Preface
This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă
Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents
Preface Contents 1. Introduction
1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1
1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method
2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9
9 10 11 12 12 13

3. Direct Stiffness Method
3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates
3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17
17 19
19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv
3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

4. Bars and shafts
4.1 Plane bar elements
4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47
47
47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

5. Beams, frames and grids
5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends
5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79
79 81 83
84 86 88

5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89
89 92 95

5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97
97 98

7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.9.1 Strain energy 7.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.2.1.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.2 External potential energy 7.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.9.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.1.2.6.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.2. stresses and strain 6.9.4.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .6.5 Stress-strain relations 6. Energy methods 7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.1.1 Matrix notation for loads.1.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.1 Principle of virtual work 7.2 Shape functions 5.9 Deep beam bending element 5.CONTENTS 5.4.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.4.1.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.1 Virtual displacements 7.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.6 Temperature effects 6. Linear elasticity 6.3 Coordinate transformation 5.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.2 Discretization 7.8 Grids 5.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.

4.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.4.1.2 Shape functions 9.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.1.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.4.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.1.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.1 Natural coordinates 9.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.4.1 Equilibrium vs.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8. compatibility 8.3 The displacement field 9.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.2 Numerical integration 9.1.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.1.1.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.1.1.3.2.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.3.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.2.1.vi 7.3 Triangular elements 8.4.4 Equilibrium.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .1 Area coordinates 8. Discretization of structure 8.3.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.2.1. convergence and compatibility 8.4.4.1.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.2 Rectangular elements 8.

3.5 Six-node triangle 9.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.3.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .3.1 Shape functions 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.CONTENTS 9.3.3 Stiffness integration 9.2.3.4.4.2 Shape function derivatives 9.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.2.3.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.2.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.3.3.4.3.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.5 Stress calculation 9.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.

by means of a linear combination of trial functions. within each element. The subdomains are called finite elements. involving approximation methods. strength of materials. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. weighted-residual. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. The tools are the computers. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. encompassing elasticity. 1. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. eigenproblems. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. . the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. and (3) Applied Computer Science. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures.1. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. etc. This requires a matrix notation. solving linear sets of equations. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. etc. dynamics. plasticity. (2) Numerical Analysis. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics.

While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. Indeed. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. difficult to handle on a routine basis.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. which is often difficult. even approximately. . While the finite element method was being developed. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. In order to match a given irregular boundary. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. Mathematically. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. In FEA. defined over small subdomains of the structure. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. In turn. should be easier. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. which led to automation. which tend to have complicated expressions. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. integrating known polynomial functions. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. This extreme versatility. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. some of them made available as open source free software.

Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. and (6) make additional computations if desired. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. (4) assemble the element properties. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). INTRODUCTION 3 1. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. and curved elements flat). Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. leaving only the magnitude to be found.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. but may be trigonometric functions as well. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. and (3) the versatility. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. and (3) the solution algorithms. Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. (5) solve the system of equations. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. a larger number of equations to be solved. Finally. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. (3) find the element properties. making curved lines straight. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. The “shapes” are polynomials. (2) select interpolation functions. hence larger computer storage space and running time.1.

collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960).3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. so that the method was not practical then. Clough. In the early 1940s. . where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. panels. 1. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. After the Second World War. computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. 1955).4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). Martin. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. stiffeners and spars. ribs. and Topp (1956). who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). In modern times. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. static. the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. stability and dynamic engineering problems. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing.

1966. M. NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. R. General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. S. including computation of natural frequencies. J. PATRAN. material properties and . COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. (1985). Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. Since 1963. J. crashworthiness. IDEAS-MS.T.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). nonlinear static and dynamic response. fluids. ALGOR etc. and at Swansea University. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. Major contributions are due to B. L. under Martin.by Hibbitt. who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC.I. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980).-J. Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. (1978). Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. electromagnetics etc). who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). at Washington University. 1970). INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967).-J. lead by Zienkiewicz. ADINA – developed by K. Inc. STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). MacNeal Schwendler. SAP5 and NONSAP. Irons. STRUDL . directed by Clough. developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). ABAQUS . 1. Karlsson @ Sorensen. element connectivity. Bathe at M. shape functions.by SAMTECH (1965). and (3) postprocessing. (1975). He was joined later by K.1. finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. the inventor of isoparametric models. and thermal loading. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. static and dynamic stability. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). (2) processing. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. SAMCEF . boundary conditions. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). Archer. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. and E. Wilson. such as nodal coordinates. Melosh.

T. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I. programs.E. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. or reading from a data file. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. as well as element connectivity data. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. represented with hidden line removal. Fig.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. 1. or C.2 .A. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced. Alternatively.A. through a userfriendly interface. 1.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading.2).1) and a car engine piston (Fig. Italia.I.D. Fig. 1. some input data can be imported from other F. 1.

1.3 In the processing stage. 1. the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). Fig. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis.4 In dynamic analyses. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size.3.1. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation). processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires. Fig. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. 1. In static analyses. .

as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. a Fig. Fig. 1. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF. 1. Fig. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. 1. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration.6.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action. . with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. 1. Early programs used tabular presentations. as in Fig.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results.6 b Fig.5 for a crankshaft. Fig.6. 1. 1. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error.

Once the displacements are determined. DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. T1 . a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. 2. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. then stresses from the constitutive relationship. the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). and hence strains. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . 2.2.1 . 2. T2 .1 [74]. assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. geometric compatibility conditions. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure. F4 . there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations. If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. Fig. F2 . they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not.

3) have seven unknowns.3) The six equations (2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0. 2. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0. 2. a).2.2. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system. 2. b). The system is statically indeterminate.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar.2) (2. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ .3. T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0.2 c 2.1) to (2. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation. 2. (2. At Node 2 (Fig. a b Fig. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0.1) (2. Fig. At Node 3 (Fig. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium.2.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. The change in length of the member is (2. Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0. 2.4) . u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ .

Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions. (2.9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns. Δl12 = .5) Fig. Δl13 = 2 .8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ ⎜− ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2.7) (2.3 Applying equation (2.3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression. the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 .6) (2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ .U1 .2.6) to (2.5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 . Δl 23 = 3 . six displacements and three elongations. 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l . 2 (2. 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 . ( ) ( ) (2. 2.8) have nine unknowns. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) . EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 . 2.

1) . l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2.10). EA 9 Fl .3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l . this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as . (2.8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) .6)(2. EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l . EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l .9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2.5 Solving for displacements Equations (2. EA 6F l .(2.12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2. l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2. EA F1 l .4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 16 linear algebraic equations.10) 2. Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) .

4. i =1 i =1 7 7 (2. Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . ∑ Ti sinθi = 0.. (2...7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints. The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy . (2. Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8. EA V3 = 4 Fl .6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem. F5 = − F .14) . F2 = −4 F .1)-(2..13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2.12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . F4 = −5 F . Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2.2.11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎢ V3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣9 F ⎥ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl .3) yields the tensions in the members. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. EA (2. Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1. 2.

∂X i ( i = 1. so the framework is statically indeterminate. according to (2.17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined.14). ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1.4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜ T12 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2. We choose X1 = T3 .16) since we are assuming no support movement. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U . They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 .15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 . Using Menabrea’s theorem. X 3 = T5 ... X 4 = T6 ..5 ) (2. 2. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U ..14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns.. ∂Fy (2...5 ) (2. Fig. and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces..18) . the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0. X 2 = T4 .

Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2. (2... only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements.....19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li .7 ) (2.. the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces.7 ) (2.7 ) (2.22) into the equilibrium equations (2.19) ( i = 1. sinθ i ( i = 1.5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi .. The bar length is li = a . hence the number of equations (2.2.14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 ...7 ) (2..23) sin θ i = 0 .20) Substituting (2. a ( ) ( i = 1..22) Inserting (2.16).. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method.21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i .. the larger the number of bars.. 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 . In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ v8 ⎭ (2.24) where the stiffness coefficients are . ( i = 1.. Regardless the number of concurrent bars.

(2.219 Fy a EA . i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4.7097 Fx a . a (2. .567 EA .409 i =1 7 EA .25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not.24) gives u 8 = 0. EA v 8 = 0.16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1. a Solving (2.

Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. In the following. Generally. . The nodal displacements are q 1 . hence to the structure stiffness matrix. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element. In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 .) . 3. Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig.1). We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. q 2 . Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. linearly elastic. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. They are natural finite elements. the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces.3. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. respectively. with each element being placed in a preassigned location. cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee .1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. pinconnected at the ends. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. 3. The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. It has length l e . As elements are added to the structure. f 2 .

6) . ⎣ ⎦ (3. the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ f1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎥ f2⎪ le ⎢ ⎪ ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 1442443 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 1 2 3 (3.3) Combining equations (3. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0. f 2 are positive in the positive x direction. q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move. le (3. q 2 and the nodal forces f1 .2) le Similarly. (3. q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . 3.4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3. f l q 2 = 0 .3). If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move.2) and (3. which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations.1) Next. (3. then for q 1 = 0 .1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 .18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. the force/elongation relations are used.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ .

Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system.7) . q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e . Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2). In matrix form (3. 3. End forces and displacements have two components at each node. Fig. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix.3.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3. In fact.2.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure.2.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . 3.

20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e 1 4 24 3 local displacements ⎧ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ q1 ⎫ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cos θ sin θe ⎥ ⎪ e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎪ ⎭ e 1 4 2 4 3 1444444 4 2444444 4 3 transformation matrix (3. respectively. we obtain cos θ e = . From nodal coordinate data. 3.9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ θ [T ] = ⎡⎢ cos 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. e e e (3.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix.2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig. 3.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are .3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2. The entries in the matrix (3.Y1 ) and ( X 2 .8) global displacements or where { q }= [T ] { Q }. Fig.2. 3. denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 .10) are calculated based on the above equations. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le .

12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }.3. Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e . In matrix form Fy1 = f1 sinθ e .13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work.11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎢ ⎥ ⎧ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎬ .13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [1 T ] [ k ][ T ] { Q } 44 4 244 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].9) into the resulting matrix product. 3.5) into (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e . ⎨ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ ⎣ 0 2 ⎭e ⎩ 1 4 2 4 3 144 2 3 4 244 4 31 transformation matrix local forces (3.14) Substituting (3.13). e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3. (3. equation (3.9) for the local displacements. then equation (3. and comparing with (3.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3. Work is a scalar quantity. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3.15) (3. Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .13) Equation (3. . having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } . e e T e (3.13).14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . e e T e e .2.

l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎦ ⎢− c s − s ⎥ ⎣ (3. Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives e e −1 e e { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe . And so must be its inverse.10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 .22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3. 3.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e . Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = F le ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅ ⎨ ⎬ .2. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ s2 ⎦ ⎢SYM ⎥ ⎪ ⎩Q y 2 ⎭e ⎣ (3. with positive diagonal elements. [ ] (3.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T . [ ] . a) 3. the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric. the stiffness matrix. singular (order 4. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero.2.17.18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem.4.

the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe .4. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments. displacements are proportional to the applied loads. so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows). (3. This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. For linear structures.4. a) so that which defines the symmetry. which is [ ] .3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe . A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy. this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular.19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. If this were not so. { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . [ K ]= [K ] e e T .15) into (3.3.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes.20.2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. 3. One can verify that the determinants of the 3 × 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero.2. Substituting (3. (3.2. 3. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant.

21) Fx1 = k11 . (3. k21 + k41 = 0 .⎦ ⎪ ⎩Q y 2 = 0⎭ (3.4 Equation (3. 3.⎥ ⎪ y1 ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ . . Fy 2 = k 41 . 3. k31 and k 41 . . Moreover. .4.20) is either positive or zero. k 21 .⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ . a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣k 41 which yields . Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 . . ( ( ) ) Fig. E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e .2.4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1.⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪Q = 0 ⎪ . The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . 3. Fy1 = k21 . . . . .4. whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 . the matrix K e is positive semidefinite. the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3. Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. . Fx 2 = k31 .22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.17.24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound. That is.

3. Fig. 3. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. 3.1. a b . In the element stiffness matrix. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. It is simply supported in 2 and 3. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i . 3. The same applies for the other columns.5.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices.6. 2. firmly located in 1. already analyzed in Chapter 2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. Fig. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig.3. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes.

Element numbering can be arbitrary.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3. The first three columns define the element connectivities. 3. Table 3. the element stiffness matrices (3.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥.e. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎦ ⎥ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 2 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥.6 Element data are given in Table 3.1 Member Nodes θe 0 45 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 2 1 1 j 2 3 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣• • K K • •⎥ ⎦ .1. i.1 together with information useful for the computation. their localization within the structure.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.

each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements.28) is done systematically. according to Table 3. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). In the global matrix. . and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . so that if a node is common to several elements. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations.2. element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . This is referred to as the direct matrix method. as indicated by dots above.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location. For instance. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎦ ⎥ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. Table 3.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ 4 T K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥.

{Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e yields For the truss from Fig. { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix. { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎣0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ]. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates.23) Q e = T e { Q }. { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣0 ⎩Q6 ⎪ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎪ ~ ⎪ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩Q6 ⎪ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎪Q3 ⎪ 0⎥ ~3 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬= T 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎭ ⎩ [ ] [ Q ]. equation (3. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level.5. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3.28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. .23) applied to the three elements ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎪Q3 ⎪ 0⎥ ~1 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬= T 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ {Q } 1 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q4 ⎭ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 [ ] [Q ] . 3. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level.

24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 EA ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢0 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ .24) has the size of the system matrix. 3. substituting (3. a) Ue = 1 2 ~e T ~e { Q }T [T ] [ K e ][T ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~e { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3.20.23) into (3.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3. equation (3. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. For the truss from Fig. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎦ ⎥ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0 1 0 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ ⎥ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.5. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ .

(3. T e T e e e e e (3.25) and (3.26) Comparing (3. 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 3. .26) we get ~e ] [ K ]= ∑[K e .25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 T { Q } [ K ] { Q }.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 and 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎦ ⎥ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 or ~ [K ] 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢0 ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ .

Apart from external forces and support reactions. It corresponds to the free-free system. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎦ ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎣ [ ] ~1 ~2 ~3 [ K ] = [K ]+ [ K ]+ [ K ] (3. the deficiency is 3). The expensive product (3. they are never used in practice.5. equation (3. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. 3. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . An alternative presentation is given below.24) is never formed.5. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. singular (for a plane truss.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. are used in the following. involving forces applied by elements to nodes.7. For the truss from Fig. The joint equilibrium equations. 3. 3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations. For a grounded system. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. using for convenience the truss from Fig.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero. based on joint equilibrium equations.3. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. Note that element equilibrium equations (3. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix.

3.32 1 2 F1 = Fx 1 + Fx1 .29) . 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 . {F }= ∑ [ T e (3. 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2.7 In matrix form 1 ⎫ ⎧ Fx ⎪ 11 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎤ −−− ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎪ Fx1 ⎪ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎪ − −3− ⎪ 14 4 244 3 14 4 244 3 ⎪ Fx1 ⎪ ~ T ~ T T2 T3 ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fx ⎪ 32 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 0 1 0 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ 04 ⎩ F6 ⎪ ⎭ 1 4 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~1 T 1 ~2 T 2 ~3 T 3 {F }= [ T ] {F }+ [ T ] {F }+ [ T ] {F } or generally ~e T e ] {F }. Fig. 1 3 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx1 . 1 2 F2 = Fy 1 + Fy1 .

⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪ ⎩QN ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ FN ⎪ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition. b j and b0 are known constants. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − L K NN ⎦ ⎪ Q F K a N1 1 ⎭ ⎩ N⎭ ⎩ N (3. where bi . it can be written ~e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } .9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. Qi = 0 . the finite element equations (3.30) then.31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections.32) . of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ). where ns is the number of supports. 44 4 2444 3 e T e e (3.24) and (3. As Q1 is known. Another type are the multipoint constraints. {F }= ∑ [ K e (3. Most often the support nodal displacements are zero.29) becomes ~e T e {F }= ∑ [ T ] [ K ]{Qe }= ∑ e e ~ ~ [1 T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } . Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ F − K a ⎪ L K3N ⎥ 3⎪ ⎪ 3 31 1 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3.23).3. [ ] 3.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }.27). For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. equation (3.15) and (3. using equations (3. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . Q1 = a1 .

obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢ ⎣− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣Q6 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ (3. (3. For a truss supported on many supports. Equation (3. and where the forces are specified. Equations (3.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . 3. respectively.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix.5.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ ⎣1 2⎦ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ .34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements. the nodal displacements are unknown. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces.33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. The matrix [ K ] is not singular. the nodal forces are unknown. The final equations (3. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢0⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ F5 ⎥ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎣ −1 (3. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F .

5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3.5. equations (3. l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩−F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ F5 ⎪ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2.33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. EA EA In general. for non-zero boundary conditions.39) For the truss from Fig. 3. [ K bb ]⎥ ⎦ ⎩ { Qb }⎭ ⎩ { Fb }⎭ (3. are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } . { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) . 3. The axial force in a truss element is . .36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] .10 Reactions and internal forces (3.38) (3. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ 3 ⎫ ⎪− 4 F ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ = = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬. (3. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } .40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. which in this case are the external reactions.3.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 . the support displacements are zero. T { Fa } is the vector of known forces.

Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). Duhamel (1838).42) . where A is the cross-section area. le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. (3. Accordingly.5. C. Q l l ⎪ 3⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Q4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Q6 ⎪ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Q6 ⎪ (3. the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F . where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference).41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F .36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas. This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T . M. the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET .11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element. where E is Young’s modulus. 3. 3.

43) σ e = Ee ⎜ α ⎜ l ⎟. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. 3. After determining the displacements produced by these forces. . ⎝ e ⎠ i.e.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. if the case).3. These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. i. They are also banded. the element elongations are determined from (3. due to the sparseness. Even so. a) 3. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥.8. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. in local coordinates. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig. the initial stresses produced by restraining. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal.44) Because of symmetry. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl e ⎞ ⎟ − T (3. a. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ [ ] × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3.42. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT . (3. The half-bandwidth is denoted B.e.

the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12 × 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥.8. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3. B = 12 . b. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. . B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. As a general rule. i.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. 3.44). The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . a . for the numbering from Fig.8. For the numbering scheme of Fig. However.e. 3. a Fig.8 b For plane trusses. equal to the size of the original matrix. the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix. 3. then progressing along the longer dimension. In general. B = 6 .the half-bandwidth of the original matrix.

Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. If there are zeros at the top of a column. ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. In this case. For large sparse stiffness matrices. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9⎪ { ID } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬. Apart from storage savings. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline.3.

Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 5 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . For the solution of the finite element equations. Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program. A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) .

4 3.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9.16 -10.1 -361. 3 2. 2 1.7 -339. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208.16 -10. Fig.7 -339.8 -343. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location. A = 1 . For the truss in Fig.6 176 62. 7 6. and c) the support reactions. 6 4.1. Taking l = 1 .1. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements. a Answer. a. 6 4.3.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4. Plot the deformed shape.83 0 12 -15 .1 -391.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1. 8 7. 8 Axial stress 12 -4. 4 3. 7 6. E3. 7 5. E3. 3 2.1.3 128 127. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3. E = 1 and F = 1 .

and c) the support reactions. Fig. R2 = 6 . E3. E3.1. E3. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements.1. b. a. and R3 = 9 . a) Fl . a Answer. b. Fig. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A .2. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement.2. and R2 = 6 F . b E3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. b) the maximum stress. The deformed shape is shown in Fig.42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . E3. Plot the deformed shape. E3.2. .4 F . b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219.2. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.

Plot the deformed shape. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 .2.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. E3. Fig. b. b E3. a) Fl .3. E3. a Answer. a. .4 F and R3 = 2. E3.25 F A .6 F . Calculate c) the support reactions. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. b) the maximum stress. E3.3.3. R2 = 3. Consider the truss shown in Fig.3. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137.3.

E3.0896 . Taking l = 1 . a. and c) the support reactions.4.3. A = 1 .44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Plot the deformed shape.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3. E3. Consider the truss shown in Fig.2095 -9. b E3. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements. b) the maximum stress. E = 1 and F = 1 .4. Fig.3294 2. E3. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1. a Answer.4.

Plot the deformed shape.1.0. 4 Axial stress .940 1.0. E3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. 3 2.09 F l E A .5. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. 3 2. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. b E3. b) the maximum stress.3.665F .5.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. E3.335 F A .940 . a . 4 1.335 . 4 1.335F and R4 = 0. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 .329 0. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1. Fig. b. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3.5.4. Fig. E3. R2 = 0.4. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . E3.

The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b . b.5. A = 1 and E = 1 .366 .46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. Fig. E3. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements.5. and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. Taking l = 1 .538 . E3.

there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends. These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. The dimensions of p are force/length. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials. .1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node. cables. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes. For bars with distributed loads. chains and ropes. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity. 4. Bars are loaded only by axial forces.1. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. However. In this section.4. 4. Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. having one degree of freedom per node.

a).1 The internal axial force N is du . . their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig.3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig. using (4.3).2.2. 4. N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 . (4. The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4. dx or. 4.1.5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig.1) σ x = E du d x . Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. (4. EA d2 u = − p (x ) .1) is d N + p d x = 0 . We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (4. 4.2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system.4) 4.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x . b). 4.2) Fig. d x2 (4.

so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . 4. Fig. They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node. a.4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends.7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. where N1 (r ) = (4.b.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4. d 2u d x 2 = 0 . p = 0 .2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 . BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig.3. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs. 4. .3 4. 4. d u d x = const .

10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4.11). (4. 2 2 (4. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2. The nodal expansion (4.9) Equation (4.50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x .12) Thus.11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . using (4. e i i i =1 2 (4. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 . but the integration constants.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . are the nodal displacements. (4. a and b. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. where N1 (r ) = element. the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements.6) is simpler. (4. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . but the integration constants. ⎣N ⎦ In (4. q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } . u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 .8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element.9) can also be written u= or. equation (4.10) is more complicated. q 1 and q 2 .5). have no simple physical meaning.

14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions.4.1. (4.16) Substituting (4.6) and (4. The transformation from x to r in equation (4.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 . Equations (4.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr . and that u varies linearly (Fig. 2 (4. 4.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] .4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4. e (4. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2. c).13) in (4. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV . generally called the element strain-displacement matrix.17) 144 4 2444 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions. e T e e (4. 4.3.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement.

4. p = const. This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element.5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load.21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ⎬ ⎢− ∫⎨ ⎩ 1 2 ⎭⎣ 2 − 1⎤ . a). ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4. a. An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. . (4.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = . d 2u d x 2 = const . . 4. we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4. have to be determined from three boundary conditions.6).1. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 . 4. (4. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx .52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4.19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix. equation (4. b and c. .21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + .22) which is the same as equation (3.23) The three integration constants.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation
T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,
where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are
(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,
e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q
e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]
e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦
B
−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]
e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 1 7 − 8⎥ ⎥. ⎢ 3l e ⎢ ⎦ ⎣− 8 − 8 16 ⎥

(4.30)

4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is
W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u
le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦
T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56
W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }
T e

(4.33)
+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦
e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

⎣N ⎦ ∫ −1

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }
e

+1

l = e p 2

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l
e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l
e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1
{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have
U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }
3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA3 ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 Q3 Q4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎬. ⎣ 1⎥ l3 ⎢ 2 ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎣ −1

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or
U3 = 1 2 ~3 { Q }T [ K ] { Q },

⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 .1. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 4 [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. global stiffness matrix. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~e [ K ]= K . 1⎥ ⎦ 2 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 .1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 . Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T U e = ∑ { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } ∑ 2 2 e e e so that. ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies.4 for truss elements. The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process. based on element connectivity. It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix.27). Table 4. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. according to the connectivity Table 4.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. as in (3. ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method. which is never done in practice.

⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. (4. The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) . this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 .41). due to fabrication errors. Q 1 = 0 .8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element.1. and the reduced load vector .5.13).4. the expression (4. (4. The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long. using the boundary condition.by deleting the first element. ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained. 4.38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx . BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T .39) becomes .39) Substituting (4. In fact. Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3. as shown in section 3.

(4. is shown in Fig. from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G. of length l and torsional rigidity G I p .42) After solving for nodal displacements. ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4.40) It has the form (4.43) In the case of thermal loading.33). 4. ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr . The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = . ε0 = αT . stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) . le (4.44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element. 4. acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l .60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . θ l A two-node shaft finite element.8. The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations .41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section.2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l . where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. (4.

50) . (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0.45) Equations (4. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4.3) du N = .4. Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element. (4. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . 4.47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element. Fig.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4. e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. (4.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K⎥ ⎦ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ (4. θ 1 = 0.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }.

as equation (4. .22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. l = 0. E4.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from ⎥ [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4. Example 4. E = 200 GPa .1 with d = 5 mm .2 m . and c) the support reactions. the same as for the axially loaded bar element. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN . E4.20).1 Solution.54) Equation (4. a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element.62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4. Fig.1 Consider the bar in Fig. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2. Analogous to equation (4.53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t . For non-axially-symmetric cross sections. b) the stresses in bar.

47 − 38.81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.62 mm 2 .81 ⎪Q ⎢− 9.47 0 ⎥ 2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38.42 = 337.47 38. Q3 = 43.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34.81 ⎢− 9.47 ⎡ 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 ⎢− 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.8 N . the finite element equations can be written − 9. c) Stresses are .47 38.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).2 N .42 mm .62 ⎡ 1 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 ⎢− 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.4.47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38. The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19.47 Q3 = 38.81 48.47 76.28 − 38.28 − 38. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ mm ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . R4 = 38. A2 = A3 = π ( 1.21 = 1662 . b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.4 d 4 )2 = 38.47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎩ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 3 ⎬.21 mm .47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38. ⋅ 2 10 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R 4 ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.81 Q2 = 9.47 − 38.81 9. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ mm ⋅ 38.47 mm 2 .81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9.47 + 38.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 38.47 76.81 + 38. [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.94 − 38.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E
σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2
A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,
A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 200 ⎡ 1 [ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⎢− 1 200
1 5

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ mm ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ mm

⋅ 800 ⎡ 1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⎢− 1 200
2 5

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 2.1 + 4.8 [ K ] = 105 ⎡ ⎢ − 2.1 − 4.8 ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ = 6.9 ⋅ 105 ⎥ 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ mm

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,
which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are
Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

c) Internal forces are
N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,
N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3
The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ 1800 ⎢ ⎣− 1 ⎦ mm
5

As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,
so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4
A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1
1 3 2

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1
2 1

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1
2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 ⎥⎩ E2 ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

The second and third equation yield
E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2
Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5
A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .
Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
A1 =

π δ2
4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2
4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 78.54 ⎡ 1 [ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⎢− 1 100
1 5

− 1⎤ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , = 1.63 ⋅ 105 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎥ 1⎦ ⎦ mm ⎣− 1

[ k ] = 10
2

5

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N ⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . = 1.41 ⋅ 105 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ 100 ⎦ mm ⎣− 1 ⎣ − 1 1⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 ⎪ Q ⎪ ⎪−F 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ R4 Retaining only the second and third equation yields
⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

Fig. A1 78.63 ⋅ 10 1.63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − . with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ .6 Solution. the element stiffness matrices are . find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F. The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx . Q3 = F 1.6.54 mm 2 F 30316 N .37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4.6. σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 .5 A2 141.6 For the bar of Fig.4 . E4.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . =− = −214.41 ⋅ 105 . Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0. BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1. E4.4. For the bar of Fig. divided into two equal length tapered elements. 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1. E4. using two tapered bar finite elements.

condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. 4l ⎢ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣− 1 1⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . E4. b) a three-node quadratic element. Example 4.7 Solution. 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . ⎢ ⎥ 4l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ 0 −7 7 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ F ⎭ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements.7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements.7. 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ . hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. E4.70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = ⎥ . The element stiffness matrices are . ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 . Fig. Comment the results.

⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element. 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎥ .4. The finite element equations can be written . ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ −1 −1 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ F3 For F3 = 0 . BARS AND SHAFTS 71 ⎡ 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA l ⎢− 1 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.

⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬. Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎨Q ⎬ ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4. c) Comments.72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ F3 Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 −8 ⎥ Q3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ . 3l ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎧ Q1 − 0 1 1 7 8 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎨Q 2⎦ 3l ⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ − 8 − 8 16 ⎦ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬. 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎨ ⎬+ ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎣ 1 7 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ 3l ⎩ − 8 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎨ ⎬+ ⎬⎣1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎣ 1 7 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ 3l ⎩ − 8 ⎭ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. ⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . l ⎢ ⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials.

⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const . The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. E4. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized.25). before using equation (4. Example 4. . a). exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 .8.4). For the case p = const.4. displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. used to describe the displacement field. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . However. the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. as it is shown in a next chapter.25). Solution.23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization. . rotating at constant angular velocity . form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . and b) three linear elements. However. Whenever the assumed functions. This is because. ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables.8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig.

Fig. l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 .8 . E4.74 p ( x ) = p0 x .

8.26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 . For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4.8.37). d. The nodal forces. 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎦⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ Q5 ⎪ . BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig. 3l ⎢ ⎣ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA ⎢ 1 −8 7 + 7 −8 1 ⎥ . [ K ] = 23 l ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ 0 ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. E4. The element nodal load vectors are l { f }= p ⎣0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T .8. E4.4. The model has five degrees of freedom.8. ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ = − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . equivalent to a linearly distributed load. c. b. E4. are given by equation (4. l { f }= p ⎣1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T . 1] . E4. the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ . c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4.

While the nodal displacements are exact. (N1′ Q3 + N 2 l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . σ4 = . σ2 = . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . σ5 = . u⎜ ⎟ = . ε4 = . 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact.29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution. Q5 = . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. ε5 = . The strains are calculated as pl 2 ′ Q3 + N 3 ′ Q2 ) = 0 ( 25 − 6ξ ) . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. σ3 = . (N 2 48 EA l 2 pl ′ Q5 + N 3 ′ Q4 ) = 0 ( 19 − 18ξ ) . ε2 = . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. u (l ) = . Q3 = . ε3 = . u⎜ ⎟ = . Q4 = . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l .76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law.

Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . e. ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. l { f }= p ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . are given by equation (4.26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ . If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. The model has four degrees of freedom. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA l ⎢− 1 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ . l { f }= p ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T .4. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig. g. ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig.34). E4. the nodal forces are given by equation (4. equivalent to a load per unit length.36). σ⎜ ⎟= . h. BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ . f. 1 ] . 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. For p1 = p2 = p . respectively. σ⎜ ⎟= .8.8. E4.5 p0 l . the finite element equations can be written . { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬. E4. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig.8. E4.5 p0 l . E4. σ (l ) = 0 . The element nodal load vectors are l { f }= p ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T . The distributed loads from Fig. b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig.8. The nodal forces.8.

27 A 4 p0 l . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = . 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. Example 4. Q3 = .8.78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 −1 1 ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ Q4 The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. E4. 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 1 ⎞ (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ N 2 (r ) = ⎜ −r ⎟. l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element.9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . in local natural coordinates. ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . 27 A 10 p0 l . 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 1 ⎞ (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ ⎜ + r ⎟. e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). Q4 = . are the following 9 1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ (1 − r ) ⎛ ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ −r ⎟. 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) .

FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams.1. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. In this section. . respectively.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. between adjacent beam elements. transmit bending moments from member to member. defined as the displacement along the X axis. Each node has three degrees of freedom. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. and the Timoshenko beam theory. and for grids. 5. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. two linear displacements and a rotation. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . in particular. BEAMS. as shown in Fig. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. that neglects transverse shear deformations. Typically. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. apart from forces.5. then extend it to plane frames. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. which is constant over the element. 5.

2 .80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes.1 In the following. 5. then in the global coordinate system. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. The latter are expanded to the structure size. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l . then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. Imposing the boundary conditions. Fig. Fig. 5.

c). as illustrated in Fig. a. an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis. f 5.2) Forces f 2. at a distance y from the neutral axis.2. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately. q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. 5. f 3.2. 5.3).3) dx .5.2. 5. axial forces are ignored. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . In a local physical coordinate system. oriented along the beam. 5. q 5 . b) while axial forces f 1 .1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . Fig. and axial displacements q 1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y. as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. BEAMS. q 4 . 5. describe the element stretching (Fig. where the nodal displacements are also shown. the x axis. q 3 . 5. (5. (5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5. Alternatively. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. f 4 . Transverse shear deformations are neglected.

7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − (5. .82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x .8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) .9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . dx dx (5. dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. dx dx 3 dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions. dx dx4 T (x ) = − (5.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. involving the shear and bending moment. and physical boundary conditions.5) section The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. two at each end.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature. The shear force is given by dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III . σ x = E ε x = −E (5. dx4 (5. involving the transverse displacement and slope.

a 3 . 5. p = 0 and equation (5. BEAMS. and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 .10) For a free-free beam element. at x = x 2 . ϕ 2 . and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 . a 3 . 5. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.4): (5. a) at x = x1 . 5. a 2 . b) This gives Fig. (5. the four integration constants a 1 . (5. Integrating four times.9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . the integration constants a 1 . we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. v = v2 = q5 .1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as .4 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎢ ⎣ 3 x2 2 x1 2 x1 ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ⎩ ϕ2 x1 1 x2 1 2 x2 2 x2 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ ⎪ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎩ a4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. v = v1 = q2 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5.3.11. ϕ1 . a 4 in (5.5. v2 . a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 .11. a 2 .10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig.

dx = le dr .17) (5.19) In (5. r= x1 + x 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ x− ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ .15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5.20) .84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e .16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = . and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . (5.14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element. 2 (5. called Hermitian cubic polynomials. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2. dr 2 dx equation (5.18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 . { } (5.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions. (5.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ dr ⎟ ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ dr ⎟ ⎟ .15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5. ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5.13) Using natural coordinates. 2 2 (5.

Table 5. 5. BEAMS. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 . graphically shown in Fig.21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 .5 .1.5. 5. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5. where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants.

12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ l2 ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎦ e ⎣ { q }.17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .16) and (5.25) which has the form . dr 2 d v le = q 3 . while at node 2.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎣ dr ⎥ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q .24) into (5.2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = . 2 d x2 l2 d r e 2 (5.22) we get the element strain 1 Ue = 2 {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ ′′ ⎦ T ⎣N r ′′ ⎦ d r { q e } ⎣N r (5.3.24) On substituting (5.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5. e (5. 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5. dr 2 5. ⎢ ⎣ dr ⎥ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ energy 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e .86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1. v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 .

23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ l2 ⎢ dr ⎦ ⎥ e ⎣ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }. e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5. (5.29).31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ .19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .27) or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B 3 e e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1 ′′)2 N1 ′′N 2 ′′ ⎢ 2 ′′ N1 ′′ (N 2 ′′ ) ⎢N2 ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′ ′ ′ ′ ′′ N 2 ′′ N N N ⎢ 4 1 4 ⎣ ′′N 3 ′′ N1 ′′ N 3 ′′ N2 2 ′′ ) (N 3 ′′ N 3 ′′ N4 ′′N 4 ′′ ⎤ N1 ⎥ ′′ N 4 ′′ ⎥ N2 dr .32) Substituting (5.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5. e T e B e (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5. ′′N 4 ′′ ⎥ N3 ⎥ ′′ )2 ⎦ (N 4 ⎥ (5.29) is based on the general formula (4.30) gives the matrix (5. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.26) bending Comparing (5.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5. e e (5.26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B 3 e e +1 −1 ′′ ⎦ T ⎣N r ′′ ⎦ d r ⎣N r (5.25) with (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.30) The curvature χ (5.5. . BEAMS.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ .

6 Equation (5.6. ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ .33) can be written which gives ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎢ ⎪ ⎩ f6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣k 41 f 2 = k11 .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f6 ⎪ ⎭e 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ q6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . (5. 5. For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 . . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 .36) . (5. .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ ⎪q = 0 ⎪ .⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ .33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global Y-axis ( q2 = 1. (5. . q3 = 0) and zero rotation.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5. 5. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5. Fig.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. . as in Fig. .35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.⎦ ⎪ ⎩ q6 = 0 ⎪ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 . . .34) f 5 = k31 . . . f 3 = k 21 .

But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes. BEAMS. 5. the general solution of equation (5. (5. For beams with transverse forces. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions. having the units of force per unit length.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) .12). distributed along the beam element. For a linearly distributed transverse load. The cubic shape functions do the job. (5. However. rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes.5. p = const .9) is a quartic polynomial. However. p ≠ 0 . as shown in the following. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5. equation (5. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces.4. Within the elements. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5. The mechanical work of such a force is W= Substituting (5. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. the displacements.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends. moments and shear forces are in error. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants. FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements. introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate. They can be determined.37) { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx .39) . the computed nodal displacements are exact. .9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions. As already shown in Chapter 4.37) becomes W = qe It has the form le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx . When the transverse load is uniformly distributed.

7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which.18). 5. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated.42) In Fig. 5.6. if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 ⎥ p l2 e − ⎥ .7. a b c Fig. substituting (5. would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. 5. (5.40) For the Hermitian two-node element.90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. by statically equivalent forces (Fig.41) or. the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5. a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment. . if the transverse force is uniformly distributed. p = const . To replace p = const . .

The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions. 5. c and d. nodal forces must include moments. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. the equilibrium within the elements is broken. BEAMS. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements. The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound.1. The smaller the element.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs. Example 5. stiffening it. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams. the smaller the error.5. i. Fig. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point.e. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam. for instance. for uniform loading. or refining the mesh. even if it is known that. they have a quadratic distribution.e. not only shear forces. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading.1. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements.1 .6. E5. as shown in Example 5. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading. E5.

24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = . 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 2 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ pl 2 ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl . Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads.92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. 12 l q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue . as expected. 12 l with solutions 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl .2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quartic function of the form . the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Using a single beam element. the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends.4. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5.

a 4 . ⎥ 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ a1 ⎭ ⎪ ⎥ ⎩ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5. v = v3 . This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ 1 ⎪ ⎪ v ⎨ 2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ ⎩ a1 ⎪ ⎭ ⎢ 8 ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ l2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎬ . a 3 .5. (5. a 2 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. 5. v = v2 . v = v1 . BEAMS. d v d x = ϕ2 . a5 in (5.12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ 1 ⎪ ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎩ v3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. at x = x 2 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 . and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig.44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ .8): at x = x1 .43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes.45) where the quartic shape functions are . at x = x3 . 32 − 3 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ2 ⎪ l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ v3 ⎪ ⎭ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ 4 ⎥ l ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 . (5.43) The five integration constants a 1 .

94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) . In equations (5.8 Substituting the shape functions (5.46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 .27) and performing the integration. Fig.41) is . the element consistent load vector (5. 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. 5.46). N 5 is called a “bubble function”.46) into equation (5. we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e 2 ⎢ 36l 2 e 34l e − 6l e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l . 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.47) For p = const . . 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l . 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .

When p = const . the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎪ 12 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ + ⎨ p l ⎬ . The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 . (5. e [ ]{ q }. z 3 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5. (5.5.6) and equation (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ . they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. . 15 ⎦ ⎥ T (5.50) For elements with uniformly distributed load.4.51) R ⎢ ⎥ q 12 6 12 6 − − − l l le ⎪ 5⎪ ⎪ 5 ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ ⎢ 2 2⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ R6 ⎪ 6 2 6 4 − l l l l ⎣ ⎦ e ⎩ q6 ⎪ ⎭e ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎪ pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions.49) and (5.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = − E I = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e . The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 . the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − pl 2 pl l p l2 e e ( r + 1) 2 .50). BEAMS.12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = E I = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e . + e e ( r + 1) + 12 2 2 2 4 .3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5.49) The shear force is given by equation (5.48) 5. z 2 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }. For p = 0 .

the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced. b). an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. Rotation. 5.50). 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5.49) and (5.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig.96 Tp = T − pl e r. equation (5. a). 5.9. equation (5. Vertical translation. a. valid for p = 0 . Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces. 5. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium. . When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. b. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1⎪ l l ⎪ le N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear .9. An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. respectively. If the nodes are given unit rotations.

5.2. BEAMS. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎩ −1 ⎪ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = . In the case of beams.l 2 = const . c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 . it is acted upon by axial forces. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since.9. when element sizes shrink to zero. 1⎥ ⎦ (5. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements. apart from moments and shear forces.22) is [ ] e (5.53) . An element should simulate constant strain states. 5. they must have at least constant curvature. 5.6. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig. 5.9 c 2. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements. 5.1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ . Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig.6 Frame element As shown in Fig.

56) can be written in matrix form as (5. combining equations (5.53) and (5. ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ . the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ .55) 5. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. For slender beams. the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) 2 The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5.57) . so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig.6.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ .56) Equations (5. For node 1. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member.10 both in the initial and deformed state.54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥ ⎦e 0 [k ] e .6. (5. 5. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration.29). and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ .54) is of order { f }= ⎢ ⎢0 e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − ⎥ p l2 e ⎥ .2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 . (5.

