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Din n Ton hc Ton Trung hc Ph thng v Thi i hc Cac dng ton THPT khc

Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng f(k)


k=m

Bt u bi hxthanh, 09-06-2012 - 00:12


Trang 1 / 3

hxthanh

gi 09-06-2012 - 00:12

Ph bin
Hu nh cc bn quen thuc vi k hiu biu din mt tng.

i km vi k hiu l cc i, j, k, . . . bin nguyn m t phng thc ly tng.


Trong bi vit ny, ti ch cp ti mt dng k hiu quen thuc l
n

f(k) = f(m) + f(m + 1) + + f(n);

(n > m)

(1)

k=m

Trong k l bin ch s, y gi l bin chy: Bin chy m t phng thc ly tng m n duyt qua; k chy lin
tc t m n n; (n > m); (k, m, n Z); cn f(k) l hm cn ly tng.
nh ngha n gin l th, nhng tnh ton vi k hiu ny ( m khng phi din t y nh v phi ca (1))
c th nhiu bn cha bit n nhng k thut c bn, m ti tm gi bng nhng ci tn sau y:

o chiu
n

k=m

k=m

f(k) = f(n + m k)

(2)

Ni dung: Thay bin chy k trong hm ly tng bng ch s trn cng vi ch s di tr i n.

Tnh tin
n

nr

k=m

k=mr

f(k) = f(k r)

(3)

ngha: Vi tng s s hng khng i ta c th m trn cc on tng ng c cng chiu di

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Hiu chung nh
n

k=m

k=m

k=n+1

f(k) = f(k) f(k); (p > n)

(4)

Hiu chung gc
n

m1

k=m

k=p

k=p

f(k) = f(k) f(k); (p < m)

(5)

Cc tnh cht trn u d dng chng minh c t nh ngha. Mt m rng ca phng php tnh tin v phng
php o chiu l:

i bin ngc
n

pm

pm

k=m

k=pn

k=pn

(6)

f(k) = f(p k) = f(k + m + n p)

t r = p k k = p r
Khi k = m th r = p m; khi k = n th r = p n
Ch rng p n < p m thay vo V tri ri i tn r thnh k ta c biu thc gia.
p dng (2) cho biu thc gia ta c V Phi.
i vi tng an du ta hay s dng cch nhm cc s hng cng du vi nhau l phng php

Tch chn l
n

f(k) =
k=m

n1
2

k= m2

m+1
k= 2

f(2k + 1) +

f(2k)

(7)

( ngh cc bn t chng minh cng thc ny)


Ngoi ra, trng hp tng qut ca phng php tch chn l cn c phng php Phn on
Trong phng php phn on li c phn on theo m un, phn on theo a thc, ...
Tm gc vn li y vi mt v d n gin:

Tnh tng sau


n

S = ((1)k (k 2n))
k=1

Li gii:
p dng (7) ta c:

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n1

S = ((1)k (k 2n)) = ((1)2k+1 (2k + 1 2n)) + ((1)2k (2k 2n))


k=1

k=0

k=1

n1

k=0

k=1

n
2

n
2

(2n 1 2k) + (2k 2n)

S=

n
n
n
n
n
n
S = (2n 1)(n ) (n 1 )(n ) 2n + ( + 1)
2
2
2
2
2
2
n
n
S = n2 2n +
2
2
Lu : C th thay

2n 1 + (1)n
n
=
vo ng thc trn kim tra kt qu
2
4

___________________________________________________________________________
P/s: Ci ny phi c t t thi, khng d tu ha nhp ma lm
Ti s c gng tm kim mt s bi tp tnh ton tng, cc bn vn dng cc phng php ny

hxthanh

gi 10-06-2012 - 16:24

V d 1:
n

Tnh S = k
k=1

____________
Li gii:
- Dng pp o chiu ta c:
n

k=1

k=1

k=1

2S = k + (n + 1 k) = (n + 1) = n(n + 1) S =

n(n + 1)
2

V d 2:
n2

Tnh S = (n 2 k)
k=n

____________
Li gii:

Cch 1
- Ta c:
n2

n2

n2

S = (n k) = (n (n + n k)) = (k n) (o chiu)
2

k=n

k=n

k=n

n2

n2

n2

k=n
n2

k=n
n1

k=n

k=1

k=1

2S = (n2 k) + (k n) = (n2 n)
2S = (n2 n) (n2 n) (hiu chung gc)

