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Lecture 21 on linear control systems

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**Pole Placement Control Design
**

Dr. Radhakant Padhi

Asst. Professor

Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Indian Institute of Science - Bangalore

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

2

Pol e Pl ac ement Cont r ol Desi gn

Assumptions:

The system is completely state controllable.

The state variables are measurable and are

available for feedback.

Control input is unconstrained.

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

3

Pol e Pl ac ement Cont r ol Desi gn

Objective:

The closed loop poles should lie at which are their

‘desired locations’.

Difference from classical approach:

Not only the “dominant poles”, but “all poles” are forced to lie at

specific desired locations.

1

, , ,

n

μ μ …

Necessary and sufficient condition:

The system is completely state controllable.

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

4

Cl osed Loop Syst em Dynami c s

The control vector is designed in the following

state feedback form

This leads to the following closed loop system

( )

where ( )

CL

CL

X AX BU

U

U KX

X A BK X A X

A A BK

= +

= −

= − =

−

`

`

=

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

5

Phi l osophy of

Pol e Pl ac ement Cont r ol Desi gn

The gain matrix is designed in such a

way that

K

( ) ( )( ) ( )

1 2

1

where , , are the desired pole locations.

n

n

sI A BK s s s μ μ μ

μ μ

− − = − − −

**ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
**

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

6

Pol e Pl ac ement Desi gn St eps:

Met hod 1 (l ow or der syst ems, n ≤ 3)

z Check controllability

z Define

z Substitute this gain in the desired

characteristic polynomial equation

z Solve for by equating the like

powers on both sides

( ) ( )

1 n

sI A BK s s μ μ − + = − −

[ ]

1 2 3

K k k k =

1 2 3

, , k k k

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

7

Pol e Pl ac ement Cont r ol Desi gn:

Met hod – 2

[ ]

1 2

,

n

X AX Bu

u KX K k k k

= +

= − =

`

**Let the system be in first companion (controllable canonical) form
**

1 2 3 1

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

,

0 0 0 0 1 0

1

n n n n

A B

a a a a a

− − −

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = =

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

− − − − −

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

. . .

**ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
**

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

8

( )

1 2 1 1 2 3

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

CL

CL

n n n n

X A BK X A X

A

a a a a k k k k

− −

= − =

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

= −

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

− − − −

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

`

. .

. . .

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 2 1

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

(1)

0 0 1 0

0 0 1

CL

n n n

A

a k a k a k

−

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

=

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

− − − − − −

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

. .

After applying the control, the closed loop system

dynamics is given by

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

9

If are the desired poles. Then the desired

characteristic polynomial is given by,

1

, ,

n

μ μ

This characteristic

polynomial, will lead to

the closed loop system

matrix as

( ) ( )

1 2

1 1 2

n n n

n n

s s s s s μ μ α α α

− −

− − = + + + +

( )

1 2 1

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

2

1

0 0

CL

n n n

A

α α α α

− −

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

=

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

− − − −

⎣ ⎦

.

.

**State space form
**

Pol e Pl ac ement Cont r ol Desi gn:

Met hod – 2

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

10

Comparing Equation (1) and (2), we arrive at:

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

1

1

1 2 1 2 1 1

1 1

1 1

Row vector form

n n

n n

n n n n

n

n

k a

a k

a k k a

a k

k a

K a

α

α

α α

α

α

α

− − − −

⎡ ⎤ = −

+ =

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

+ = = −

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⇒

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

+ =

⎢ ⎥

= −

⎣ ⎦

⎣ ⎦

= −

.

.

Pol e Pl ac ement Cont r ol Desi gn:

Met hod – 2

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

11

Define a transformation

( )

( ) ( )

1

1

1 1

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ ˆ

X T X

X T AX Bu

X T

X TX

AT X T B u

−

−

− −

=

= +

= +

=

`

`

`

`

Design a T such that T

-1

AT will be in first companion form.

