of that part of the morning that is now finished. I shall lose everything. So don't let me down.g. 641 . Present Perfect when the action is finished but the time is not finished. However. If you don't come tomorrow and help me. because we are thinking of that part of the morning that is now finished WHAT TIME DID YOU COME HERE TODAY ? I came – here today at .This document is protected by copyright. it may only be about 11 a. "What time did you get up this morning ?" is correct WHY ? – Perhaps. when asking such a question. we must notice the following irregularity when we say "What time did you get up this morning ?" and not "What time have you got up this morning ?" even though when asking the question the morning has not yet finished.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file./ The reason for this irregularity is perhaps that.m. WHICH OF THESE TWO SENTENCES IS CORRECT ? "WHAT TIME DID YOU GET UP THIS MORNING ?" OR "WHAT TIME HAVE YOU GOT UP THIS MORNING ?"/ – Of those two sentences.
" LESSON 104 SPECIAL VERBS (cont. age etc. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. I do wish the children would not make so much noise./ The following is a statement:/ "A man. For example./ often wants to fight./ but it is very similar. "To fail someone …" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. PLEASE He let everyone down by not keeping his promise.. I should but I won't. address./ He rode his bicycle/ at top speed/ down the hill and hit a bus." 642 .This document is protected by copyright. and they were very much depending upon him DICTATION 56 He guessed/ the name of the Prime Minister correctly. WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TO LET SOMEONE DOWN" MEAN ? The idiom .. "My husband will be pleased to see you after all these years. when he is drunk./ When we make an application/ for a passport./ Schools in England/ try to develop a boy's character/ as well as his brains./ That chair is not the same/ as this one./ He found to his surprise/ that his name/ was not upon the list./ Join now before it is too late./ we must state/ on our application form/ our name.) –––––––––––––– OBEY obedecer EMPHASIZE enfatizar BRIEFLY brevemente The last three ways in which the Special Verbs differ from other verbs are as follows:1) They are used when we wish to be emphatic about something.
.I daren't ask him again 2) They are often followed by certain adverbs instead of being preceded by them. He will never give me what I want. is that they're used when we wish to be emphatic about something GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES.This document is protected by copyright. PLEASE I just could not make her understand .They were here a moment ago IF THE SENTENCE IS IN THE NEGATIVE. We can often make a mistake. but he won't . PLEASE I might go.. I shall not be late. we emphasize the word "not"."/ TELL ME THE SECOND OF THE LAST THREE WAYS The second of the .He ought to study harder."/ TELL ME THE FIRST OF THE LAST THREE WAYS IN WHICH THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFER FROM THE OTHER VERBS ? The first of the last . the adverb usually comes first. For example. WHICH WORD DO WE EMPHASISE INSTEAD ?/ If the sentence is .... "My husband will not be pleased to see you after all these years. For example. He never asks questions." With other verbs.. For example. "I always go to the cinema on Saturday. We often take the children on holiday. 643 .They must not go without permission . "I have always kept my promises. but I'm not sure . If the sentence is in the negative. we emphasise the word "not" instead GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. We need not go if we don't want to.
. Also the verbs "need" and "dare" sometimes add "s" in the third person. is that they do not take "s" in the third person singular Present Tense GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. PLEASE I can.He ought never to have gone It has seldom happened twice 3) They do not take "s" in the third person singular of the Present Tense. you can. you can. PLEASE It might sometimes rain heavily . we say "I can. Other verbs. but this is because they are sometimes used as defective verbs and sometimes as normal verbs. is that they're often followed by certain adverbs. he can WHAT ARE THE EXCEPTIONS TO THIS ? The exceptions to this are the verbs "do" and "have" and … NOW WILL YOU STATE FOR ME BRIEFLY THE NINE WAYS IN WHICH THE SPECIAL VERBS DIFFER FROM NORMAL VERBS / + 644 . on the other hand. The only exceptions to this are the verbs "do" and "have" which change to "does" and "has" for the third persons. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file./ TELL ME THE THIRD OF THE LAST THREE WAYS The third of the . you can. he takes" etc. you take. When used as normal verbs they take "s" in the third person. he cans".This document is protected by copyright.. For example. "I take. he can". add "s". We do not say "I can. For example. instead of being preceded by them GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES.
.. but sometimes you will find it before a Special Verb. For example. For example. often. which means that it would be dangerous to think of the rules as always being obeyed. we should always remember the words "generally. "John always is late. sometimes" etc.This document is protected by copyright." In this case. we "generally" put an adverb after the Special Verbs. When learning a rule. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. when we wish – to emphasize the Special Verb 645 . the special verb "is" is used emphatically in order to emphasize the fact that John is always late. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) They form their interrogatives by putting the verb before the subject They form their negatives just by adding "not" They are the only verbs used in Tail Questions They are used as auxiliaries They are used for short answers They are used in End Constructions They are used when we wish to be emphatic They are often followed by certain adverbs They do not take "s" in the third person of the Present Simple It is well to remember that in English there are very often exceptions to a rule./ WHEN DO WE PUT AN ADVERB BEFORE A SPECIAL VERB INSTEAD OF AFTER IT ? We put .
They seldom have tried hard HEAT (v & n) RADIATOR aquecer..... PLEASE You never will learn if you don't listen . electric fire etc.... I + wait and save . I prefer the ...... gas fire. or . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.] WHICH IS CHEAPER – CENTRAL HEATING OR ELECTRIC FIRES ?/ .. When I lack ..This document is protected by copyright. calor radiador OIL oleo CENTRAL HEATING aquecimento central WHAT IS THE VERB AND THE NOUN FOR THE ADJECTIVE "HOT" ?/ The verb .. No. is cheaper + LACK falta SUFFICIENT suficiente CREDIT crédito WHEN YOU LACK SUFFICIENT MONEY TO BUY SOMETHING.. or . GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES. WHY OR WHY NOT ? HOW IS THIS ROOM HEATED ? This room is heated by + radiators [oil fire. I don't prefer the . I buy it on credit WHY OR WHY NOT ? 646 . DO YOU WAIT AND SAVE THE MONEY OR DO YOU BUY IT ON CREDIT ? When I lack ..I sometimes can come on Saturdays .. is "heat" DO YOU PREFER THE HEAT OF THE SUMMER RATHER THAN THE COLD OF THE WINTER ? Yes.
...This document is protected by copyright.. is that we choose our friends... WHAT DO YOU THINK YOUR TOWN IS LACKING IN MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE ?/ I think my town is lacking in .... I often pay .. STUDENTS READ LESSON 97 ON PAGE 593 NEIGHBOUR vizinho (a) NEXT-DOOR NEIGHBOUR vizinho do lado NEIGHBOURING vizinho (a) BOOKSHOP livraria NEIGHBOURHOOD vizinhança GET ON WELL (OR GET ALONG WELL) dar-se bem WHO'S YOUR NEIGHBOUR IN THIS CLASSROOM ? My neighbour in ... is . seldom . I don't often pay ... there are .. but do not choose our neighbours .. No. or .. DO YOU OFTEN PAY A VISIT TO THE NEIGHBOURING TOWN ? Yes. 647 . WHY DO YOU THINK IT IS THAT SOME PEOPLE JUST DON'T GET ON WELL WITH THEIR NEXT-DOOR NEIGHBOURS ?/ I think the reason + that some people .... more than anything else ARE THERE ANY COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD IN WHICH THERE IS A SERIOUS LACK OF FOOD ? Yes. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.
there isn't a . No... BIBLE Bíblia GOD Deus RELATION relação WHAT'S THE CHRISTIAN BIBLE ABOUT ? The Christian + Bible is about Man and his relation to God . IS THERE A BOOKSHOP IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THIS SCHOOL ? . WHY OR WHY NOT ? WHICH DO YOU THINK IS THE PLEASANTEST (OR MOST PLEASANT) NEIGHBOURHOOD IN THIS TOWN? I think the pleasantest neighbourhood in this town is .. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. less tiring...IF SO. WHERE ?/ + NOBLE nobre Yes.. but also because it's easier.... and will continue running until it drops dead if a man wishes it to ... MARCH marchar ORDER ordem TIRING cansativo WHY DO SOLDIERS MARCH ? Soldiers march because + marching helps maintain order. + because it'll save a man's life. and less boring to march in rhythm with others than to walk alone ..This document is protected by copyright. there's a . WHY DO WE CONSIDER THE HORSE A NOBLE ANIMAL ? We consider the ... 648 .. or ..
e. I shall just go round the bend WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TO GO ROUND THE BEND" MEAN ? The idiom ...... "to go mad" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. is the most wicked .. was the bloodiest . WICKED malvado WHO DO YOU THINK IS THE MOST WICKED PERSON ALIVE TODAY ? + WHY ? IDIOM 7 GO ROUND THE BEND = go mad or become mad ficar ou tornar-se louco I think .... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.This document is protected by copyright. BLOODY sangrento WHICH DO YOU THINK WAS THE BLOODIEST BATTLE IN HISTORY ?/ I think the battle + of .. If I have any more problems on top of those I already have. PLEASE EXERCISE 42 I shall go round the bend with all this work 649 .g.