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2S = n2 (n 2 n) (n 1)(n2 n) = (n 2 n)(n2 n + 1)
Hoc:
n2

n2 n+1

2S = (n n) = (n2 n) = (n 2 n)(n2 n + 1) (tnh tin 1 n)


2

k=n

k=1

(n 2 n)(n2 n + 1)
2

Do : S =

Cch 2
n2

n2 n+1

S = (n k) = (n2 (k + n 1)) (tnh tin 1 n)


2

k=n
n2 n+1

k=1

n2 n+1

S = (n n + 1 k) = (k 1) (o chiu)
2

k=1
n2 n+1

k=1
n2 n+1

n2 n+1

k=1

k=1

2S = (n n + 1 k) + (k 1) = (n2 n)
2

k=1

(n 2 n)(n2 n + 1)
S=
2

Cch 3
(i bin ngc ): t i = (n 2 k); khi k = n th i = (n2 n); khi k = n2 th i = 0
Do :
n2

n2 n

S = (n k) = k
2

k=n

k=0

Ti y p dng ngay kt qu bi 1, ta c:

S=

(n 2 n)(n2 n + 1)
2

Trn y ch l 2 v d n gin minh ha cho cc k thut tnh ton ni trn.


Thc t vic p dng linh hot cc k thut ny s gip cho cc bn tnh ton trn cc tng tr nn d dng hn
nhiu.
___________________________________________________________________

Bi tp 1:
n

Tnh S =
k=1

n 2k
n2 + k2 nk

Bi tp 2:
Tnh S = (k
n

k=1

n2 + kn k + 2n 1
n2 kn + k + k2

nthoangcute

gi 11-06-2012 - 13:13

Vo lc 10 Thng 6 2012 - 16:24, 'hxthanh' ni:

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Bi tp 1:
n

Tnh S =
k=1

n 2k
n 2 + k2 nk

Bi tp 2:
Tnh S = (k
n

n 2 + kn k + 2n 1

k=1

n 2 kn + k + k2

Liu c vn khng thy (C l sai )


Bi tp 1:
n

S=

n 2k

+ k2 nk
1
1
1
1
= (n + 1 ( + i3)n) (n + 1 ( i3)n)
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
+ (1 ( + i3)n) + (1 ( i3)n)
2
2
2
2
k=1

n2

Bi tp 2:

S = (k
n

k=1

n 2 + kn k + 2n 1
n 2 kn + k + k2

1
3
1
n + (n + 1)(3 n 1))
2
2
2

1
3
1
1
1
n( n + + (n + 1)(3 n 1)) + n(3/2 n (n + 1)(3 n 1))
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
1
+ n( n + (n + 1)(3 n 1)) + 1)
2
2
2
n(n n(

Bi vit c chnh sa ni dung bi nthoangcute: 11-06-2012 - 13:44

hxthanh

gi 11-06-2012 - 13:17

Em a vo ci my tnh wolframalpha ch g?
Nhiu khi n cng "ngu" lm
Hai bi ny ti mt c bui ti hm qua mi ngh ra y, sai lm sao c

nthoangcute

gi 11-06-2012 - 13:32

Vo lc 11 Thng 6 2012 - 13:17, 'hxthanh' ni:

5/16/2013 2:05 PM

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Em a vo ci my tnh wolframalpha ch g?
Nhiu khi n cng "ngu" lm
Hai bi ny ti mt c bui ti hm qua mi ngh ra y, sai lm sao c

S gh thy !!!
Nhng m em dng nhiu phn mm lin kt vi nhau u ra mt kt qu l nh trn.
VD:
Bi 1: http://www.wolframal...k+%3D+1+..+n%29 (http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=sum%28%28n-2*k%29
%2F%28n%5E2%2Bk%5E2-n*k%29%2C+k+%3D+1+..+n%29)
Bi 2: http://www.wolframal...k+%3D+1+..+n%29 (http://www.wolframalpha.com/input
/?i=sum%28k*%28n%5E2%2Bn*k-k%2B2*n-1%29%2F%28n%5E2-n*k%2Bk%2Bk%5E2
%29%2C+k+%3D+1+..+n%29)
Bi vit c chnh sa ni dung bi hxthanh: 11-06-2012 - 14:24
Hai ci hnh to qu

hxthanh

gi 11-06-2012 - 13:34

Em vo trong wolframalpha ri paste nguyn ci dng ny vo khung xem:


Table[sum_(k=1)^n ((n-2k)/(n^2+ k^2- n k)),{n,1,10}]

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http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

(http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum
/index.php?app=core&module=attach&section=attach&attach_rel_module=post&attach_id=9937)

nthoangcute

gi 11-06-2012 - 13:57

Vo lc 11 Thng 6 2012 - 13:34, 'hxthanh' ni:


Em vo trong wolframalpha ri paste nguyn ci dng ny vo khung xem:
Table[sum_(k=1)^n ((n-2k)/(n^2+ k^2- n k)),{n,1,10}]
Chc l do my tnh tnh ton chng trnh cao cp !!!
Em phi th dng li gi lnh cho hc sinh xem th no

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P/s: i to xem sao, ci phn mm cht tit

hxthanh

gi 11-06-2012 - 15:22

Vo lc 10 Thng 6 2012 - 16:24, 'hxthanh' ni:


...
___________________________________________________________________

Bi tp 1:
n

Tnh S =
k=1

n 2k
n 2 + k2 nk

Thi th mnh lm mu bi ny vy, phng php th trnh by trn kia ri ...

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Vit li S =
k=1

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

(n k) k
n 2 k(n k)

Nhn xt: Biu thc trong tng nu thay k bi n k th t s b o du cn mu s th khng i!


Lm g tip theo? t i = n k; khi k = 1 th i = n 1; khi k = n th i = 0, suy ra
n1

S=
i=0

i (n i)
n2

i(n i)

2S =
k=1

n1

=
k=0

(n k) k
n 2 k(n k)

k (n k)
n2

k(n k)

n1

k=0

n1

=
k=0

(n k) k
n2 k(n k)

(n k) k
n 2 k(n k)

n1
n1
(n k) k
(n k) k
1
1
2
2S = ( + 2
)( + 2
)=
n
n
n
k=1 n k(n k)
k=1 n k(n k)

S=

1
n

hxthanh

gi 11-06-2012 - 20:58

Vo lc 09 Thng 6 2012 - 00:12, 'hxthanh' ni:

o chiu
n

k=m

k=m

f(k) = f(n + m k)

(2)

Ni dung: Thay bin chy k trong hm ly tng bng ch s trn cng vi ch s di tr i n.


C bn hi ti v ci ny!
Xin gii thch nh sau:
(k) v (n + m k) chy theo hai chiu ngc nhau!
Khi k = m (gc) th n + m k = n (nh)
Khi k tng 1 th n + m k gim 1
Khi k = n (nh) th n + m k (gc)
Tm li hai v trn biu din cng mt tng theo hai chiu khc nhau - T mi c tn gi l o chiu

hxthanh

gi 11-06-2012 - 23:14

Thi th trc khi tip tc "chuyn " ca mnh th ti ... "t sng" nt vy!
Vo lc 10 Thng 6 2012 - 16:24, 'hxthanh' ni:
...

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Bi tp 2:
Tnh S = (k
n

n 2 + kn k + 2n 1
n 2 kn + k + k2

k=1

Nhn xt: nh hng bi ny khng khc bi 1, ta cn phi nhm c 2 s hng no vi nhau!


thc hin c iu ny th mu s ca 2 s hng phi ging nhau!
2

Xt mu s: n kn + k + k = n k(n 1 k)Nh vy nu thay vai tr k cho n 1 k th mu s khng


i! OK
Li gii:
t i = n 1 k k = n 1 i
Khi k = 1 th i = n 2
Khi k = n th i = 1
Suy ra:

S = (k
n

n 2 + kn k + 2n 1
n 2 kn + k + k2

k=1
n2

= ((n 1 i)

)=

n2 + (n 1 i)n (n 1 i) + 2n 1
n 2 in + i + i 2

i=1

(i tn cho bin chy i thnh k)

S = (k
n

n 2 + kn k + 2n 1

k=1
n2

n 2 kn + k + k2

= ((n 1 k)
k=1

)=

n 2 + (n 1 k)n (n 1 k) + 2n 1
)
n2 kn + k + k2

(Cng li vi tng ban u)

2S = (k
n

k=1
n2

n 2 + kn k + 2n 1
n 2 kn + k + k2

+ ((n 1 k)
k=1

)+

n2 + (n 1 k)n (n 1 k) + 2n 1
)
n2 kn + k + k2

(n y chu kh nhn cc s hng ca t s v rt gn li cho cng knh!)

2S = (
n

k=1
n2

k n2 + k2 n k2 + 2nk k
)+
n2 kn + k + k2

2n3 2n 2 3kn2 + k2 n k2 + 2kn k


+ (
)
n 2 kn + k + k2
k=1
(By gi tnh ring 2 gi tr cui tng u v tnh ring 2 gi tr u tng sau)

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2S = ((
n2
k=1

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

kn 2 + k2 n k2 + 2nk k
) + (2n 2) + (2n 1))
n 2 kn + k + k2

+((2n 1) + (2n 2) + (
n2
k=1

2n 3 2n2 3k n2 + k2 n k2 + 2kn k
))
n2 kn + k + k2

(Sau th cng li)


n2

2S = 8n 6 +

2n 3 2n2 2k n2 + 2k2 n 2k2 + 4kn 2k


n2 kn + k + k2

k=1

(Phn tch t thc thnh nhn t)


n2

2S = 8n 6 +

2(n 1)(n2 kn + k + k2 )
n2 kn + k + k2

k=1

(Sau th...)
n2

2S = 8n 6 + 2(n 1)
k=1

2S = 8n 6 + 2(n 1)(n 2) = 2n 2 + 2n 2
T suy ra: S = n 2 + n 1

Karl Heinrich Marx

gi 12-06-2012 - 12:10

Nu mt cht th c th ta ko cn khai trin bt tnh ton.


2
Nu t A = n + 2n 1

n 2 + kn k + 2n 1
2

2A + 2(n 1)k

n 2 kn + k + k
A + k2 + (n k 1)2
2
Khi th k(2A + 2(n 1)k) + (n 1 k)(2A + 2(n 1)k) = 2(n 1)(A + k2 + (n 1 k)
Nhng nhm c nh ta c tth quy sang 1 n d dng gii hn.
@thy Thanh: em thy c 1 k thut na ca phn ny l o du sigma v d nh kiu:
n

k=0

i=0

f(i)f(k) = f(i)f(k) = f(k) f(i) =


i=0 k=0

k=0 i=0

Nu c thi gian thy th nghin cu xem k thut ny c g hay khng, c mt iu th v l vi sigma i chy th k s
l hng s m ra c th t nhn t chung vi k, tng t ngc li vi i.iu gip ta tnh c tng sigma ri tnh
c tng.

hxthanh

gi 12-06-2012 - 12:16

Ok, ti s cp cc k thut tng hp ny trong bi vit tip theo, cm n em ng h bi vit ca ti!