(5. (5. (5.61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames.58) Fig.60).10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s e coordinate system and { q } = [ T ] { Q }.5. 5.59) [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ ⎥ 0 0 (5. systems The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate q 3 = Q3 . { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system.60) In (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e e e we obtain s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬. . c⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q5 ⎭ q6 = Q6 . BEAMS.

67) .65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ]. (5.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.4). (5. Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains.64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix. (5. using equations (5.7.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }. e e T e e (5. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5. e e T e e (5. by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }.63) 5. that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level.62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector. [K ]. e (5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e .6.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~e [K ] = K .12) and (5. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .

The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ . = 3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ l l − − − 12 6 12 6 l ⎢ 2 2⎥ − 6l 4l ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams .2 Solution. E5.2. Fig. are not accurate. Example 5.2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig.5. we obtain the finite element equations .second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. and omitting the first two rows and columns. and hence stresses. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains. − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎥ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . = 3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ l l − − − 12 6 12 6 l ⎢ 2 2⎥ − 6l 4l ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . BEAMS. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements.

5 Example 5. l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ . ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 .3. Solution.102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎪Q − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ Q6 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q6 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎩ 0 ⎭ ⎪ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. E5. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ . Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.29). ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 . EI v3 = Q5 = −1.3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5.

we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . BEAMS. 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . E5. 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = The support reactions are given by . 96 E I 12 F l 2 . Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ = − ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 ⎨ ⎬ Q 4l 2 ⎥ 6 ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎦ Fig.5. at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . 3 ⎢ ⎥ l 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ 6l 2l 4l ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎣ 2l or Q4 = 3 Q3 .

16 11 F. E5.5l − 1. E5.5l ⎥ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.5 − 4.5l 1.5 − 1.4 Solution.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.5l l ⎢ ⎦⎪ ⎣ 0 ⎩0⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩M 3 ⎪ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13. 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4.5l 2l 2 ⎥ 0 1.4.5 1. 8 V3 = Example 5.5 − 1. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 .5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ − 6l 2l ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q6 which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 5 F.5l 6l − 1. 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 .4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig.5 − 4. 27 E I . Fig. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 . 16 3 M1 = − F l .

5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load. E5. BEAMS. V3 = F .5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1.5 − 1. 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 3 ⎢ 6l Q 0 8 6 2 − l l l l 12 l − 2 p l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 4⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎩ p l 12 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎪ Omitting the first. Fig. M3 = − Fl . M 1 = F l . we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 2l 2 8l 2 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q ⎦⎩ 6 EI l3 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ . the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 − 2 l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 V p E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . ⎥⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1. 27 9 27 9 V1 = Example 5.5 Solution. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧ l − 2 EI ⎢ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ .5.5l ⎭ ⎩M 3 ⎪ The support reactions are 20 4 7 2 F . third and fifth rows and columns.

6 . 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎪ ⎢ − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎩ Q6 obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 7 pl . 2 ⎟ 4l ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎠ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . 8 V3 = Example 5. 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 . 16 V1 = − pl . E5.106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which.6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig.6. substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ ⎪ 2l 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 −1 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ ⎟ = pl ⎧ ⎥ ⎬ ⎨ ⎨ ⎬. Fig. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 . 16 V2 = 5 pl . E5.

3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig.5l 2 2 2⎪ 2l 0 0 ⎥ − 1.5 4.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.5 − 1. E5. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ 0 ⎢ ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎦⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎪ Deleting the first.5.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ ⎟ = ⎨0.7.5 4. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1.5l ⎡ 1. 3 1.5l 13.5l l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0. FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l 2 2 ⎪ ⎢ 4l ⎥ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎦ ⎩ Q6 The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 . 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ 2 2 2 2 ⎬.1333 p l 2 ⎬ . substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0.0518 p0 l 3 .5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 0.2 p0 l ⎪ E I ⎢− 1. Answer.5 4.5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.5 1.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13. 4 ( ) . the finite element equations can be written 1. EI Example 5. BEAMS.084 p0 l 4 . second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13.5l l 4. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 . N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 . ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.

a Fig. N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ).108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 .7. 4 ( ) Fig. b . E5.7. 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 . E5.

Answer. BEAMS.8 . It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .321e-3 -8.010 1.889e-3 -1. shear and bending moment.0697e-2 1.592e-3 -1. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0. E5.8 The planar frame shown in Fig.5 1.260e-3 -6. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N .0699e-2 1.4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0.0698e-2 1. c. E5. a b c d e Fig.8.260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig. d.531e-3 2. Determine the nodal displacements. e. The diagrams of the axial force N . shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs. plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8.700e-6 1. b.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1.8.500e-7 1. E5.8.309e-3 2. E5.353e-3 2. A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm .5.232e-2 -5.

E5.9. ϕ 6 = −0.9. E5. a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0.9. l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm . Answer. 13.2476 mm . b .9 The planar frame shown in Fig. E5. 5. 10. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. Fig. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N . b. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E5. I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 . a has fixed ends in 1.9. v 6 = −0.9673 mm .00623 rad .110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 . A = 400 mm 2 . Fig.

11 5. as illustrated in Fig. respectively. 5. two rotations and a linear displacement. the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l .1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. Each node has three degrees of freedom.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. 5.8. where the nodal displacements are also shown.11.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element.8. describing bending and torsional effects. Fig. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I . Typically.5. a. BEAMS. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. a translation and two rotations. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. . Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. 5. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. as shown in Fig.12. 5. defined as the rotation about the X axis. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q
e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f
In (5.69)
f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)
f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain
⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5 f6

⎡ 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l − 12⎥ ⎪ q 3 ⎪ e ⎢ − 6l 12 ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 2 2 6l ⎥ ⎪ q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l − 6l 4l ⎥ q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 6⎭ ⎣ 6l − 12 6l 12 ⎦ e ⎪

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements
q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is

decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,
which substituted into the strain energy
Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)


e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎟ dx ⎝ ⎠
+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=
kte

2 G It e

le

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦
r

T

′ ⎦ dr . ⎣N r

(5.73)

[ ]
te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI
e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68)

[k ]
e

0 0 −a 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 − 6l 0 2l 2 6l ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 6l − 12⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 − 6l 12 = 3 ⎢ (5.76) 0 0 0 ⎥ a l e ⎢− a 0 ⎥ 2 2 6l ⎥ ⎢ 0 2l − 6l 0 4l ⎢ 0 6l − 12 0 6l 12 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦e

where a = G I t e l 2 e E Ie .

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation
It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },
e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q
e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]
e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .
e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10
The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11
The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

5.9 Deep beam bending element
Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Bresse, 1859) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ .82) γ xy = ∂u ∂ v dv + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ . The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5. at a distance y from the neutral axis.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.81) (5. Fig.13.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ . Only transverse loads act upon the beam. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . is approximated by u (x. where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x . σ x = E ε x = −E (5.5.9. a). 5. dx dx (5. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory. FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5. axial forces are ignored. BEAMS. dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. ∂ y ∂x dx where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section . 5. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y.

dx dT .85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − (5.91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 . dx (5. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . Using natural coordinates.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) .87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity. (5.118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5.9. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 . (5.13.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . 5. The sign convention used here (Fig.2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig. κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA . (5.82) and (5.84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM .88) Equations (5. r = 2 x l . . 5. 5.90) (5.

FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig.94) and (5.98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5.97) Substituting (5. 5. BEAMS.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 .94) and (5. d r3 (5.95) at r = ± 1 . d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0.95) into (5.94) (5.91) which. becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0. l l (5. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0.5. in the new variable r. l b2 = b1 = (5.90) and (5. l dr d r2 (5. d x3 (5.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 . l 2 12 a2 + β a 4 .96) gives b3 = 6 a4 .91) gives d4v =0.96) where β= 4E I z . (5. G As l 2 4 a3 . The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5. The resulting displacement functions are .92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0.

102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. ] For β = 0 ..103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix.99) (5. the first four functions (5... ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ). ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) . (5..102) 2 ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) . (5. 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1. 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) .120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. 4 ) . ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 . and defined by . (5. e e (5. e e { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 .100) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.

⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [k ]= E I 2 ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ d r . FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .5.100) into (5. BEAMS.9.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜dr ⎟ ⎟ dr .100) and (5.105) 5. ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.108) we get B Ue −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ϕ − l d r ⎟ ⎟ dr .111) On substituting (5. l ∫ e B T z −1 +1 (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ (5.3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ dx + 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ϕ − d x ⎟ ⎟ dx . N 1 2 3 4 1 + 3β l (5.109) 1 = 2 {q } e T 2 EIz l +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5. ⎝ ⎠ l dr .99) into (5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S = Ue 2 2 +1 ∫ On substituting (5. 2 2 (5.104) ~ ˆ ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦− l ⎣N They are ˆ (r ) = N ˆ (r ) = − N ˆ (r ) = N ˆ (r ) = 3β 1 .109) we get .106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.

112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ⎦ ⎣N ˆ ⎦ dr . .105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } e T l G As 2 +1 −1 ˆ⎦ ∫ ⎣N T ˆ ⎦ dr { qe } ⎣N (5.42) derived for a slender beam.114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5.102) and (5.113) Substituting the shape functions (5. [k ]= G A 2 ∫ ⎣N e S T s −1 +1 (5. ⎥ 2⎥ − 6l (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ 12 − 6l − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5.

Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces.1. Points in the body are located by x. pv y . LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. ∂n ∂z . It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . and S σ . and (d) boundary conditions.1 Matrix notation for loads. is shown in Fig. pv z . y.6. (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations. z coordinates. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . 6. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. 6. ∂n ∂y . The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium.1) . the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. and (c) concentrated forces. (b) surface forces. like centrifugal or gravity forces. (6. with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces.

w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements. (6. Fig. defined by the magnitude per unit surface area.3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6.τ zx .2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T . Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T . σ y .4) where u .τ yz .1) to (6. 6. Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component. v .1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T . (6.σ z and the shear stresses τ xy .124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ . (6. It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices.5) . the direct stress components σ x . (6.3).

7) can be written . 6.2 In matrix form.5. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T .2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy. ⎦T . where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0. a) 6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6.7) Fig. (6. (6. ∂x ∂y (6. The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations.6. + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T . a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6.6. equations (6.

11) Fig.10) 6.1) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } . The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x . τ xy l + σ y m = ps y .3 In (6.126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ τ ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ . 6.9) and using (6. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6.8) or. denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ . Sσ (6.11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are . (6.

y ) = = ny .6.15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n. ∂y (6. (6. equations (6. The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u .16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬. LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n . ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6. 6.12) In matrix form. ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. (6. ∂x ∂n m = cos (n .11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ .18) .17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } . x ) = ∂n = nx .14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }. ∂x ∂v .4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations.13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } . sometimes written (6. ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6.

The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6.21) . 6.4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } .128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.4 6. 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥. where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6.20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } .

5 and 6 in (6. the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎨σy ⎪ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ τ xy 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.(6.23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. ⎪ ⎭ (6. and γ yz are set as zero.21) and discarding rows and columns 3.22).22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length.20).24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain. LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . If stresses σ z . τ xz .6. γ xz . 5 and 6 in (6. If strains ε z . and τ yz are set as zero.25) . from (6. we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ν E ⎪ ⎢ = − ν ν 1 0 ⎬ ( )( ) + − 1 1 2 ν ν ⎢ − 1 2ν ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎤ εx ⎥⎧ ⎥⎪ ε ⎨ y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. discarding rows and columns 3.

28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T . 6. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) . (6.32) .130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV . the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }. (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV .1.31) Substituting (6.30) For the elastic body shown in Fig. 2 (6.26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T . In plane stress (6. (6.29) 6. T (6.6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials.24). 6. T (6.5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T .

virtual). systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. 7. In the following. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy. Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials.1 Virtual displacements By definition. 7. . In the finite element method. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential boundary-value problem as a finite series of admissible functions. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. Unfortunately.7. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious. as applied to elastic bodies.1. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. defined over small subdomains of the structure.

132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints).1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } . i. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing 1 differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter. the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. 6. exist and are continuous in the domain V. the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δ u δv δw ⎦ T . Denoting by { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix.1). d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body. If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . the displacement vector (6.e. Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. up to the mth order inclusive. i. (7.g. Exceptions do exist.e.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. the functional is said to have a “weak form”. For bars. e. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . δu . (7. e) kinematically admissible. The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations.2) . plates and shells.

2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig.1. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6. b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements. the virtual work of the external force F is δ WE = F ⋅ δ u . because the force is constant along the virtual displacement.1.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V { δui } { Fi } .7.1). a).1.1. .2) and point forces (6.2 for the uniaxial case. 7. 7. c).4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z .1. surface tractions (6.3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum. (7. 7.3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig. hence independent of the force. ENERGY METHODS 133 7. 7. Note that it is simply (force × displacement). 7. ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ i T T T Sσ (7. a b Fig.5) as shown in Fig.3). the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = { δε } {σ }dV ∫ V T (7. the latter being arbitrary. 7.

7. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains. V { δui } { Fi } = 0 . (7. i. ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ i T T T T V Sσ (7. whether the material is elastic or inelastic.1. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero. It applies only . the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. 7.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI .6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. a) In (7. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.e.6. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium. it is independent of material behaviour.2 Again.

4. producing the elongations Δ1 . δΔ3 (Fig. The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . An imaginary state. T3 (Fig. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig. a). F2 and by internal forces T1 . 7. of components u1 and u2 (Fig. the applied forces remaining constant. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 .19) .7. in which the external force F.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig. 7. 7.4. The external work is independent of the path taken.4. The final state of static equilibrium. d). Δ2 .3. produces a displacement of the joint 4.4. loaded by a force F. 7. 7. 7. f). Δ3 (Fig. 2. The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 .3 Solution.4. 7. c). find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. δΔ 3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. Fig. ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. T2 . Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1. δΔ2 . e). 7. b).4. 3. The initial state. of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα . Example 7. δΔ 2 .

gives (7. 7. δΔ2 = δu 2 .9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 . EA T3 l .4 Equating internal work to external work (7.136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .7) Δ 1= Δ 2= Δ 3= (7. For the three bars.6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 . the force-elongation equations (2. EA T2 l cosθ .8) Fig. δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .9) Substituting (7. EA (7.21) can be written T1 l .7) into (7.

