GE Digital Energy Power Quality

UPS Application Guide
Digital Energy™ Uninterruptible Power Supply

15 TRANSFORMERS

GE Consumer & Industrial General Electric Company CH – 6595 Riazzino (Locarno) Switzerland T +41 (0)91 / 850 51 51 F +41 (0)91 / 850 51 44 www.gedigitalenergy.com

............................................2 15..................... 1 INPUT ISOLATION TRANSFORMER...........................................................................8 Page 15 Transformers..............................................................................................5 INPUT BYPASS TRANSFORMER WITH EXTERNAL MAINTENANCE BYPASS ......................4 15................ Modifications reserved Transformers – V1..........Title: Date of issue: File name: Version: Transformers November 2008 APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010 1..........................................................................................................................................3 INPUT RECTIFIER ISOLATION TRANSFORMER.....................................4 INPUT BYPASS ISOLATION TRANSFORMER............pdf .................................................................................................................0 Up-dating Revision Concerns Date Table of contents 15...............................................1 15.....0 - Page 2/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010.......................... Reproduction only upon written consent by GE...........................................................................................3 15....................................... All brands and product names are Trademarks or Registered Trademarks of their respective owners.................................................................5 15...........8 COPYRIGHT © 2008 by GE Consumer & Industrial Data subject to change without prior notice.................7 15................................................................................................................6 AUTOTRANSFORMER .........................................................................................................................7 K-FACTOR ............................................................................3 TRANSFORMERS TYPE.......6 15........................................................................................................................................................7 BI-MONO TRANSFORMER..

l3 L2 L3 l3 l2 L2 Dd0 0° L1.L3 l1.2 TRANSFORMER TYPES Three different transformer types.l2. 15.1 INPUT ISOLATION TRANSFORMER Typically a UPS system is directly connected to the Input Mains.pdf .15. The tables here below show the different characteristics of the used type and relative applications: Type Symbol Wiring connections Voltage displacement L1 30 ° l1 Characteristics 30 electrical degrees phase shift between primary and secondary wiring neutral on secondary wiring 0 electrical degrees phase shift between primary and secondary wiring 0 electrical degrees phase shift between primary and secondary wiring neutral on secondary wiring L1 l1 l2 l3 n L3 L1 Dyn11 30° L1.l2.l2. In some applications a galvanic separation between the UPS and the Input Mains or a dedicated grounding system for the UPS and its loads is required.L2.L3 l1. characterized by wiring connections. This document shows the different transformers topology used. can realize the UPS galvanic separation.L3 l1.l3 L1 L2 L3 l1 l2 l3 L3 l1 l2 l3 L1 l1 l2 L3 l3 L2 L2 L1 0° Dzn0 L1.L2. In these cases an input isolation transformer on the UPS rectifier or bypass Input Mains shall be installed. the possible configurations and the relative features.L2.0 - Page 3/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010.l3 l1 l2 l3 n L2 L3 Table 2-1 Transformers typology Type Bypass input isolation transformer Rectifier input isolation transformer Dyn11 X X X with neutral not connected Dd0 X X with neutral not connected (solution not practically used) Dzn0 Table 2-2 Transformers typology applications Modifications reserved Transformers – V1.

15. 3-3 UPS with input rectifier isolation transformer Modifications reserved Transformers – V1. RECTIFIER BRIDGE INPUT MAINS TRANSFORMER INPUT MAINS INVERTER BRIDGE INPUT MAINS TRANSFORMER INPUT MAINS INPUT ISOLATION TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER BRIDGE INVERTER BRIDGE GALVANIC SEPARTION BETWEEN INPUT MAINS AND UPS RECTIFIER BATTERY BATTERY CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH HUMAN BODY GALVANICALLY SEPARATED FROM INPUT M Fig.g. This configuration is typically used with PB battery (not VRLA) that require periodical check by service engineers who operate directly on the battery (e. To realize a galvanic separation between the Input Mains and the UPS rectifier. to realize a phase shift displacement between/among the different UPS. This configuration is also used with UPS in RPA (Redundant Parallel Configuration). Efficiency effect The total UPS efficiency is affected by the transformer of about 1÷2% .3 INPUT RECTIFIER ISOLATION TRANSFORMER UPS SSM INPUT MAINS Lk RECTIFIER ISOLATION TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER INVERTER L1/L2/L3 NEUTRAL NEUTRAL POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT BATTERY Fig.0 - Page 4/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010. 3-2 and 3-3. 3-1 Electrical configuration Configuration The isolation transformer is installed upstream the UPS rectifier between the rectifier and the Input Mains. to reduce the rectifier harmonic effects. Applications For safety reasons. For more details please refer to fig. the transformer neutral shall be not ground (earth) connected. 3-2 UPS without input rectifier isolation transformer Fig.pdf . filling in electrolyte in battery blocks or checking the electrolyte density).

