# CHAPTER 3 FORCES AND PRESSURE 3.

1 Understanding pressure % ) A student is able to: • • • Define pressure and state that P = Describe applications of pressure Solve problems involving pressure
F A

( ……… / 8 x 100 % = ……………

1. What is meant by pressure?

....................................................................................................................................... . 2. Choose ( √ ) the examples that apply the concept of pressure? ( ( ( 3. ) Toothpaste ) Larger and wider seat belt ) Ship ( ( ( ) Nail ) Knife ) Aerofoil

A girl is going to take a walk on a soggy field. There are two types of shoes as in diagram 3. Which type of shoes should she wear?

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4. Diagram shows a cuboid of 2 kg on a table. Calculate the pressure exerted on the table by the cuboid. Tick (√) the correct answer.

0.1 m 0.4 m Diagram 4

( ( ( (

) 0.8 N m-2 ) 50 N m-2 ) 200 N m-2 ) 500 N m-2

5. Diagram 5 shows different situations of a cuboid of 5 kg on a table. Circle the diagram in which the cuboid exerts the least pressure on the table.

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................................................................................................................ 2.......................... Y ) has the highest pressure? 3 .......... Diagram 3 Diagram 3 shows a container of oil....................... Underline the correct answer Point ( X .. What is the relationship between depth of liquid and pressure? ............................ 1..... What is the relationship between density of liquid and pressure? ......................... 3....................Diagram 5 3..2 Understanding pressure in liquids ) A student is able to: • • • • relate depth to pressure in a liquid relate density to pressure in a liquid ( ……… / 8 x 100 % = ……………% explain pressure in a liquid and state that P = h ρ g describe applications of pressure in liquids.....

......... The relationship of Pressure in liquid is......... 5......... State one application of pressure in liquid................. 6.... g =......................................................... Diagram 6 4 .....4............................................. P =hρg What is represented by h..... ....... ρ and g respectively? h =............................... ρ = ........................

3 or 4 in the sequence column] Sequence Statements Collisions of gas particles in the container occur very frequently. What is the pressure at P? Tick (√) the correct answer. [ Density of alcohol = 800 kg m-3 ] ( ( ( ( ) 1600 Pa ) 16 000 Pa ) 160 000 Pa ) 1 600 000 Pa 3. However they were in the wrong order. 5 . Rearrange the statements in sequence to explain the gas pressure.Diagram 6 shows a glass full of alcohol. The collisions of gas particles on the wall of container give rise to gas pressure The gas particles move randomly with high speed.3 Understanding gas pressure and atmospheric pressure ( ……… / 15 x 100 % = ……………% ) A student is able to: • • • explain gas pressure explain atmospheric pressure describe applications of atmospheric pressure 1. 2. The gas is made up of gas particles. [Write numbers 1. A student wrote several statements to explain the gas pressure.

Diagram 2 Diagram 2 shows a manometer connected to a gas tank.[ Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg] 3. What will happen to the mercury column Y if X is connected to a high pressure of gas tank? 6 . Determine the gas pressure shown. Diagram 3 Diagram 3 shows a manometer.2.

The Fortin barometer Y measured the atmospheric pressure at lower altitude. Based on the statement. Fortin barometer X reads 74 cm whereas Fortin barometer Y reads 76 cmHg. tick (√) i. thinner ). at 5. (b) A mountain terrain has a ( higher . (a) The ( weight .. a correct hypothesis i ( ( ii. a correct inference ii. mass ) of air on the earth’s surface caused the atmospheric pressure. ( ( ) The atmospheric pressure is influenced by the altitude ) The atmospheric pressure is influenced by the type of barometer ) The higher the altitude from sea level the lower the atmospheric pressure ) The lower the altitude from sea level the lower the atmospheric pressure 6. 4. The Fortin barometer X measured the atmospheric pressure at lower altitude. Which of the following statements correctly explain the difference of atmospheric pressure in the terms of altitude? Tick (√) at the correct statements. Underline the correct answer. The Fortin barometer X measured the atmospheric pressure at higher altitude. 7 . lower ) atmospheric pressure than the sea-side because the air at the mountain terrain is ( thicker .…………………………………………………………………………………………………. It is found that a Fortin barometer reads 74 cm Hg at a highland whereas the reading is 76 cm Hg at the sea side.