7. then in (7. Equation (7. l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎟ u 2 = F2 .10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 . (7.6. ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂x V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ ⎜ ⎜ V . T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 . ⎜ 2 cos θ + l ⎝ cosθ ⎠ (7. T T T V Sσ (7.11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium.8) in the finite form of (7. This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 . (7. It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium. we could put either to zero.5 Proof that PVD is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = ∫ σ y δ v m d A − ∫ Sσ V Sσ δv ∂σ y ∂y dV .7).11).10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other. Substituting (7. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 .12) 7. a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A . ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy δv + δu ⎟ ⎟ dV . b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz .1.6. the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 .

. is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface. It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. On substituting in (7. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. Sσ . So. but only in the mean. ⎥ ⎠⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV .6.e. its coefficients must vanish. it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ∂σ y ⎟ ⎟ + δv ⎜ ⎜ ∂x + ∂ y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎟⎥ dV . when using approximate functions for { u }. Part of the surface. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0} on Sσ . i.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and { ε } are finite in V. b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point.

V δ U = δWI .2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP .32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } . d x2 d x2 (7. 2 V {ε } ∫ V T [ D ] {ε } dV . yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .7.16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies . (7. For a bar in tension. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ d dx = E y A ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v E I dx . the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 1 T T { } { } [ ] δ ε D ε d V + ∫ ∫ { ε } [ D ] { δε } dV . gives d x2 (7. V ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) T = { ε }T [ D ] { δε }. the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains.4).15) For a beam in bending. substituting σ = E ε and ε = du .14) For an elastic body. ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI . (7.2. dx dx d2v (5.1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6. ENERGY METHODS 139 7.13) 7.

21) 7. a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ dx . For example.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE .13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ { ui } { Fi } . For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V {ui } { Fi } . (7. ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ i T T T Sσ (7.18) 7.20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE .2. An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ . ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d x ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 (7.2. because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves.13. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts.3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7.17) for a beam U= ∫ l (7. 2 ⎜ ⎝ dx ⎠ EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ .19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ i T T (7. a) Its variation is . (7.

22. it can be considered that (7.22) (7. i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements.2 For the truss shown in Fig. the total potential energy has a stationary value. the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE . of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields. rather than a result of the equilibrium. the equilibrium is stable.3. if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum.7. the stationary value is a minimum. If The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. Reciprocally. Example 7. at equilibrium. then the total potential energy has a minimum value. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. the total potential energy can be written .22. according to the compatibility relations. Thus. (7. δ 2 Π > 0 . An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems.6) it follows that δΠ = 0 . Based on equation (7. a) hence. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. Reciprocally. 7. then it is in a stable equilibrium state. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u .

142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 . (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives . Π is stationary. Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0.5 Solution. 7. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δ v dx + M l l ′ − M l δ v′ δ v0 l − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .11). the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 l l 0 ′ 0 v0 − M l v′ l − T0 v0 + Tl vl . subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig. Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam.3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. Example 7. 7.5. ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. Fig. At equilibrium. For a beam segment loaded as shown.

The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . which are the boundary conditions. or δ v0 = 0 . the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series . the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . or δ v′ l = 0 . or δ vl = 0 .7. and ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl . ( E I v′′) l = M l . 7. or δ v′ 0 =0. ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x = ∫ E I v′′ d x ⎜⎜⎝ δ d x ⎟⎟⎠ dx = ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l l d ⎛ dv ⎞ = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − l ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. For a beam.M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l 0 l l 0 =0. As δ v is arbitrary. ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ .3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field. l 0 l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv) = l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx.

. 7. which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series.. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong. b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions.. Because δ a j are arbitrary. Example 7. (7. the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j .. The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand. Consider: E = 210 MPa .144 v (x ) ≅ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7. l = 3 m . Solution.4 For the beam shown in Fig. ∂Π =0. ∂aj ( j = 1. called admissible functions. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. c) The sequence of functions must be complete. i.6 find the vertical displacement of point 2. and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x .23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π . to be admissible functions. Substituting the displacements (7.24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . The total potential energy is .23) which represents an approximate deflected shape. I = 1600 mm 4 .e. n ) . F = 100 N and q = 200 N m .23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates. whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . The solutions are back-substituted into (7.

leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 . the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) .27) where the functions ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 . 7. (7. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 .26) In the following.25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ 2 ) dx − ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2 . 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ]. 0 2l 3 l .25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 . ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 . ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ l⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ ⎜ ⎟.7. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7. l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 . (7.6 Substituting (7. (7. v′ (0 ) = 0 .28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7. for simplicity. Fig.26).27) into (7.

EI l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 a1 + a2 = 4.9 ⋅10 − 5 = 2.146 ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 l l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ′′ ) ϕ 2 ′′ d x − q ϕ 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . the equations are linear in a j . Answer. for F = q l 6 . a) subjected to a load F. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. 7. b) is 1 2 ku − Fu . E I (7. 3 1 3 7 l 46656 l For example.48 mm.28). 16 32 E Iy Example 7.29) In 2. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0.5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig.30) For a small virtual displacement δu . we obtain 56 E I EI 11 a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql.00257 q l4 . ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2 ∫ ∫ 0 2 3 l Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ " . 7. 2 Π = (7.7. . Substituting the functions (7.7. The total potential energy (Fig. 3 5 l 4320 l 10 EI 72 E I 269 a + a2 = − ql.00207 a2 = −0. the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ( ϕ1′′ ) ∫ 0 l 2 dx = EI ( 36 x ∫ l8 0 1 q l4 . the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δu = ( k u − F ) δu .

The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is Π eq = The stiffness is 1 1 1 F2 . . the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq . Fig. 7. k ueq = 2 2 k (7. 7.7. In magnitude Π app < Π eq . F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 = .32) k =− The strain energy is U eq = (7. the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π . b. 2 Π eq 2 Π eq (7. (7.33) 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq .7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 . equations (7.7. ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu .31) As seen in Fig.34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .7. 7. b indicate that: a) Because Π eq is a minimum.32) – (7.34) and Fig.

Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. 7. . c) Procedure.a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. 7. { Fi } . b) Solution approach. b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 .1 F. d) Tools. For this a matrix notation is used. 2 Π eq ↓ (7. reaction forces.E. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F . which is often difficult. Then determine stresses. . to present output data in an engineering format. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains. { ps } .E. 6.4 F. internal forces. The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. etc. taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities.4.1).148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displacement.M. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level). With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements.M. k↑ (7.

4.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure. 7.8 7. ⎟ ⎜ Ve Sσ e ⎠ ⎝ ∫ (7.4. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .38) In the following. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector. ENERGY METHODS 149 7.37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements.8) that define the mesh. Fig. 7. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters. only δΠ e will be considered.2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig. T T Sσ (7. the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion .7. equation (7.6. 7.4. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .

7.18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6.41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming. .39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L ⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ an ⎪ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude.4. The strain virtual variation is (7.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e 0 ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎪ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ Qw { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7. defined by Q e remains to be found. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants . where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions). where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7.

the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae { }⎜ [B ] ⎜ ⎜∫ T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ ⎟=0.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step. The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }. ENERGY METHODS 151 7.4. all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero.44) 7. (7.7. (7.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is .6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e = δ Q e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . e e e (7.4.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.

24) or (6.50) The above procedure is never used in practice. element stresses are evaluated as ~e {Q } {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero. 7. e e (7. e T e e e T e e e or using (7. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. e T (7.50).48) and the global load vector is ~e T e ] {F }. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7. In the back-substitution phase. . the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }. (7.152 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ { δQ } = [ T ] { δQ }.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ [T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T~ ] {Q }.45) and (7. {F }= ∑ [ T e (7.25).4.49) Applying the boundary conditions.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7.

a). without the need for numerical integration. 8. . the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. that allow closed form derivations. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. 8. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry. designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. discussed in the next chapter. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. is treated separately.8. In-plane displacement. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig.1. 8. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. which is considered constant. joined together at their corners (nodes). The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles.1.

8. 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. b are numbered locally as 1. Thus. y2 ) and ( x3 .2) . each node has two degrees of freedom. (8. v ( x . 2 and 3.1) 8. The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area. a Fig.1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions.1. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . (8. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 ⎦ T . ( x2 .1. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y .154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . y1 ) . The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. y3 ) . y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters.

∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. (8.8. (8. We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } . in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8.16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const . a) where ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎣ 1 x3 By inversion where y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎥.4) or { u }= [ A ] { a } . e (8. 8. ⎪ ⎭ (8.6) .1.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎪ y2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎨ a2 ⎪ y3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ a3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ .4. .2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. . . Since the functions for u and v are of the same form. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (8. A nodal approximation is preferred. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6. only one need be considered in detail.5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }. ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const .

⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = Similarly ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎥⎨x⎬ ⎪ ⎥⎪ β3 γ 3 ⎦ ⎩y⎭ (8.12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) .10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] . The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y1 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) . (8.13) .6) into (8.8) and the subscripts i .156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ = β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ ⎥.9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1. 2A ⎢ ⎢ ⎣γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ (8.7) α i = x j y k − xk y j .3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8. 3 ) (8. { } (8. 2. y3 (8. Substituting (8. a) v = ⎣N ⎦ v e . γ i = xk − x j (8. β i = y j − yk . k permute in a natural order. 2A ( i = 1.12. j . 2. 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ .

( i . 2A (8.12. j = 1.12. 3 (8. b) Fig. 3 ) (8.2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. 2A N 2 (x . 8.8.14) yields . have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes.14) and i =1 ∑ Ni = 1 . as illustrated in Fig. 2. 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] . 8. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] .15) Combining (8.2: N i ( xi . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8. a) can also be written N1 (x .10) and (8. y ) = 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] . yi ) = δ i j . y ) = N3 (x .

y ) + u3 N 3 (x. a) Fig. y ) + u2 N 2 (x.3 The displacement u (x.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤⎪ ⎪ u2 ⎨ ⎥ N 3 ⎦ ⎪ v2 ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ v3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.3. 8.16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }.16.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as {ε } e ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎡ ∂ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ u ⎧ ⎫ ∂ ⎥ ⎢ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }. y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 . 8. (8. u2 and u3 . as shown in Fig. 8. . y ) =u1 N1 (x.1.

5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6.18) where t is the element thickness. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ ⎥. β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x2 − x1 y1 − y2 ⎤ ⎥.17) ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ ⎣ γ1 ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ ⎣ x3 − x2 The matrix written simply 0 x3 − x2 y2 − y3 β2 β3 0 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 0 x1 − x3 γ2 β2 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 γ3 y1 − y2 0 x2 − x1 [B ] is constant for a given CST element.8.24) for plane stress and by (6.17. a) 8. (8. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element.1. When the surface load distribution (per unit . Along an edge 1-2. (8.25) for plane strain conditions. Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 0 x13 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ ⎣ x32 where the notation is obvious.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (8. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension.

varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig. 8.5.5 .160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. 8. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants.5. 8. 8. even in a fine mesh.1. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. 8. Fig.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig.19) where t e is the thickness of the element.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements. Fig. b which however produces a larger bandwidth. 8. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . 6 f 2e = l te ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8.4).

Taking advantage of symmetry. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge.6 . where they should be continuous.8. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. Fig. only one quarter of the plate is considered. 8. A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig. 8. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses.6 for a square plate with a circular hole.

b) stresses in elements. y3 = l . the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 . ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 2⎥ ⎦ (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre.1 Solution. x2 = l . E8. Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements.24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ [ D ]= E ⎢ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥.1. The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8. y 2 = 0 . a). a b Fig.162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8. The material stiffness matrix (6.17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎥. and c) the support reactions.18) is . Let ν = 0 . x3 = 0 . E8. l ⎢ ⎣ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8.3 Example 8.1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig.

(c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎥. In general. e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain [T ] 2 ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎦ ⎥ 0 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].8. . the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 c 0 −s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎦ ⎥ 0 [T ] e s c 0 0 (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A . ⎢ 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ (d ) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 90 0 anticlockwise element 1. . 2 2 T 1 2 . The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].

y3 = 0 (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates in (8. so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 . only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. 2Et u2 = 3F . y 2 = 1 . x2 = 0 . H5 = − F 4 . the finite element equations can be written −1 −1 2 −1 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 2 0 −1 2 ⎥ 3 0 −1 2 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. ∗ H4 = −F 4. 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ −2 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V ⎪ − − 1 2 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 4 ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ 2 ⎢ ⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . . Due to symmetry. Using the appropriate boundary conditions. x3 = −1 .164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥.18).17) and performing the product (8. b). 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ x1 = y1 = 0 . 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 .1. E8.

u 2 ⎭ 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ l ⎩ ⎢ ⎣ − 1 0⎥ ⎦ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 { } ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. b) stresses in elements. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ] { q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎡− 1 1⎤ ⎧2⎫ ⎧ u1 ⎫ F ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ l ⎪ ⎢ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩0⎪ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎨ 0 ⎬.8. . ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩− 1 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣0 0 1 2⎥ ⎦ { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎪ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ 1 ⎪ u2 ⎥⎪ = ⎢ − 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥⎨ 0 l⎢ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ − − 1 1 0 1 1 0 ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig.2). with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. ⎨ 0 ⎬= 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ 2 l t ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩− 1 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣0 0 1 2⎥ ⎦ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8. and c) the support reactions.3 . The units are coherent. E8.

24). The input data are given below For each element. the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8.18). based on the nodal coordinates. E8. where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8. .2 Solution. and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6.166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.17).