• Dzn0 (0 el. This is the case where the UPS Input Mains is distributed without neutral (3 wire + ground) or where the replacement of the existing neutral conductor with a larger one could be problematic or costly.4 INPUT BYPASS ISOLATION TRANSFORMER BYPASS ISOLATION TRANSFORMER +30° UPS SSM RECTIFIER Lk INVERTER L1/L2/L3 NEUTRAL INPUT MAINS Dyn11 NEUTRAL POWER PE (GROUND) current flowing in normal mode operation current flowing in bypass mode operation DISTRIBUTION UNIT BATTERY Configuration Configuration realized by a transformer installed on the UPS bypass input. phase shift) for the applications where the transformer phase-shift has no influence on the UPS output. degr.15. • to avoid the propagation of the UPS loads current upstream the UPS on the Input Mains. Efficiency effect The introduction of a transformer on the bypass line has no influence on the UPS efficiency because not part of the UPS normal mode power conversion operation. the current is limited to the inverter transformer without any propagation on the Input Mains distribution (refer also to the fig. different from the one available on the Input Mains. When the UPS is running in bypass mode the load current is spread on the UPS input electrical distribution. 4-1).0 - Page 5/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010. due to the zig-zag transformer winding. phase shift) where an UPS input/output electrical phase shift is not allowed. This configuration is used when an external maintenance bypass is installed. to avoid phase shift with the UPS bypass Applications • For a local grounding arrangement.pdf . In fact with the UPS in normal mode. Solution more expensive than the previous one. Fig. degr. Two different transformers can be used: • Dyn11 (30 el. 4-1 Electrical configuration Modifications reserved Transformers – V1. with the loads supplied by the UPS inverter. in order to realize the neutral wiring for the UPS and its loads. this can cause problems on other load there installed specially when the UPS supply non-linear loads with high harmonics contents or with high unbalanced loads (with high 3rd and multiple harmonic contents specially on the neutral conductor). even when the UPS is running in bypass mode. Standard configuration.

1-1 Example of input bypass transformer with external maintenance bypass In some UPS applications an external maintenance bypass for UPS and bypass transformer is required for maintenance reason or to allow the possibility to remove the UPS maintaining the loads active. With this configuration it must be taken into account to have no phase shift between the UPS and the external maintenance bypass circuits.0 - Page 6/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010. it shall be realized by a Dzn0 (Delta zig-zag with 0 el. If a bypass isolation transformer is required. degr. phase shift).15. 4. Special attention has to be given if a differential protection relay is installed upstream the UPS. this can have false trip if the grounding connection between the “Input Mains transformer” and the “Input isolation transformer” is not realized properly. Modifications reserved Transformers – V1.pdf .5 INPUT BYPASS TRANSFORMER WITH EXTERNAL MAINTENANCE BYPASS EXTERNAL MAINTENANCE BYPASS BYPASS ISOLATION TRANSFORMER 0° UPS INPUT Dzn0 RECTIFIER INVERTER L1/L2/L3 MAINS Lk SSM NEUTRAL NEUTRAL POWER PE (GROUND) BATTERY DISTRIBUTION UNIT Fig.

