2012/13

© 2013 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000; Internet: www.worldbank.org
Some rights reserved
1 2 3 4 16 15 14 13
This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. Note that The World Bank does not necessarily
own each component of the content included in the work. The World Bank therefore does not warrant that the use of the content
contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of third parties. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests
solely with you.
The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its
Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data
included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply
any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such
boundaries.
Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immunities of The World
Bank, all of which are specifically reserved.
Rights and Permissions

This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0) http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by/3.0. Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, you are free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt this work,
including for commercial purposes, under the following conditions:
Attribution—Please cite the work as follows: World Bank. 2013. Africa Development Indicators 2012/13. Washington, DC: World
Bank. doi: 10.1596/978-0-8213-9616-2. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0
Translations—If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World Bank translation. The World Bank shall not be liable
for any content or error in this translation.
All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW,
Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2625; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.
To order Africa Development Indicators 2012/13, The Little Data Book on Africa 2012/13, or The Little Data Book on Gender in Africa
2012/13, please visit http://publications.worldbank.org. For free access to Africa Development Indicators online, please visit
http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog.
For more information about Africa Development Indicators and its companion products, please visit www.worldbank.org/africa or
email ADI@worldbank.org.
ISBN: 978-0-8213-9616-2
eISBN: 978-0-8213-9617-9
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-9616-2
SKU: 19616
Cover design and layout: EEI Communications, Hanover, MD.
The map of Africa is provided by the Map Design Unit/World Bank.

Contents
Foreword

vii

Acknowledgments

ix

Indicator tables

1

Users guide

3

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts
1. Basic indicators
1.1 Basic indicators
2. National and fiscal accounts
2.1 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.2 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.3 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.4 Gross domestic product per capita, real
2.5 Gross domestic product per capita growth
2.6 Gross national income, nominal
2.7 Gross national income, World Bank Atlas method
2.8 Gross national income per capita, World Bank Atlas method
2.9 Gross domestic product deflator (U.S. dollar series)
2.10 Consumer price Index
2.11 Consumer price index, growth
2.12 Price indices
2.13 Gross domestic savings
2.14 Gross national savings
2.15 General government final consumption expenditure
2.16 Household final consumption expenditure
2.17 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy
2.18 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy per capita
2.19 Gross fixed capital formation
2.20 Gross general government fixed capital formation
2.21 Private sector fixed capital formation
2.22 External trade balance (exports minus imports)
2.23 Exports of goods and services, nominal
2.24 Imports of goods and services, nominal
2.25 Exports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.26 Imports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.27 Balance of payments and current account
2.28 Exchange rates and purchasing power parity
2.29 Agriculture value added
2.30 Industry value added

7

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
36
38
39
Contents

iii

2.31 Services plus discrepancy value added
2.32 Central government finances
2.33 Central government expenses
2.34 Central government revenues
2.35 Structure of demand

40
41
43
45
47

Part II. Millennium Development Goals
3. Millennium Development Goals
3.1 Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
3.2 Millennium Development Goal 2: achieve universal primary education
3.3 Millennium Development Goal 3: promote gender equity and empower women
3.4 Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
3.5 Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
3.6 Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
3.7 Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
3.8 Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development

48
51
52
53
54
55
57
59

Part III. Development outcomes

iv

Drivers of growth
4. Private sector development
4.1 Doing Business
4.2 Investment climate
4.3 Financial sector infrastructure

61
64
66

5. Trade and regional integration
5.1 International trade and tariff barriers
5.2 Top three exports and share in total exports, 2010
5.3 Regional integration, trade blocs

68
72
74

6. Infrastructure
6.1 Water and sanitation
6.2 Transportation
6.3 Information and communication technology
6.4 Energy

74
75
77
80

Participating in growth
7. Human development
7.1 Education
7.2 Health

84
86

8. Agriculture, rural development, and environment
8.1 Rural development
8.2 Agriculture
8.3 Producer food prices
8.4 Environment
8.5 Fossil fuel emissions

90
92
94
96
98

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

9. Labor, migration, and population
9.1 Labor force participation
9.2 Labor force composition
9.3 Unemployment
9.4 Migration and population

100
106
108
110

10. HIV/AIDS
10.1 HIV/AIDS

112

11. Malaria
11.1 Malaria

116

12. Capable states and partnership
12.1 Aid and debt relief
12.2 Status of Paris Declaration indicators
12.3 Capable states
12.4 Governance and anticorruption indicators
12.5 Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings
12.6 Polity indicators

117
120
122
124
126
130

Technical notes

131

Technical notes references

190

Primary data documentation

192

Map of Africa

198

Contents

v

Foreword
For over a decade, Sub-Saharan Africa has
been experiencing relatively rapid economic
growth, averaging about 5 percent a year.
Emblematic of this growth is the information and communications technology (ICT)
revolution in Africa, with over 80 percent
of urban Africans with access to cellphones.
Thanks to economic growth, poverty has
been declining, with the absolute number of
people living on less than $1.25 a day falling
(by about 9 million) for the first time in history. At the same time, Africa has the lowest
human development indicators, with one in
16 children dying before their fifth birthday.
Striking as they are, these averages mask
the great diversity of the African continent.
This year’s Africa Development Indicators,
with data on 1,700 indicators stretching
back to 1960, provides a detailed picture of
the variety of the continent’s development
experience, across space and over time. For
instance:
• While Africa’s gross national income per
capita was US$1,589 in 2010, it ranged
from US$180 to US$13,720.
• Of the 89 million recorded internet
users in SSA, half of them were in Nigeria. Two countries (Kenya and Nigeria)
account for 62 percent of Internet users. However, Seychelles has the highest
number of Internet users per 100 people.
• Although poverty is declining, Africa has the highest poverty rate in the
world, with 47.5 percent of the population living on $1.25 a day. They account
for 30 percent of the world’s poor.

Thirty-nine countries had child mortality reductions of over 12 percent over the
last 20 years with the largest decline of
over 50 percent in Malawi, Madagascar,
Eritrea and Liberia.
A central question is why Africa is doing so much better today than it was, say, 20
years ago. The answer includes several factors, such as debt relief, increased aid, high
commodity prices—and improved macroeconomic policies. These policies are the result of decisions by African policy makers
who, in turn, are increasingly accountable to
their citizens. And an informed citizenry is
better able to hold its leaders to account.
On its part, the World Bank continues
to make all its data freely available, resulting in continually growing use of its online
resources. This volume is part of the Africa
Development Indicators suite of products,
which also includes The Little Data Book on
Africa 2012/13 and The Little Data Book on
Gender in Africa 2012/13, the Africa Development Indicators 2012/13 CD-ROM, and a data
query and charting application for mobile services. All of these publications help to equip
the public with information, so they can contribute to an evidence-based debate that will
eventually lead to better public policies.
In short, Africa Development Indicators
not only documents Africa’s transformation;
it supports it.
Makhtar Diop
Vice President
The World Bank Group
Africa Region

Foreword

vii

Acknowledgments
Africa Development Indicators is a product of
the Africa Region of the World Bank.
This report has been prepared by a core
team led by Rose Mungai comprising Francoise Genouille and Ayago Esmubancha
Wambile in the production of this book and
its companions—Africa Development Indicators Online 2012/13, and The Little Data Book
on Africa 2012/13 and The Little Data Book on
Gender in Africa 2012/13. Yohannes Kebede
coordinated the ADI Online Apps platform
while Mapi Buitano coordinated the dissemination of the book and its companions. Aby
Toure managed the communication aspect.
Francoise Genouille coordinated all stages of
production. The overall work was carried out
under the guidance of Shantayanan Devarajan, Chief Economist of the Africa Region.
The technical box contributors were:
• Andrew Dabalen and Rose Mungai (Africa
New Dollar Per Day [PPP] Poverty Estimates [$1.25/day] in 2008 )
• DIME (What’s the Coolest Region for
doing Impact Evaluation? It’s Africa)
• Jos Verbeek and Jose Alejandro Quijada
(Africa and the MDGs: 2015 and Beyond)
• Markus Goldstein (Gender)
• Rabia Ali and Jishnu Das (Gender Differences in Risks of Death: Africa’s Excess
Female Mortality and Trends Over Time)
• Sumila Gulyani, Ellen Bassett and Debabrata Talukdar (A Multidimensional
Portrait of Poverty and Living Conditions in Slums)

Punam Chuhan-Pole and Vijdan Korman
(CPIA results for Africa)
Azita Amjadi, Abdolreza Farivari, Shelley
Lai Fu, Ugendran Machakkalai, Shanmugam
Natarajan, and Malarvizhi Veerappan collaborated in the online data production. Mahyar
Eshragh-Tabary, Masako Hiraga, Maurice
Nsabimana, and Soong Sup Lee collaborated
in the update of the live database. Software
preparation and testing for mobile applications was managed by Shelley Lai Fu, with the
assistance of Ramgopal Erabelly and Parastoo
Oloumi. Federico Escaler and William Prince
collaborated in the production of The Little
Data Book on Africa 2012/13 and The Little
Data Book on Gender in Africa 2012/13.
Jeffrey Lecksell and Bruno Bonansea of
the World Bank’s Map Design Unit coordinated preparation of the maps.
Kenneth Omondi provided administrative
and logistical support. The core would like to
thank the many people who provided useful
comments on the publication. Their feedback
and suggestions helped improve this year’s
edition.
Staff from External Affairs oversaw printing and dissemination of the book and its
companions.
Several institutions provided data to Africa
Development Indicators. Their contribution is
very much appreciated.
EEI provided design direction, editing, and
layout, led by Sheila Gagen; Cindy Peters typeset the book.

Acknowledgments

ix

Indicator tables
Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts
1. Basic indicators
1.1 Basic indicators
2. National and fiscal accounts
2.1 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.2 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.3 Gross domestic product, nominal
2.4 Gross domestic product per capita, real
2.5 Gross domestic product per capita growth
2.6 Gross national income, nominal
2.7 Gross national income, World Bank Atlas method
2.8 Gross national income per capita, World Bank Atlas method
2.9 Gross domestic product deflator (U.S. dollar series)
2.10 Consumer price Index
2.11 Consumer price index, growth
2.12 Price indices
2.13 Gross domestic savings
2.14 Gross national savings
2.15 General government final consumption expenditure
2.16 Household final consumption expenditure
2.17 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy
2.18 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy per capita
2.19 Gross fixed capital formation
2.20 Gross general government fixed capital formation
2.21 Private sector fixed capital formation
2.22 External trade balance (exports minus imports)
2.23 Exports of goods and services, nominal
2.24 Imports of goods and services, nominal
2.25 Exports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.26 Imports of goods and services as a share of GDP
2.27 Balance of payments and current account
2.28 Exchange rates and purchasing power parity
2.29 Agriculture value added
2.30 Industry value added
2.31 Services plus discrepancy value added
2.32 Central government finances
2.33 Central government expenses
2.34 Central government revenues
2.35 Structure of demand

7

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
36
38
39
40
41
43
45
47

Part II. Millennium Development Goals
3. Millennium Development Goals
3.1 Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
3.2 Millennium Development Goal 2: achieve universal primary education
3.3 Millennium Development Goal 3: promote gender equity and empower women

48
51
52
Indicator tables

1

3.4 Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
3.5 Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
3.6 Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
3.7 Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
3.8 Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development

53
54
55
57
59

Part III. Development outcomes

2

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

Drivers of growth
4. Private sector development
4.1 Doing Business
4.2 Investment climate
4.3 Financial sector infrastructure

61
64
66

5. Trade and regional integration
5.1 International trade and tariff barriers
5.2 Top three exports and share in total exports, 2010
5.3 Regional integration, trade blocs

68
72
74

6. Infrastructure
6.1 Water and sanitation
6.2 Transportation
6.3 Information and communication technology
6.4 Energy

74
75
77
80

Participating in growth
7. Human development
7.1 Education
7.2 Health

84
86

8. Agriculture, rural development, and environment
8.1 Rural development
8.2 Agriculture
8.3 Producer food prices
8.4 Environment
8.5 Fossil fuel emissions

90
92
94
96
98

9. Labor, migration, and population
9.1 Labor force participation
9.2 Labor force composition
9.3 Unemployment
9.4 Migration and population

100
106
108
110

10. HIV/AIDS
10.1 HIV/AIDS

112

11. Malaria
11.1 Malaria

116

12. Capable states and partnership
12.1 Aid and debt relief
12.2 Status of Paris Declaration indicators
12.3 Capable states
12.4 Governance and anticorruption indicators
12.5 Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings
12.6 Polity indicators