823 .8.192 − 0. u2 = 6.111 0.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 0 0 ⎡ 0. v1 = −40.111 ⎢ 0 − 0.666 1. ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎪ . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written − 0.835 .542 . v2 = −15.666 0 1.582 .165 − 0.686 .317 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ − 1.125 ⎦ ⎢ − 0.111 − 0. u3 = −2.317 0.192 − 0.192 − 0.125 0 ⎢ 0.192 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎪ u2 ⎢ − 0.317 0.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 0 2.301 0 0 ⎥⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎨ − 1. v3 = −13. ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.903 0 0 0 2.712 .165 − 0.165 ⎥⎪ ⎣ ⎩ v3 The solution to these equations gives u1 = 7.

1. Example 8. .168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. being a constant strain element. Along the edge 4-5. a).3 A thin rectangular plate. element 3.3. which is wrong. thickness t = 5 mm . gives only one value of σ x . the plate should be modeled by many more elements. The plate has length l = 60 mm .3 . However. Solution. E8. b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. to allow longhand calculation.6. and this leads to misleading results. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection. is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. Normally. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. E = 200 GPa and ν = 0. width b = 40 mm . containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole.

3. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. E8. E8. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). . b. Fig. E8. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. c.3. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig.3.3. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked. are denoted a to f. E8.8. a A 55-node. b The applied nodal forces are shown.

d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend.3. E8. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses.3. . Fig. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig. E8. E8. d.3.6 MPa and occurs in element 1.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.3.

6155 10. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise. a).7162 4.85 e 6. have the following values: Point a 15.68 f 4. is σ x a = 15. in point a.174 0.39 c 9.1651 0.6221 0.0752 σy 0.8. The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa .5786 7. Example 8.3275 8. averaged at points a to f. E8.5693 5. width of the extended portion 80 mm .3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value .0595 0.9228 0.4577 11. width of the reduced portion 40 mm .8845 1.927 0.6667 0.78 MPa .9433 7. thickness 5 mm .89 σ x .6821 10.0178 11.3595 σ eq 19.763 τ xy -0.7073 3.3.69 d 7.068 7.25 .78 b 11.4.5768 0.2632 0. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8. E8. The averaged value of elements 1 and 2.815 1. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ + 2 + 4 ⎟.5706 -0.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0. σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1 ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig.8037 Stresses σ x . a) has length 150 mm .6445 5. fillet radius 20 mm .

b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. The right edge has four elements. Fig. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig.4. E8. a Answer. E8. The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . c for five stress intervals given in the legend.4.4. subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 .7 MPa . b.4. The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction. . The largest equivalent stress is 604. Taking advantage of the symmetry. Fig.172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction.19). each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . E8. for the quarter plate. The resulting five nodal forces. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig. E8. only half of the plate is considered. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node.

Example 8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig. E8. c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.4198 ⎥ . u64 = 0.92e − 3 .415.12367 .1216 0 0.17) 0 − 0.3160 0.4.3160 ⎥ ⎥. This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1.63e − 3 . u65 u60 = 0. v65 = −4.52 .97e − 3 . y60 = 21.1216 0.8.3757 − 0. x64 = 95 . Solution.35 . = 0.25 . E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0.12247 .4. The triangle area is A96 = 4. ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 0. x65 = 95.7 MPa . v60 = −3.1925 mm 2 . y64 = 18 . E8.0596 − 0.0596 0 − 0.5 . b are given below: x60 = 92.3757 0 0.2982 − 0. Calculate the element stresses.5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig.5 . The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622. The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1. y65 = 20. v64 = −3.11224 .4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0.42 given by Singer (1962). The matrix [ B ] is (8.

to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry.24) ⎡ 2.5333 2.6.1333 0.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0.12367 − 3.92e − 3 ⎦ T . Fig.174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6.6.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig. E8. E8. 8 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 0 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8. ⎢ 0 0.12247 − 4. a.58 − 120.63e − 3 0.72 63.97 e − 3 0. The load is not applied at the tooth tip. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.08⎦ T .11224 − 3.1333 0 ⎥ . σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596. a .5333 0 ⎤ ⎥ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ ⎢ 0.

The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. E8. c . Fig. c.8.6. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.6. Fig. E8.6.6. b. E8. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E8. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig.

176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8. N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b .2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. y ) = x⎛ y ⎞ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . From condition N1 ( x1 .2.7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node. y ) = y⎛ x⎞ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . y1 ) = 1 . y ) = x y . y1 ) = N1 ( 0 . but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. b⎝ a⎠ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . built up beams and boxes. hence ab 1 x ⎞⎛ y ⎞ (a − x )(b − y )= ⎛ N1 ( x . Fig. 8. ( ) (8. y ) = ⎜ 1− ⎟ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . For example. a⎝ b ⎠ N3 ( x .20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides. a b N4 ( x. and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . 8.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig.7.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 . y j = δ ij . 8.

y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= r= 2x −1 . The required shape functions are (8. 4 4 N1 = (8. Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. all like powers in x and y are not present.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . for two displacements. (8. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not. 1 ± s = 0 .8.25) The use of the shape functions (8. N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads.…. The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. v ( x . there are eight boundary conditions.23) has one drawback – they are not complete. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix.24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 (8. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) .23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . That is. The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour.22) 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) . (8. a 2y −1. . b (8. Because. the assumed displacement field is u (x .21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 . N4 ⎥ ⎦ { } v4 ⎦ . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .

Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms. Fig. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. 8.8. Fig. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements (≥ 3) which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig.8. because the strain energy is underestimated. The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation. In comparison. .39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV .8 Figure 8. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. 8.2. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. 8. a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7. Generally. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero.9. stresses are lower than the true values. The 4-node element has flat sides. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . 8.

2 2 N1 = − (8. Using the nodal approximation. v ( x . v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. N8 = ( 1 − r )( 1 − s )( 1 + s ).9 In Fig.8. Fig.9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. (8. the old ones are presented in Fig.29) . 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r )( 1 + r )(1 + s ) . N 6 = ( 1 + r )( 1 − s )( 1 + s ) . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 .28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach). y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 .7. In the natural system of coordinates r and s. 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r )( 1 + s )( 1 − r − s ). 8. 8.27) so that the strains are quadratic. + N 8 u8 . (8. N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r )( 1 − s )(1 − r + s ) . + N8 v8 . the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r )( 1 − s )(1 + r + s ) .. N 4 = − ( 1 − r )( 1 + s )(1 + r − s ) . the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates.... TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x . 4 4 1 1 N 5 = ( 1 − r )( 1 + r )( 1 − s ) . 8.

N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . h3 from the three sides (Fig.10. ζ3 = .31) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] .. 3. 8 and have a value of unity at node 1.. Equivalently. c1 = − 1 4 . by division to the triangle heights. The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 .e.. a).30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u 2 v 2 L L u8 (8. quadratic or higher-order strain expansions.1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates. which gives the expression of N1 in (8.3. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . 8. { } (8. 1 + r + s = 0 . The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 .3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. h2 . elements having linear. the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N follow and the element stiffness matrix k [ ] can be evaluated using [ D ] . 8. Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .e. Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements.180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2.29). e ] 8.−1) = 1 .. as h1 h2 h3 . i. one has to use a large number of elements. 1 − r = 0 . ζ2 = . where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1. i. and nondimensionalized.

8. (8. ⎪ ⎭ By inversion. (8.33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions.10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . ζ3 = A3 A .32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig.34) or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ y3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ ζ3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . ζ2 = A2 A . 8.10.8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A . b). (8. y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 .12) ⎡α1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 A 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎣α 3 ⎭ β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎥⎨x⎬ ⎪ ⎪ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦⎩y⎭ . we obtain equation (8. Fig.

8. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 . 8. (8.9) and the expressions (8.35) where A is given by (8.36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where e 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T . In Fig.3.11.38) . 8. β i = y j − y k . γ i = x k − x j . 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 .11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. 3 ) (8. obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST. { } (8. Fig. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1. 2.8) are α i = x j y k − xk y j . N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 . the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates.37) { q }= ⎣u v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8.

y to ζ1 . it can be solved explicitly in terms of a. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The inverse relationship is (8.40) ] is the Jacobian of the transformation. ζ 2 .8.and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A . Using (8.8).34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 . ζ 3 . The integration is frequently performed numerically.44) . (2 + a + b ) ! (8.9) and β i . γ i are defined by (8. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A .41) where A is the triangle area (8. (8. so we must transform from x . b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a ! b! . y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎩∂y ⎦⎪ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ]⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩∂y (8. 6 (8. ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩∂y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ 2 ] −1 ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂ ζ3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ2 ⎨ ⎥ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ∂ ⎪ ⎩ ∂ ζ3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A .42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 .33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8. However. 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A .43) The results for first.39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂ ζ3 where [ J ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎭ ⎢ ⎣ ∂ ζ3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.

In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. N3 = s . y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 .37) is obtained. There are twelve nodal displacements.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig. (8.47) Fig. It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. N2 = r . The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 .184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 . the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. so the element is truly isotropic.12). 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 . 8. without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. the nodal approximation (8. (8.48) . ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. containing all possible products. ζ 3 = s. six for each component. (8. 8. Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s .45) The displacement field is complete. There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary. Denoting ζ2 = r.

3. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since.50) where .8. v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . 8. 8.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic strain field can be built up in two ways. a. 8. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials. This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side. treated in the next chapter. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility.13. (8. if the polynomial is not complete. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. Since the function is cubic. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 . This element is shown in Fig. The side nodes are located at the third points.49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions. i =1 9 (8. Fig. taking as nodal quantities the displacement components. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c . four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side.

two displacements and four first derivatives..52) In (8. vc ) as the remaining parameters. as nodal quantities. N7 = ζ3 2 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . . N1 = ζ1 2 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. N5 = ζ 2 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N4 = ζ2 2 N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . 2 9 9 N 4 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . 2 2 1 N3 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . N8 = ζ 3 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 9 9 N 8 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . 2 2 9 9 N 6 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). 2 2 N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . (8. At each corner. N6 = ζ 2 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . + + N 9 u ′ y 3 + N c uc . 2 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .13. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix. N1 = (8.51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. N 3 = ζ1 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . .52) the interpolation polynomials. N 2 = ζ1 2 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. The solution is to include displacement ∂u ∂u ∂ v ∂ v . N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ).186 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . 8.53) . The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u ′ x1 + N 3 u ′ y1 + N 4 u 2 + N 5 u ′ x 2 + . are 2 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . b). (8. expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . there are six derivatives ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. a total of 18 parameters (Fig.

4 Equilibrium. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous.4. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33]. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6. The same interpolation functions are valid for v .16) in (8.56) . pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 .8. but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. β i are defined by (8.55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8.1 Equilibrium vs.55) Equations (8. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields.26) u ( x . of the rectangular element.24) into the equilibrium 1− ν ∂ ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. 8. 8. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . v ( x . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . + = 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ 2 ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ∂x ⎠ (8.54) gives 2 2 ⎞ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ⎜ ∂ u − ∂ v ⎟.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6. (8. For example.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . 2 ∂y ∂x 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0. one can say that: a) Within elements. + = 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ 2 ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝∂y ⎠ 2 2 ⎞ ∂2v ∂2v 1 + ν ⎛ ⎜ ∂ v − ∂ u ⎟.

b) Between elements. c) At nodes. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. As the discretization is refined. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. inter-element stress continuity may exist. The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. and = = 0 ∂ x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y2 which is not zero. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. For example. Moreover. However. But as already shown. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂ 2v ∂u ∂u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = b4 = a2 + a4 y . provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. the edges remain straight. so the first equation (8. in general. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. One cannot conclude from this that. However. In some cases it can give better results. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. = a3 + a4 x . . equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. Happily. 8. So.4.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . for any nodal displacement. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. the elements fit together. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate.55) is not satisfied. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations.

if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. .8. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. extraneous nodal forces appear. If not. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. In the case of beam. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. However. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element.e. e) The element should have no preferred directions. strains. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. plate and shell elements. Elements must not overlap or separate. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. The computed displacements. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. i. Also. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. If this requirement is violated.

190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 . v1 = 0 . u2 = 1 .7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. a simple patch test is carried out as follows. E8. v2 = 1 . E8. .6. If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements. v3 = 4 .25 and the strains at any point must be { ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . Fig. the internal node must behave accordingly. v4 = 1 . u4 = 1 . u3 = 4 .

When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. (9. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. For isoparametric elements. The local nodes 1. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure.1) . The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. Each node has two degrees of freedom. 9. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides.1. we obtain a subparametric element.9. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . 9. In fact. they are subparametric elements. yi ) . It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements. a. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. 2. the result is an isoparametric element.

s ∈ [ − 1. In the reference plane. y } is called the isoparametric mapping.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. 9.1.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. b. 1 ] . a Fig.2. a Fig. They are called quadrilateral coordinates. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . 9. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r . called the reference element (or master element). a).1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other. This is called the reference plane. 9. quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig. 1 ] .1.2 b . s } plane. 9.

s } plane (Fig. y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i . 9. The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix.4. b) . si ) are the coordinates of node i . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i .4. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . 9.23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 y1 ⎫ y2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r .4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 x2 x3 x4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.2.2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) .2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. 4 4 (9. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .3) where ( ri . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions.1.9. 4 (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . b). y3 ⎪ y4 ⎪ ⎭ (9.

a). where (9. = 1+ s 1− s u2 + u3 .7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9. r = 1 and u u r =1 = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . 9. along the side 2-3 (Fig. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r .2. N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i .8) along each side the approximation is linear. (9.1.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. because r (or s) is constant. For example. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r . s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s . Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side. the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element.e.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ . s ) . there are no openings. This ensures interelement compatibility.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. overlaps or discontinuities . i. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i . As mentioned in Chapter 8. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation.