Smith again.Richard asked his friend when he would see Mr. 2) Richard to his friend: "When will you see Mr. Charles ?" becomes .. PLEASE – 1) John: "What are you doing. and we put the subject before the verb.This document is protected by copyright. LESSON 105 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH (2) • –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– QUESTIONS questões COMMANDS AND REQUESTS CHARLES SIMPLY commandos e pedidos Charles simplesmente QUESTIONS ––––––––––– When we change a question from Direct into Indirect Speech. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. and we put the subject before the verb GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES. we use a verb like "ask" instead of "say".John asked Charles what he was doing.. we do not use a question mark. "Can you give me a book ?" becomes .The pupils asked the teacher if he wanted them to mark their own dictations themselves./ WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE CHANGE A QUESTION FROM DIRECT INTO INDIRECT SPEECH ? When we + change . Smith again ?" becomes . 650 ./ 3) Pupils to teacher: "Do you want us to mark our own dictations ourselves ?" becomes . we do not use a question mark. For example.I asked you if you could give me a book. we use a verb like "ask" instead of "say".
You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. commanded.I told you not to walk so fast. and.. COMMANDS ––––––––––– When we change a command from Direct into Indirect Speech we use words like "told.The officer commanded the soldier to go back at once. and use words like "ask" or "request". "Would you pass the salt.. in the case of a negative command. "Don't walk so fast" becomes . we change the Imperative into the Infinitive . For example. commanded. For example. PLEASE – 1) Officer to soldier: "Go back at once!" becomes . the "do not" becomes simply "not"./ WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE CHANGE A COMMAND FROM DIRECT INTO INDIRECT SPEECH ? When we + change . please?" becomes . "do not" becomes simply "not" GIVE ME THREE EXAMPLES.. 651 .I asked you if you would pass the salt. we use the same construction as with commands.. we change the Imperative into the Infinitive. ordered". ordered". REQUESTS –––––––––– When we change requests from Direct into Indirect Speech. 2) Mother to her child: "Stop making so much noise!" becomes The mother ordered her child to stop making so much noise./ 3) "Don't listen to what he says!" becomes . we use words like "told.I told you not to listen to what he says.This document is protected by copyright.
it's easier to ... and use words like "ask" or "request" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.. WOULD THE FOOD YOU ATE THEN HAVE BEEN PLAINER THAN THE FOOD YOU EAT NOW ?/ Yes.. SUPPOSING YOU HADN'T SPOKEN PLAINLY ENOUGH WHEN TRYING TO EXPRESS YOURSELF IN ENGLISH.. + WHY ? Because the earth on a plain is usually deeper and richer .. if I + had been born . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file..Mary requested her brother not to tell their father how much it cost PLAIN planície. PLEASE Mary to her brother: – "Please don't tell father how much it cost" becomes ... WHAT'D YOU HAVE TO DO ? Supposing I hadn't + spoken . claro.This document is protected by copyright. plano A TASTE FOR um gosto por THEN então PURITY pureza IMPURITY impureza IS IT EASIER TO GROW FOOD ON A PLAIN THAN ON A MOUNTAIN ?/ Yes. I'd have to repeat what I had said in other words and try to make my meaning much plainer IF YOU HAD BEEN BORN ABOUT A THOUSAND YEARS AGO. the food I ate then would have . same construction as with commands. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE CHANGE REQUESTS FROM DIRECT INTO INDIRECT SPEECH ?/ When we + change .. 652 ...
I'd like to .. – WHAT'S A PLAIN . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ DO YOU THINK LIFE IS EASIER WHEN PEOPLE SPEAK PLAINLY TO EACH OTHER.CLOTHES POLICEMAN ? A plain+ clothes policeman is a policeman who does not wear a uniform WHAT KIND OF WORK DOES HE DO ? He does detective work: the kind of work a policeman in uniform could not do. No...This document is protected by copyright. and a lot of food today contains impurities . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. HAVE YOU MORE OF A TASTE FOR PLAIN CLOTHES OR FOR COLOURFUL CLOTHES ? I've more of a taste ...CLOTHES POLICEMAN ? Yes. WHY ? Because science has changed the world: there are more different kinds of foods in the shops nowadays. I – think life is . or . DIRECTLY... because he would be too noticeable .. I don't think life is . SPEAK OPENLY. AND HONESTLY TO EACH OTHER? Yes. No. I wouldn't . or . WHY OR WHY NOT ? 653 ......... WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE A PLAIN .. each other . THAT IS...
rang ...telefonado WEDDING casamento TELEPHONE telefone PICK UP pegar (responder) RING UP chamar The teacher should accompany the following question by pretending to press a button. I ring the door-bell WHAT DO WE DO WHEN THE TELEPHONE RINGS? + When the telephone rings we pick it up and answer it WHAT'S THE PARADIGM OF THE VERB "TO RING" ? The paradigm .. WHICH HAND AND FINGER DO THEY WEAR THEIR WEDDING RINGS ON ?/ + When people are .RANG .... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file...RUNG telefornar – telefonou . is .This document is protected by copyright. RING . they wear . STUDENTS READ LESSON 98 ON PAGE 601 654 . ring . WHAT DO YOU DO WHEN YOU ARRIVE AT SOMEONE'S FRONT DOOR IN ORDER TO PAY A VISIT ?/ When I arrive at . WHAT NUMBER DO YOU RING AT HOME IN ORDER TO RING UP THE POLICE STATION ? – The number we ring at .....rung WHEN PEOPLE ARE MARRIED.
. whilst "home" is used more in the abstract or spiritual sense. OR DO YOU LIVE AT HOME ? I live .. usually together with our family. IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A HOUSE AND A HOME ? Generally speaking + .lar GENERALLY SPEAKING falando de maneira geral HOUSEWORK trabalho de casa HOUSEWIFE dona-de-casa Generally speaking.This document is protected by copyright. whilst a home is the place where we live. No.HOME casa . IN A HOTEL. HOUSE ... DO YOU STAY WITH A FAMILY... DO YOU LIVE AT SCHOOL./ WHAT.. WHICH DO YOU PREFER ? WHY ?/ DO YOU THINK IT'S A GOOD THING FOR A BOY OR A GIRL TO LEAVE HOME WHEN THEY ARE YOUNG ? Yes.. we use more in the physical sense.. containing only one family. . is that a house is a building . I think it's a . 655 I prefer . the difference between a house and a home is that a house is a building usually composed of two floors and usually containing one family. GENERALLY SPEAKING.... or . "House". I don't think it's a ... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. whilst a home is a place where we live ... therefore.
HAS ONE PUPIL HARDLY FINISHED ANSWERING ONE QUESTION BEFORE I ASK ANOTHER ?/ – Yes... WHY OR WHY NOT ? Housework is the work generally done by a housewife (or perhaps even her husband) in the house.... such as.. requisitar Yes. is that housework is .. one pupil has hardly ..This document is protected by copyright... NERVE nervo TAXI táxi 656 . because smoking is a habit which is extremely difficult to break .. EVEN WHEN THEY HAVE HARDLY ANY MONEY ? + I think people continue .. whilst homework is the work a pupil has to do at home. HARDLY dificilmente (quase) WHY DO YOU THINK PEOPLE CONTINUE TO SMOKE.. the washing and the cleaning etc. WOULD YOU SAY IT WERE HARDLY POSSIBLE FOR A MAN TO LIVE ALL HIS LIFE WITHOUT EVER BEING ILL ONCE ? DEMAND demandar. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file./ WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOUSEWORK AND HOMEWORK ? The difference + between . I'd say it were hardly .
. I don't think human . I think human .. teaching... any kind of job where one must work with the public .This document is protected by copyright......./ .. are + bus-driving. meia-noite WHAT COLOUR'S "MIDNIGHT BLUE" ? "Midnight blue" is a + very dark blue. NAME ME A SINGER WHO'S IN GREAT DEMAND WITH THE PUBLIC THESE DAYS.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. + No. WHY ? MIDNIGHT Because the public can get on one's nerves . WHERE MUST WE GO TO DEMAND OUR RIGHTS ? We must go to a lawyer or to the law courts to demand our rights WHAT KIND OF JOBS MAKE GREAT DEMANDS ON ONE'S NERVES ? The kind of jobs which . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ PAIR par WHAT DO WE MEAN BY A PAIR OF EYES ? By a + "pair of eyes" we mean "two eyes" WING asa 657 . is a singer who's in great demand with the .. taxi-driving.. like the sky at midnight HUMAN humano NUCLEAR nuclear DO YOU THINK HUMAN LIFE COULD CONTINUE IF THERE WAS A NUCLEAR WAR ? Yes.