Nesbit

gi 12-06-2012 - 21:26

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A X rt p
, mt bi vit qu hay, li g LT
E

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Nu khng ng trn trang ch th tht l ph

hxthanh

gi 12-06-2012 - 23:26

Phn II: Tng hu hn a chiu


n1

nr

n2

S = f(k1 , k2 , . . . , kr )
k1 =m1 k2 =m2

kr =mr

Tng S c xc nh nh trn c gi l: "Tng hu hn r-chiu c lp tuyn tnh"


"r-chiu" y c hiu l r bin chy k1 , k2 , . . . , kr
Trong , r bin chy ny bin thin c lp, khng b rng buc iu kin g vi nhau, v th nn gi l "c lp tuyn
tnh".
cc bn c d hnh dung, sau y ta ch xt ring n cc tng 2 chiu c lp tuyn tnh:
n1

n2

S = f(k1 , k2 )

(8)

k1 =m1 k2 =m2

Hy quan st bng sau:

k2 k1

m1

m1 + 1

n1 1

n1

n2

f(m1 , n2 )

f(m1 + 1, n 2 )

f(n1 1, n2 )

f(n1 , n2 )

n1

f(k

k1 =m1
n1

n2 1

f(m1 , n2 1)

f(m1 + 1, n 2 1)

f(n1 1, n2 1)

f(n1 , n2 1)

f(k

k1 =m1

n1

m2 + 1 f(m1 , m2 + 1)

f(m1 + 1, m2 + 1)

f(n1 1, m2 + 1)

f(n1 , m2 + 1)

f(k

k1 =m1
n1

m2

f(m1 , m2 )

f(m1 + 1, m2 )

f(n1 1, m2 )

f(n1 , m2 )

f(k

k1 =m1
n2

f(m1 , k2 )

k2 =m2

n2

f(m1 + 1, k2 )

k2 =m2

n2

f(n 1 1, k2 )

k2 =m2

n2

f(n 1 , k2 )

k2 =m2

Bng ny m t y (n1 + 1 m1 )(n2 + 1 m2 ) s hng ca tng (8)


tnh c tng ny ta c th tnh theo 2 cch:
- Tnh tng theo hng - c kt qu ri cng li theo ct
- Tnh tng theo ct - c kt qu ri cng li theo hng

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Trn mi hng th ch s hng (k2 ) l hng s (khng ph thuc vo k1 )


Trn mi ct th ch s ct (k1 ) l hng s (khng ph thuc vo k2 )
Nh vy vic tnh ton tng 2 chiu c quy v 2 ln tnh tng 1 chiu bnh thng vi lu rng tnh theo bin no
trc th bin kia c coi l hng s.
Mi k thut nu trn u c th p dng tnh cho tng ny

V d 3:
n

Tnh: S = (2i + j)
i=1 j=1

Ta c:

n
m
n
m(m + 1)
m

S = (2i + j) = 2mi + j = (2mi +


)=
j=1
i=1
i=1
2
i=1
j=1
n

n
nm(m + 1)
nm(m + 1)
mn(2n + m + 3)
+ 2m i =
+ mn(n + 1) =
2
2
2
i=1

Bn cng c th tnh theo bin chy i trc:

S = ((2i + j)) = (jn + 2i) = (jn + n(n + 1)) =


m

j=1

i=1

j=1

i=1

j=1

nm(m + 1)
mn(2n + m + 3)
= mn(n + 1) + n j = mn(n + 1) +
=
2
2
j=1
V d 4:
n

Tnh: S = Cm+n+i+k ,

(n, m N )

m+n

i=0 k=0

Cch 1
Ta c:
m+n
S = ( Cm+n+i+k
)
n

i=0
n

k=0
m

i=0

k=0

m+n+1
m+n+1
S = ( (Cm+n+1+i+k
Cm+n+i+k
))
n

m+n+1
m+n+1
S = (Cm+n+1+i+m
Cm+n+i
)
i=0
n

i=0

i=1

m+n+1
m+n+1
S = (Cm+n+1+i+m
) (Cm+n+i
)

m+n+2
m+n+2
m+n+2
m+n+2
S = (Cm+n+2+i+m
Cm+n+1+i+m
) (Cm+n+1+i
Cm+n+i
)

S=

i=0
m+n+2
C2m+2n+2

i=1

m+n+2
(C2m+n+1

m+n+2
C2n+m+1
)

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Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng $\sum\limits_{k=m}^n f(k)$ - Cc dng...