117
120
122
124
126
130

Users guide
Tables
The tables are numbered by section. Countries are listed alphabetically by subregion
(Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa). Indicators are shown for the most recent year
or period for which data are available and, in
most tables, for an earlier year or period (usually 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 or 2005 in this
edition). Time-series data are available on the
Africa Development Indicators—CD-ROM and
the World Bank’s Open Data website (http://
data.worldbank.org). The term country, used
interchangeably with economy, does not imply political independence but refers to any
territory for which authorities report separate social or economic statistics.
Known deviations from standard definitions or breaks in comparability over time
or across countries are noted in the tables.
When available data are deemed too weak to
provide reliable measures of levels and trends
or do not adequately adhere to international
standards, the data are not shown.
Aggregate measure for region
and sub-classifications
The aggregates are based on the World Bank’s
analytical regional classification for SubSaharan Africa and North Africa, which may
differ from common geographic usage. Former Spanish Sahara and Mayotte are not included in any aggregates.
Statistics
Data are shown for economies as they were
constituted in 2010, and historical data are
revised to reflect current political arrangements. Exceptions are noted in the tables.
Additional information about the data
is provided in Primary data documentation,
which summarizes national and international efforts to improve basic data collection and
gives country-level information on primary

sources, census years, and other background
information.
Data consistency, reliability,
and comparability
Considerable effort has been made to harmonize the data, but full comparability cannot be assured, and care must be taken in
interpreting indicators. Many factors affect
data availability, comparability, and reliability. Statistical systems in many developing
economies are still weak; statistical methods, coverage practices and definitions differ
widely and cross-country and intertemporal
comparisons involve complex technical and
conceptual problems that cannot be resolved
unequivocally. Data coverage may be incomplete because of circumstances affecting the
collection and reporting of data, such as conflicts. Although drawn from sources thought
to be the most authoritative, data should be
construed as indicating trends and characterizing differences across economies. Discrepancies in data presented in earlier editions of
Africa Development Indicators reflect updates
from countries as well as revisions to historical series and changes in methodology. Readers are therefore advised not to compare data
series between editions or across World Bank
publications.
Country notes
South Sudan declared its independence on
July 9, 2011. Data for Sudan include South
Sudan unless otherwise noted.
Classification of economies
For operational and analytical purposes the
World Bank’s main criterion for classifying
economies is gross national income (GNI)
per capita (calculated by the World Bank Atlas
method; box 1). Every economy is classified
as low income, middle income (subdivided
Userstables
guide
Indicator

3

Box 1

The World Bank Atlas method for converting gross national income to a common denominator

In calculating GNI and GNI per capita in
U.S. dollars for certain operational purposes, the World Bank uses the Atlas conversion factor. The purpose of the Atlas
conversion factor is to reduce the impact
of exchange rate fluctuations in the crosscountry comparison of national incomes.
The Atlas conversion factor for any year is
the average of the official exchange rate or
alternative conversion factor for that year
and for the two preceding years, adjusted
for difference between the rate of inflation
in the country and that in Japan, the United
Kingdom, the United States, and the euro
area. A country’s inflation rate is measured
by the change in its GDP deflator.
The inflation rate for Japan, the United
Kingdom, the United States, and the euro
area, representing international inflation, is
measured by the change in the “SDR deflator.” The SDR (Special drawing rights or SDRs
are the International Monetary Fund’s unit of

account) is calculated as a weighted average of these countries GDP deflators in SDR
terms, the weights being the amount of each
country’s currency in one SDR unit. Weights
vary over time because both the composition
of the SDR and the relative exchange rates
for each currency change. The SDR deflator
is calculated in SDR terms first and then converted to U.S. dollars using the SDR to dollar
Atlas conversion factor. The Atlas conversion
factor is then applied to a country’s GNI. The
resulting GNI in U.S. dollars is divided by the
midyear population for the latest of the three
years to derive GNI per capita.
When official exchange rates are deemed
to be unreliable or unrepresentative of the
effective exchange rate during a period, an
alternative estimate of the exchange rate is
used in the Atlas formula below.
The following formulas describe the
procedures for computing the conversion
factor for year t:

into lower middle and upper middle), or high
income (table 1). Low- and middle income
economies are sometimes referred to as developing economies. The term is used for
convenience; it is not intended to imply that
all economies in the group are experiencing
similar development or that other economies
have reached a preferred or final stage of
development. Classification by income does
not necessarily reflect development status.
Because GNI per capita changes over time,
the country composition of income groups
may change from one edition of Africa Development Indicators to the next. Once the classification is fixed for an edition, based on GNI
per capita in the most recent year for which
data are available (2010 in this edition), all
historical data presented are based on the
same country grouping.
Low-income economies are those with
a GNI per capita of $1,005 or less in 2010.
Middle-income economies are those with a
GNI per capita of more than $1,005 but less
than $12,275. Lower middle-income and upper middle-income economies are separated
at a GNI per capita of $3,976. High-income

4

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

and for calculating per capita GNI in U.S.
dollars for year t:

where et* is the Atlas conversion factor (national currency to the U.S. dollar) for year t,
et is the average annual exchange rate (national currency to the U.S. dollar) for year t,
pt is the GDP deflator for year t, ptS$ is the
SDR deflator in U.S. dollar terms for year t,
Yt$ is current GNI per capita in U.S. dollars
in year t, Yt is current GNI (local currency)
for year t, and Nt is midyear population for
year t.

economies are those with a GNI per capita of
$12,276 or more.
Alternative conversion factors
The World Bank systematically assesses the
appropriateness of official exchange rates as
conversion factors. An alternative conversion
factor is used when the official exchange rate
is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large
margin from the rate effectively applied to domestic transactions of foreign currencies and
traded products. See Primary data documentation for list of countries using alternative
conversion factors. Alternative conversion
factors are used in the Atlas methodology
and elsewhere in Africa Development Indicators as single-year conversion factors.
Symbols
..
means that data are not available
or that aggregates cannot be calculated because of missing data in
the years shown.
$
means current U.S. dollars unless
otherwise noted.
<
means less than

Table 1

World Bank classification of economies, 2010 (GNI per capita)
Middle income
Low income

Lower middle income

Upper middle income

High income

GNI per capita of
$1,005 or less

GNI per capita higher than
$1,006 and less than $3,975

GNI per capita of $3,976
but less than $12,275

GNI per capita of
$12,276 and over

Benin
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Central Africa Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gambia, The
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Rwanda
Sierra Leone
Somalia
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zimbabwe

Angola
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Congo, Rep.
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Ghana
Lesotho
Mauritania
Morocco
Nigeria
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
South Sudan
Sudan
Swaziland
Zambia

Algeria
Botswana
Gabon
Libya
Mauritius
Namibia
Seychelles
South Africa
Tunisia

Equatorial Guinea

Source: World Bank.

>
means more than
0 or 0.0 means zero or small enough that
the number would round to zero
at the displayed number of decimal
places.
/
in dates, as in 2010/11, means that
the period of time, usually covers 12 months, but straddles two
calendar years and refers to a crop
year, a survey year or a fiscal year.
in dates, as in 2010-11, means that
the period of time, refers to 2010
and/or 2011

Data presentation conventions
• A blank means not applicable or, for an
aggregate, not analytically meaningful.
• A billion is 1,000 million.
• A trillion is 1,000 billion.
• Growth rates are in real terms, unless
otherwise specified.
The cutoff date for data for this
publication is August 2012.
However, it must be noted that the
database may have more recent data
by the time of this publication.

Userstables
guide
Indicator

5

Participating in growth

Table

1.1

Basic indicators
GDP per capita
Adult
Net official
GNI
literacy rate development
Under-five
Life
Population per capita, Constant 2000 prices
(%
ages
15
Average expectancy mortality
assistance
World Bank
Land area density
and older)
annual
Total
Growth (thousands (people Atlas method
per capita
rate
Gini
at birth
growth (%) (years) (per 1,000) index
Male Female (current $)
(millions) (annual %) of sq km) per sq km) (current $)
$
a
b
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2000–10
2010
2010
2000–10 2009 2009
2010
Population

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 844.0
Excluding South Africa
794.0
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria 635.6
Angola
19.1
Benin
8.8
Botswana
2.0
Burkina Faso
16.5
Burundi
8.4
Cameroon
19.6
Cape Verde
0.5
Central African Republic
4.4
Chad
11.2
Comoros
0.7
Congo, Dem. Rep.
66.0
Congo, Rep.
4.0
Côte d’Ivoire
19.7
Equatorial Guinea
0.7
Eritrea
5.3
Ethiopia
82.9
Gabon
1.5
Gambia, The
1.7
Ghana
24.4
Guinea
10.0
Guinea-Bissau
1.5
Kenya
40.5
Lesotho
2.2
Liberia
4.0
Madagascar
20.7
Malawi
14.9
Mali
15.4
Mauritania
3.5
Mauritius
1.3
Mozambique
23.4
Namibia
2.3
Niger
15.5
Nigeria
158.4
Rwanda
10.6
São Tomé and Príncipe
0.2
Senegal
12.4
Seychelles
0.1
Sierra Leone
5.9
Somalia
9.3
South Africa
50.0
Sudan
33.6
Swaziland
1.1
Tanzania
44.8
Togo
6.0
Uganda
33.4
Zambia
12.9
Zimbabwe
12.6
NORTH AFRICA
166.3
Algeria
35.5
Djibouti
0.9
Egypt, Arab Rep.
81.1
Libya
6.4
Morocco
32.0
Tunisia
10.5
AFRICA
1,010.3

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.8
2.8
1.3
3.0
2.6
2.2
0.9
1.9
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.5
2.0
2.8
3.0
2.2
1.9
2.7
2.4
2.2
2.1
2.6
1.0
4.0
2.9
3.1
3.0
2.4
0.5
2.3
1.8
3.5
2.5
3.0
1.8
2.7
(0.9)
2.2
2.3
1.4
1.9
1.1
3.0
2.1
3.2
1.6
0.8
1.5
1.5
1.9
1.8
1.5
1.0
1.0
2.3

23,616
22,401
21,491
1,247
111
567
274
26
473
4
623
1,259
2
2,267
342
318
28
101
1,000
258
10
228
246
28
569
30
96
582
94
1,220
1,031
2
786
823
1,267
911
25
1
193
0
72
627
1,214
2,376
17
886
54
200
743
387
5,762
2,382
23
995
1,760
446
155
29,378

35.7
35.4
29.6
15.3
80.0
3.5
60.2
326.4
41.5
123.1
7.1
8.9
395.0
29.1
11.8
62.1
25.0
52.0
83.0
5.8
172.8
107.2
40.6
53.9
71.2
71.5
41.5
35.6
158.1
12.6
3.4
631.0
29.7
2.8
12.3
173.9
430.6
172.3
64.6
188.1
81.9
14.9
41.2
18.3
61.4
50.6
110.8
167.3
17.4
32.5
28.9
14.9
38.3
81.5
3.6
71.6
67.9
34.4

1,202
895
824
3,960
780
6,750
550
230
1,200
3,280
470
710
750
180
2,240
1,170
13,720
340
390
7,680
610
1,250
390
580
810
1,100
210
430
330
600
1,000
7,780
440
4,250
360
1,170
520
1,250
1,080
10,460
340
..
6,090
1,300
2,930
530
550
500
1,070
480
3,533
4,390
..
2,420
..
2,850
4,140
1,586

653
458
437
1,369
377
4,190
283
138
714
1,959
240
300
336
106
1,253
588
8,537
147
221
4,214
704
360
550
161
469
496
261
243
185
273
609
5,181
384
2,696
179
540
337
..
562
8,788
268
..
3,753
524
1,811
459
265
380
432
321
2,313
2,232
..
1,976
..
1,844
3,144
926

2.6
3.2
3.0
9.4
0.8
2.7
2.9
0.5
1.0
5.0
-0.7
6.1
-0.8
2.5
1.7
-0.6
12.4
-2.9
6.3
0.2
1.4
3.4
5.2
-0.5
1.7
2.7
1.7
0.3
2.3
2.0
3.1
3.1
4.9
3.1
0.6
4.1
4.8
..
1.5
1.8
5.0
..
2.7
4.1
2.1
4.2
0.1
4.3
3.1
-6.2
3.2
2.3
2.0
3.2
3.3
3.7
3.7
2.6

54.2
54.3
55.0
50.7
55.6
53.1
54.9
49.9
51.1
73.8
47.6
49.2
60.6
48.1
57.0
54.7
50.8
61.0
58.7
62.3
58.2
63.8
53.6
47.7
56.5
47.4
56.2
66.5
53.5
51.0
58.2
73.0
49.7
62.1
54.3
51.4
55.1
64.4
59.0
73.0
47.4
50.9
52.1
61.1
48.3
57.4
56.6
53.6
48.5
49.9
72.8
72.9
57.5
73.0
74.8
71.9
74.6
57.2

122
125
120
161
115
48
176
142
136
36
159
173
86
170
93
123
121
61
106
74
98
74
130
150
85
85
103
62
92
178
111
15
135
40
143
143
91
80
75
14
174
180
57
103
78
92
103
99
111
80
27
36
91
22
17
36
16
113

..
..
58.6
38.6
..
39.8
33.3
38.9
50.5
56.3
39.8
64.3
44.4
47.3
41.5
..
..
29.8
41.5
47.3
42.8
39.4
35.5
47.7
52.5
38.2
44.1
39.0
33.0
40.5
..
45.7
63.9
34.6
48.8
53.1
50.8
39.2
65.8
42.5
..
63.1
35.3
51.5
37.6
34.4
44.3
54.6
..
..
40.0
30.8
..
40.9
41.4
..