1

Select

where is the controllability matrix

n

T MW

M B AB A B

−

=

⎡ ⎤

⎣ ⎦

=

What i f t he syst em i s not gi ven

i n t he f i r st c ompani on f or m?

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

12

Next, design a controller for the transformed system (using the

technique for systems in first companion form).

1

ˆ ˆ ˆ

( ) u K X K T X K X

−

= − = − = −

Note: Because of its role in control design as well as the use of

(Controllability Matrix) in the process, the ‘first companion

form’ is also known as ‘Controllable Canonical form’.

M

1 2 1

2

1

1

0

1

1 0 0

n n

n

a a a

a

W

a

− −

−

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ =

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

. .

. . .

.

Pol e Pl ac ement Cont r ol Desi gn:

Met hod – 2

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

13

Pol e Pl ac ement Desi gn St eps:

Met hod 2: Bass-Gur a Appr oac h

z Check the controllability condition

z Form the characteristic polynomial for A

find a

i

’s

z Find the Transformation matrix

z Write the desired characteristic polynomial

and determine the α

i

’s

z The required state feedback gain matrix is

1 2

1 2 1

| |

n n n

n n

sI A s a s a s a s a

− −

−

− = + + + + +

( ) ( )

1 2

1 1 2

n n n

n n

s s s s s μ μ α α α

− −

− − = + + + +

( ) ( ) ( )

1

1 1 1 1

[ ]

n n n n

K a a a T α α α

−

− −

= − − −

T

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

14

Pol e Pl ac ement Desi gn St eps:

Met hod 3 (Ac k er mann’s f or mul a)

( ) ( ) ( )

1

1 2

1 2 1

Define

desired characteristic equation is

| | 0

Caley-Hamilton theorem states that every matrix

satisfies its own characteristic equation

n

n n n

n n

A A BK

sI A BK s s

sI A s s s s

A

μ μ

α α α α

φ

− −

−

= −

− − = − −

− = + + + + + =

¯

¯

1 2

1 2 1

( ) 0

For the case 3 consider the following identities.

n n n

n n

A A A A A

n

α α α α

− −

−

= + + + + + =

=

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

**ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
**

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

15

Pol e Pl ac ement Desi gn St eps:

Met hod 3: (Ac k er mann’s f or mul a)

Multiplying the identities in order by α

3

, α

2

, α

1

respectively and

adding we get

From Caley-Hamilton Theorem for

And also we have for A

……….

(1)

A

¯

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

16

Pol e Pl ac ement Desi gn St eps:

Met hod 3 (Ac k er mann’s f or mul a)

Since system is completely controllable inverse of the controllability

matrix exists we obtain

………

(2)

0

Substituting ( ) and ( ) in equation (1) we get ϕ ϕ A A

¯

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

17

Pol e Pl ac ement Desi gn St eps:

Met hod 3 (Ac k er mann’s f or mul a)

z For an arbitrary positive integer n ( number of states)

Ackermann’s formula for the state feedback gain

matrix K is given by

Pre multiplying both sides of the equation (2) with [0 0 1]

[ ]

1

2 1

1

1 1

0 0 0 1 ( )

w h ere ( )

' are t h e co effi ci en t s o f t h e

d es i red ch aract eri s t i c p o lyn o mi al

n

n n

n n

i

K B A B A B A B A

A A A A I

s

φ

φ α α α

α

−

−

−

−

⎡ ⎤

=

⎣ ⎦

= + + + +

**ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
**

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

18

Choi c e of c l osed l oop pol es :

Gui del i nes

z Do not choose the closed loop poles far away

from the open loop poles, otherwise it will

demand high control effort

z Do not choose the closed loop poles very

negative, otherwise the system will be fast

reacting (i.e. it will have a small time constant)

•In frequency domain it leads to large bandwidth, and

hence noise gets amplified

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

19

Choi c e of c l osed l oop pol es :

Gui del i nes

z Use “Butterworth polynomials”

1

1

2

( ( 2 1) )