Along 2-3. This is done considering the function f = f ( x . where m is the slope of 2-3.9. On the contrary. For example. 9. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . it can also be expressed as . we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. Using (9. y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 .11) is the Jacobian matrix. s ) . the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.4). s } coordinates.10) and (9. s ) ] .1. the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. Also. because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. y (r . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . 9.9) along each side the approximation is quadratic.10) [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 (9. (9. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s where ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎭ ⎢ ⎣ ∂s ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎦⎪ ⎩∂y J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ]⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩∂y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig.9) is non-conforming. The approximation (9.1. a) has the form y = m x + c . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation.

− y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ . the inverse relationship is (9. . y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ (9. a) Analogously. For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ x2 ⎥ (1 − r ) ⎦ ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ (9.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r [ J ]= ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. ⎢−J J11 ⎥ 21 ⎣ ⎦ (9.13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩∂y where ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎭ ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎩ ∂s ⎦⎪ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥.12) ⎧ ∂ ⎫ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎭ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ . where A0 = 1 8 (9.13.14) [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 = ⎥ j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ .15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s .16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x 4 − x 2 ) ] .

for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix.9. the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. determined on the reference element. where d x = d x ⋅ i . y ) . (9. . contours respectively. It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. and s = const . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. in terms of ∂x ∂y [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f .17) It is needed because. y }. and i . j are base vectors. the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . s } . In cartesian coordinates { x . we need [ j ] . ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . A2 = Usually 1 8 [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] . s = s ( x . In a curvilinear system { r . By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . Because r = r ( x . d y = d y ⋅ j . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. . ∂f ∂f .

19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] .43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A . ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.20) Using the transformation (9.1.17).198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i j J12 J 22 k d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix (9.41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .7).5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.22) .9) into (7. where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6. (9.9) and shape functions (9. 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9. ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ]. where ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ j21 j12 (9.21) 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥. The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.

9. as shown in the following. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T . the above integration has to be performed numerically. 9.9. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣0 2 e 2 −3 0 px py px py if p x and p y are constants and l 2 − 3 is the length of the side 2-3. . ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9.24) −1 −1 Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. If there is a distributed load having components ( px . − (1 + s )⎥ (1 + s ) 0 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎥ 0 ⎦ Using equation (9.23) or (1 − s ) 0 0 ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) 0 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 0 0 4⎢ ⎢ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) 0 0 ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 − (1 + s ) 0 0 ⎤ (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎥ ⎥.6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds . the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂s [ B2 ] = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ].1.1. (9. (9.17).25) along side 2-3 in Fig.

+ wn f (r n ) ..200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. For higher order elements. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + ...27) . As the order of the displacement field increases.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points. the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome.26) is exact up to the chosen order.. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated.. (9.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. + a2 n r 2 n −1 . because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter.. The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths. + wi f (ri ) + . A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + . 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly. 9. The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points. It is more efficient than other methods. The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible.2. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration. In other words.

+ a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + .... + wn ) + ) ( ) (9. Identifying the terms +1 −1 ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + . i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα d r = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9. 3 L L L L L L 2 n −1 2 n −1 2 n −1 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . The 2n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1. n .9. 2 ... − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig... linear in wi and nonlinear in r i .....29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + .. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + ..28) ∫ d r = ∑ wi . + wn r n 2 n −1 ... ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + ..3. 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . (9. a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r ) d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) ... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i . + wn r n .30) This is a set of 2n equations.. + wn r n . + wn .. + wn r n . i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi r iα ... 9. + wn r n + .

so that (Fig.3 . 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .g.57735 ) . it is employed in some selective integration schemes.5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0. Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) . equations (9. e. (9.57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0.30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . 9.3. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . 9. to separate shear from extension effects.31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 . Fig. However. avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing.

774) + 0.774596 ± 0.3. s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri . c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0.57735 . 9. 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9.0 1.1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r . r1 = s 1 = − 0.1 for the first four orders.774 ) .8888 0. .57735 .347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0.1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points.555 ⋅ f ( − 0.339981 ± 0. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig.2. s2 ) + f ( r2 .s j −1 ⎢ ⎣ j =1 ( )⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f (ri . so that I = f ( r1 . s1 ) + f ( r1 .32) w1 = w2 = 1 . s j .0 0.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9. ri 0 wi 2. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 ⎡n ∫ ⎢∑ w j f r . i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9.9. Weights. r 2 = s 2 = 0.555 ⋅ f ( 0.861136 0 9. Table 9.5555 0. 9. s1 ) + f ( r2 . s j ) .2. ⎥ ⎦ i =1 j =1 ⎤ n n I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r .888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0.57735 ± 0. s2 ) . Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.652145 0.

s j Weights. In general. Therefore.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. wi . 3. 2 . 2. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds −1 −1 which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9. 2. ri . The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. w j 1 (1× 1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1. 3.2. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. the elements of .3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9. 3. 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 3. 2.

This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear.4).24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. the stiffness matrix equation (9.33) represents the volume of the element. t e . the state of constant strain is reached within an element. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element.33) The integral in (9. 9.4 However. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy.33). Taking the thickness. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points. 9. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function. in the present case. the minimum number of integration points. This is cheaper as well. one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig.9. From practical considerations. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. e (9. In this case. Fig. Therefore. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. we can write .

s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 .1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig. s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . For the first term in (9. 9. consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i . d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9.34) + t e [ B ( r2 . s2 ) ] .206 e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . For convenience.1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥.5 instead of r i . s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 . s ) ]+ 1 1 T [ B ( r1 . b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points.34). s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 . s )] ] [ B ( r . s 1 ) ]+ +t e T 1 1 1 1 (9. Example 9. The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9. s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 .57735 . 1− s j − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri 0 0 − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9. s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 . s j = ± 0. s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 .s j ) ] = 1 ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎢ − 1 + s j ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ( 1 − ri ) ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 ( 1 + ri ) ) y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant.21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ ⎣ j 21 j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ ( ) 1 0 − − r i ⎢ ⎢ − 1− s j 0 ⎢ − (1 − ri ) 0 ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 0 0 1− s j − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri ( ) ( 0 0 − 1+ s j 1 − ri ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . s j = ± 0. 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1.11) ⎡ −( 1 − s ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) ( j j j [ J ( ri .34) we need .

5 ⎦ − 1.35) In practice. In order not to miss these peak stresses.5 0.5 − 1.2. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points. .21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 ⎥ − 0 0 13 61 [B ]= 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢ 60 − 20⎥ ⎣− 13 61 ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0.5 ⎦ ⎢ 25 ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥=1 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ . However.5 1. 850 ⎢ ⎥ − 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50 ⎣ ⎦ 9. 5 0 0.5 0 0 0 . 1976).5 0 − 1. 0 1 .5 ⎣ 0.5 0. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53. Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries.5 0 0 1. (9. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element. a refined mesh should be used in these regions.5⎤ ⎢ ⎢ 20 [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ 4 ⎣− 0. the Jacobian matrix (9.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0 .5 − 1.9.5 0 − 1.5 1.5 ⎢ 0 − 0 .5 0 1.5 0 ⎥ ⎥. 425 ⎢ ⎣ − 13 61 ⎦ At GP1.125 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1.5 0 ⎤ 1. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours.5 − 1.5 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ ⎥.11) is ⎡ 10 −0. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node.5 ⎢− 0. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element.5⎥ ⎥ 0 0 . [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ ⎥.

9. as are the stresses. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig.5.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. For a single 8-node rectangular element.5. It would seem necessary to use a 3 × 3 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration. and s .208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r . so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic.2. (9. 9.36) The element has three nodes along one edge.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. b). using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 . Fig. In practice. even if it is supported conventionally. a) and the master element is a square (Fig. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element. 9.2.27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 .

4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . 2 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded. they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements. 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . For an 8-node quadrilateral element. it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2 ) . nine points in all. It was shown that. For ease in programming. ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) .9. The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. 4 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r )( 1 + s )( 1 − r − s ). si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) . 9.3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme. = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. For the 8-node quadratic element. 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r )( 1 + s )(1 + r − s ) . 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 .29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r )( 1 − s )(1 + r + s ) . Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion.38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). . 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r )( 1 − s )(1 − r + s ) .1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri . (9.37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration.

i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r . (9. = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r 2 ∂s Ni = ( ) ( ) ). ⎩v⎭ where N1 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ . s ) x i .43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) .40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9. (9. (9. the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) .42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u 2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T .41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q . when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) .210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes. ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂ N2 L ∂x ∂y (9.44) 9.2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r .3.45) leads to . s ) y i i =1 8 (9. 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 . = si 1 − r 2 .39) for mid-side nodes.

∂s 9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. s x i 8 ( ) i . s ) yi . (9. ∂r ∂ N i (r . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ y ∂ ⎩ where ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ 8 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎦⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.51) ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ . ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . s ) yi .47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 e +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9.48) (9.50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ ⎥ [ D]= ⎢ (9. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.9.46) ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . s ) xi .3. ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂ sr .3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎣ ∂s and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y .49) 9.3. − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ .

53. a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] . ⎝ ⎠ (9.55) ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ k 2 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ ⎟.44). ⎝ ⎠ . (9.52) The (16 × 16 ) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni n n ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ = te ⎢ 0 p =1 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] . (9.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . evaluated by numerical integration. the stiffness matrix (9.54) the elements of the matrix (9.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ [k ] i j ∑∑ 0 ∂ Ni ∂y or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ . ij (9.212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. ⎜ D2 ∂x ∂ y + D5 ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ = ∑∑ w ⎜ ⎜ D 2 ∂ y ∂x + D5 ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎟.53. (9. a) can be determined as k1 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ = ∑∑ w ⎜ ⎜ D1 ∂ x ∂ x + D 5 ∂ y ∂ y ⎟ ⎟.

55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property ) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9. ⎜ D4 ∂ y ∂ y + D5 ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j . providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element. 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9.5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. A. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ ⎟. ∂x i =1 ∂ y . 9. Gupta & B. it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w .57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ D2 D4 0 ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 8 ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v 1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ 8⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi . Therefore. A close inspection of equations (9. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method.56) and then to work out equations (9.9.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants.57) The explicit form of equation (9. k 2 = k 3 .3. This method (K. Mohraz.

However. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points.3. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ ui + vi ⎟ ⎟. element by element. specified in force per unit length. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V .59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7. ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation. It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. (9. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points.214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D4 ∑ vi . The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are . Consider a distributed load p . 9. closer results to the true values are obtained. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points.

{ f } is reversed. since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 .42). (9.65) .9. p ⎩ y⎭ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂r ⎪ ⎭ (9.62) ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪ ⎭i where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ ∂r p= ∑ N (r . ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ ∂r ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9. A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ 8 ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ ⎞ ⎪ ⎟⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ N p ∑ k k ⎜ ⎟ ⎨ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎝ k =1 ⎠⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎩ ⎭i where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − 8 ⎪ ⎞ ⎛ ⎪ ∂s T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎟ ⎨ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr .61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ wi [ N ] T fe = (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭i (9.59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9. the sign of the force vector { } n (9.63) the element. s ) p k k =1 8 k .

61) gives ∂r ∂r ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . Example 9.2 Consider the element of Fig. E9. .66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N 8 = 0 . it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly. a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge. Find the equivalent nodal forces. Fig. For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a .216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x .2 Solution. E9. Equation (9. ⎪ ⎭ (9. y axes. 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r .2. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .

4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4. In the above expressions. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] . The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9. b).3. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. a with gravity loading. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . .67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction. Solution.9.26). Find the equivalent nodal forces. r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7.2. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9.68) Example 9. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − P 2 P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . E9. Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. ⎩− g ⎭ (9. but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. E9.

69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . 4 4 W ⎞ W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9.74) Therefore. 1 1 (9. 16 4 1 (9.72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes.77) −1 −1 . ⎪L⎪ ⎪ ⎩ N8 ⎪ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9.70) can be written f yi = − (9.71) where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9.73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes. and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 . the force (9. ⎜ + −4 ⎟= 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9.70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . (9. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s .218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ +1 +1 f y2 ⎪ ⎪ mg = ⎬ L ⎪ −1 −1 f y8 ⎪ ⎭ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 . the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9.

The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. E9. 9. b.6. b. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 .6 . Fig.3. a. 9. 9. Again. E9.9.6. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. The master element is presented in Fig. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. 9.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig. it contains an internal node.

and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side.7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes. 2 (9..) . 9.. the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. The polynomial is incomplete. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . as shown in Fig. for three points. as shown at the bottom of Fig. 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) . a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0 .6. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle.78) Along the sides of the element. Considering the r axis alone. have the expressions . . 9. and rs . the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms .220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . (9. which. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 . b.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). The shape functions are defined as follows. In general. 9. Fig.1. we can define generic shape functions L1 . which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . s.7. L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . r.

L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) .e. a) is an element of order 2 (i. one can use the serendipity elements. 9.5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig.8). 9. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity.82) . The six node triangle (Fig. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 221 L 1 (r ) = ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . 9. the degree of the polynomial is 2). By referring to the master element in Fig. 9. a. (9. N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) . 9. The polynomial involves six constants. ⎪ ⎪ N3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ L 3 (r ) ⎭ (9.81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig. with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) . N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle.9. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) . as shown at the right of Fig.6. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ3 .9. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. Similarly. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) . 2 (9. the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8. 9. Alternatively.9. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) . generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices.. b.6. L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) .80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎣ N2 N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N7 ⎥ ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ .

i =1 (9. Because of terms ζ 2 . N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9. 9. 9.37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . and x = ∑ Ni x i .84) Fig. ζ3 in the shape functions.83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 6 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T .222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 .8 The isoparametric representation is (8.9 . this element is also called a quadratic triangle. i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i . Fig.

4. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . ⎣ ⎦ 1 1 . Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. as an internal angle approaches 180 0 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. can be evaluated using (9.14) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side.4. 9. and. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix. which has to be integrated numerically.46). ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. s ) coordinates are defined by (8. The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . The sign of det [ J ] should be checked. A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. 39]. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. particularly at that corner.85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location. any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes. it is more likely to be negative at corners.24) if the (r .9. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . where stresses may be computed. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element.

2x2 −l where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l .5 l . if −1 ≤ 0. For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0.5 ) l − 2 r x2 .5 l ≤1. 9. This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is ∂N1 [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥ ⎦⎪ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. If . ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0. l 3l < x 2 < .e. 9.10 This point lies within the element (Fig. 2x2 −l Fig. then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element.10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 . i.

PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. In this chapter. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed. For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available. .1 . For this case.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. For thin plates. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory.10. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. 10. These elements may be either triangular. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. 10. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft.

y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. ε y = = −z 2 .2) a Fig.226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. = −z 2 .3) . ∂x v ( x.2. Fig. y. y.1) where w ( x. z ) = − z ∂w . 10. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0. z ) = − z ∂w . a).2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . (10. ∂y (10. ∂x ∂z (10. 10. 10. γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0.

9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.3. PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎦ ⎥ T . Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ]= ⎢ ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎣ d16 (10. the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } . 10.4) Since σ z = 0 .6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T .3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig. 10.10. (10.8) Fig.5) (10.7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A . where (10.10) . 12 (10. (10. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥.

From (10. (10. + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D 2 2 ∂ ⎛ ⎜ ∂ w+∂ w 2 ∂y ⎜ ∂ y2 ⎝ ∂x ⎞ ⎟.15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx .228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment .15) it can be shown that 2 2 ∂ ⎛ ⎜ ∂ w+∂ w 2 ∂x ⎜ ∂ y2 ⎝ ∂x (10. ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length). ⎟ ⎠ (10.11) and (10. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.16) .13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) .12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 .11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials .curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂ w ⎥⎪ D26 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎪ ∂y D66 ⎥ ⎦ ⎪ ∂2w ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂x∂ y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10. (10.14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio. The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 . Q y are the shear Qx = − D ⎞ ⎟.

Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂ 4 w pz ∂4w ∂4w 2 = . 10.19) The strain energy (10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed. A ∫ (10. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎝ (10. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig. + + D ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ∂ y4 ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. To overcome this problem.2. the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10.21) 10.15).2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates.8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ ⎟ + 2 (1 − ν ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy . Then.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . b). the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10.16) into the last equation (10.10. The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory. (10. First.9) (10. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.

26) ∂w . z ) = z θ y (x .23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + . v (x .26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . y . ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T .29) V . γ z x = 0 .27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ .22) where θ x . (10. and equation (10. θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }.24) reduces to (10. ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. y ) .28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV . z ) = − zθ x (x .22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θx + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ ∂y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂ w γ ⎩ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. where the curvature vector is (10. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10. (10.4). equation (10. ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ S ⎬=κ D τ ⎩ zx ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } . (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. to the middle plane before deformation.24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u .230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x . y . (10. y ) . + ∂x ∂z (10.

As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin.30) For isotropic materials.30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ ⎜ − ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎟ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ ⎜ ∂x − ∂ y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ ⎜ −θx + ∂ y ⎟ + Qy ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ x ⎤ ⎟ ⎟ + M y ∂ y ⎥ dx dy + ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎟⎥ dx dy . equation (10. on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ −θx + ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ .31) or (10. which is not true.24). the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios.12). T S A (10. PLATE BENDING 231 or.10. the above expression reduces to (10.20).32) The strain energy (10. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains. If θ x = . ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ ⎜ θy + ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − . where { χ } is given by (10. integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎬=D ν 1 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10. ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line.

3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element.1961.33) Figure 10.20) and the potential of the external load by (10. Fig. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms. Clough. irrespective of the element shape. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second.5 shows the ACM element (Adini. therefore. 10. Also. these become . complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used. having four node points. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w . Hence. These three quantities are. taken as degrees of freedom at each node. the strain energy is given by (10. The assumed form of the displacement function. one at each corner.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. 10.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Melosh . 1963). namely.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h.21). it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − .3. (10. There are three degrees of freedom at each node. for convergence.

. 10.35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . a ∂ξ (10. Fig. a) w = ⎣P ( ξ . which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle. (10. PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w . that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 .34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom.36) (10. (10. This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant.38) (10.37) Differentiating (10. 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ . b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w . (10.39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms.36.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added.10.5 The expression (10.η )⎦ {α } .

⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ )⎪ ⎬.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.38) and (10.42) into (10. (10.40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.45) where ( ξi . evaluating (10.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . e e (10.36). ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . (10. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }. Indeed.η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } .39) at ξ = ±1 . η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. (10. for conciseness.36.43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10.234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10. ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .42) Substituting (10. ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ . ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬. a) yields { } (10. (10.

The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ .4) and (10. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3. and hence the rotation θ x .45) into (10.10. PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w . ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. e T e e (10.46) Substituting (10. ∂ ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. Substituting (10. 3. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 8 ( ) (10. 2. If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3.η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ b ⎪ ⎪ ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ .49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is .34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q . then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side.43) into (10. ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. The rotation θ y is given by (10.47) Evaluating (10. this is not the case with the rotation θ y . ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [B] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10. Unfortunately.

0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) .236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ∂2 [ B ]= ⎪ ⎨ 2 ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ⎩ ∂x∂ y ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 N = ⎬⎣ ⎦ ⎨ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ . −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10.45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.η )⎦ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.

10. (10. [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] . substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10.54) and integrating. it is simpler to use the expression (10. a The remaining submatrices of (10. A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . ⎢ ⎣0 0 − 1⎥ ⎦ (10. [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ 2 1 [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨− 2α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎦ and α= a .36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ [ I3 ] = ⎢ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ .5). [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] . ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ ⎥ [ I2 ] = ⎢ ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ . [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] . In deriving this result. In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p .51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] .53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10.52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ ⎥ [ I1 ] = ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] . b β= b .

of the form shown in Fig. However. In the limit. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10. 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element. as an increasing number of elements is used. as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased.21) as for uniform slender beams. the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition. the displacement function is of the form (10.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 . when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative.η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ .43) but with 16 terms .55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5. 10. (10. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10. 10. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10. It is a four-node thin plate bending element. In this case.2). This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming.43) with ⎣N i (ξ . the results are convergent. Unfortunately. Fox and Schmit .1966).3. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces. g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 .238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 .4.57) in which ( ξi . this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 .50). A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i.

33). it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y . ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ (10. Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ y1 = w′x ′ y3 = w′x 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 . This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson.10.43) and (10. θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig.49) and (10. for convergence.3. PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 θ x1 θ y1 w′x ′ y 4 ⎦ . This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10. For a thick plate-bending element. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element. (10. θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first. 2b ( ) ′ y2 = w′x ′ y4 = w′x 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 . 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one. The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10.58) w′x ′ y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and where w′x ⎣N i (ξ . 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 . the strain energy expression is (10. .5). 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 . w .30) and the potential of the external load is (10.59) of the first six terms in (10.59).24) and (10.21).3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width.26).and ydirections. 10. Hence. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not. 10.59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x. The highest derivative of w .53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬. the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10.

expressions (10. θ x and θ y are continuous between elements. without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment.3).44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 N1 0 0 L N1 L (10. N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .60) where the functions N i are defined by (9.240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes.24). θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i .65) .62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . (10. In matrix form. The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i . 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values.65) In (10. It represents the shear deformation directly. Taylor and Kanoknukulcha . i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10. e T e e (10.30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. e B S (10. 4 ( )( ) (10.63) Substituting (10.1977) expands separately w .26) and (10.62) into (10.60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q .61) These functions ensure that w . θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i . ⎪ ⎭ { } (10.64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ].

⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ N ∂ x − ∂ N ∂ y i i ⎦ ⎣ (10.69) (10. PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.(10.72) into (10.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10.10.67) (10.61) into (10.66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending .73) 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ ⎥ 0 ⎣ (1 + ξ ξ )η 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A . The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.69) and (10.72) and (1 + η η ) 4 a (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 ⎤ .71) Substituting (10.70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .68) and the resulting matrices into (10.

a . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2⎥ ( ) + − β 1 ν a ⎨ ⎬ 3⎩ 2 ⎥ ⎭ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. b β= b . ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ ⎫ 2⎥ 2 1 ( ) − − − β 1 ν a ⎨ ⎬ 3⎩ 2 ⎥ ⎭ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a .74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥.

The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10. The above expressions are presented in reference [87].52).63) and (10.52).75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. substituting the shape functions from (10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10. Substituting (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.76) ⎪ ⎪ A ⎩ 0 ⎭ For pz = constant.67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.61) into (10. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by . PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.73) into (10.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10.10.

lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements. There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element.53). the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10.g. In very thin plates.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 [ I3 ] [ D ] B B = − ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }. .79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements. Obviously. However. S S e (10. e (10. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. 10. However. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. Alternative methods. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }.. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. This is avoided by selective integration. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w . The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.

80) is incomplete.82) Differentiating (10. (10.80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } . a) w = ⎣P ( x . Nodes 1. that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 .6 shows the T element (Tocher . Fig.0) . ( ) (10. y3 ) . (x2 . The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10.0) and (x3 .6 The expression (10.81. There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node.4.1962). In order to maintain symmetry. y )⎦ {α } .80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. PLATE BENDING 245 10. 10. namely. (10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ . and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes.81) gives . ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom. the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal.81) (10.10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms. 2 and 3 have coordinates (0. the transverse displacement w .

87) Substituting (10. therefore. y )⎦ Ae e e (10. Evaluating (10. e e (10. e −1 (10. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } . cannot be inverted. This element is non-conforming. a) yields [ ] { q }.83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } . Unfortunately. gives .83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x .84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ .87) into (10. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition. (10.86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10.246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }.89) and. of equation y = 0 . If this occurs.83) along the side 1-2.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ . (10.81.

due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms. Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of .94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } .92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically. (10.80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes. Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. α 5 and α 8 . The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis. To alleviate this.4) and (10. in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted. while the tangential component θ x is not. Moreover.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10.92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2x 6 y ⎥ ⎥. These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only. the assumed function (10. Substituting (10.88) into (10.93) ∫x A m n y dA . The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements. In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A .91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 .10. ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ A typical element of the integrand in (10.

the transverse displacement w . (10. θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi . ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ (10.97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 .248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. θ X and θY are continuous between elements.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using . the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. They ensure that w .96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ . These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix.95) where wi . i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10. (10. In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix. θY = ∑ ζ i θY i . namely. and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes. Nodes 1. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8. 10. Tocher. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i .4. In matrix form.35).2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node. expressions (10.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. 1969) referred to a global coordinate system.

99) Substituting (10. −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10. ∑ ∂ x 2 A i =1 ∂ζ i where β i and γ i are defined in (8.103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥.100) As this matrix is constant. ∑ ∂ y 2 A i =1 ∂ζ i (10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = βi .8). [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.24) and using (10.96) into (10.10. (10.24) and using (10.102) into (10.96) into (10. ∂ 1 3 ∂ = γi .104) S 33 where .101) Substituting (10.67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.102) Substituting (10. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ].

98) into (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.65).4.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10. Dhatt1967). ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β2 3 +γ3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T ⎣ 3 (10. . ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 2 +γ2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.250 2 2 ⎡β1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Stricklin et al. The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. For pz = constant. substituting the shape functions from (10.-1969. 10.

The shear strain energy is neglected. along a side. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero.7. To remedy this. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). a). The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides. For instance.24). in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements. It was shown that. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. in which the curvatures are expressed.10. 10. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k.4. a Fig. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ θ yk ⎭ (10. 10. of length l k . in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. only the bending strain energy is considered.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements.7 b For a side i − j .106) . In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. The T element presented in section 10.

10. ( ) (10.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k . At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k .8. the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. 10. Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k .8. This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side. ⎝ ⎠ (10. Fig. b). ( ) sk = y j − y i l k .8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. α 5 . 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j . The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. a). Initially.108) . 10.7. The parameter α k has to be eliminated. One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ⎟ ds = 0 . 10. Then. the three parameters α 4 . α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes. The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig.

⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . where (10.111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10. θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T .110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j . Then.109) The equation (10.109) into (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10. θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or.10. because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic.108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j . j.110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }. {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T . (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 .109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. (10. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ . The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour. k. {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T .

114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix 1=− N ix2 N ix 3 . y y y ⎥ N N N ⎢ ⎣⎣ 1 ⎦ ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10.112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ .1. ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy 1 = N iy 2 N iy 3 .115) In (10.1 Corner point. (10. Table 10. Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ . as shown in Table 10.254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }. ⎦ (10. 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm .116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions.113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ ⎥. ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1. 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix 3 = x N iy 2 = Ni3 . 2. 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm . (10. i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) .115). the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . 2l k 2l m (10. the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ . 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm . 4 4 N iy 3 = Ni − In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i.

10.112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e . In the following. { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e .117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . in a local coordinate system [18]. 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q .24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . y2 ) and (x3 .119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. y1 ) . presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η . { } (10.118) The curvature vector (10. (10. ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] .120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ .120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 . PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 . In (10. (x2 . using a Hammer integration rule. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68]. 2A { } (10. 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q . can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] . the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained. Equation (10. y3 ) . The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form. (10.

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2


A

where the material matrix [ D
Ue =

]
1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },
e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]
e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ = [Y ] ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎣ [Z ]⎥ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎣ [Z ]⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎢

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ ⎥. 24 ⎢ ⎣ 4 1 2⎥ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫
0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References
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150.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. 187 Conforming elements 150. vector of − beam 90. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 238. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces.

53 − shaft 62 − beam 85. 22. 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87..266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17. 230 Six-node triangle 221 . 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 . 94. 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118. 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158.139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 107.

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