..
74.5
..
82.9
54.2
83.8
..
72.6
..
90.1
69.1
44.5
79.7
79.5
..
64.7
97.0
77.9
..
91.4
57.6
72.8
50.8
66.9
90.5
82.9
63.7
..
80.6
..
64.5
90.6
70.1
88.9
..
72.0
75.0
93.7
61.8
..
52.7
..
..
..
87.8
79.0
..
..
80.6
94.7
..
..
..
..
95.2
68.9
..
..

..
56.1
..
57.6
29.1
84.4
..
60.9
..
80.3
42.1
23.1
68.7
54.9
..
45.3
89.8
56.0
..
84.1
35.8
60.4
28.1
38.0
83.5
95.3
54.5
..
67.0
..
50.3
85.3
41.5
88.1
..
49.8
66.8
84.1
38.7
..
30.1
..
..
..
86.2
66.9
..
..
61.3
89.4
..
..
..
..
82.0
43.9
..
..

52.8
54.7
65.1
12.5
77.9
77.8
64.5
75.2
27.6
661.1
59.3
43.3
91.5
53.7
324.6
42.8
121.0
30.6
42.5
69.1
69.5
69.4
21.8
92.0
40.2
118.0
355.3
22.7
68.6
70.8
108.2
97.8
83.4
112.3
48.0
13.0
97.2
298.1
74.6
647.7
79.6
53.3
20.6
61.8
86.6
66.0
69.5
51.6
70.7
58.3
16.4
5.6
148.8
7.3
1.3
31.1
52.2
47.3

a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

BASIC INDICATORS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

7

Table

2.1

Gross domestic product, nominal

1980

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 271,551
Excluding South Africa
192,649
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria 124,292
Angola
..
Benin
1,405
Botswana
1,061
Burkina Faso
1,929
Burundi
920
Cameroon
6,741
Cape Verde
142
Central African Republic
797
Chad
1,033
Comoros
124
Congo, Dem. Rep.
14,395
Congo, Rep.
1,706
Côte d'Ivoire
10,175
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
4,279
Gambia, The
241
Ghana
4,445
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
111
Kenya
7,265
Lesotho
431
Liberia
855
Madagascar
4,042
Malawi
1,238
Mali
1,787
Mauritania
709
Mauritius
1,137
Mozambique
3,526
Namibia
2,169
Niger
2,509
Nigeria
64,202
Rwanda
1,163
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
3,503
Seychelles
147
Sierra Leone
1,101
Somalia
604
South Africa
80,710
Sudan
7,617
Swaziland
543
Tanzania
..
Togo
1,136
Uganda
1,245
Zambia
3,884
Zimbabwe
6,679
NORTH AFRICA
111,794
Algeria
42,345
Djibouti
..
Egypt, Arab Rep.
22,912
Libya
..
Morocco
18,821
Tunisia
8,743
AFRICA
386,370

1990

2004

300,415
188,529
160,121
10,260
1,845
3,792
3,101
1,132
11,152
307
1,488
1,739
250
9,350
2,799
10,796
132
..
12,083
5,952
317
5,886
2,667
244
8,591
541
384
3,081
1,881
2,421
1,020
2,653
2,463
2,350
2,481
28,472
2,584
..
5,717
369
650
917
112,014
12,409
1,115
4,259
1,628
4,304
3,288
8,784
172,644
62,045
452
43,130
28,905
25,821
12,291
472,965

558,699
339,519
251,329
19,775
4,047
10,049
5,109
899
15,775
924
1,270
4,415
362
6,512
4,649
15,481
5,241
1,109
10,054
7,178
579
8,872
3,666
523
16,096
1,234
467
4,364
2,625
4,874
1,833
6,386
5,698
6,606
3,053
87,845
2,089
107
8,030
700
1,096
..
219,093
21,685
2,421
12,826
1,937
7,940
5,439
5,806
286,041
85,014
666
78,845
33,385
56,948
31,183
843,939

2005

Current prices
($ millions)
2006
2007

2008

2009

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

2010a

651,778 760,711
881,782 1,009,242
953,418 1,117,459
404,659 499,793
595,804
735,892
670,761
754,176
291,954 352,311
429,206
527,924
501,543
556,563
28,234
41,789
60,449
84,178
75,492
82,471
4,287
4,735
5,546
6,683
6,585
6,558
10,255
11,256
12,379
13,443
11,537
14,905
5,463
5,845
6,756
8,351
8,348
8,825
1,117
1,237
1,319
1,621
1,815
2,027
16,588
17,957
20,684
23,736
22,182
22,480
972
1,108
1,331
1,562
1,601
1,659
1,350
1,477
1,696
1,983
1,980
1,985
5,302
6,099
7,016
8,357
7,085
8,541
387
403
465
530
535
541
7,191
8,824
10,014
11,675
11,204
13,110
6,087
7,731
8,395
11,859
9,594
12,008
16,363
17,367
19,796
23,414
23,042
22,921
8,217
9,603
12,575
18,424
12,233
14,500
1,098
1,211
1,318
1,380
1,857
2,117
12,307
15,164
19,553
26,642
31,963
29,684
8,666
9,546
11,571
14,530
10,946
13,200
636
667
833
1,037
983
1,050
10,720
20,388
24,632
28,527
25,979
32,175
2,937
2,821
4,209
3,778
4,165
4,736
573
579
691
847
835
835
18,738
22,504
27,237
30,519
30,580
32,198
1,368
1,429
1,597
1,626
1,711
2,179
542
604
739
851
879
988
5,039
5,515
7,343
9,395
8,488
8,721
2,755
3,117
3,458
4,074
4,728
5,054
5,305
5,866
7,146
8,738
8,965
9,422
2,184
3,041
3,357
3,585
3,027
3,614
6,284
6,507
7,792
9,641
8,825
9,714
6,579
7,096
8,030
9,891
9,674
9,209
7,262
7,981
8,806
8,840
8,931
11,133
3,405
3,645
4,291
5,370
5,254
5,411
112,249 146,867
165,921
207,118
168,568
196,838
2,581
3,111
3,738
4,712
5,253
5,624
114
124
144
183
196
201
8,714
9,378
11,320
13,386
12,769
12,855
917
1,020
1,019
962
841
963
1,239
1,422
1,664
1,955
1,856
1,910
..
..
..
..
..
..
247,064 261,007
286,172
273,870
283,012
363,523
27,387
36,393
46,533
58,032
54,633
66,997
2,584
2,948
3,054
3,020
2,950
3,698
14,142
14,331
16,826
20,715
21,368
22,915
2,115
2,203
2,523
3,163
3,156
3,176
9,237
9,977
11,916
14,441
15,803
17,197
7,179
10,702
11,541
14,641
12,805
16,193
5,755
5,444
5,292
4,416
5,836
7,476
328,540 381,921 453,093
561,720 524,944
586,796
102,339
117,169
135,804
170,989
138,120
161,979
709
769
848
983
1,049
..
89,686 107,484
130,478
162,818
188,984
218,894
44,000
56,484
71,803
93,168
62,360
..
59,524
65,637
75,226
88,883
90,908
90,803
32,283
34,377
38,934
44,880
43,522
44,238
979,376 1,141,531 1,333,613 1,569,577 1,477,045 1,704,989

1.0
-0.7
3.0
..
2.4
12.6
4.8
2.2
7.4
8.7
8.1
5.7
8.0
-6.2
2.3
2.0
..
..
5.9
-0.5
1.7
3.2
..
3.7
2.6
-0.8
0.8
-5.2
1.8
3.4
3.5
8.8
-4.7
0.1
-0.2
-12.0
8.6
..
6.2
9.3
-4.3
6.4
4.2
10.1
1.9
..
4.5
20.7
-3.1
-0.1
4.8
4.5
..
6.8
..
3.7
2.3
2.2

1.5
1.2
0.8
-3.8
3.5
4.7
0.0
-3.3
-2.5
7.0
-4.3
-1.3
-2.0
-7.1
-2.4
2.2
22.5
7.2
-5.7
-1.7
6.8
2.6
3.0
-0.6
7.7
4.1
1.8
3.4
0.2
0.4
1.7
5.8
8.3
4.6
-1.8
3.2
-2.0
..
-1.8
6.0
0.6
..
2.1
0.8
4.5
10.1
-0.1
8.8
0.2
-1.4
4.3
-1.2
1.7
10.8
-0.9
5.1
7.3
2.6

14.6
15.9
15.1
30.4
12.6
10.3
13.9
10.7
10.2
13.3
8.9
21.4
11.1
12.3
17.7
9.6
31.4
12.6
17.4
12.5
5.3
23.8
4.0
17.4
11.7
12.6
7.6
9.2
11.1
15.4
13.1
8.7
10.7
11.7
12.8
18.2
15.1
11.7
12.4
5.2
11.9
..
12.0
20.6
11.0
9.3
10.7
12.7
19.7
-1.2
11.1
13.7
7.6
9.2
15.0
10.9
8.6
13.2

a. Provisional.

8

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.2

Gross domestic product, real

1980

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 227,134
Excluding South Africa
131,834
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
98,923
Angola
..
Benin
1,084
Botswana
1,150
Burkina Faso
1,101
Burundi
659
Cameroon
6,339
Cape Verde
..
Central African Republic
735
Chad
665
Comoros
136
Congo, Dem. Rep.
7,016
Congo, Rep.
1,746
Côte d'Ivoire
7,727
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
3,594
Gambia, The
399
Ghana
2,640
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
115
Kenya
7,078
Lesotho
377
Liberia
1,312
Madagascar
3,099
Malawi
1,000
Mali
1,536
Mauritania
825
Mauritius
1,519
Mozambique
2,462
Namibia
2,292
Niger
1,523
Nigeria
31,452
Rwanda
1,368
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
2,683
Seychelles
292
Sierra Leone
929
Somalia
..
South Africa
95,503
Sudan
5,525
Swaziland
470
Tanzania
..
Togo
939
Uganda
..
Zambia
2,730
Zimbabwe
3,654
NORTH AFRICA
120,356
Algeria
35,291
Djibouti
..
Egypt, Arab Rep.
38,506
Libya
..
Morocco
20,086
Tunisia
9,545
AFRICA
350,017

1990

2004

2005

273,077
162,145
127,126
8,464
1,412
3,229
1,556
1,019
8,793
280
815
1,106
181
7,659
2,796
8,298
207
..
6,234
4,298
569
3,267
2,088
186
10,544
504
408
3,266
1,243
1,630
972
2,726
2,499
2,591
1,507
34,978
1,673
..
3,463
395
1,014
..
110,945
7,062
1,139
7,547
1,043
3,293
3,028
5,622
180,141
46,367
660
65,579
..
29,312
13,547
454,583

406,992
254,784
195,946
12,383
2,650
7,160
3,296
922
11,815
658
892
2,572
222
4,921
3,647
10,287
3,815
782
9,993
5,361
921
6,010
3,585
204
14,327
838
543
4,148
1,875
3,105
1,489
5,261
5,918
4,850
2,091
58,731
2,293
..
5,579
556
1,125
..
152,329
15,088
1,651
13,335
1,352
8,055
3,886
4,834
289,670
66,190
619
113,666
37,771
45,835
25,589
696,649

431,505
271,274
209,263
14,644
2,727
7,278
3,581
930
12,087
701
914
3,018
232
5,304
3,932
10,417
4,187
802
11,174
5,523
924
6,364
4,938
211
15,173
860
595
4,339
1,924
3,294
1,622
5,327
6,484
4,972
2,185
61,902
2,507
..
5,893
598
1,206
..
160,367
16,043
1,692
14,318
1,368
8,565
4,093
4,558
304,277
69,565
638
118,749
41,511
47,201
26,613
735,761

Constant prices
(2000 $ millions)
2006
2007

458,686
289,484
223,630
17,680
2,839
7,652
3,823
980
12,476
772
949
3,024
234
5,600
4,173
10,488
4,239
794
12,384
5,588
955
6,771
5,062
215
16,134
898
653
4,557
2,072
3,469
1,928
5,537
6,893
5,324
2,312
65,740
2,737
..
6,042
653
1,294
..
169,354
17,855
1,748
15,282
1,423
9,489
4,348
4,400
321,442
70,956
669
126,876
43,960
50,863
28,118
780,101

488,918
310,343
240,245
21,675
2,970
8,020
3,961
1,027
12,913
838
984
3,030
236
5,950
4,107
10,668
5,148
805
13,803
5,899
1,012
7,209
5,150
222
17,262
940
755
4,842
2,192
3,618
1,960
5,862
7,395
5,610
2,391
69,980
2,888
..
6,335
716
1,377
..
178,749
19,669
1,809
16,375
1,456
10,287
4,617
4,239
338,372
73,085
703
135,869
46,598
52,240
29,878
827,251

2008

2009

2010a

513,732
328,716
254,412
24,669
3,121
8,255
4,191
1,079
13,287
890
1,003
3,018
238
6,316
4,335
10,916
5,698
726
15,292
6,036
1,076
7,817
5,405
229
17,526
991
835
5,187
2,375
3,799
2,028
6,186
7,901
5,799
2,599
74,179
3,211
..
6,570
709
1,454
..
185,217
21,014
1,852
17,593
1,491
11,183
4,880
3,490
355,930
74,839
744
145,592
48,368
55,158
31,228
869,622