2

1

( ) ( 1) 0,1, 2 - - -

a constant (like " natural frequency")

= system order (number of closed loop poles)

choose only stable poles.

n

n

n

j k

n

o

o

s

e k

w

w

n

π

+

+

+

−

⎛ ⎞

= − = =

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

=

¸¸_¸¸

-ω

0

Im

Re

0 0

let 1 only one pole

use 1

s= (co

Example:

s sin )

1

n

k

j ω π π ω

=

=

+ = −

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

20

Choi c e of c l osed l oop pol es :

Gui del i nes

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

m

0

0

2

1

0

Let n = 2 we know ( cos sin ) =( cos sin )

n+1 3

2n 4

[cos (2 1)3 / 4 sin (2 1)(3 / 4) ]

0 [cos 3 / 4 sin

Example 2:

stabilizing: acc

(3 / 4) ]

1 [cos 9 / 4 sin (9 / 4) ]

Destabil

.

i

t

iz

ep

j m j m

s k j k

k j

k s j

s

θ θ θ θ

ω π π

ω π π

ω π π

+ +

=

= + + +

= ⇒ = +

= ⇒ = +

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

4

3 0

0

ng: reject.

2 [cos 15 / 4 sin (15 / 4) ]

Destabilizing: reject.

3 [cos 21 /

stabilizi

4 sin (21

ng:

/ 4

accept

) ]

.

k s j

k j s

ω π π

ω π π

= ⇒ = +

= ⇒ = +

S

1

Im

Re

S

2

Im

Re

S

3

Im

Re

S

4

Im

Re

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

21

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

22

Ex ampl e: I nver t ed Pendul um

0 1 0 0 0

20.601 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

; ;

0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

0.4905 0 0 0 0.5

A B C

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

−

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

= = =

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

−

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

23

Rank = 4 ; Controllable

Step 1: Check controllability

0 M ≠

Hence, the system is controllable.

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

24

Step 2: Form the characteristic equation and get a

i

’s

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

25

Step 3: Find Transformation T = MWand its inverse

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

26

Step 4: Find α

i

’s from desired poles μ

1

, μ

2

, μ

3

, μ

4

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

27

Step 5: Find State Feed back matrix K and input u

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

28

Ti me Si mul at i on: I nver t ed Pendul um

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

29

Choi c e of c l osed l oop pol es :

Gui del i nes

z Do not choose the closed loop poles far away

from the open loop poles. Otherwise, it will

demand high control effort.

z Do not choose the closed loop poles very

negative. Otherwise, the system will be fast

reacting (i.e. it will have a small time constant)

In frequency domain it leads to a large bandwidth,

which in turn leads to amplification of noise!

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

30

Mul t i pl e i nput syst ems

z The gain matrix is not unique even for

fixed closed loop poles.

z Involved (but tractable) mathematics

11 12 1

1 2

n

m m mn

X AX BX

U KX

k k k

K

k k k

= +

= −

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

=

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

`

. . .

. . .

**ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
**

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

31

Mul t i pl e i nput syst ems:

Some t r i c k s and i deas

z Eliminate the need for measuring some x

j

by appropriately

choosing the closed loop poles.

z Relate the gains to proper physical quantities

z Shape eigenvectors: “Eigen structure assignment control”

z Introduce the idea of optimality: “optimal control”

1 1 2 2

2

: ( )

select provided 0

Example u x x μ μ β

μ β β

= + −

= <

11 13

22 24

0 0

0 0

x

y

x

u

g g y

u

g g x

y

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

⎡ ⎤

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥

=

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

⎣ ⎦

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

`

`

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

32

Control Allocation:

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

33

Ref er enc es

z K. Ogata: Modern Control Engineering,

3

rd

Ed., Prentice Hall, 1999.

z B. Friedland: Control System Design,

McGraw Hill, 1986.

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Dr. Radhakant Padhi, AE Dept., IISc-Bangalore

34

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