14 of 20

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

m+n
m1
n1
S = C2m+2n+2
(C2m+n+1
+ C2n+m+1
)

Cch 2
Tnh tin bin k mt on i
Ta c:
m+n
S = ( Cm+n+k
)
n

m+i

i=0
n

k=i
m+i

i=0

k=i

m+n+1
m+n+1
S = ( (Cm+n+1+k
Cm+n+k
))
n

m+n+1
m+n+1
S = (C2m+n+1+i
Cm+n+i
)
i=0
n

m+n+2
m+n+2
m+n+2
m+n+2
S = (C2m+n+2+i
C2m+n+1+i
Cm+n+1+i
+ Cm+n+i
)
i=0

m+n+2
m+n+2
m+n+2
S = C2m+2n+2
(C2m+n+1
+ Cm+2n+1
)

Lu !
Cc bn hon ton c th p dng cc k thut (2) - (6) trn tng mt bin ng thi trn c 2 bin,
tuy nhin khng c chng cho! V d:
Tnh tin bin k mt on i
Tnh tin bin i mt on k
iu ny l khng th c! bi v khi :
n1

n2

n1

n2 +i

n1 +k

S = f(i, k) = f(i, k i) =
i=m1 k=m2

i=m1 k=m2 +i

n2 +ik

f(i k, k i + k)

i=m1 +k k=m2 +ik

Biu thc cui cng l khng tng thch! Do k = m2 + i k 2k = m2 + i


(m2 + i) bin thin tng n v mt ch khng phi lc no cng l s chn!

...(cn tip)...

Nesbit

gi 12-06-2012 - 23:48

ng phn u ln trang ch: http://diendantoanho...-tinh-tong.html (http://diendantoanhoc.net/home/daiso-va-luong-giacthpt/mot-vai-ky-thuat-tinh-tong.html)


ngh mi ngi vo Like v Share kch lit

batigoal

gi 13-06-2012 - 19:37

5/16/2013 2:05 PM

Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng $\sum\limits_{k=m}^n f(k)$ - Cc dng...

15 of 20

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

Bi vit qu hay. Anh Thanh pht huy topic pht trin tip nh .

hxthanh

gi 13-06-2012 - 21:39

...(tip theo)...
Trc khi i vo phn tng a chiu ph thuc tuyn tnh, ta tr li vi mt k thut m c nu trong bi trc,
l: k thut phn on

Phn on modul-m (loi 1)


m.n1

n1 m1

k=0

i=0 r=0

S = f(k) = f(mi + r)

(9)

3n1

V d 5: Ta th tnh tng S = k
n1

k=0
n1

Ta c: S = (3i + r) = (9i + 3) =
i=0 r=0

i=0

9n(n 1)
3n(3n 1)
+ 3n =
2
2

(Tt nhin l ta c tnh phc tp ha vn )


Vy th khi no th ta dng cng thc ny?
Gi s ta phi tnh tng:
m.n1

S = f(k)
k=0

Trong f(k) l hm c c im:

f(mk) = g0 (k)
f(mk + 1) = g1 (k)
=
f(mk + m 1) = gm1 (k)
Khi ta c th t: k = mi + r vi 0 r m 1 , do 0 k mn 1 suy ra 0 i n 1
Nh vy ta a tng cho v tng 2 bin:
m.n1

n1 m1

n1 m1

k=0

i=0 r=0

i=0 r=0

S = f(k) = f(mi + r) = gr (i)


Cch lm ny c gi l phn on theo modul-m loi gp chung
Ch rng khng phi cn trn ca tng cn tnh bao gi cng "p" ta p dng phng php ny.
Trng hp tng qut, cn trn l n khi

n
m
1

k=0

i=0

S = f(k) =

m1

f(mi + r) +

r=0

k=m

f(k)
n
m

(10)

5/16/2013 2:05 PM

Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng $\sum\limits_{k=m}^n f(k)$ - Cc dng...