... ……………….............................. Explain hydraulic system ( ……… / 10 x 100 % = …………… Describe applications of Pascal’s principle....... Pascal’s Principle states that ……………………………………………..... Instruction : Answer all questions in this section...…………................. i .......... 3................... List two applications of atmospheric pressure........................................ ………………………………………………………………………………………….. of Pascal’s 8 .................... Diagram 3 shows a application Principle.. ………………………..................................The Fortin barometer Y measured the atmospheric pressure at higher altitude....................... Some examples of the application of the Pascal’s Principle are ……………………................. ii.... 3....... .................... .. 1............................................4 Appling Pascal’s Principle % ) A student is able to: • • • • state Pascal’s principle............ 8............................ 2........... Solve problems involving Pascal’s principle.

Diagram 4 5. A1 and A2.Diagram 3 State the relationship between F1. …………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. The principle that explains the situation below is ……………………………………… 9 . Diagram 5 shows toothpaste being squeezed out from the tube.. Name of the system : ………………………………. The diagram 4 show one application where pressure is transmitted equally through an oil. F2.

Diagram 6 shows a :………………………………. What will happen to the hydraulic jack if the force F1 is less than the value found in 7(a)? ………………………………………………………………………………………… (c). Give one reason for your answer 10 . Diagram 6 7. Diagram 7 (a). Diagram 7 shows a simple hydraulic system. A1 = 5 cm2 and A2 = 10 cm2. A1 and A2 are cross section area of the piston. What is the minimum force F1 which can lift a load of 100 kg ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… (b)..Diagram 5 6.

…………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Buoyant force is the ……. Describe applications of Archimedes principle Solve problems involving Archimedes principle Instruction : Answer all question in this section. 2. 1.5 Applying Archimedes’ Principle ( ……… / 3 0 x 100 % = ……………% ) A student is able to: • • • • • Explain buoyant force Relate buoyant force to the weight of the liquid displaced State Archimedes’ principle. Archimedes' Principle states that 11 .

..... ……………....... The examples of application of Archimedes' Principle are: …………………………... Diagram 5 shows a spring balance supporting a metal block K in three situations. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... ..... …………. 3. ……………….....……………………………………………………………. What is the relationship between the buoyant force and the weight of water displaced ? …………………………………………………… …………………………… 5... 12 ...... 4...........……………….....

. …. ………………………. Explain how a submarine on the surface submerges.……………………………………………………….Diagram 5 (a) Compare the readings of the spring balance in Diagram 5A and Diagram 5B. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (e). What will happen to the spring balance in diagram 5C if the water is replaced with salt solution? …………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Give one reason for your answer. (i).. 13 .. ……………………………… (c) State and explain the relationship between the forces in (b). ………………………. A submarine can sail on the sea surface and under the sea. 6.. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Name three forces that act on K when it is partially or totally immersed in water. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (d) Name the principle involved in question (c). …………………………..

The boat _________ more when the density is lower. deduce a relevant physics concept. than river water. a) The boat b) Sea water is c) The _________ more in the river than in the sea. The submarine sinks into the water when its ___________ is more than the ____________ of the water and its weight is equal/more than the _______. A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river. e) The upthrust is equal to the weight of _________________. 14 . The depth to which the test tube sinks depends on its surrounding liquid. Diagram A and B illustrate the working principle of a hydrometer. Diagram A and B below illustrate the situations of the boat in the sea and in the river.a) The submarine has a ____________. d) The boat floats because it is being balanced up by the _____________. 7. ___________ _________ of the boat and its load is the same when it is in the sea and in the river. the volume of water displaced and the density of the water. f) More water will be ___________ when the density is lower. b) Water is d) _________ in the ballast tank. 8. Relating the mass of the boat with its load. although the boat carries the same load. Diagram 7 Compare the levels of the boats in diagram 7 and the volumes of water displaced by the boat.

using the idea of the working principle of hydrometer in diagram 8A and diagram 8B. Draw a diagram that shows the design of your hydrometer and in your explanation. So that the hydrometer does not sink fully in low density liquid. c) Use a _________ stem. e) __________ the hydrometer in a paraffin oil / alcohol. Emphasized the following aspects: the stability of the hydrometer. This is the calibration for liquid of high density.6 Understanding Bernoulli’s principle. The scale and the level of liquid at the stem will show the density of paraffin oil / alcohol. b) Put ___________ balls in the glass bulb. to ensure the hydrometer is upright. Make the scale at the stem using the upper and the lower level of density.Diagram 8 Explain how you would design a hydrometer that can determine a wide range of densities of liquid. d) Use a suitable big bulb and a ________ stem. to have a bigger interval of the scale. a) Draw a correct design of the hydrometer. f) __________ the hydrometer into a carbon tetrachloride solution. Learning Objective 3. the calibration of the hydrometer. This is to make calibration for liquid of low density. the ability to measure a wide range of densities of liquids. ( ……/ 30 x 100 % = ……………% ) 15 . the sensitivity of the hydrometer.

……. ….. Bernoulli's Principle states that …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3. The examples of application of the Bernoulli's Principle are: i ……………………….. When air flows from the nozzle of an air pump. iv……………………………………….. Diagram below shows a piece of paper hanging from a retort stand. 2. the paper changes its position as shown in Diagram B.v……………………………………………. Diagram 3 16 . 1...iii……………………….ii …..…………………..Learning Outcomes A student is able to: • • • • State Bernoulli’s principle Explain that resultant force exists due to a difference in fluid pressure Describe applications of Bernoulli’s principle Solve problems involving Bernoulli’s principle Instruction : Answer all questions in this section...

…………………………………………………………………………………… 17 .……………………………………………………………………………… (e) Name the principle that causes the observation in Diagram B.(a) Compare the position of the paper in Diagram 3A and Diagram 3B. …. how does the position of paper change when the air flows faster ?. Give a reason for your answer in (d)(i).…………………………………………………………………………………… (b) F is a force that causes the paper to change its position.…………………………………………………………………………………… ii…. indicate and label the direction of F that acts on the paper.……………………………………………………………………… (ii). In box X. …. ………. (c) Explain how F is produced. ………………. on Diagram B.…………………………………………………………………………………… (d) (i) Compared to the position of the paper in Diagram B. i….

4. Diagram A below shows the situation of a sheet of paper before and when air is blown. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ii………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 . Diagram 4 (a) Based on Diagram 4A and Diagram 4B : (i) State two similarities for the situations in Diagram 4A and Diagram 4B. Diagram B shows the situation of canopy before the lorry moves and when the lorry moves at high speed. i.

(a) Compare the speeds of air at P and at Q after air flows at diagram B. ………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Mark the water level in the U-tube in Diagram B when air flows. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5. Diagram 5 shows an instrument used to measure the speed of air. Diagram 5 In Diagram 5A shown the level of coloured water in the U-tube is the same before air flows. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Name the principle involved in question (a)(iii). ……………………………………………………………………………………… (iii) Relate the speed of the air to the pressure of the air. ………………………………………………………………………………… 19 .(ii) Compare the air pressure above and below the paper when air is blown.

i……………………………………………………………………………………… ii……………………………………………………………………………………… iii……………………………………………………………………………………… 7. …. The wing of the aeroplane experiences a lift force.. Diagram 6 shows a cross-section of a wing of a moving aero plane.…………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Explain why the lift force acts on the wing of the aeroplane.6. Diagram 6 (a) Name the shape of the cross-section in Diagram 6. 20 . Diagram 7 shows a model of an aeroplane.

forces and the properties of materials. To reduce air friction also. c) ________________ material. To reduce the weight and easy to fly.. Using the knowledge on motion. To reduce air friction between air plane and air. To increase the uplift (force). 21 . e) ___________.Diagram 7 You are required to give some suggestions to design a aero plane which can travel faster and more stable. d) The wings are positioned higher up on the body so that the aeroplane is _________________ . explain the suggestion based on the following aspects: the surface of the plane the shape of the plane material used for the plane position of the wing the size of the wing a) __________. b) _____________ shape.