. "it is of no importance to me.g..” WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "COULDN'T CARE LESS" MEAN? The idiom . PLEASE She has lost her job. I'm not interested in him any more. but she says she couldn't care less. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. I'm not able to . it does not worry [ me] não é importante – não me preocupa IMPORTANCE importância ANY MORE não mais e.. He can go and live where he likes .I couldn't care less. it does not worry me" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE./ whilst "brain" we use/ in the physical sense. CAN A BIRD FLY WITH ONLY ONE WING ? No. as she can easily find another DICTATION 57 DISCOVERY descoberta "Mind" we use/ in the abstract sense.... IDIOM 8 COULDN'T CARE LESS = it is of no importance to [ me] .. It must have a pair of wings VALUE valor PAINTING pintura ARE YOU ABLE TO GUESS THE VALUE OF CLOTHES [PAINTINGS. FURNITURE ETC] ?/ Yes. No. I'm able to ..This document is protected by copyright../ He rose early/ and ran a mile before breakfast./ She was glad/ she had not hurt herself/ when she fell over the chair/ that 658 .. “He said that he was going to live in South America. a + bird can't . + or .
/ but had caught nothing. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file..../ What a pity!/ The men had been fishing all day.. I've never run . I've run .. LESSON 106 SUGGESTION sugestão Here are four ways in which we can make a suggestion:1) Shall we go to the cinema ? 2) Let's go to the cinema 3) How (or what) about going to the cinema ? 4) Why don't we go to the cinema ? GIVE ME FOUR WAYS IN WHICH WE CAN MAKE A SUGGESTION + RACE (n) corrida 1) Shall we wait for him ? 2) . or . WHEN ? WHERE ? WHAT HAPPENED ? 659 ../ People sometimes feel a little sick/ just before they have to make/ a speech in public. was lying on the floor./ He repaired the roof/ the wind had damaged/ and then descended to the ground.../ Many great discoveries/ were made by scientists/ during the last century/ as results of experiments. No. RACEHORSE cavalo de corrida HORSE RACE corrida de cavalo RACECOURSE pista de corrida CLIMATE clima GO ON / continuar HAVE YOU EVER RUN IN A RACE ? Yes.This document is protected by copyright.
.. A racehorse is a horse we use for racing. WHAT'S GENERALLY THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ASIATIC RACES AND THE EUROPEAN RACES IN DRESS ? + The difference generally .. A horse race is a race between horses. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. WHAT DOES THE WORD "UNLESS" MEAN ? The word "unless" means "If ..... it wouldn't be .. WHY OR WHY NOT ? UNLESS = IF . . UNLESS YOU WERE ABOUT TO DIE ?/ + 660 No...This document is protected by copyright... A "HORSE RACE" AND A "RACECOURSE" ?/ The difference ... unless I was . DO YOU THINK THE HUMAN RACE WILL ALWAYS GO ON LIVING ? Yes. and a racecourse is a place where people meet in order to race horses.... + is that a "racehorse" .. not" WOULD IT BE VERY INTELLIGENT TO GIVE EVERYTHING YOU OWNED AWAY. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A "RACEHORSE". I think the human .. No.. NOT a menos que = se … não INTELLIGENT inteligente ABOUT TO / prestes a "I shall come unless it rains" means the same as "I shall come if it does not rain".. or .. I don't think . is that the Asiatic races dress more for a hot climate .
whilst "to roll" means to move from side to side. a ship at sea rocks and rolls. WHAT'S A ROCKING . "To rock"...CHAIR ? A rocking-chair is a chair + that moves backwards and forwards and is very pleasant for relaxing in. is that – "to rock" generally .This document is protected by copyright. rolar. It is usually popular with old people WHAT'S A ROCKING .. can also mean to move from side to side. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "TO ROCK" AND "TO ROLL" ?/ The difference between .. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. however.HORSE? A rocking-horse is a + wooden horse made for children which rocks backwards and forwards "To roll" also means "to go round and round like a ball". For example. enrolar ROLL chacoalhar ROCKING-CHAIR cadeira de balanço ROCKING-HORSE cavalo de balance PARK parque WOODEN de madeira MOVEMENT movimento FORM formato FLATTEN aplainar ROLLER rolo "To rock" generally means to move backwards and forwards. ROCK chacoalhar. 661 .
. "to make flat".. WHAT DOES IT MEAN "TO ROLL ALONG IN A CAR" ? + "To roll along in a car" means "to go with a smooth.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. my way. WOULD YOU KICK IT BACK TO ITS OWNER OR WOULD YOU PICK IT UP AND THROW IT BACK ? + WHY ?/ Another meaning of the verb "to roll" is "to go or move with a smooth movement"... that is. WHAT AM I DOING ? You're rolling a piece of paper in your hands If I were walking . comfortable and easy movement" Another meaning of the verb "to roll" is "to form by rolling".This document is protected by copyright. by rolling it with a roller WHAT'S THIS ? WHAT'S A BREAD ROLL ? + 662 It's a roll of paper A bread roll is bread in the form of a roll . "To roll" also means "to flatten". HOW DO THEY FLATTEN A FOOTBALL FIELD ? + They flatten .. is "to go round and round like a ball" IF YOU WERE WALKING ACROSS A PARK AND A BALL ROLLED YOUR WAY.. WHAT'S ANOTHER MEANING OF THE VERB "TO ROLL"? – Another meaning . I'd .
IS A GIRL MALE OR FEMALE A girl is female WHO'S YOUR FAVOURITE MALE FILM STAR ?/ My favourite ... WHO DO YOU THINK ACT BETTER AND ARE MORE INTERESTING TO WATCH.. is that a matchbox . WHO'S YOUR FAVOURITE FEMALE FILM STAR ? My favourite .. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A MATCHBOX AND A BOX OF MATCHES ? MALE macho (s)/ masculino (a)(s) The difference between . and a woman is a female. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TEA-CUP AND A CUP OF TEA ?/ The difference ... MALE OR FEMALE FILM STARS ? + I think .. whereas a cup of tea is a cup "with" tea [ in it] .....This document is protected by copyright.... STUDENTS READ LESSON 99 ON PAGE 609 A TEA-CUP uma xícara para chá AND e A CUP OF TEA • uma xícara de chá A tea-cup is a cup "for" tea. FILM STAR astro de cinema FEMALE fêmea (s)/ feminino (a)(s) ACT atuar (interpretar) A man is a male. film stars act better and . + is that a tea-cup . 663 . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file...
IN THE ANIMAL WORLD, WHICH IS USUALLY MORE COLOURFUL - THE MALE OR THE FEMALE ?/ In the animal world, the male is ... DEAL
em troco de
WHAT DO YOU CONSIDER TO BE THE BEST WAY TO DEAL WITH BAD CHILDREN ? I think the best ... is to ... + WHICH WOULD YOU SAY WAS MORE PROFITABLE IN BUSINESS, TO DEAL IN CARS OR TO DEAL IN FOOD ? + I'd say that it was more ... to deal in ... WHY ?/ CAN YOU TELL ME THE NAME OF ONE OF YOUR LOCAL CAR DEALERS ? Yes, I can tell you – the ... It's ...
WHAT DO WE CALL THE PERSON WHO DEALS THE CARDS IN A GAME OF POKER ? We call the person who + ... the "banker" WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY WE MAKE A DEAL WITH SOMEONE ?/ When we say we make ... we + mean we agree to give someone something in return for something he will give us: or, to do something for someone in return for something he will do for us
IDIOM 9 MIND ONE'S OWN BUSINESS = not to interfere with, or ask questions about, other people's não se intrometer, não interferir business or private life e.g. He wanted to know how much money I had in the bank, so I told him to mind his own business WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TO MIND ONE'S OWN BUSINESS" MEAN ? The idiom ... "not to interfere with, or ask ..." GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE The world would be a much better place to live in if everyone minded their own business LESSON 107 OR SO
por volta de (um pouco mais que isso)
The words "or so" mean "about, or a little more than". For example, "I learnt English for two years or so" means "I learnt English for about, or a little more than, two years." WHAT DO THE WORDS "OR SO" MEAN ? The words ... + mean ... "about, or a little more than" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE + He earns twenty pounds or so a week
RUN A BUSINESS ETC.
administrar um negócio
DO YOU THINK YOU COULD RUN A LARGE FACTORY, OR DON'T YOU THINK YOU COULD EVEN RUN A SMALL COFFEE SHOP ?/ + EMPHASISING PRONOUNS • –––––––––––––––––––––––– LEAVE OUT
deixar de fora
Yes, I think I could ... or ... No, I don't think I could run ... or even run a ...