7 BI-MONO TRANSFORMER By using a bi/mono transformer is possible to supply a mono-phase load. n° 12038).9) 50 (max 56. An Autotransformer is an electrical transformer with only one winding. Because it requires both fewer windings and a smaller core.3) 120 (max 140. an autotransformer for power applications is typically lighter and cheaper than a two winding transformer. Example: Load (mono-phase) = 120kVA Iphase-UPS = 120kVA / 0.pdf .97 (ηtrasf. thus there will be no galvanic separation.9) 100 (max 112. Modifications reserved Transformers – V1.78) Size UPS Î 213kVA Î Sgseries 250kVA Note: It’s not allowed to use Bi/mono transformer with LP33 models.2) 60 (max 67.6 AUTOTRANSFORMER Adding an autotransformer it is possible to adapt the input and (or) the output UPS voltage.4) 80 (max 89.15.78 times the load applied. mono phase load (kVA) 5 (max 5.5) 200 (max 224.9) 3 phase UPS (kVA) 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 160 200 250 300 400 500 additional cabinet (mm) ---* ---* ---* ---* ---* 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 (SP 680) 850 (SP 680) 1100 1100 * additional cabinet for SP10/40kVA is not required ONLY if batteries are mounted in separate cabinet. In this case the transformer will be mounted in UPS battery cavity.4) 160 (max 168.7) 40 (max 44.) /400V= Iphase-UPS Iphase-UPS x 3 x 230V = Pmin-UPS Anyway bypass is always available and only two phases will be loaded. 15. The use of this one at the ups input is allow only if the neutral is available. Contrarily a Dyn transformer is mandatory. It’s possible to have in SP10/40kVA battery cavity both the transformer and the 5th harmonic filter.8) 20 (max 22. The size of UPS will be 1.97 / 400V = 309A Pmin-UPS = 309A x 3 x 230 = 213kVA Î (213kVA / 120kVA = 1.7) 250 (max 280.2) 10 (max 11.5) 30 (max 33. otherwise a 500mm cabinet will be used. In fact: VAload mono /0.2) 15 (max 16.0 Page 7/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010. but an additional cooling kit is required (art.5) 8 (max 8.

502 = 2500). as derived from ANSI/IEEE C57.g. stray losses are assumed to be primarily winding eddy current losses for transformers 300 kVA and smaller.15. ∑ ( Ih) 2 = 1. may change significantly the result. with a K-20 rating. it seems reasonable to limit the K-Factor calculation to harmonic currents up to the 25th harmonic.. The higher the K-Factor. each of these calculations can yield significantly different K-Factors because even very small current levels associated with the higher harmonics.. A K-Factor of 1. Using UL1561 test methods. They have additional thermal capacity to tolerate the heating effects of the harmonic currents. i. others up to the 50th harmonic. the greater the harmonic heating effects: K − Factor= ∑ ( Ih) 2 h 2 where Ih is the load current at harmonic h.8 K-FACTOR K-Factor is a weighting of the harmonic load currents according to their effects on transformer heating.110. For example.e.pdf . For the same load.0 indicates a linear load (no harmonics).110 and K-Factor ratings are described in UL1561(5). Someone use up to the 15th harmonic. Based on the underlying assumptions of C57. when multiplied by the harmonic number squared (e. a transformer having winding I2R losses of 2000 watts and 60 Hz stray losses of 100 watts would. be required to dissipate the 2000 watts of I2R losses plus 20 times the 60 Hz stray losses of 100 watts for a total load loss of 4000 watts without exceeding the maximum winding temperature rise. The result is a larger. someone else up to the 25th harmonic. well-designed K-Factor transformers will also minimize the winding eddy current losses through the use of parallel conductors and other winding techniques. more expensive transformer. Factor transformers differ from standard transformers. Standardized K factors K-1 : resistive load (no harmonics) K-4 : THDi up to 26% K-9 : THDi up to 45% K-13 : THDi up to 58% K-20 : THDi up to 81% K-30 : THDi up to 124% K-40 : THDi up to 208% Modifications reserved Transformers – V1. Beyond that.0 One problem associated with K-Factor calculation is the selection of the harmonic frequencies range. The K-Factor indicates the multiple of the 60 Hz winding eddy current losses that the transformer can safely dissipate: Transformer load losses consist of winding I2R losses plus stray losses. expressed in A per-unit basis such that the total RMS current equals one Amp.0 - Page 8/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010.

012 + 252*0.2582 + 72x0.pdf .1% 17th 1.0% 25th 0.09 Modifications reserved Transformers – V1.Example: Input isolation transformer for SitePro Taking into consideration that the input isolation transformer is used to feed the rectifier and that the harmonics spectrum is: 5th 25.0412 + 172x0.9% 13th 4.4% 11th 5.9% we have that the K-factor is: K = 1*1 + 52x0.0182 + 192x0.8% 7th 7.0 - Page 9/9 UPS Application Guide APG_015_TRANSFOR_XGB_V010.0092 = 4.0592 + 132x0.8% 19th 2.0742 + 112x0.1% 23th 1.0212 + 232x0.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful