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Intelligent AGC

Intelligent AGC

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Published by: Petre-Cristian Razusi on May 23, 2013
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To illustrate the system frequency response in a multiarea power system based
on the model described in Figure 2.11, consider three identical interconnected
control areas, as shown in Figure 2.13. The simulation parameters are given in
Table 2.1. Here, the Mega-Volt-Ampere (MVA) base is 1,000, and each control
area uses a PI controller in its supplementary frequency control loop.
The system response following a simultaneous 0.05 pu load step (distur-
bance) increase at 2 s in control areas 1 and 2 is shown in Figures 2.14 to 2.17.
Although the load disturbances occur in areas 1 and 2, area 3 also partici-
pates in restoring the system frequency and minimizing the tie-line power
fuctuation using generating units G8 and G9.
Several low-order models for representing turbine-governor dynamics,
Mi(s), for use in power system frequency analysis and control design are

FIGURE 2.13

Three-control area power system.

32

Intelligent Automatic Generation Control

© 2011 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

∆f1 (Hz)

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

ACE1 (pu)

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.05

0

0.05

∆Ptie1 (pu)

0

5

10

15

20

25

0

0.05

0.1

∆PC1 (pu)

Time (sec)

FIGURE 2.14

The system response in control area 1.

TABLE 2.1

Simulation Parameters for Three-Control Area Power System

Parameters
Generating Units

Area 1

Area 2

Area 3

G1

G2

G3

G4

G5

G6

G7

G8

G9

Rate (MW)

1,0008001,0001,1009001,2008501,0001,020

Ttk (s)

0.4

0.36

0.42

0.44

0.32

0.40

0.30

0.40

0.41

Tgk (s)

0.08

0.06

0.07

0.06

0.06

0.08

0.07

0.07

0.08

Participation factor αi

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.6

0

0.4

0

0.5

0.5

Ramp rate (MW/min)

8

8

6

12

10

8

10

10

10

Dead zone band

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

Saturation limits (pu)

±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.1

Time delay (s)

1

1

1

Bi (pu/Hz)

1.0136

1.1857

1.0735

Di (pu MW/Hz)

0.044

0.044

0.046

Ri (Hz/pu)

3.00

2.67

2.95

Hi

0.2433

0.2739

0.2392

Controller

–0.01 − (0.19/s)

–0.03 − (0.25/s)

–0.02 − (0.27/s)

Automatic Generation Control (AGC): Fundamentals and Concepts

33

© 2011 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

∆f2

(Hz)

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

ACE2

(pu)

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.05

0

0.05

∆Ptie2

(pu)

0

5

10

15

20

25

0

0.05

0.1

∆PC2

(pu)

Time (sec)

FIGURE 2.15

The system response in control area 2.

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

∆f3 (Hz)

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

ACE3 (pu)

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.05

0

0.05

Ptie3 (pu)∆

0

5

10

15

20

25

0

0.05

0.1

∆PC3 (pu)

Time (sec)

FIGURE 2.16

The system response in control area 3.

34

Intelligent Automatic Generation Control

© 2011 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

introduced in Bevrani.1

For the present example, it is assumed that all gen-
erators are nonreheat steam units; therefore, the turbine-governor dynamics
can be approximated by1

M s

T s T s

ki

gk

tk

( )

( ).

( )

=

+

+

1

1

1

1

(2.15)

where Tgk and Ttk are governor and turbine time constants, respectively. The
balance between connected control areas is achieved by detecting the fre-
quency and tie-line power deviations to generate the ACE signal, which is in
turn utilized in a dynamic controller.
The frequency response model, which is described in Figure 2.11, is imple-
mented for each control area in the MATLAB software. Figures 2.14 to 2.16
show the frequency deviation, ACE, tie-line power change, and control action
signal for control areas 1 to 3, respectively. The proposed simulation shows
the supplementary frequency control loops properly act to maintain system

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.01

0

0.03

∆Pm1 (pu)

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.01

0

0.03

∆Pm2

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.01

0

0.02

∆Pm3

0

5

10

15

20

25

0

0.04

∆Pm4

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.01

0

0.02

∆Pm5

0

5

10

15

20

25

0

0.04

∆Pm6

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.01

0

0.02

∆Pm7

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.01

0

0.02

∆Pm8

0

5

10

15

20

25

-0.01

0

0.02

∆Pm9

Time (sec)

FIGURE 2.17

Mechanical power changes in the generating units.

Automatic Generation Control (AGC): Fundamentals and Concepts

35

© 2011 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

frequency and exchange powers close to the scheduled values by sending a
corrective signal to the generating units in proportion to their participation
in the AGC system.
The difference between the starting times in simulations is because of con-
sidering a small communication delay (about 1 s). This delay is needed for
producing the ACE and the control action signals in the control center fol-
lowing a disturbance. Figure 2.17 shows the mechanical power fuctuation in
all generating units following the simultaneous 0.05 step load disturbance in
areas 1 and 2.

Figure 2.17 indicates that the mechanical power to compensate the frequency
deviation and tie-line power change initially comes from all generating units
to respond to the step load increase in areas 1 and 2, and results in a frequency
drop sensed by the speed governors of all generators. However, after a few
seconds (at steady state), the additional powers against the local load changes
come only from generating units that are participating in the AGC issue.
The amount of additional generated power by each unit is proportional
to the related participation factor. Figure 2.17 shows that the participation
factors for generating units G5 and G7 is zero, while the maximum participa-
tion belongs to generating unit G4. These results agree with the data given
in Table 2.1.

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