524,769
342,653
263,133
25,265
3,240
7,857
4,315
1,117
13,553
923
1,020
2,982
242
6,495
4,659
11,331
6,025
754
16,638
5,951
1,147
8,129
5,390
236
17,990
1,019
944
4,949
2,590
3,970
2,004
6,373
8,401
5,774
2,575
79,372
3,343
..
6,707
713
1,500
..
182,370
21,847
1,874
18,652
1,539
11,993
5,192
3,699
369,193
76,635
781
152,415
49,384
57,783
32,196
893,935

550,762
363,414
277,664
26,126
3,337
8,408
4,656
1,159
13,987
972
1,054
3,369
247
6,961
5,067
11,603
5,979
771
18,291
6,344
1,217
8,779
5,494
244
18,988
1,076
1,041
5,027
2,758
4,200
2,108
6,636
8,972
6,155
2,781
85,582
3,584
..
6,984
760
1,574
..
187,640
22,819
1,912
19,966
1,596
12,701
5,587
4,032
384,775
79,164
..
160,259
..
59,908
33,161
935,730

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

1.8
2.1
2.6
..
2.7
10.9
4.0
4.5
4.5
6.3
1.6
6.7
2.9
2.1
3.8
0.7
..
..
2.1
0.5
3.5
2.6
..
3.8
4.1
2.4
-3.3
0.8
2.4
0.6
1.9
6.1
-0.9
1.1
-0.4
0.8
2.5
..
2.7
3.1
0.5
..
1.4
2.4
7.4
..
1.5
2.3
1.0
3.3
4.2
2.9
..
5.5
..
4.2
3.2
2.6

2.4
2.7
2.8
1.0
4.7
5.5
5.5
-3.2
1.3
5.9
1.8
2.3
1.2
-5.0
0.8
3.5
20.7
7.9
3.7
2.9
2.7
4.3
4.5
1.4
2.2
4.0
0.2
1.7
3.8
3.9
3.2
5.0
6.0
4.0
2.4
2.4
-1.6
..
2.8
4.5
-5.3
..
2.0
5.4
3.3
2.8
3.6
7.2
0.3
2.9
3.2
1.7
-2.3
4.3
..
2.4
4.6
2.7

5.2
5.9
5.7
12.9
4.0
4.1
5.9
3.4
3.3
6.3
1.0
9.4
1.9
5.5
4.4
1.1
15.7
0.7
8.8
2.2
4.4
5.9
7.1
1.5
4.4
3.7
5.2
3.4
5.3
5.2
5.9
3.9
7.6
5.0
4.2
6.7
7.5
..
4.2
2.6
8.8
..
3.9
6.7
2.5
7.1
2.3
7.7
5.6
-6.3
4.8
3.9
4.0
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.0

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

9

Table

2.3

Gross domestic product growth

Annual growth
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

4.0
1.8
0.7
..
6.8
12.0
0.8
1.0
-2.0
..
-4.5
-6.1
..
2.2
17.6
-11.0
..
..
..
2.6
6.3
0.5
..
-16.0
5.6
-2.7
-4.1
0.8
0.4
-4.3
3.4
-10.1
..
..
-2.2
4.2
9.0
..
-3.3
-4.3
4.8
-3.9
6.6
1.5
12.5
..
14.6
..
3.0
14.4
5.2
0.8
..
10.0
..
3.6
7.4
4.4

1.2
2.2
0.7
-0.3
3.2
6.8
-0.6
3.5
-6.1
0.7
-2.2
-4.2
5.1
-6.6
1.0
-1.1
3.3
..
2.7
5.2
3.6
3.3
4.3
6.1
4.2
6.5
-51.0
3.1
5.7
-1.9
-1.8
7.2
1.0
2.5
-1.3
8.2
-2.4
..
-0.7
7.0
3.4
-1.5
-0.3
-5.5
21.0
7.1
-0.2
6.5
-0.5
7.0
4.1
0.8
..
5.7
..
4.0
8.0
2.2

6.1
7.1
6.0
11.2
3.1
6.0
4.6
4.8
3.7
4.3
1.0
33.6
-0.2
6.6
3.5
1.8
38.0
1.5
13.6
1.4
7.1
5.6
2.3
2.2
5.1
2.3
-5.1
5.3
5.5
2.2
5.8
5.8
7.9
12.3
0.1
10.6
7.4
6.6
5.9
-2.9
7.5
..
4.6
1.8
2.9
7.8
2.1
6.8
5.4
-5.8
4.7
5.2
3.8
4.1
4.4
4.8
6.0
5.5

6.0
6.5
6.8
18.3
2.9
1.6
8.7
0.9
2.3
6.5
2.4
17.3
4.2
7.8
7.8
1.3
9.8
2.6
11.8
3.0
0.3
5.9
37.8
3.5
5.9
2.7
9.5
4.6
2.6
6.1
9.0
1.2
9.6
2.5
4.5
5.4
9.3
-1.4
5.6
7.5
7.2
..
5.3
6.3
2.5
7.4
1.2
6.3
5.3
-5.7
5.0
5.1
3.2
4.5
9.9
3.0
4.0
5.6

6.3
6.7
6.9
20.7
4.1
5.1
6.8
5.4
3.2
10.1
3.8
0.2
1.2
5.6
6.1
0.7
1.3
-1.0
10.8
1.2
3.4
6.4
2.5
2.1
6.3
4.3
9.8
5.0
7.7
5.3
18.9
4.0
6.3
7.1
5.8
6.2
9.2
6.7
2.5
9.3
7.3
..
5.6
11.3
3.3
6.7
4.1
10.8
6.2
-3.5
5.6
2.0
4.8
6.8
5.9
7.8
5.7
6.0

6.6
7.2
7.4
22.6
4.6
4.8
3.6
4.8
3.5
8.7
3.7
0.2
0.5
6.3
-1.6
1.7
21.4
1.4
11.5
5.6
6.0
6.5
1.8
3.2
7.0
4.7
15.7
6.2
5.8
4.3
1.6
5.9
7.3
5.4
3.4
6.5
5.5
6.0
4.9
9.6
6.4
..
5.6
10.2
3.5
7.2
2.3
8.4
6.2
-3.7
5.3
3.0
5.1
7.1
6.0
2.7
6.3
6.0

5.1
5.9
5.9
13.8
5.1
2.9
5.8
5.1
2.9
6.2
2.0
-0.4
1.0
6.2
5.6
2.3
10.7
-9.8
10.8
2.3
6.3
8.4
4.9
3.2
1.5
5.4
10.5
7.1
8.3
5.0
3.5
5.5
6.8
3.4
8.7
6.0
11.2
9.1
3.7
-1.0
5.5
..
3.6
6.8
2.4
7.4
2.4
8.7
5.7
-17.7
5.2
2.4
5.8
7.2
3.8
5.6
4.5
5.1

2.2
4.2
3.4
2.4
3.8
-4.8
3.0
3.5
2.0
3.7
1.7
-1.2
1.8
2.8
7.5
3.8
5.7
3.9
8.8
-1.4
6.7
4.0
-0.3
3.0
2.6
2.9
13.1
-4.6
9.0
4.5
-1.2
3.0
6.3
-0.4
-0.9
7.0
4.1
4.0
2.1
0.5
3.2
..
-1.5
4.0
1.2
6.0
3.2
7.3
6.4
6.0
3.7
2.4
5.0
4.7
2.1
4.8
3.1
2.8

5.0
6.1
5.5
3.4
3.0
7.0
7.9
3.8
3.2
5.2
3.3
13.0
2.1
7.2
8.8
2.4
-0.8
2.2
9.9
6.6
6.1
8.0
1.9
3.5
5.6
5.6
10.3
1.6
6.5
5.8
5.2
4.1
6.8
6.6
8.0
7.8
7.2
4.5
4.1
6.7
5.0
..
2.9
4.5
2.0
7.0
3.7
5.9
7.6
9.0
4.2
3.3
..
5.2
..
3.7
3.0
4.7

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

2.2
2.1
2.6
4.2
3.1
11.5
3.7
4.3
4.0
6.4
0.9
5.4
2.7
1.8
6.8
-0.2
0.9
..
2.4
1.9
3.9
2.0
4.5
2.9
4.2
2.2
-4.5
0.4
1.7
0.6
2.2
4.3
0.4
1.1
0.0
0.9
3.2
..
2.4
2.1
1.1
1.7
2.2
3.4
8.6
3.8
2.6
3.0
1.4
5.2
4.3
2.8
..
5.9
..
3.9
3.6
2.9

2.1
2.5
2.4
1.0
4.5
5.9
5.1
-1.4
0.4
5.2
1.3
2.2
1.6
-5.5
0.8
2.6
20.2
8.1
2.7
2.5
3.1
4.3
4.3
2.0
2.2
4.1
1.2
1.6
4.1
3.6
2.9
5.2
5.6
4.1
1.9
3.1
2.1
..
2.7
4.9
-4.3
-1.5
1.4
4.4
4.9
3.3
2.6
6.9
0.4
2.9
3.3
1.6
-2.0
4.3
..
2.8
5.1
2.5

4.8
5.4
5.2
10.6
4.2
4.3
5.6
3.0
3.4
7.1
1.1
8.8
2.0
3.9
5.0
0.7
17.7
0.8
8.3
1.9
4.6
5.7
5.9
1.9
3.8
3.9
10.1
3.0
4.5
5.5
4.6
4.3
7.2
4.6
4.0
6.4
7.6
5.8
4.0
2.5
9.2
..
3.6
6.5
2.2
6.8
1.9
7.1
5.4
-4.4
4.4
3.6
3.6
4.9
4.3
4.6
4.4
4.6

a. Provisional.

10

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.4

Gross domestic product per capita, real

Constant prices
(2000 $)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

594
372
354
..
300
1,154
153
160
696
..
323
146
412
260
971
909
..
..
..
5,265
634
242
..
137
435
288
682
360
160
212
544
1,573
203
2,263
259
416
264
..
496
4,532
294
..
3,463
275
779
..
352
..
473
501
1,293
1,876
..
857
..
1,019
1,495
736

539
344
340
819
296
2,336
167
182
722
804
278
184
413
210
1,170
663
555
..
129
4,627
589
221
363
183
450
308
192
289
133
188
487
2,575
184
1,831
194
359
235
..
478
5,645
255
..
3,152
267
1,320
305
284
186
385
537
1,501
1,833
1,174
1,154
..
1,172
1,661
725

558
373
359
776
358
3,866
239
131
688
1,409
226
271
355
88
1,058
580
6,468
181
138
3,988
631
285
403
152
413
409
176
239
150
243
502
4,266
292
2,373
167
431
255
..
527
6,740
227
..
3,264
402
1,625
363
256
293
347
384
1,909
2,043
779
1,560
6,682
1,503
2,576
791

577
387
373
888
357
3,880
252
128
689
1,482
227
308
360
92
1,113
578
6,889
179
150
4,029
614
294
546
154
426
417
187
243
150
250
532
4,284
312
2,391
168
443
272
..
542
7,209
234
..
3,398
418
1,663
380
253
301
357
363
1,975
2,115
789
1,600
7,195
1,531
2,654
816

599
403
389
1,039
361
4,025
261
131
695
1,614
232
300
355
95
1,150
572
6,774
171
163
4,000
617
305
550
154
442
430
197
247
157
255
616
4,420
324
2,513
172
459
290
..
541
7,722
243
..
3,548
454
1,716
394
257
323
370
351
2,054
2,125
812
1,679
7,459
1,632
2,776
846

623
421
408
1,237
366
4,161
263
133
704
1,736
236
292
347
98
1,101
572
7,995
168
178
4,143
636
317
549
156
461
446
217
255
161
258
610
4,651
339
2,599
171
476
297
..
552
8,420
251
..
3,704
487
1,773
411
258
339
383
340
2,129
2,155
837
1,766
7,737
1,659
2,922
877

639
435
421
1,368
374
4,223
270
136
708
1,827
237
283
341
101
1,130
575
8,603
147
192
4,162
657
336
565
158
456
466
228
265
170
263
616
4,876
354
2,636
180
492
321
..
557
8,152
259
..
3,796
507
1,795
429
258
357
394
280
2,205
2,174
869
1,859
7,865
1,734
3,023
901

637
443
425
1,362
377
3,965
270
137
707
1,878
236
273
338
101
1,182
586
8,845
148
205
4,028
682
341
552
159
456
474
246
246
179
266
593
4,998
368
2,575
172
514
324
..
554
8,162
261
..
3,698
514
1,796
442
261
371
408
297
2,253
2,193
895
1,912
7,885
1,797
3,084
905

653
458
437
1,369
377
4,190
283
138
714
1,959
240
300
336
106
1,253
588
8,537
147
221
4,214
704
360
550
161
469
496
261
243
185
273
609
5,181
384
2,696
179
540
337
..
562
8,788
268
..
3,753
524
1,811
459
265
380
432
321
2,313
2,232
..
1,976
..
1,844
3,144
926

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

-0.9
-0.8
-0.2
..
-0.2
7.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
..
-1.2
3.4
-0.3
-1.2
2.3
-3.0
..
..
..
-1.6
-0.8
-1.1
..
2.8
0.3
0.3
-6.3
-2.4
-2.3
-0.9
-0.7
4.8
-1.0
-2.2
-2.8
-2.3
-1.0
..
0.0
1.8
-1.8
..
-0.8
0.5
4.1
..
-2.1
..
-1.9
0.3
1.5
-0.1
..
2.9
..
1.3
0.6
-0.1

-0.5
-0.2
-0.2
-2.5
1.4
3.1
2.8
-3.4
-1.5
3.2
-0.8
-0.5
-1.4
-8.8
-2.0
0.1
15.3
..
-0.7
-0.9
0.1
1.7
0.3
-1.2
-0.9
1.9
-2.4
-1.7
1.9
1.4
0.4
3.7
2.8
1.2
-1.3
0.1
-1.2
..
0.3
2.9
-5.7
..
-0.7
2.8
1.3
-0.1
-0.2
3.5
-2.3
0.4
1.4
-0.3
-4.7
2.4
..
0.9
3.0
0.0

2.6
3.2
3.0
9.4
0.8
2.7
2.9
0.5
1.0
5.0
-0.7
6.1
-0.8
2.5
1.7
-0.6
12.4
-2.9
6.3
0.2
1.4
3.4
5.2
-0.5
1.7
2.7
1.7
0.3
2.3
2.0
3.1
3.1
4.9
3.1
0.6
4.1
4.8
..
1.5
1.8
5.0
..
2.7
4.1
2.1
4.2
0.1
4.3
3.1
-6.2
3.2
2.3
2.0
3.2
3.3
3.7
3.7
2.6

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

11

Table

2.5

Gross domestic product per capita growth

Annual growth
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

1.1
-1.1
-2.1
..
4.0
7.9
-1.6
-1.8
-4.8
..
-7.0
-8.0
..
-0.7
14.3
-14.9
..
..
..
-0.3
2.7
-1.9
..
-18.5
1.7
-5.3
-7.1
-1.8
-2.6
-6.2
0.4
-11.4
..
..
-5.0
1.3
5.4
..
-5.7
-5.5
2.6
-9.0
4.2
-1.7
9.1
..
11.5
..
-0.3
10.4
2.5
-2.5
..
7.5
..
1.0
4.6
1.6

-1.6
-0.6
-2.2
-3.0
0.1
3.6
-3.2
1.0
-8.8
-0.9
-4.4
-7.1
2.6
-9.9
-1.7
-4.4
0.1
..
-0.6
1.9
-0.5
0.5
-0.3
4.0
0.7
4.5
-50.3
0.1
2.0
-3.7
-4.4
6.2
-0.3
-1.4
-4.2
5.5
-2.2
..
-3.6
6.1
2.1
-1.9
-2.3
-7.7
17.0
3.7
-2.7
2.8
-3.2
3.9
1.8
-1.7
..
3.5
..
2.1
5.4
-0.5

3.5
4.4
3.3
7.4
-0.2
4.7
1.6
1.8
1.4
2.8
-0.6
29.1
-2.9
3.5
1.1
0.2
33.8
-2.6
10.8
-0.7
3.9
3.1
0.7
0.2
2.4
1.4
-6.8
2.1
2.7
-1.0
2.8
4.8
5.1
10.4
-3.3
7.9
5.6
5.0
3.1
-2.5
2.7
..
3.3
-0.5
2.8
5.0
-0.2
3.4
3.0
-5.7
3.0
3.6
2.0
2.2
2.3
3.6
5.0
3.1

3.4
3.8
4.1
14.5
-0.3
0.4
5.5
-2.1
0.0
5.2
0.7
13.6
1.5
4.7
5.1
-0.4
6.5
-1.3
9.2
1.0
-2.6
3.4
35.4
1.4
3.2
1.8
6.4
1.5
-0.2
2.8
6.0
0.4
6.8
0.7
0.9
2.8
7.0
-2.9
2.8
7.0
3.0
..
4.1
3.8
2.3
4.5
-1.1
2.9
2.9
-5.5
3.4
3.5
1.3
2.6
7.7
1.9
3.0
3.2

3.7
4.0
4.2
17.0
1.0
3.7
3.7
2.2
1.0
8.9
2.0
-2.8
-1.5
2.6
3.4
-1.0
-1.7
-4.4
8.3
-0.7
0.4
3.9
0.7
0.1
3.6
3.3
5.4
1.9
4.7
2.1
15.7
3.2
3.7
5.1
2.1
3.6
6.4
5.1
-0.2
7.1
3.8
..
4.4
8.6
3.2
3.8
1.8
7.2
3.6
-3.2
4.0
0.5
2.9
4.9
3.7
6.6
4.6
3.6

4.0
4.5
4.8
19.0
1.5
3.4
0.6
1.6
1.2
7.6
1.9
-2.6
-2.2
3.3
-4.3
0.0
18.0
-1.8
9.0
3.6
3.1
3.9
-0.1
1.1
4.3
3.7
10.3
3.1
2.7
1.1
-1.0
5.2
4.7
3.4
-0.2
3.8
2.6
4.4
2.1
9.0
3.5
..
4.4
7.4
3.4
4.2
0.1
5.0
3.5
-3.3
3.7
1.4
3.1
5.2
3.7
1.6
5.3
3.7

2.5
3.3
3.3
10.6
2.0
1.5
2.7
1.9
0.7
5.3
0.2
-3.0
-1.7
3.3
2.7
0.5
7.6
-12.5
8.4
0.4
3.4
5.9
2.9
1.1
-1.0
4.3
5.1
4.0
5.1
1.8
0.9
4.8
4.3
1.4
4.9
3.4
7.9
7.4
1.0
-3.2
3.0
..
2.5
4.2
1.2
4.4
0.2
5.2
2.9
-17.5
3.6
0.9
3.8
5.3
1.7
4.5
3.5
2.8

-0.3
1.7
0.9
-0.4
0.8
-6.1
-0.1
0.6
-0.2
2.8
-0.2
-3.8
-0.9
0.1
4.6
1.9
2.8
0.8
6.5
-3.2
3.8
1.6
-2.3
0.9
0.0
1.8
7.8
-7.3
5.7
1.4
-3.6
2.5
3.9
-2.3
-4.4
4.4
1.0
2.3
-0.6
0.1
0.9
..
-2.6
1.4
0.1
3.0
1.0
3.8
3.5
5.8
2.2
0.9
3.0
2.9
0.3
3.7
2.0
0.5

2.4
3.4
2.9
0.6
0.1
5.7
4.7
1.2
1.0
4.3
1.4
10.1
-0.5
4.3
6.0
0.4
-3.5
-0.8
7.6
4.6
3.3
5.5
-0.3
1.4
2.8
4.5
5.9
-1.3
3.2
2.6
2.7
3.7
4.4
4.7
4.2
5.2
4.0
2.7
1.4
7.7
2.7
..
1.5
1.9
0.8
3.9
1.5
2.6
5.9
8.2
2.7
1.8
..
3.3
..
2.6
1.9
2.3

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

-0.7
-0.8
-0.4
1.5
0.3
7.8
1.1
1.1
1.0
4.8
-1.7
2.6
-0.2
-1.1
3.8
-4.1
-2.8
..
-0.8
-1.2
-0.4
-1.0
1.5
0.8
0.4
-0.2
-5.9
-2.3
-2.3
-1.2
-0.6
3.3
-0.6
-2.2
-2.7
-1.7
-0.3
..
-0.5
1.2
-1.3
0.9
-0.3
0.5
4.8
0.6
-0.6
-0.5
-1.7
1.4
1.6
-0.3
..
3.4
..
1.4
1.0
0.1

-0.6
-0.2
-0.4
-1.9
1.3
3.2
2.3
-2.8
-2.1
2.9
-1.1
-0.9
-0.9
-8.4
-1.9
-0.4
16.3
6.5
-0.5
-0.5
0.0
1.6
0.2
0.0
-0.7
2.2
-2.3
-1.5
2.2
1.0
0.0
4.0
2.6
1.0
-1.5
0.6
1.1
..
-0.1
3.3
-4.5
-1.9
-0.8
1.8
2.9
0.3
-0.1
3.5
-2.2
0.9
1.5
-0.4
-4.5
2.5
..
1.2
3.3
0.0

2.2
2.8
2.5
7.2
1.0
2.9
2.6
0.3
1.1
5.7
-0.6
5.4
-0.7
1.0
2.3
-1.1
14.2
-2.7
5.7
-0.1
1.6
3.1
4.1
-0.1
1.2
2.8
6.2
0.0
1.6
2.3
1.8
3.5
4.5
2.6
0.4
3.8
4.4
4.2
1.3
1.8
5.5
..
2.2
4.0
1.8
3.9
-0.5
3.7
3.0
-4.6
2.8
2.1
1.5
3.0
2.3
3.5
3.4
2.2

a. Provisional.

12

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.6

Gross national income, nominal

Current prices
($ millions)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

260,972
185,402
120,233
..
1,402
1,014
1,924
922
5,618
..
800
1,038
124
14,102
1,544
9,680
..
..
..
3,856
237
4,426
..
105
7,043
695
930
4,024
1,138
1,768
682
1,113
3,550
1,818
2,476
61,079
1,165
..
3,403
142
1,071
603
77,378
7,570
..
..
1,096
1,237
3,594
6,530
103,562
41,147
..
21,453
..
18,402
8,450
369,500

283,962
176,347
150,842
8,214
1,806
3,686
3,094
1,117
10,674
309
1,465
1,721
249
8,579
2,324
9,209
124
..
12,016
5,336
291
5,774
2,518
233
8,224
902
..
2,958
1,837
2,405
961
2,631
2,320
2,388
2,423
25,585
2,572
..
5,520
355
580
835
107,746
11,409
1,174
4,072
1,598
4,227
3,008
8,512
160,577
59,955
..
42,025
..
24,835
11,882
448,083

529,160
314,219
235,859
17,295
4,006
9,089
5,102
919
15,374
906
1,268
3,720
360
6,220
3,159
14,763
2,312
1,094
9,990
5,987
544
8,674
3,391
512
15,955
1,544
308
4,285
2,582
4,679
1,899
6,372
5,398
6,689
3,039
78,110
2,055
..
7,938
666
1,034
..
214,782
19,991
2,423
12,775
1,904
7,818
5,098
5,522
293,833
81,414
731
78,638
33,139
55,961
29,935
825,220

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

614,359 722,408
827,628
944,668 907,409 1,057,639
372,086 466,485
551,236
679,974 630,840
701,347
272,875 324,716
396,646
484,618
476,342
522,707
24,203
35,612
52,850
70,460
68,669
74,299
4,259
4,623
5,428
6,672
6,618
6,576
9,420
10,483
11,641
12,811
11,496
14,699
5,420
5,842
6,754
8,348
8,343
8,819
1,135
1,246
1,325
1,625
1,821
2,033
16,126
17,706
20,606
23,407
22,051
22,250
938
1,063
1,300
1,515
1,557
1,586
1,348
1,473
1,686
1,961
1,974
1,981
4,277
4,888
5,817
6,687
6,678
7,850
386
404
467
530
535
539
6,684
8,354
9,380
10,345
10,418
12,199
4,032
5,105
5,774
8,768
6,979
9,024
15,643
16,589
18,913
22,434
22,031
21,925
4,173
5,223
6,678
11,471
9,085
9,338
1,089
1,202
1,311
1,368
1,839
2,097
12,271
15,126
19,567
26,662
31,922
29,576
7,708
8,187
10,082
12,673
9,862
11,424
593
619
786
991
940
1,011
10,590
17,422
21,392
25,362
25,881
31,643
2,647
2,501
3,814
3,340
3,710
4,297
561
573
687
833
824
834
18,732
22,433
27,093
30,473
30,543
32,040
1,870
1,872
2,025
2,156
2,259
2,711
394
452
585
691
735
809
4,960
5,435
7,288
9,344
8,397
8,628
2,714
3,078
3,437
4,050
4,656
4,928
5,099
5,524
7,146
8,425
8,508
9,003
2,249
2,963
3,348
3,616
3,079
3,545
6,276
6,559
8,016
9,714
8,785
9,833
6,219
6,472
7,445
9,263
9,430
9,127
7,149
7,929
8,629
8,622
8,849
10,709
3,397
3,645
4,290
5,351
5,220
5,379
98,881 141,275
154,068
194,690 154,005
178,059
2,554
3,083
3,721
4,676
5,216
5,580
112
127
149
185
198
203
8,559
9,290
11,224
13,339
12,591
12,722
877
976
955
894
795
896
1,176
1,364
1,629
1,916
1,856
1,910
..
..
..
..
..
..
242,122 255,872
276,404
264,928
276,697
356,294
26,052
34,081
42,631
53,132
50,018
60,403
2,762
2,962
3,095
3,015
2,827
3,472
13,836
14,154
16,666
20,481
21,186
22,772
2,080
2,165
2,493
3,148
3,137
3,150
8,966
9,728
11,687
14,160
15,517
16,865
6,586
9,534
10,055
13,241
11,442
14,300
5,479
5,131
4,928
4,191
5,636
7,278
336,649 395,458
474,451
586,231
547,759
598,050
97,259 112,669
134,004
169,689
139,577
155,538
776
854
936
1,073
1,120
..
89,432 108,015
131,655
164,178
189,146
214,530
43,719
57,559
74,070
93,533
61,985
..
58,760
64,703
74,246
87,411
88,520
88,576
30,645
32,796
36,911
42,387
41,285
41,982
953,712 1,121,058 1,305,162 1,533,224 1,457,811 1,663,007

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

0.9
-1.0
2.8
..
2.1
11.2
4.8
1.9
9.0
18.8
7.8
5.5
7.9
-6.9
1.9
1.3
..
..
5.8
-0.1
1.6
2.9
..
3.4
2.6
-0.2
-3.2
-6.0
2.2
2.8
3.2
9.1
-5.6
0.2
0.1
-12.5
8.5
..
6.1
8.9
-4.8
5.5
4.2
9.7
..
..
4.6
20.7
-4.1
-0.2
4.9
4.5
..
7.5
..
3.3
2.0
2.1

1.8
1.5
1.1
-2.4
3.7
4.2
0.0
-3.4
-2.5
6.8
-4.3
-1.3
-2.0
-7.0
-5.2
3.3
16.9
7.3
-5.8
-1.9
7.1
2.6
3.3
-0.7
8.3
1.5
..
3.8
0.2
0.1
2.7
5.8
8.6
4.5
-1.7
3.7
-2.0
..
-1.6
5.9
1.5
..
2.2
1.9
4.6
10.6
-0.1
9.1
0.8
-1.7
5.5
-1.3
1.3
11.2
..
5.3
7.4
3.0

14.5
15.8
14.9
31.4
12.7
11.0
13.9
10.5
10.8
13.1
9.0
20.1
11.1
12.2
18.0
9.8
33.8
12.6
17.5
12.7
5.4
23.2
3.0
18.2
11.8
12.7
8.4
9.3
11.1
15.5
12.8
8.9
11.0
11.2
12.9
18.7
15.1
13.9
12.5
5.0
12.3
..
12.0
20.5
10.2
9.2
10.9
12.6
18.6
-1.1
11.5
14.1
8.4
9.0
22.8
10.9
8.5
13.3

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

13

Table

2.7

Gross national income,
World Bank Atlas method

Current prices
($ millions)
1980

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 253,599
Excluding South Africa
188,984
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria 128,704
Angola
..
Benin
1,433
Botswana
998
Burkina Faso
2,016
Burundi
897
Cameroon
5,432
Cape Verde
..
Central African Republic
785
Chad
1,086
Comoros
..
Congo, Dem. Rep.
17,085
Congo, Rep.
1,471
Côte d'Ivoire
9,318
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
3,337
Gambia, The
243
Ghana
4,642
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
115
Kenya
7,445
Lesotho
594
Liberia
986
Madagascar
4,018
Malawi
1,169
Mali
1,752
Mauritania
730
Mauritius
1,203
Mozambique
..
Namibia
..
Niger
2,442
Nigeria
55,749
Rwanda
1,298
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
3,485
Seychelles
134
Sierra Leone
1,243
Somalia
656
South Africa
69,276
Sudan
9,123
Swaziland
..
Tanzania
..
Togo
1,137
Uganda
..
Zambia
3,610
Zimbabwe
6,692
NORTH AFRICA
101,792
Algeria
38,811
Djibouti
..
Egypt, Arab Rep.
21,725
Libya
..
Morocco
18,733
Tunisia
8,689
AFRICA
359,659

1990

2004

299,653
180,486
155,042
7,700
1,723
3,505
2,923
1,187
11,128
303
1,384
1,591
234
8,370
2,184
9,253
124
..
12,200
4,577
292
5,846
2,588
219
8,848
879
..
2,785
1,723
2,270
984
2,579
2,338
2,429
2,368
25,519
2,546
..
5,334
351
802
959
119,305
13,641
1,067
4,836
1,516
5,638
3,491
9,014
162,067
61,136
..
42,479
..
24,776
11,648
466,087

464,248
295,562
221,626
14,637
3,708
7,990
4,634
902
14,183
838
1,187
3,254
326
6,344
2,687
13,655
1,928
894
9,954
5,357
590
8,144
3,423
359
16,077
1,213
276
5,184
2,813
4,365
1,810
6,157
5,185
..
2,812
73,419
2,036
..
7,370
680
1,086
..
169,045
18,105
1,876
13,313
1,807
7,537
4,648
5,417
283,763
73,987
754
90,591
28,214
53,196
29,106
747,924

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Annual average growth (%)
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

2010a

582,188
686,195 782,645
900,718
952,737 1,014,422
353,255
424,704
504,622
615,609
670,550
710,604
264,952
304,185
361,608
437,395
490,592
523,557
20,870
30,332
45,315
59,978
71,970
75,621
4,316
4,605
5,091
6,063
6,729
6,918
9,508
10,640
11,474
12,610
12,429
13,543
5,591
6,130
6,475
7,497
8,302
9,132
1,009
1,174
1,330
1,507
1,683
1,906
16,295
17,781
19,486
21,733
23,168
23,429
982
1,091
1,240
1,419
1,562
1,627
1,358
1,469
1,597
1,789
1,963
2,058
4,219
4,625
5,212
5,846
7,149
7,987
390
411
435
483
531
550
6,851
7,835
8,799
9,849
10,871
11,907
3,451
4,414
5,239
7,177
7,806
9,071
15,691
16,519
17,769
20,267
22,358
23,005
3,170
4,346
6,239
9,544
11,382
9,612
1,101
1,184
1,245
1,252
1,500
1,792
12,197
14,297
17,647
22,781
28,571
32,342
7,009
7,663
9,209
10,876
11,259
11,567
585
622
723
871
991
1,057
10,019
11,436
16,044
24,088
28,394
30,485
3,828
3,130
3,085
3,347
3,750
3,900
563
592
645
730
824
875
18,609
20,944
24,678
28,331
30,890
32,736
1,744
1,908
2,001
2,238
2,314
2,395
380
459
579
684
791
832
5,377
5,352
6,359
7,906
8,431
8,820
2,828
3,093
3,382
3,907
4,466
4,872
5,195
5,546
6,534
7,457
8,413
9,207
2,186
2,703
3,095
3,570
3,468
3,465
6,658
6,935
7,630
8,658
9,257
9,960
6,152
6,590
7,383
8,566
9,772
10,212
6,864
7,966
8,566
8,971
9,100
9,695
3,347
3,703
4,044
4,819
5,163
5,640
87,688
119,713
142,057
177,029
178,734
185,766
2,469
2,895
3,402
4,258
4,910
5,524
113
127
144
167
189
207
8,680
9,325
10,367
12,045
12,962
13,452
814
943
1,041
983
907
905
1,200
1,341
1,543
1,789
1,946
2,011
..
..
..
..
..
..
228,949
261,553
278,199
285,495
282,696
304,343
23,263
29,761
37,359
47,056
52,137
56,656
2,644
2,860
3,089
3,194
3,008
3,088
14,411
15,174
16,463
18,766
21,197
23,225
2,024
2,207
2,385
2,732
3,079
3,287
8,539
10,043
11,405
13,198
15,183
16,651
5,695
7,249
9,088
12,066
12,573
13,816
5,523
5,349
5,090
4,293
4,964
6,082
321,566
366,898
425,783
507,709 553,825
587,597
89,352
104,118
122,784
146,530
156,113
155,683
803
864
925
1,029
1,105
..
92,773
101,664
120,047
146,926
172,125
196,217
37,263
49,547
63,050
77,909
77,140
..
60,348
66,313
70,674
80,889
89,096
92,583
32,058
34,159
36,428
40,266
42,799
43,709
903,925 1,053,488 1,208,762 1,408,530 1,506,403 1,602,083

1.0
-1.0
2.3
..
1.1
9.8
3.4
3.6
8.5
18.0
6.9
4.4
10.5
-8.4
2.2
0.8
..
..
8.9
0.3
0.7
4.0
..
3.4
2.4
0.9
-3.6
-4.3
2.0
1.3
3.2
7.7
-2.2
1.9
-0.3
-10.9
8.2
..
4.9
9.5
-6.6
5.9
4.5
9.8
..
..
3.2
24.5
-6.1
0.1
5.8
6.3
..
8.6
..
1.9
2.0
2.5

1.5
0.9
0.6
-2.3
3.2
4.4
-1.1
-4.1
-2.2
7.3
-4.1
-1.2
-1.7
-6.3
-5.8
2.9
15.5
4.2
-5.5
-1.4
10.8
1.9
4.2
-1.1
5.7
2.4
..
4.1
0.7
0.7
3.8
6.3
6.6
4.7
-2.4
2.7
-3.5
..
-1.6
5.9
0.1
..
2.3
-0.2
6.0
7.2
-0.3
5.6
-0.2
-2.2
4.3
-2.5
0.6
9.5
..
4.7
7.2
2.4

14.4
16.0
14.5
33.2
12.8
10.9
13.7
9.3
10.9
12.4
8.7
20.1
11.2
12.2
19.0
9.7
36.2
10.8
16.2
13.5
3.5
20.7
1.5
19.1
11.3
11.9
7.5
9.2
11.7
15.3
12.6
8.9
10.6
11.4
12.8
21.0
12.7
13.4
12.3
6.3
12.1
..
11.4
20.2
9.8
8.9
10.3
11.5
18.4
-1.9
10.7
14.4
8.5
7.1
20.7
10.6
8.4
12.9

a. Provisional.

14

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.8

Gross national income per capita,
World Bank Atlas method

Current prices
($)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

663
533
461
..
400
1,000
280
220
600
..
350
240
..
630
820
1,100
..
..
..
4,890
390
430
..
140
460
450
510
470
190
240
480
1,250
..
..
420
740
250
..
640
2,080
390
100
2,510
450
..
..
430
..
630
920
1,093
2,060
..
480
..
950
1,360
756

591
383
415
740
360
2,540
310
210
910
870
470
260
530
230
910
740
330
..
250
4,930
300
400
450
220
380
540
..
250
180
260
490
2,440
170
1,720
300
260
360
..
740
5,020
200
150
3,390
510
1,240
200
410
320
440
860
1,351
2,420
..
750
..
990
1,430
744

637
433
406
920
500
4,310
340
130
830
1,800
300
340
520
110
780
770
3,270
210
140
3,990
400
390
390
270
460
590
90
300
230
340
610
4,990
260
..
220
540
230
..
700
8,240
220
..
3,620
480
1,850
360
340
270
420
430
1,871
2,280
950
1,240
4,990
1,740
2,930
849

779
505
473
1,270
570
5,070
390
140
930
2,080
340
430
610
120
980
870
5,220
250
160
5,110
390
460
420
410
520
840
120
300
220
390
720
5,360
300
3,300
260
630
270
740
800
9,820
230
..
4,850
610
2,600
380
370
300
500
440
2,087
2,720
990
1,250
6,460
1,960
3,200
1,003

896
591
529
1,780
590
5,600
420
160
990
2,280
360
460
620
130
1,220
900
6,940
250
190
5,480
400
520
340
420
570
910
140
290
230
410
860
5,540
310
3,760
280
840
310
820
830
11,150
250
..
5,480
760
2,810
390
400
340
620
430
2,344
3,120
1,050
1,350
8,410
2,130
3,370
1,142

997
685
613
2,590
630
5,950
430
170
1,060
2,570
380
500
640
140
1,400
950
9,690
260
230
6,470
450
710
330
450
660
950
170
340
250
470
960
6,050
340
3,970
290
970
350
920
900
12,240
280
..
5,760
930
3,030
410
420
380
750
410
2,679
3,620
1,100
1,560
10,470
2,240
3,560
1,281

1,120
815
724
3,330
730
6,450
480
190
1,160
2,910
420
550
690
160
1,870
1,070
14,410
250
290
7,500
530
1,040
350
500
740
1,050
190
400
280
520
1,080
6,830
380
4,080
330
1,170
430
1,050
1,020
11,300
320
..
5,850
1,140
3,100
460
470
420
970
340
3,146
4,260
1,200
1,880
12,670
2,540
3,900
1,459

1,157
866
792
3,880
780
6,270
520
210
1,210
3,180
450
650
740
170
1,980
1,160
16,710
290
350
7,620
590
1,190
380
550
780
1,080
210
420
310
560
1,030
7,260
430
4,060
340
1,160
480
1,170
1,070
10,390
340
..
5,730
1,230
2,880
500
520
470
990
400
3,380
4,470
1,270
2,160
12,320
2,770
4,100
1,525

1,202
895
824
3,960
780
6,750
550
230
1,200
3,280
470
710
750
180
2,240
1,170
13,720
340
390
7,680
610
1,250
390
580
810
1,100
210
430
330
600
1,000
7,780
440
4,250
360
1,170
520
1,250
1,080
10,460
340
..
6,090
1,300
2,930
530
550
500
1,070
480
3,533
4,390
..
2,420
..
2,850
4,140
1,586

Annual average growth (%)
1980-89 1990-99
2000-10

-1.9
-3.8
-0.7
..
-1.7
6.3
0.8
0.1
5.4
16.8
4.1
1.5
7.3
-11.0
-0.7
-3.1
..
..
5.5
-2.7
-3.6
0.7
..
1.3
-1.3
-1.3
-4.9
-6.8
-2.5
-0.5
0.5
6.7
-2.7
-1.8
-3.0
-13.1
4.4
..
1.9
8.6
-8.7
6.0
1.9
6.8
..
..
-0.2
19.7
-9.0
-3.6
3.1
3.2
..
6.1
..
-0.6
-0.6
-0.4

-1.2
-1.7
-2.1
-5.1
0.0
1.8
-3.9
-4.9
-4.6
4.8
-6.4
-4.3
-4.0
-9.4
-8.3
0.0
11.8
1.8
-8.1
-4.2
7.7
-0.8
0.0
-3.4
2.8
0.5
..
1.0
-0.7
-1.9
1.0
5.1
3.5
1.7
-5.6
0.3
-3.7
..
-4.3
4.3
0.3
..
0.1
-2.6
4.1
4.0
-3.0
2.2
-2.7
-4.0
2.5
-4.4
-1.9
7.6
..
3.1
5.5
-0.1

11.6
13.1
11.7
29.2
9.4
9.4
10.4
6.4
8.5
11.0
6.8
16.5
8.3
8.6
16.0
7.8
32.2
6.6
13.3
11.3
0.5
17.7
-0.3
16.6
8.4
10.9
4.0
6.0
8.6
11.7
9.5
8.0
7.8
9.3
8.7
18.0
9.9
11.5
9.3
5.5
8.0
..
10.0
17.4
9.4
5.8
7.8
8.0
15.5
-1.9
9.0
12.7
6.4
5.2
18.2
9.4
7.4
10.4

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

15

Table

2.9

Gross domestic product deflator (U.S. dollar series)

Index
(2000 = 100)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

119.6
146.1
125.6
..
129.6
92.3
175.2
139.6
106.3
..
108.4
155.4
91.1
205.2
97.7
131.7
..
..
..
119.1
60.4
168.4
..
96.6
102.7
114.5
65.1
130.4
123.8
116.4
85.9
74.8
143.2
94.6
164.7
204.1
85.0
..
130.6
50.5
118.5
..
84.5
137.9
115.4
..
121.0
..
142.3
182.8
92.9
120.0
..
59.5
..
93.7
91.6
110.4

110.0
116.3
126.0
121.2
130.7
117.4
199.4
111.1
126.8
109.6
182.6
157.2
138.2
122.1
100.1
130.1
63.7
..
193.8
138.5
55.7
180.2
127.7
131.1
81.5
107.2
94.1
94.4
151.3
148.5
104.8
97.3
98.6
90.7
164.6
81.4
154.5
..
165.1
93.3
64.0
..
101.0
175.7
97.9
56.4
156.2
130.7
108.6
156.2
95.8
133.8
68.5
65.8
..
88.1
90.7
104.0

137.3
133.3
128.3
159.7
152.7
140.3
155.0
97.5
133.5
140.5
142.3
171.6
163.2
132.3
127.5
150.5
137.4
141.9
100.6
133.9
62.8
147.6
102.3
256.6
112.3
147.3
86.0
105.2
140.0
157.0
123.2
121.4
96.3
136.2
146.0
149.6
91.1
..
143.9
125.8
97.4
..
143.8
143.7
146.6
96.2
143.3
98.6
140.0
120.1
98.7
128.4
107.7
69.4
88.4
124.2
121.9
121.1

151.0
149.2
139.5
192.8
157.2
140.9
152.5
120.1
137.2
138.7
147.7
175.7
167.2
135.6
154.8
157.1
196.3
137.0
110.1
156.9
68.9
168.5
59.5
271.8
123.5
159.0
91.2
116.1
143.2
161.1
134.7
118.0
101.5
146.0
155.8
181.3
103.0
..
147.9
153.4
102.8
..
154.1
170.7
152.7
98.8
154.6
107.8
175.4
126.3
108.0
147.1
111.1
75.5
106.0
126.1
121.3
133.1

165.8
172.6
157.5
236.4
166.8
147.1
152.9
126.2
143.9
143.6
155.7
201.7
172.0
157.6
185.3
165.6
226.5
152.6
122.5
170.8
69.9
301.1
55.7
268.7
139.5
159.2
92.5
121.0
150.4
169.1
157.7
117.5
102.9
149.9
157.7
223.4
113.7
..
155.2
156.1
109.9
..
154.1
203.8
168.7
93.8
154.8
105.1
246.1
123.7
118.8
165.1
115.0
84.7
128.5
129.0
122.3
146.3

180.4
192.0
178.7
278.9
186.8
154.4
170.5
128.4
160.2
158.8
172.4
231.6
197.4
168.3
204.4
185.6
244.3
163.7
141.7
196.2
82.3
341.7
81.7
310.9
157.8
169.9
97.9
151.7
157.7
197.5
171.3
132.9
108.6
157.0
179.5
237.1
129.4
..
178.7
142.3
120.8
..
160.1
236.6
168.8
102.8
173.3
115.8
250.0
124.8
133.9
185.8
120.6
96.0
154.1
144.0
130.3
161.2

196.5
223.9
207.5
341.2
214.1
162.8
199.2
150.2
178.6
175.4
197.6
276.9
222.9
184.8
273.5
214.5
323.3
190.0
174.2
240.7
96.4
365.0
69.9
369.3
174.1
164.1
101.9
181.1
171.5
230.0
176.8
155.9
125.2
152.4
206.6
279.2
146.7
..
203.8
135.8
134.5
..
147.9
276.2
163.1
117.7
212.2
129.1
300.0
126.5
157.8
228.5
132.1
111.8
192.6
161.1
143.7
180.5

181.7
195.8
190.6
298.8
203.3
146.8
193.5
162.6
163.7
173.3
194.0
237.6
221.1
172.5
205.9
203.4
203.0
246.1
192.1
183.9
85.7
319.6
77.3
353.4
170.0
167.9
93.2
171.5
182.5
225.8
151.1
138.5
115.2
154.7
204.0
212.4
157.1
..
190.4
118.1
123.8
..
155.2
250.1
157.4
114.6
205.1
131.8
246.6
157.8
142.2
180.2
134.4
124.0
126.3
157.3
135.2
165.2

202.9
207.5
200.4
315.7
196.5
177.3
189.6
174.9
160.7
170.8
188.3
253.5
218.9
188.3
237.0
197.5
242.5
274.5
162.3
208.1
86.3
366.5
86.2
341.8
169.6
202.5
94.9
173.5
183.2
224.3
171.5
146.4
102.6
180.9
194.5
230.0
156.9
..
184.1
126.7
121.3
..
193.7
293.6
193.4
114.8
199.0
135.4
289.8
185.4
152.5
204.6
..
136.6
..
151.6
133.4
182.2

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

105.7
119.2
115.8
95.2
103.3
81.4
147.1
130.1
102.4
80.0
117.3
120.8
89.0
132.9
83.5
108.1
54.3
..
166.9
96.3
48.5
176.5
117.0
105.0
85.9
95.1
75.0
107.7
118.0
108.1
90.7
71.7
157.3
78.9
137.0
127.0
111.6
..
119.9
64.8
98.2
..
88.1
195.6
86.8
68.9
109.1
152.8
110.8
163.2
90.6
128.0
..
62.3
..
72.5
80.1
99.9

109.0
104.7
113.2
91.5
115.9
113.9
135.0
104.5
125.2
126.5
142.8
129.0
124.6
126.4
80.5
122.6
64.8
98.6
150.9
104.2
113.4
165.6
136.2
116.2
86.2
120.3
107.2
101.0
132.4
131.8
122.8
106.4
92.8
96.9
126.8
75.6
123.4
..
135.6
102.7
98.6
..
115.4
121.9
110.6
71.7
134.3
106.6
110.9
122.9
92.3
100.6
84.7
76.0
93.3
98.7
103.5
102.0

147.4
154.1
146.9
204.5
157.2
135.3
151.2
120.9
135.3
139.2
148.8
183.6
166.3
145.5
159.8
156.7
177.6
154.0
125.4
153.8
78.8
223.7
83.0
245.9
132.2
141.4
88.3
135.6
147.9
165.8
135.9
121.7
100.4
138.1
153.2
178.6
113.8
..
149.2
127.2
110.0
..
135.4
182.2
139.2
102.0
153.7
107.7
189.0
125.3
116.9
149.4
112.9
95.6
111.2
127.3
120.1
134.7

a. Provisional.

16

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.10

Consumer price Index

Index
(2005 = 100)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

8.9
9.3
10.0
..
..
9.3
39.6
8.3
25.1
..
45.5
..
..
0.0
..
28.8
..
..
25.8
41.6
8.4
0.1
..
..
5.0
10.8
..
2.6
0.7
..
..
18.6
..
..
47.9
0.7
12.4
..
35.2
51.7
..
..
8.5
0.0
7.7
0.9
32.2
0.1
..
0.0
31.5
7.5
92.3
7.0
34.6
31.5
..
9.3

35.5
37.8
38.1
0.0
..
25.3
56.6
17.1
54.8
58.2
61.5
50.8
..
0.0
45.6
47.5
38.4
..
39.7
73.3
41.5
4.1
..
5.4
15.6
37.8
..
13.1
3.3
61.6
39.4
40.9
4.4
..
59.1
3.9
19.0
..
62.1
69.6
..
..
33.2
0.4
29.5
12.8
46.2
32.3
0.4
0.0
56.6
19.0
..
33.2
72.6
63.4
56.6
37.8

93.5
93.3
93.5
81.3
94.9
92.1
94.0
88.1
98.0
99.6
97.2
92.7
97.1
82.4
97.0
96.3
94.7
..
89.6
96.4
95.4
86.9
76.1
96.8
90.7
96.7
90.2
84.4
86.7
94.0
89.2
95.3
93.3
97.8
92.8
84.8
91.7
85.3
98.3
99.1
..
..
96.7
92.2
95.4
95.2
93.6
92.2
84.5
24.9
97.7
98.6
97.0
95.4
97.4
99.0
98.0
94.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
..
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
..
..
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.5
106.6
106.5
113.3
103.8
111.6
102.3
102.8
105.1
105.4
106.7
108.0
103.4
113.1
106.5
102.5
104.4
..
112.3
98.6
102.1
110.9
134.7
102.0
114.5
106.1
107.3
110.8
114.0
101.5
106.2
108.9
113.2
105.1
100.0
108.2
108.9
124.6
102.1
99.7
100.0
..
104.6
107.2
105.3
107.3
102.2
107.3
109.0
1,196.7
103.4
102.3
103.5
107.6
101.5
103.3
104.5
106.1

113.0
113.8
113.0
127.2
105.1
119.5
102.1
111.4
106.1
110.0
107.7
98.3
108.0
132.2
109.4
104.4
107.3
..
131.7
103.6
107.5
122.8
165.5
106.7
125.6
114.6
119.6
122.2
123.0
103.0
114.0
118.5
122.5
112.1
100.1
114.1
118.8
158.9
108.1
105.0
111.7
..
112.1
115.8
113.8
114.8
103.2
113.9
120.6
..
107.9
106.1
108.6
117.7
107.8
105.4
108.1
111.9

127.1
127.3
127.2
143.1
113.5
134.6
113.0
138.2
111.8
117.5
117.7
108.5
109.8
155.1
117.4
111.0
114.4
..
190.1
109.0
112.3
143.1
195.9
117.8
158.6
126.9
140.5
133.5
133.8
112.4
122.3
130.1
135.1
123.7
111.4
127.3
137.1
198.3
114.3
143.8
128.2
..
125.0
132.3
128.2
126.6
112.2
127.6
135.7
..
116.2
111.2
121.6
139.2
119.0
109.3
113.4
125.8

135.9
136.9
135.9
162.7
115.9
145.4
115.9
153.4
115.2
118.6
121.8
119.3
114.6
..
123.6
112.1
119.7
..
206.2
111.1
117.4
170.7
205.1
115.9
173.2
135.9
150.9
145.4
145.0
114.9
125.0
133.4
139.5
134.6
116.2
142.0
151.3
230.3
113.1
189.4
140.1
..
133.9
147.2
137.8
142.0
114.4
144.2
153.8
..
119.8
117.6
123.7
155.6
121.9
110.4
117.4
133.9

140.7
140.8
140.7
186.2
118.6
155.5
115.0
163.2
116.6
121.1
123.6
116.8
118.5
..
129.8
114.0
129.1
..
223.0
112.7
123.4
188.9
236.8
118.8
180.1
140.8
..
158.9
155.8
116.2
132.9
137.2
157.3
140.6
117.1
161.4
154.8
259.9
114.5
184.8
163.4
..
139.6
166.3
144.0
150.8
116.5
150.0
166.9
..
123.7
122.2
128.5
173.1
124.9
111.5
122.6
138.4

19.0
20.0
21.0
..
..
15.4
51.8
12.0
41.8
45.1
58.3
50.5
..
0.0
44.2
38.5
39.6
..
31.8
59.8
19.4
1.2
..
2.6
8.7
20.4
..
6.6
1.5
61.2
31.9
27.1
1.7
..
62.5
1.5
16.1
..
53.3
61.2
..
..
16.8
0.1
15.5
3.8
43.4
4.7
0.1
0.0
43.3
11.6
102.5
14.7
52.8
47.2
43.2
20.6

54.1
54.2
54.9
0.2
68.6
43.8
71.4
32.0
71.1
77.1
74.8
67.3
..
0.3
63.5
65.7
52.0
..
64.5
78.8
53.9
14.7
..
42.0
41.0
58.8
..
31.7
14.4
75.1
53.8
56.5
27.6
..
70.3
22.9
46.4
39.0
77.4
74.8
..
..
54.3
22.8
46.2
40.6
66.4
59.8
12.0
0.1
72.3
54.9
..
57.5
104.3
80.4
72.3
56.2

104.5
104.3
104.5
92.6
101.5
105.9
100.5
105.1
103.0
106.2
104.7
101.8
100.2
88.6
105.1
100.1
99.6
..
124.1
100.7
94.7
104.9
159.1
103.9
112.6
103.2
103.8
102.7
101.7
101.8
99.3
105.7
103.3
110.6
100.4
98.4
106.1
128.8
103.2
117.2
128.7
..
105.3
106.1
104.7
106.7
100.8
106.2
99.0
190.0
103.2
101.8
104.6
110.4
110.1
101.8
102.6
104.4

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

17

Table

2.11

Consumer price index, growth

Annual growth
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

..
..
..
13.6
12.2
2.5
9.6
..
..
..
..
46.6
..
14.7
..
..
4.5
12.3
6.8
50.1
..
..
13.9
16.3
..
18.2
..
..
..
42.0
..
..
10.3
10.0
7.3
..
8.7
13.6
..
..
13.7
25.4
18.7
30.2
12.3
..
..
5.4
..
9.5
12.1
20.8
9.7
9.4
..
..