In the sentence "John washed himself", the word "himself" is a Reflexive Pronoun; but, in the sentence "John washed the car himself", the word "himself" is not a Reflexive Pronoun, because it is not the receiver of the action. The "car" is the receiver of the action, and the object of the sentence./ The word "himself" could be left out and the sentence would still make sense. It is put in, however, to make what is said stronger - that is, to give it emphasis - and so it is called an Emphasising Pronoun. The Emphasising Pronouns are the same as the Reflexive Pronouns, that is, "myself, yourself, himself" etc.
PLEASE / I remember it very + clearly. because I gave him the money myself. are "myself .. IN THE SENTENCE "JOHN WASHED HIMSELF". WHY DO WE PUT IT IN THEN ? We put it in to make what is said stronger and to give it emphasis WHAT DO WE CALL SUCH A WORD ? We call such a word an Emphasising Pronoun WHAT ARE THE EMPHASISING PRONOUNS ? + The Emphasising ... which means it is not the receiver of the action WHICH WORD IS THE OBJECT OF THE SENTENCE ? The word "car" is the .. the doer of the action is also the receiver . WHAT DO WE CALL THE WORD "HIMSELF" ?/ In the sentence ." GIVE ME THREE SENTENCES CONTAINING EMPHASISING PRONOUNS.She always drove the car herself 667 ... the word "himself " isn't a .. a Reflexive Pronoun WHY ? Because the subject and the object are the same person that is..they have to take them to a shoe repairer . we could leave . COULD WE LEAVE THE WORD "HIMSELF" OUT OF THE SENTENCE ?/ Yes. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.which means that the action is reflected back onto the doer IN THE SENTENCE "JOHN WASHED THE CAR HIMSELF" IS THE WORD "HIMSELF" A REFLEXIVE PRONOUN ? No. WHY NOT ? Because it is not the object of the sentence. in the sentence ...This document is protected by copyright.. People cannot usually repair shoes themselves....
This document is protected by copyright.. I believe in the . or . the teacher . For example "I did the translation myself" emphasises the fact that "I" did the translation and not someone else.........No.. not someone else . WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO SENTENCES ? "HE CUT THE BREAD HIMSELF" AND "HE CUT THE BREAD BY HIMSELF" / The difference + between these two sentences is that the first sentence emphasises the fact that "he" . whereas "I did the translation by myself " means that I did the translation alone without help.....or. Sometimes we use an Emphasising Pronoun with the meaning of "alone".. in which case we generally use the word "by" with it.. DO YOU BELIEVE IN THE EXPRESSION "IF YOU WANT A JOB DOING PROPERLY... but somebody has to shut it 668 . this door doesn't shut by itself.. No. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. WHO HELPS HIM WITH THE ANSWER ?/ + If a pupil . DO IT YOURSELF" ? + Yes. I don't believe in the .. the second sentence means .. this door shuts + by itself. WHY OR WHY NOT ? IF A PUPIL CAN'T ANSWER A QUESTION DURING THE LESSON HIMSELF. Three students each give a sentence.. he cut the bread alone without help DOES THIS DOOR SHUT BY ITSELF ? Yes.
TO END terminar (encerrar) IF TWO COUNTRIES CAN'T SETTLE A POLITICAL PROBLEM. United Nations Organisation (The UN).. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. or U.O. Here are 6 of them. STUDENTS READ LESSON 100 ON PAGE 616 SETTLE (1) –––––––––– UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (U.This document is protected by copyright.... TO PAY pagar IF YOU DON'T SETTLE YOUR BILLS WHEN YOU OUGHT TO.. WHERE DO THEY (OR RATHER WHERE SHOULD THEY) GO IN ORDER TO SETTLE IT ? If two + countries . WHAT HAPPENS ?/ If I don't settle ..) Organização das Nações Unidas STIR mexer FOREVER para sempre THE SPANISH os espanhóis THE PORTUGUESE os portugueses The word "settle" is one of those difficult words which has all kinds of meanings and uses.N. I + might have to pay a fine .. TO GO TO THE BOTTOM ir para o fundo 669 .N...
. are music... a film with a sad ending ... watching sport... I'd say that .. WHAT WOULD I MEAN ?/ If you said to .... the sugar + settles to the bottom of the cup WHAT KIND OF THINGS STIR YOU THE MOST ? + The kind of ..This document is protected by copyright. or .. I'd find it . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ TO COLONIZE colonizar WHO WERE THE FIRST EUROPEANS TO SETTLE IN SOUTH AMERICA ? The first Europeans . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. PARTLY parcialmente WOULD YOU SAY THAT SUCCESS IN LIFE WAS PARTLY A QUESTION OF LUCK ? Yes. TO DECIDE decidir IF I SAID TO YOU THAT I WAS GOING TO AUSTRALIA NEXT YEAR BUT THAT NOTHING HAD BEEN SETTLED YET.. + 670 . TO MAKE ONE'S HOME fazer alguém se sentir em casa WOULD YOU FIND IT DIFFICULT TO SETTLE IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY FOREVER ? Yes. you'd + mean that nothing had been decided yet for certain as to how and when you were going etc. IF YOU DON'T STIR YOUR COFFEE.. I wouldn't find it ... were + the Spanish and the Portuguese . WHAT HAPPENS TO THE SUGAR ? If I don't stir .. + No..
I can't stand that man. A beach is usually of sand or small stones made smooth by the sea. He drives me round the bend.g. we usually mean that part of the shore which is between the high-tide mark and the low-tide mark.. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. is not very brave By the word "beach".. CHICKEN frango (covarde) BRAVE bravo (corajoso) CAN A CHICKEN FLY ? + "CHICKEN" ? + BEACH praia Yes. but not very far WHY DOES A BOY SOMETIMES CALL ANOTHER BOY A boy sometimes . like a chicken.. a chicken ./ WHAT DO WE MEAN BY THE WORD "BEACH" ? By the + word ...This document is protected by copyright. TIDY organizado WHAT DOES IT MEAN "TO BE TIDY" ? "To be tidy" + means to keep things in their proper place IDIOM 10 STAND = to bear or suffer suportar ou sofrer e. 671 . because he thinks the boy..
/ Whatever I do. WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "TO STAND" MEAN ? The idiom ./ but we usually prefer/ to say "whoever". "to bear or to suffer" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE../ There are many famous arches in the world/ to remind us of past civilizations.. LESSON 108 STAGE estágio (palco) DEVELOPMENT desenvolvimento INTERMEDIATE intermediário ADVANCED avançado The word "stage" has two meanings . very carefully/ before you choose. I just had to leave DICTATION 58 PAST (adj) Passado(a)(s) (adj) My town/ is not very big. WHAT ARE THE TWO MEANINGS OF THE WORD "STAGE" ? The two meanings of ./ as a lot may depend/ upon your decision../ it never seems to be right./ With modern science./ we may be able to travel/ wherever we wish/ in the heavens./ The policeman arrested the criminal/ and took his gun./ It is not really correct to say/ "I shall give the books/ to whoever I wish."/ We ought really to say "whomever"./ Consider very.This document is protected by copyright./ there seems to be no limit/ to what man is able to do./ Perhaps. 672 ../ but despite this fact it is very good at football/ and is in the first division. PLEASE I just couldn't stand the way he shouted at everyone. and a period of development. one day/ in the future. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file./ as it is easier.a theatre stage.
.. it'd .. AT WHAT STAGE OF YOUR ENGLISH STUDIES ARE YOU AT THE MOMENT ... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN ON THE STAGE IN THE THEATRE ? Yes. I've been ..BEGINNER. I've never ..This document is protected by copyright. WHERE WILL IT EVENTUALLY LEAD YOU TO ? If you follow a . INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED ? + We are at an intermediate stage .. No... to the sea or a lake 673 .. corrente ON FIRE em chamas UPSTREAM contra a corrente DOWNSTREAM a favor da corrente WHAT IS A STREAM ? A stream is a small river IF YOU FOLLOW A RIVER UPSTREAM.. WHEN ? WHY ? WERE YOU AFRAID ?/ WOULD YOU BE AFRAID TO ACT ON THE STAGE ? + Yes.. or . WHERE WOULD IT EVENTUALLY LEAD YOU TO ?/ If you followed it ..... I'd be .. riacho. etc STREAM (v & n) fluir... No.. or . AT WHAT STAGE OF A MAN'S LIFE DOES HIS HAIR BEGIN TO DROP OUT ?/ A man's hair can begin to drop out at any stage in his life. I wouldn't .. it'll + eventually lead you to the mountains or hills AND IF YOU FOLLOWED IT DOWNSTREAM. It depends on the man and his manner of living .
Defining Clauses and NonDefining Clauses. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. whereas a Non-Defining Clause is not essential to the meaning of a sentence. the clause "which I gave you" is essential to the meaning of the sentence.. is a very large city. whilst in the second sentence. IF YOU SAW A STREAM OF PEOPLE STREAMING OUT OF A BUILDING IN A HURRY. which is the capital of France./ In the first sentence. NON-DEFINING CLAUSE –––––––––––––––––––––– Paris. WHAT'D YOU THINK ? + If I saw . I'd think that either the building was on fire or that people had just finished work DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING CLAUSES • –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– DEFINE definir ESSENTIAL essencial NEXT-DOOR porta ao lado We have two kinds of clauses . the clause "which is the capital of France" is not essential information about Paris. A Defining Clause is essential to the meaning of a sentence. For example: DEFINING CLAUSE ––––––––––––––––– The book which I gave you was not mine.This document is protected by copyright.. 674 .
a Non-Defining Clause is not essential .. Commas. Non-Defining: Miss Jones. PLEASE / This is the book that – (or which) John gave me -and. the girl who lives next-door. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE.This document is protected by copyright. whose car was stolen last week. where I used to live as a boy. works in the same office as myself.. as it is additional information. is very interesting Other examples of Defining and Non-Defining Clauses are as follows:Defining: The man who lives next-door is no friend of mine. is a friend of mine With a Defining Clause. GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES OF DEFINING AND NONDEFINING CLAUSES. Non-Defining: Richard. who is my best friend. we do not use any commas. of course. whereas a Non-Defining Clause we put between two commas./ For example:675 . is that a Defining Clause is essential . Non-Defining: Hamburg. as they can change the meaning of a sentence... Defining: Here is the pupil whose book I borrowed. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A DEFINING CLAUSE AND A NON-DEFINING CLAUSE ? + The difference . Defining: This is the place where I was born. went to Ireland last year.. are very important. that (or which) John gave me. is in the North of Germany.This book. PLEASE The man who stole my car has been caught – and – Mary..
"I HAVE TWO UNCLES WHO ARE VERY OLD"... or when we want somebody to notice us from a distance 676 . the second sentence means I have only two uncles . the first sentence + means I have other uncles . Defining: "She has two brothers who are farmers" – This means she has other brothers who are not farmers Non-Defining: "She has two brothers... IN WHICH KIND OF CLAUSE DO WE USE COMMAS ? – We use commas in Non-Defining Clauses WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO SENTENCES ? ... STUDENTS READ LESSON 101 ON PAGE 621 WAVE GOODBYE acenar com a mão SAY GOODBYE dizer adeus DISTANCE distância WAVY ondulado WHAT AM I DOING ? You're waving your hand WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BRANCH OF A TREE WHEN IT WAVES TOO MUCH IN THE WIND ? When the branch . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file..This document is protected by copyright. it breaks and falls to the ground ON WHAT OCCASIONS DO WE WAVE OUR HANDS ?/ + We wave our hands when we say goodbye to someone at the station.. AND "I HAVE TWO UNCLES. who are farmers" means she has only two brothers. (COMMA) WHO ARE VERY OLD" ?/ The difference .
.... I don't like to .. I prefer .. + WHY ?/ WHAT DO YOU RECOMMEND A PERSON TO DO IF HE WANTS TO SUCCEED IN LIFE ? I recommend a person to . GRAM grama POUND libra HOW MANY GRAMS MAKE A POUND ? About 454 grams make a pound 677 . or ... No...... DO YOU LIKE TO TRAVEL BY BOAT WHEN THE WAVES OF THE SEA ARE VERY HIGH ? Yes.. WHAT KIND OF JOB DO YOU THINK I COULD RECOMMEND YOU FOR ? I think you could ... + RECOMMEND recomendar SUPPOSING YOU WORKED IN A LIBRARY. I'd recommend a . No.. sea-sick ..... I don't .. DO YOU PREFER WAVY HAIR RATHER THAN STRAIGHT HAIR ?/ Yes. if he wants .. or .This document is protected by copyright.... I like to .. FOR EXAMPLE) TO READ ? Supposing I worked in .. WHY OR WHY NOT ? . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. WHICH BOOK WOULD YOU RECOMMEND A PERSON (A BOY OF 15.
You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.. No. IDIOM 11 BROKE = without money sem dinheiro e.. GENERALLY SPEAKING.. is that we use . We spent all the money we took with us and arrived home broke... "without money" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE. WHAT.This document is protected by copyright.g.. I've seen – someone . or .. I've never . IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN INJURY AND A WOUND ? Generally + speaking... WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "BROKE" MEAN ? The idiom .. HAVE YOU EVER SEEN ANYONE BADLY INJURED AS THE RESULT OF A ROAD ACCIDENT ? Yes. the .. we use the word "injury" for something we receive by accident and "wound" for something we receive from fighting. PLEASE It's no use asking him for money: he's always broke LESSON 109 WOUND ferir-se (ferimento) INJURE ferir-se INJURY ferimento FEELINGS sentimentos Generally speaking. WHAT HAPPENED ?/ 678 ..
+ or ... No.. – TO MAKE A PERSON OR THING DO SOMETHING • fazer alguém ou algo fazer alguma coisa VOLUNTARY voluntário BREAK DOWN / quebrar DO YOU THINK CHILDREN OUGHT TO BE MADE TO STUDY. or . when a car . WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ SEPARATE (v & adj) separar (separado) I think children ought to ..... DO YOU KNOW ANYONE WHO WAS WOUNDED IN THE LAST WORLD WAR ? Yes. or . WHO ? WHERE ? WHEN ? HOW ? ARE YOUR FEELINGS EASILY WOUNDED (OR INJURED) ? Yes.. There are many words in English which..... my feelings aren't . although having only 679 . – I don't know . I know . No...... OR DO YOU THINK STUDYING OUGHT TO BE VOLUNTARY ? – WHY OR WHY NOT ? WHEN A CAR BREAKS DOWN ARE YOU ANY GOOD AT MAKING IT GO AGAIN ? Yes.. No... when a car . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. my feelings . or .This document is protected by copyright.... I don't think children ought to be made ..
A BUSINESS LETTER / –––––––––––––––––––– REFERENCE referência GOODS mercadorias ORDER pedido STRIKE greve POST OFFICE correio MANAGER gerente MANAGE administrar CONDITIONS condições POST (v) postar LETTER-BOX caixa do correiro FAITHFULLY fielmente SINCERESINCERELY sincero sinceramente COMPANY companhia LIMITED 1800 680 limitada ..) AND "SEPARATE" (ADJ. is that .. is the adjective STUDENTS READ LESSON 102 ON PAGE 629 Students read the following letter and then the teacher asks the questions on it.. read (present tense) and read (past tense). WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "SEPARATE" (V..) The difference . remembering that fashions change in business... have two different pronunciations. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. as for example. + is the verb .This document is protected by copyright. use (v) and use (n). separate (v) and separate (adj). one spelling.
London S. 15 Victoria Road. The Ajax Metal Co.W.W.. which is now over. = limited. we can use "Dear Sirs" or "Dear Madam" or "Dear Mr. J. Baker" depending.A.This document is protected by copyright."/ Instead of "Dear Sir". Ltd. the word "Messrs" we sometimes use for a business company: it is the plural of "Mr./ 681 . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. We feel sure. Rd. Coventry 21st January 1992 Dear Sir. 23 Market Street. St. = south-west. With reference to your letter of 19th January. of course. Messrs. therefore. S. Baker & Co. = company. we would like to inform you that we sent the goods you requested the moment we received your order. J. = street. Parker (Manager)/ The letters Co. on the kind of person to whom we are writing. Yours faithfully. that they will arrive within the next few days. Also. the sign "&" = and. Ltd. = road.1. we can close the letter with "Yours sincerely" instead of "Yours faithfully" if we have addressed the person by name. The reason for the delay has been the strike at the Post Office.
.. the name of our company usually goes in the middle at the top.This document is protected by copyright." HOW DO WE CLOSE THE LETTER ? We close . "With reference to your letter of 19th January .. Dear Madam.. + Dear Sirs. in the top right-hand corner of the letter." MEAN ? + The letters ... or in the top left-hand corner HOW AND WHERE DO WE USUALLY WRITE THE DATE ? + We usually write the date.. ST. + 682 . "company" WHAT DO THE LETTERS . Dear Mr.. HOW DO WE USUALLY BEGIN OUR LETTER ?/ If we are . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. but it can also go on the left or the right WHERE DO WE TYPE THE NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE COMPANY TO WHICH WE ARE WRITING ?/ + We usually type ..... THE SIGN "&". SUPPOSING WE ARE WRITING A BUSINESS LETTER..." MEAN ? The letters . in the middle of the page WHAT DO WE CALL THE PERSON OR PERSONS WE ARE WRITING TO ? We call the . 15th April 1992. Baker etc.. with + "Yours faithfully (or sincerely)" WHAT DO THE LETTERS "CO. WHERE DOES THE NAME OF OUR COMPANY USUALLY GO ON THE LETTER PAPER ? Supposing we + are .. RD. IF WE ARE ANSWERING A LETTER. AND THE WORD "MESSRS. + we usually . LTD... for example. Dear Sir...