16 of 20

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

Ci on tha ra

k=m

f(k) i khi tnh ton rt phc tp!

n
m

gii quyt trit trong trng hp ny, ta hy nghin cu phng php sau:

Phn on modul-m (loi 2)

n
m

n1

nm+1

k=0

k=0

k=0

k=0

S = f(k) = f(mk) + f(mk + 1) + +

f(mk + m 1) (11)

Ta vn t k = mi + r vi 0 r m 1
Nhng thay v tnh gp m trng hp li th ta tch ring thnh m tng.
T (11) c th thy ngay rng phng php tch chn l ch l trng hp ring ca phng php ny
Hy xt mt v d thc t hn, nh sau:

V d 6:
Vi n l s nguyn dng cho trc (n 6),
phng trnh: a + 2b + 3c = n
c bao nhiu nghim nguyn dng?
Li gii:

Cch 1: (Kh di dng v phc tp!)


Ta c: 3c = n a 2b n 3 1 c

n3
n
= 1
3
3

Vi mi c xc nh th ta c:

n 1 3c
n1c
=
c
2
2
Vi b v c xc nh th a c xc nh a = n 2b 3c l duy nht.

2b = n 3c a n 1 3c 1 b

Nh vy s nghim nguyn dng ca phng trnh cho l:


n 1 n1c c
3

S=

c=1

b=1

n 1
3

S = (
c=1

S=

S=

n1c
c)
2

n3 ( n3 1)
2

n 1
3

Xt tng A =
c=1

+
c=1

n3 ( n3
2

n 1

n1c

1)
+A

n1c

5/16/2013 2:05 PM

Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng $\sum\limits_{k=m}^n f(k)$ - Cc dng...

17 of 20

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

t k = n 1 c suy ra khi c = 1 th k = n 2, khi c =

n
n
1 th k = n
3
3

n2
k

2
n

Do : A =

k=n 3
m

Xt tng B =
k=0

Ta s tnh B bng cch phn on modul 2 (tch chn l)


t k = 2i + r vi 0 r 1
vn cn mt on na t 2

;i

m
m
m
1. Ch l khi i = 1; r = 1 th k = 2 1
2
2
2

m
n m
2

Do :
m 1

i=0

r=0

B =

m
2

2i + r
m
m
+ (m + 1 2 )
2
2
2

B = 2i +

m
m
(m + 1 2 )
2
2
i=0
m
m
m
m
B = ( 1) + (m + 1 2 )
2
2
2
2
2
m
m
B = m
2
2
p dng B tnh A (hiu chung gc)
n2

k
Ta c: A =
2
k=0

n
n1 3

k

2
k=0

n
n

3
3
n2
n2
n

A = (n 2)

(n 1 )

2
2
3
2
2

Do :
2

n
n

3
3
n2
n2
n

S = (n 2)

(n 1 )

2
2
3
2
2

n3 ( n3 1)
2

()
Cch 2:

5/16/2013 2:05 PM

Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng $\sum\limits_{k=m}^n f(k)$ - Cc dng...

18 of 20

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

Phn tch nh trong cch 1


n 1
3

S = (
c=1

n1c
c)
2

n y p dng cng thc tch chn l (7), ta c:


n 1

n3

6
n
n1
S = ( 3k 2) + (
3k)
2
2
k=0
k=1
6

By gi vic th vic tnh ton tr nn d dng hn rt nhiu

n
n
n
3
n
n
n1
n3
S = 2 ( 1) +

2
6
6
2
6
6
2
6
()
3 n3
n3

(
+ 1)
2
6
6
****
C hai kt qu () v () u c th rt gn li c thnh

n
n 2
n1
S = (n 2) 3

6
6
6

****
Tm thi dng li y vi mt s bi tp ngh:

Bi 3
Vi m, n nguyn dng, hy chng minh cng thc sau:
n
k
m
n
m n 2
= (n + 1 )

m
2
m
2
m
k=1
Bi 4
n

n1

Tnh S =
i=1 k=0

n + k 2i
3n2 + i 2 in ik

Bi 5
Tnh S =
n

k=1

2k2 1

Bi 6
n

Tnh S = ((1)

k(k+1)
2

(2k 1))

k=1

hxthanh

gi 16-06-2012 - 09:48

5/16/2013 2:05 PM

Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng $\sum\limits_{k=m}^n f(k)$ - Cc dng...

19 of 20

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

Vi nhng bi vit trn, cng lc ti cng dn cc bn i xa hn vi cc k thut tnh tng.


(Ti b qua phng php sai phn, v phng php ny c rt nhiu ti liu vit v n, v coi nh cc bn khng
cn xa l g vi n na!), ng dng ca cc k thut m ti nu ra cng din ra theo phm vi hp dn ...
Vy c nn tip tc na hay khng nh?

batigoal

gi 16-06-2012 - 13:35

Vo lc 16 Thng 6 2012 - 09:48, 'hxthanh' ni:


Vi nhng bi vit trn, cng lc ti cng dn cc bn i xa hn vi cc k thut tnh tng.
(Ti b qua phng php sai phn, v phng php ny c rt nhiu ti liu vit v n, v coi nh cc
bn khng cn xa l g vi n na!), ng dng ca cc k thut m ti nu ra cng din ra theo phm vi
hp dn ...
Vy c nn tip tc na hay khng nh?

Tt nhin l c tip tc ch anh. Cho tt ga lun i anh

hxthanh

gi 17-06-2012 - 08:58

Trc khi tip tc bi vit ca mnh, ti v cc bn hy cng nhau gii quyt bi tp sau, xem n "o" ti c no!
Vo lc 13 Thng 6 2012 - 21:39, 'hxthanh' ni:
...

Bi 6
n

Tnh S = ((1)

k(k+1)
2

(2k 1))

k=1

Li gii 1:
Quan st:

k
(1)

k(k+1)
2

1 1 1

1 1 1

10

11

12

1 1

Ta d dng chng minh c kt qu sau:

(1)

k(k+1)
2

1
=

k = 4t
(t N)
k = 4t + 3

k = 4t + 1
(t N)
k = 4t + 2

Dng phn on modul-4 loi 2, ta tch thnh 4 tng sau:

5/16/2013 2:05 PM

Mt vi k thut tnh ton vi tng $\sum\limits_{k=m}^n f(k)$ - Cc dng...

20 of 20

S = ((1)

k(k+1)
2

k=1

http://diendantoanhoc.net/forum/index.php?/topic/74162-mt-vai-k-thut-...

n
4

n1
4

n2

k=1

k=0

k=0

(2k 1)) = (8k 1) + (8k 1) + (8k 3) +

n3
4

(8k + 5)
k=0

Tnh ton 4 tng ny th n gin ri, ta c kt qu l:


2

n
n
n1
n1
n2
n2
n3
S = 4 + 3 4
5
4
7
+ 4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
n3
+ 9
+1
4
n
n
n+1
n+2
n+3
S = (8 cos(
) 1) + 5
3

4
2
4
4
4

!!

Li gii 2:
mt cht ta thy:

(1)
V:

k(k+1)
2

= (1)

2k 1 =

k2 +k
2

= (1)

k2 3k+2+4k2
2

= (1)

(k2)(k1)
2

+2k1

= (1)

(k2)(k1)
2

(2k + 1) + (2k 3)
2

Do :

(1)
=(

k(k+1)
2

(2k 1) =

k(k+1)
(k2)(k1)
2k + 1
2k 3
(1) 2
(1) 2
2
2

k(k+1)
(k1)k
(k1)k
(k2)(k1)
2k + 1
2k 1
2k 1
2k 3
(1) 2 +
(1) 2 ) (
(1) 2 +
(1) 2 )
2
2
2
2

By gi tnh tng sai phn c ri!


n

Kt qu: S = ((1)

k(k+1)
2

k=1

(2k 1)) =

n(n+1)
n(n1)
2n + 1
2n 1
(1) 2 +
(1) 2
2
2

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