WHEN YOU POST A LETTER. or ..... I ... DO YOU TAKE IT TO THE MAIN POST OFFICE OR DO YOU JUST PUT IT IN THE NEAREST LETTER-BOX (OR POST-BOX) ? When I post a letter. WHAT IS A REFERENCE LIBRARY ?/ A reference library + is a place where reference books are kept. I don't . DO YOU THINK THAT PEOPLE SHOULD HAVE THE RIGHT TO STRIKE ? Yes.This document is protected by copyright... IF YOU CAN'T MANAGE TO ANSWER A QUESTION. when its coat is shining and its nose is cold and wet ... No... we mean anything that is bought or sold WHY DO PEOPLE GO ON STRIKE ? People go on strike + because they want more money or better working conditions .. helps me . WHAT DOES A MANAGER DO ? A manager manages a business etc. We refer to these books for particular information WHAT DO WE MEAN BY THE WORD "GOODS" ? By the + .... WHAT DOES THE TEACHER DO ? If I can't ... I think that .. WHY OR WHY NOT ?/ HOW DO WE KNOW WHEN A DOG IS IN GOOD CONDITION ? We know . that is... he runs a business ... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. + 683 .
... for the first letter of the name of a person or place ....This document is protected by copyright. + WHY ? CORN milho WHEN DO THEY CUT THE CORN IN YOUR COUNTRY ? + They cut . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. BEAUTY OR MONEY ? I think it's . at + the beginning of a sentence. for the pronoun "I". SHOULDER ombro WHAT'S THIS ? + CAPITAL LETTER It's your shoulder letra maiúscula WHEN DO WE USE A CAPITAL LETTER ?/ We use . etc BEAUTY beleza WHICH DO YOU THINK IT'S BETTER TO POSSESS BRAINS. WEED 1805 erva daninha WHAT DO WE DO WITH WEEDS IN A GARDEN ?/ + We pull weeds in a garden out of the ground and either burn them or throw them away IDIOM 12 JUST THE JOB = exactly what is needed exatamente o que é necessário 684 ...
e.g. "Try opening the door with this piece of metal." - "Ah, thank you, that's just the job. We'll be able to open the door with that in two seconds." WHAT DOES THE IDIOM "JUST THE JOB" MEAN ? The idiom ... "exactly what is needed" GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE, PLEASE I looked all over the house until I finally found something that was just the job for repairing the table TO BE ON THE SAFE SIDE = TO BE SURE
estar do lado seguro = ter certeza
DICTATION 59 It is often easier/ to tell a lie/ than to tell the truth,/ but life is made much easier/ and much more pleasant/ if we tell the truth/ and in return/ can believe what people say./ The man was not/ very badly hurt in the accident,/ but he was taken to hospital/ to see the doctor,/ just to be on the safe side./ Factory chimneys/ are usually quite high/ in order to draw the fire/ and also to carry the smoke away/ into the air high above the factory/ to be blown away/ by the wind./ The rope broke,/ and the barrel of wine/ fell to the ground and broke open
STAGE 7 EXAM – Answers can be found after the vocabulary test Yes - No quiz
1) Do we begin a personal letter with "Dear Sir" ? 2) Can we make a horse drink if it does not want to just by ordering it to do so ? 3) Do people get wounded in car accidents ? 4) Is a non-defining clause essential to the meaning of a sentence ?
5) Are you at a very advanced stage of English ? 6) If one does not stir one's tea, will the sugar settle at the bottom of the cup ? 7) Is the word "herself " in the following sentence an Emphasising Pronoun ? "She made the dress herself " 8) Is a female film star a man ? 9) Is a cup of tea a cup without tea ? 10) Does a rocking-chair move backwards and forwards ? 11) Are you about to answer question five of this exam ? 12) Does the word "unless" mean "if possible" ? 13) Can a man ride on the back of a horse race ? 14) If someone said to you "Shall we go to the theatre ?", would he be making a suggestion ? 15) Is "homework" the work a housewife does in the home ? 16) Do we ring a front-door bell after entering someone's house ? 17) Is a plain uniform composed of many different colours ? 18) Is this correct as a question put into Indirect Speech ? "Mary said to John what he was doing" 19) If you hated your neighbours, would it mean you got on well with them ? 20) Is there anything wrong with this sentence ? - "He goes always to the cinema on Saturday." 21) Has this building got a ground floor ? 22) Would the clothes of a child of five fit you ? 23) Had we better wear thin clothes in order to keep warm in winter ?
24) Can we say "Which subject do (or did) you find the dullest at school" ? 25) Is "sight" one of the five senses ? 26) Is the answer to this question correct ? - "Can he speak English ?" - "Yes, he can so." 27) If we took something that was ours, would we be guilty of stealing ? 28) Is a determined person a weak person ? 29) Would you mind if you were kicked hard by a horse ? 30) Is this correct? - "Will he come tomorrow ?" - "No, he shan't" 31) Is it a waste of money buying useful things ? 32) Is this sentence incorrect ? - "He was glad meet you." 33) If you looked upwards, would you see the ceiling ? 34) Have you ever known your country to go throughout a whole year without any rain ? 35) Is this right? - "Did you run far ?" - "Yes, we ran far." 36) Is kind behaviour unpleasant behaviour ? 37) Were you able to look after yourself when you were six months old ? 38) Is it correct to say - "I have laid the table" ? 39) If a man claimed he could jump higher than this ceiling, would you believe him ? 40) Could we finish a speech by saying "... and now finally I would like to say ..." ?
Vocabulary Test 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Realize Rat Lead Eventually Supply Sink Drown Float Conquer 21) Adventure 22) Abroad 23) Bear 24) Account 25) Race 26) Sign 27) Size 28) Navy 29) Temple 30) Dare 31) Matter 32) Choose 33) Bow (n.) 34) Apple 35) Draw 36) Youth 37) Holy 38) Birth 39) Shore 40) Pretty 10) Tide 11) Empire 12) Adopt 13) Tax 14) Press 15) Step 16) Bill 17) Used to 18) Trial 19) Introduce 20) Pride . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.This document is protected by copyright.
13) No. 16) No. 17) No. 26) No. if I were/ really very thirsty. 11) No./ I would prefer to drink just water./ I am not very good at describing people. 39) No. 37) No. 9) No. 24) Yes. 28) No. 3) No. 33) Yes. 27) No./ Life today can be fairly pleasant/ for many people. 21) Yes./ The main difficulty/ is how to avoid making a loss. 38) Yes. 18) No. 5) No./ I suppose that. 14) Yes. 35) No./ The man was hit/ very hard in the mouth/ and cut both his lips. . 12) No. 36) No.This document is protected by copyright. 6) Yes. 30) No. 22) No. 34) No. 23) No./ His job is selling tickets on a bus./ but I know I would be able/ to recognise him again/ the moment I saw him. 7) Yes. Yes – No Quiz Answers 1) No. 2) No. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. 15) No. DICTATION In some countries a black cat/ is considered lucky. 20) Yes. 8) No. 40) Yes. 31) No. 10) Yes. 25) Yes. 32) Yes. 19) No. 4) No. 29) Yes./ You have to guess the date/ on the coin.
And give an example. would you have watched TV in the evening ? 6) What is the plural of "life" ? 7) How can we form adverbs from adjectives ? 8) What is the plural of "sheep" ? 9) How do we form the Possessive Case of singular nouns like "girl" and "man" ? 10) How do we form the Possessive Case of plural nouns that do not end in "s".This document is protected by copyright. 10) We form the Possessive Case of plural nouns that do not end in "s" in exactly the same way as we form the Possessive Case of singular nouns. whilst the word "dangerous" has three syllables. 2) A Past Conditional Subjunctive expresses a supposition in the past: something that did not in fact happen. 12) Do you speak English slower and slower the more you practise ? 13) Why are the roads becoming more and more dangerous every year ? 14) Why do we say "slower and slower" but "more and more dangerous" ? ANSWERS 1) A composite word is composed of two words connected with a hyphen. such as "men. if I had lived a hundred years ago. "The girls' coats were hanging on the wall". You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. but faster and faster. 11) We form the Possessive Case of a plural noun which already ends in "s" by adding just the apostrophe. If I had gone to London. 6) The plural of "life" is "lives". For example. For example. I would have seen the Thames. 8) The plural of "sheep" is "sheep".And give an example in a sentence. 5) No. 3) No. but not the "s". 12) No. 4) We use the Past Perfect. ? 11) How do we form the Possessive Case of a plural noun which already ends in "s" ? . we do not have a separate tense for the Past Subjunctive in English. I would not have watched TV in the evening. 9) We form the Possessive Case of singular nouns like "girl" and "man" by adding an apostrophe and the letter "s". 3) Do we have a separate tense for the Past Subjunctive in English ? 4) What do we use instead of a separate Past Subjunctive ? 5) If you had lived a hundred years ago. women. For example. 7) We can form adverbs from adjectives by adding the letters "ly" to the adjectives. 13) The roads are becoming more and more dangerous every year because there are more and more cars on them. Its construction is If + Past Perfect (Past Subjunctive) + Past Conditional.And give an example. 2) What does a Past Conditional Subjunctive express . I do not speak English slower and slower the more I practise. which is a room where we sit. . EXERCISES EXERCISE 40 1) What is a composite word ? . "sitting-room".and what is its construction ? . children" etc. 14) Because the word "slow" has only one syllable.
I went out of the room and said "I'll be back within an hour". 8) What is another use of the emphatic "do" ? 9) Give an example of the emphatic "do" as used in an exclamation. "You don't know what I've got in my pocket" . because it is easier to say. 9) "I do like your new dress!" 10) "Yes. 6) We usually use the emphatic "do" when someone denies something we say and which we know to be true. 3) What do we generally say instead of "to whom are you speaking" . You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.And give an example of each. 2) The word "who" is the subject of a verb." mean ? 5) Write down all the persons beginning "Here I am". the time now is 6 o'clock."They do not work very hard". 2) When do we use the Present Perfect Tense ? .And give me an example. however. whilst the words "as well" and "too" usually go at the end of the sentence. 3) How do we form the Future Perfect Tense ? When do we use it ? . 6) What is the difference between "mind" and "brain"? 7) Answer the following questions with the short form . "Who is speaking to you ?" and "To whom are you speaking ?" 3) Instead of "To whom are you speaking ?". 11) Show by example the difference between the words "in" and "within". for the object of a verb.g. 11) If. 4) "Shut up" is less polite than "be quiet". for example. "I also like to go to the cinema" or "I like to go to the cinema too (or as well)"." 8) Another use of the emphatic "do" is in an exclamation. EXERCISE 42 1) When do we use the Past Perfect Tense ? ."Yes."You did not come here yesterday".a) Did you come here yesterday ? b) Can you speak Russian ? . For example.And give an example. 7) Give the answer to this sentence using the emphatic form . as well" and "too" usually go ? And give me an example of each.And give an example. 4) What do the letters "e. ANSWERS 1) The word "also" usually goes between the subject and the verb." 7) "Yes.This document is protected by copyright. we generally say "Who are you speaking to ?".and why ? 4) What is the difference between "shut up" and "be quiet" ? 5) When do we use the auxiliary verb "do" in a positive sentence with the Present Simple Tense ? 6) When do we usually use the emphatic "do" ? . For example. I do know what you've got in your pocket. If. For example. it would mean that I would be back at any time between now and 7 o'clock. we use the word "whom". whilst. they do work very hard. and I went out of the room and said "I'll be back in an hour's time". 10) Give the answer to this sentence using the emphatic form in the past . I did come here yesterday". EXERCISE 41 1) Whereabouts in a sentence do the words "also. 2) What is the difference between the words "who" and "whom" ? . 5) We use the auxiliary verb "do" in a positive sentence with the Present Simple Tense when we wish to be emphatic about something. it would mean that I would be back at 7 o'clock.And give an example.
For example. d) "I had my bag with me when I left the shop". e) I said that. d) My mother said that she had her bag with her when she left the shop. I said. b) "Richard has just come in". 6) "Mind" we use in the abstract sense. 2) We use the Present Perfect Tense when an action is finished. I will. "I have studied English this week". I did. Here you are. 10) The Past of "must" is "had to". c) Yes. you would not dare say such a thing".This document is protected by copyright. and mean "for example". you would not dare say such a thing." mean "exempli gratis" from the Latin. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. Here it is. 3) We form the Future Perfect Tense with the verb "to have" and a past participle. c) John said that he thought they would go home immediately after the theatre. We use it for an action that will be finished before a certain time in the future. John said. Here she is.a) "I am going to go home". Here they are. 9) The Past of "will" is "would".g. e) "If Mary were here. 11) a) She said that she was going to go home. I can't). Here you are. I can (or No. I shall have finished my lunch. but the time is not finished. c) "I think they will go home immediately after the theatre". said my mother." 4) The letters "e. if Mary were here. 7) a) Yes. b) Yes. ANSWERS 1) We use the Past Perfect Tense when there are two actions in the past. I said. "Before two o'clock tomorrow. please ? 8) What is the Past of "shall" ? 9) What is the Past of "will"? 10) What is the Past of "must" ? 11) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech . Here we are. Here he is. For example. c) Will you open the window. . she said. b) I said that Richard had just come in. For example. whereas "brain" we use in the physical sense. 5) Here I am. and one action is before the other. 8) The Past of "shall" is "should". "I had studied English before I went to England".
This document is protected by copyright. Page No.) 595 CLAUSE 598 CLEANER 586 CLIMATE 659 CLUB 585 COLLECTION 621 COLONIZE 670 COLOSSUS 616 COME TO 576 COMFORT 639 COMMANDS 651 COMMENCED 567 COMPANY 680 COMPLETELY 590 COMPOUND 597 CONDITIONS 680 CONFESS 600 CONJUNCTION 597 CONQUER 571 CONSEQUENCE 566 CONSISTED 567 CONSTRUCTION 671 CONTRACTIONS (USE OF) 614 CONTROL (N. A CUP OF TEA 663 A FEW 573 A GREAT DEAL OF 634 A LITTLE 573 A LONG WAY 604 A TASTE FOR 652 A TEA . 578 ABOUT TO 660 ABROAD 578 ACCOUNT FOR 582 ACT 576.) 574 COOKED 567 CORN 684 CORRECTED 567 COULDN'T CARE LESS (Idiom 8) 658 COUNTED 567 CREDIT 646 CROSSED 568 CRY 640 CUP OF TEA 663 DAMAGE DANCED DARE DEAL DECIDE DECIDED DEFEAT DEFINE DEFINING CLAUSE DEMAND DEPENDED 595 567 586 664 670 567 620 674 674 656 567 DESCEND 599 DESCENT 599 DETERMINED 625 DETERMINED(ADJ. BABYLON BABYSITTER BACKWARDS BANKER BARREL BE BE ON THE SAFE SIDE BE SURE BEACH BEAR BEAUTY BEHAVE BEHAVIOUR BIBLE BILL BIRTH BLOODY BOOKSHOP BORE BORNE BOTTOM BOW BOXED BRAVE BREAK DOWN BREAK INTO BRIEFLY BRIGHT BROKE (Idiom 11) BRUSHED BUSINESS 578 616 622 609 664 628 586 685 685 671 579 684 603 603 648 576 600 649 647 579 579 669 592 568 671 679 603 642 633 678 568 666 BUSINESS LETTER 680 CAKE 639 CAN 586 CAPITAL LETTER 684 CARE LESS 658 CENTRAL HEATING 646 CHARLES 650 CHEQUE 583 CHICKEN 671 CHIMNEY 640 CHOICE 606 CHOOSE 591 CHOSE 591 CHOSEN 591 CHRIST 578 CLAIM (V.D.) 625 DEVELOPMENT 672 DIANA 616 DIFFER 586 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH (2) 650 DISCOVERY 658 DISTANCE 676 DISTANT 604 DIVIDED 567 DO 586.632 DO YOU MIND? 622 DOORWAY 609 DOWN IN THE DUMPS 635 DOWN IN THE MOUTH 635 DOWNSTREAM 673 DOWNWARDS 609 DRAW 593 DRAW FROM 583 DRAW OUT OF 583 DRAWN 593 DRESSED 568 DREW 593 DROWN 571 DULL 633 EASTERN 583 ELECTION 620 EMPHASIS 666 EMPHASISE 642 EMPHASISING PRONOUNS 666 EMPIRE 572 END 669 ENDED 567 END CONSTRUCTIONS 617 ENGINE 628 ENJOY 616 ENTIRE 601 ENTIRELY 590 EPHESUS 616 ESSENTIAL 674 EVEN THOUGH 625 EVENTUALLY 569 EXCUSE ME 622 FACE (V) 582 FAITHFULLY 680 FAR 604 FAROS 616 FED UP (Idiom 2) 615 FEEL DOWN IN THE DUMPS (Idiom 5) 635 FEEL DOWN IN THE MOUTH (Idiom 5) 635 FEEL LOW (Idiom 5) 635 FEEL SORRY FOR SOMEONE 573 FEELINGS FEMALE FEW FIERCE FILM STAR FINALLY FIND OUT FINISH UP FINISHED FINITE FIRST THING FIT FIT UP FLATTEN FLOAT FOR INSTANCE FORCE FOREVER FORM FORWARDS FOUGHT FROM ABROAD GATHER GENERALLY SPEAKING GET ALONG WELL GET ON ONE'S NERVES (Idiom 4) GET ON WELL GIBRALTAR GIFT GO ON GO ROUND THE BEND (Idiom 7) GO THROUGH GO TO THE BOTTOM GO WITHOUT GOD GOODBYE GOODS GOVERN GRAM GREAT DEAL GROUP HAD BETTER HANG ON (Idiom 1) HARDLY HAVE HEAT (V & N) HEATING HELPED HOLY HOME HOPE NOT HORSE RACE HOUSE HOUSEWIFE HOUSEWORK HUMAN I HOPE NOT 678 663 573 634 663 594 636 590 568 537 633 636 636 661 571 617 591 669 661 609 602 578 638 655 647 628 647 585 627 659 649 601 669 632 648 676 680 572 677 634 596 636 608 656 586 646 646 568 599 655 630 659 655 655 655 657 630 . AND N. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.C.663 ACTIVE 627 ACTIVITY 627 ADVANCED 672 ADVENTURE 578 ALEXANDRIA 616 AMBITION 566 ANY MORE 658 APPLE 592 ARCH 585 ARISTOCRACY 610 ARTEMIS 616 AS A RULE 610 AS FAR AS 604 AS OPPOSED TO 597 ASKED 567 AT LAST 594 AUDIENCE 640 B.CUP 663 A.
) KINGDOM 630 660 658 614 652 664 567 634 678 678 617 625 660 672 578 592 640 624 599 616 684 567 603 607 MAKE ONE'S HOME MAKE SENSE MALE MANAGE MANAGER MARCH MARKET MATTER MATTER (V) MAUSOLUS MIDNIGHT MIND (V) MIND ONE'S OWN BUSINESS (Idiom 9) MIXED MOOD MOVEMENT MUST NAVY NEED NEEDED NEIGHBOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD NEIGHBOURING NEITHER HAVE I NERVE NERVES NEIGHBOUR NEXT DOOR NO BOOKS NO MATTER NOBLE NON – DEFINING CLAUSE NON .) 622 OCCASIONALLY 589 OFFICE 595 OFFICIAL 607 OIL 646 ON 580 ON FIRE 673 ON THE WHOLE 580 OPEN UP 636 OPPOSE 628 OR SO 665 ORDER 648.680 ORGANISE 627 OUGHT 586 OWNER 626 PAINTING PAIR PARK PARTLY 658 657 661 670 PASS (A LAW) 576 PASS (AN EXAM) 630 PASS (GO AWAY) 600 PASSENGER 622 PAST (ADV. Page No..) 629 SEED 579 SENSE 596 SENSES 632 SENTENCES 596 SEPARATE (V & ADJ) 679 SETTLE (1) 669 SHALL 586 SHOOT 631 SHORE 600 SHOT 631 SHOULDER 684 SIDE 609 SIDEWARDS 609 SIDEWAYS 609 SIGHT 632 SIGN 583 SIMPLY 650 SINCERE 680 SINCERELY 680 SINGLE 609 SINK 571 SIZE 584 SMOKED 567 SNAG (Idiom 3) 621 SO ... You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file. NOT IMPORTANCE IMPROVE IMPUTIRY IN RETURN INCLUDED INDIVIDUAL INJURE INJURY INSTANCE INTELLIGENCE INTELLIGENT INTERMEDIATE INTRODUCE INVENT IRREGULARIY IT JERUSALEM JUPITER JUST THE JOB (Idiom 12) KICKED KIND (ADJ.This document is protected by copyright.) 672 PAST SIMPLE IN PLACE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT 640 PAY 669 PAY FOR 610 PER 576 PERSAUSION 591 PERSONAL 634 PHIDIAS 616 PHRASE 621 PICK UP 654 PIPE 622 PLACED 567 PLAIN 652 PLAY TRUANT 577 PLEASE (V) 567.BOX 680 LIKED 567 LIMITED 680 LITERAL 639 LITERARY 572 LITTLE 573 LOCAL 664 LONG WAY 604 LOOK AFTER 602 LOOKED 567 LORD 578 LOST PROPERTY OFFICE 595 LUCK 625 LUNCHED 567 MADMAN MAKE A PERSON OR THING DO SOMETHING 600 679 OBEY 642 OBJECT (V.589 POINT 590 POINTED 567 POKER 664 POLICE 626 POLITICS 620 PORTUGUESE 669 POSSESSIVE CASE FOR SHOPS 581 POST (V) 680 POST OFFICE 680 POUND 677 PRACTISED 568 PREACH 607 PREPARATORY “IT” 624 PREPARE 624 PRESS 574 PRETTY 608 PRIEST 607 PRINCIPAL 598 PROFITABLE 664 PROGRESS 586 PRONUNCIATION OF “ED” IN THE PAST TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS 567 PROPER 609 PROPERTY 595 PROTECTED 567 PURITY 652 PYRAMID 616 QUARTER QUESTIONS RACE (N) RACE (V) RACECOURSE RACEHORSE RADIATOR RANG RAT REACHED 576 650 659 582 659 659 646 654 566 567 REALIZE 566 RECOGNISABLE 593 RECOMMEND 677 REFERENCE 680 RELATION 648 RELATIVE PRONOUN (1) 598 RELAX 639 RELIGION 583 REMAINS 585 REPEATED 567 REPETITION 633 REPLY 630 REPRESENT 592 REPRESENTATIVE 592 REQUESTS 651 RHODES 616 RICHARD 604 RIGHT = ENTIRELY 590 RING 654 RING UP 654 ROCK 585.CHAIR 661 ROCKING .HORSE 661 ROLL 661 ROLLER 661 ROMAN 572 ROUND THE BEND 649 RULE 610 RUN A BUSINESS 666 RUNG 666 SAD 628 SAFE SIDE 685 SANK 571 SAY GOODBYE 676 SEAT (N.661 ROCKING . & V. THAT 637 SO HAVE I 617 .SMOKER NONE THE LESS NONETHELESS NORTHERN NOT ANY BOOKS NUCLEAR 670 596 663 680 680 648 615 589 589 616 657 622 665 568 597 661 586 585 586 567 647 647 647 617 656 628 647 674 593 589 648 674 622 635 635 583 593 657 LACK 646 LAID 601 LASTED 567 LASTLY 594 LAWYER 595 LAY 601 LAY AN EGG 601 LAY THE TABLE 601 LEAD 569 LEADERSHIP 614 LEAVE OUT 666 LED 569 LET SOMEONE DOWN (Idiom 6) 641 LETTER 680 LETTER . I THINK SO IF ..
SO MANY 616 SOUTHERN 583 SPANISH 669 SPECIAL VERBS 586 SPECIAL VERBS (CONT. OR U.N.This document is protected by copyright.N.CUP 663 TELEPHONE 654 TEMPLE 585 TERRIBLE 614 THANKED 567 THE POLICE 626 THE PORTUGUESE 669 THE SPANISH 669 THEN 652. 669 UNEATABLE 572 UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (U.O.N.O.632 TASTE FOR 652 TASTED 567 TAXI 656 TEA . Page No.N.) 617. You are breaking the law if you copy or distribute this file.) 673 STRIKE 680 STUDENT 627 SUBORDINATE 598 SUCCESS 625 SUFFICIENT 646 SUGGESTION 659 SUNK 571 SUPPLY 570 SWITCH OFF 624 SWITCH ON 624 TAKE 584 TAKE BACK 636 TAKE CARE OF 569 TAKE TO (COURT) 595 TASTE 589. & N.) 669 UNLESS 660 UPON 580 UPSTREAM 673 UPWARDS 609 USE OF CONTRACTIONS 614 USE OF THE “TO” INFINITIVE 612 USED TO 557. 669 U.586 USUAL 624 VALUE VERB + OBJECT + ADJECTIVE VIOLENT VOLUNTARY WAITED WALKED WANTED WASHED WASTE WATCH OVER WAVE WAVY WAY WEDDING WEED WEIGH WESTERN WHAT IS THE MATTER ? WHOLE WICKED WILL WINDY WING WITHOUT WONDER WONDERFUL WOODEN WORKED WOUND 658 602 584 679 567 567 567 567 613 603 676 676 604 654 684 638 583 589 580 649 586 571 657 632 616 616 661 567 678 .666 THINK SO 630 THOUGH 625 THRONE 621 THROUGHOUT 606 TIDE 571 TIDY 671 TIRING 648 “TO” INFINITIVE 612 TO BE DETERMINED 625 TO BE IMPORTANT 589 TO COLONIZE 670 TO DECIDE TO END TO GO TO THE BOTTOM TO MAKE ONE'S HOME TO MAKE SENSE TO PAY TOMB TOUCH (N) TOUCHED TRIAL TRUANT TYPED 670 669 669 670 596 669 616 632 567 578 577 568 YOUTH ZEUS 596 616 U.642 SPEECH 592 SPEND (MONEY) 582 SPEND (TIME) 634 STAGE 672 STAND (Idiom 10) 671 STAR 663 STATE 583 STATUE 616 STAY 627 STEAL 626 STEAM 628 STEP 575 STEP OFF 575 STIR 669 STOLE 626 STOLEN 626 STOPPED 568 STREAM (V.
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