..
..
..
11.4
-0.5
7.0
1.1
10.7
0.0
-0.7
..
81.3
2.9
-0.8
0.9
..
5.2
7.7
12.2
37.3
..
33.0
17.8
11.6
..
11.8
11.8
0.6
6.6
13.5
47.0
..
-0.8
7.4
4.2
..
0.3
3.9
..
..
14.3
65.2
13.1
35.8
1.0
33.1
107.0
17.4
..
16.7
..
16.8
8.5
6.8
6.6
..

..
43.5
0.9
7.0
-0.4
7.9
0.2
-1.9
-2.1
-5.4
4.5
4.0
2.4
1.4
4.2
..
3.3
0.4
14.2
12.6
..
0.9
11.6
5.0
7.8
13.8
11.4
-3.1
10.4
4.7
12.7
4.2
0.3
15.0
12.3
15.2
0.5
3.9
..
..
1.4
8.4
3.5
4.7
0.4
3.7
18.0
282.4
..
4.0
3.1
11.3
-2.2
1.5
3.6
..

..
23.0
5.4
8.6
6.4
13.5
2.0
0.4
2.9
7.9
3.0
21.3
3.1
3.9
5.6
..
11.6
3.7
4.8
15.1
31.4
3.3
10.3
3.4
10.8
18.5
15.4
6.4
12.1
4.9
7.2
2.3
7.8
17.9
9.0
17.2
1.7
0.9
..
..
3.4
8.5
4.8
5.0
6.8
8.5
18.3
302.1
..
1.4
3.1
4.9
2.7
1.0
2.0
..

..
13.3
3.8
11.6
2.3
2.8
5.1
5.4
6.7
8.0
3.4
13.1
6.5
2.5
4.4
..
12.3
-1.4
2.1
10.9
34.7
2.0
14.5
6.1
7.3
10.8
14.0
1.5
6.2
8.9
13.2
5.1
0.0
8.2
8.9
24.6
2.1
-0.4
..
..
4.6
7.2
5.3
7.3
2.2
7.3
9.0
1,096.7
..
2.3
3.5
7.6
1.5
3.3
4.5
..

..
12.3
1.3
7.1
-0.2
8.3
0.9
4.4
0.9
-9.0
4.5
17.0
2.7
1.9
2.8
..
17.2
5.0
5.4
10.7
22.8
4.6
9.8
8.0
11.4
10.3
8.0
1.4
7.3
8.8
8.2
6.7
0.1
5.4
9.1
27.6
5.9
5.3
11.7
..
7.1
8.0
8.1
7.0
1.0
6.1
10.7
..
..
3.7
5.0
9.3
6.3
2.0
3.4
..

..
12.5
8.0
12.7
10.7
24.1
5.3
6.8
9.3
10.3
1.7
17.3
7.3
6.3
6.6
..
44.4
5.3
4.5
16.5
18.4
10.5
26.2
10.7
17.5
9.2
8.7
9.2
7.4
9.7
10.3
10.4
11.3
11.6
15.4
24.8
5.8
37.0
14.8
..
11.5
14.3
12.7
10.3
8.7
12.1
12.5
..
..
4.9
12.0
18.3
10.4
3.7
4.9
..

2009

..
13.7
2.2
8.0
2.6
11.0
3.0
1.0
3.5
10.0
4.4
..
5.3
1.0
4.7
..
8.5
1.9
4.6
19.3
4.7
-1.7
9.2
7.2
7.4
9.0
8.4
2.2
2.2
2.6
3.3
8.8
4.3
11.5
10.4
16.1
-1.1
31.8
9.3
..
7.1
11.3
7.5
12.1
2.0
13.0
13.4
..
..
5.7
1.7
11.8
2.5
1.0
3.5
..

2010a

..
14.5
2.3
7.0
-0.8
6.4
1.3
2.1
1.5
-2.1
3.4
..
5.0
1.7
7.8
..
8.1
1.5
5.1
10.7
15.5
2.5
4.0
3.6
..
9.3
7.4
1.1
6.3
2.9
12.7
4.5
0.8
13.7
2.3
12.9
1.3
-2.4
16.6
..
4.3
13.0
4.5
6.2
1.8
4.0
8.5
..
..
3.9
4.0
11.3
2.5
1.0
4.4
..

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

..
..
..
10.8
5.0
7.2
9.1
6.7
3.7
3.0
..
57.0
1.0
6.8
-5.5
..
4.6
6.5
17.5
48.3
..
70.5
11.8
13.9
..
18.6
16.8
-0.1
7.5
11.2
45.1
..
3.6
20.9
4.7
..
6.9
4.1
..
..
14.6
36.2
15.0
30.1
5.0
111.2
69.3
12.8
..
9.0
5.3
17.4
7.9
7.6
7.6
..

..
1,122.5
9.7
10.8
4.5
13.5
5.6
6.4
3.9
5.5
..
3,367.2
8.5
6.0
6.6
..
8.0
3.7
5.4
27.6
..
37.5
17.4
12.4
..
17.3
31.0
4.2
6.4
7.6
34.5
..
4.3
30.6
8.6
38.0
4.5
2.0
..
..
9.9
80.4
9.5
23.1
7.1
13.0
76.2
28.6
..
18.6
..
10.5
6.7
4.4
4.9
..

..
74.3
3.3
8.6
2.7
10.6
2.5
2.0
3.3
3.6
3.8
110.1
3.2
2.9
5.9
..
10.7
1.9
6.5
17.8
21.2
3.1
10.3
7.4
10.9
10.4
13.6
2.5
6.3
5.7
10.9
6.1
3.0
12.4
7.6
16.0
2.0
8.3
13.1
..
6.0
9.1
7.6
6.8
2.8
6.2
16.5
340.8
..
3.3
3.7
7.9
0.0
1.8
3.4
..

a. Provisional.

18

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.12

Price indices

Inflation, GDP deflator
(annual %)
Annual %
Annual Average
1990–99 2000–10
2009
2010a

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

4.2
4.2
4.2
-7.4
0.1
-5.5
2.4
12.3
-3.4
4.2
3.5
-9.6
4.6
35.1
-20.6
0.0
-33.8
29.5
24.2
-19.4
6.7
16.6
6.8
1.1
9.2
5.0
-1.2
8.4
6.9
3.5
-5.9
-0.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
-4.5
11.3
13.6
-1.5
25.2
5.2
..
7.7
-0.3
-1.0
7.4
1.9
14.6
10.7
24.7
1.6
-11.3
1.7
11.2
-32.8
1.5
3.1
3.8

7.0
6.9
6.7
22.4
1.4
14.6
2.8
7.6
3.0
3.3
1.8
11.9
3.8
22.1
20.7
1.9
25.3
11.6
3.9
18.6
5.9
16.5
20.2
1.7
2.2
4.2
6.4
8.1
7.0
4.2
19.4
1.8
10.0
1.0
0.0
9.3
2.5
11.7
1.4
-4.9
14.4
..
7.9
17.6
6.2
6.9
1.8
9.5
11.7
17.5
7.4
16.3
..
10.1
..
0.7
4.6
7.0

9.4
9.4
9.2
1,178.8
7.4
9.6
3.2
11.9
5.6
7.1
3.8
6.4
3.5
3,658.0
6.9
7.5
12.8
6.2
7.2
6.8
16.6
25.8
8.6
36.7
16.1
10.6
380.9
18.1
29.9
6.1
11.2
7.0
36.7
9.4
4.5
29.2
14.3
..
4.9
1.9
46.0
215.5
11.0
73.9
12.7
23.7
6.6
17.8
70.1
(3.9)
6.0
21.6
4.0
10.3
..
4.6
5.7
8.5

6.7
6.8
6.6
79.9
3.2
8.5
2.4
13.8
2.1
0.7
2.8
6.0
4.2
98.3
10.0
2.9
11.1
17.1
10.1
6.5
6.3
26.7
11.5
10.9
5.9
7.4
4.2
10.2
18.7
4.7
7.2
5.3
8.8
8.6
3.2
15.7
8.1
14.4
2.5
10.1
8.6
..
7.6
10.2
7.7
7.3
2.8
6.8
17.5
6.1
5.1
9.2
3.3
8.0
16.0
1.6
3.4
6.4

2009

135.9
136.9
135.9
162.7
115.9
145.4
115.9
153.4
115.2
118.6
121.8
119.3
114.6
..
123.6
112.1
119.7
..
206.2
111.1
117.4
170.7
205.1
115.9
173.2
135.9
150.9
145.4
145.0
114.9
125.0
133.4
139.5
134.6
116.2
142.0
151.3
230.3
113.1
189.4
140.1
..
133.9
147.2
137.8
142.0
114.4
144.2
153.8
..
119.8
117.6
123.7
155.6
121.9
110.4
117.4
133.9

Consumer price index
(2005 = 100)
Annual Average
2010a
1990–99 2000–10

140.7
140.8
140.7
186.2
118.6
155.5
115.0
163.2
116.6
121.1
123.6
116.8
118.5
..
129.8
114.0
129.1
..
223.0
112.7
123.4
188.9
236.8
118.8
180.1
140.8
..
158.9
155.8
116.2
132.9
137.2
157.3
140.6
117.1
161.4
154.8
259.9
114.5
184.8
163.4
..
139.6
166.3
144.0
150.8
116.5
150.0
166.9
..
123.7
122.2
128.5
173.1
124.9
111.5
122.6
138.4

54.1
54.2
54.9
0.2
68.6
43.8
71.4
32.0
71.1
77.1
74.8
67.3
..
0.3
63.5
65.7
52.0
..
64.5
78.8
53.9
14.7
..
42.0
41.0
58.8
..
31.7
14.4
75.1
53.8
56.5
27.6
..
70.3
22.9
46.4
39.0
77.4
74.8
..
..
54.3
22.8
46.2
40.6
66.4
59.8
12.0
0.1
72.3
54.9
..
57.5
104.3
80.4
72.3
56.2

104.5
104.3
104.5
92.6
101.5
105.9
100.5
105.1
103.0
106.2
104.7
101.8
100.2
88.6
105.1
100.1
99.6
..
124.1
100.7
94.7
104.9
159.1
103.9
112.6
103.2
103.8
102.7
101.7
101.8
99.3
105.7
103.3
110.6
100.4
98.4
106.1
128.8
103.2
117.2
128.7
..
105.3
106.1
104.7
106.7
100.8
106.2
99.0
190.0
103.2
101.8
104.6
110.4
110.1
101.8
102.6
104.4

Exports price index
(goods and services,
2000 = 100)
2009
2010a

..
..
..
..
..
143.1
..
..
271.8
236.6
..
..
..
135.1
..
158.6
..
..
155.4
204.4
139.9
..
179.2
..
171.7
91.7
70.0
135.3
..
..
275.3
129.6
83.5
183.3
..
..
..
..
177.6
73.1
..
..
193.3
..
101.6
125.9
203.0
99.5
..
191.0
..
154.4
..
94.6
..
162.1
174.7
..

..
..
..
..
..
161.7
..
..
300.1
213.4
..
..
..
158.1
..
152.7
..
..
136.3
260.2
140.8
..
174.3
..
176.9
109.0
92.8
..
..
..
361.5
138.9
82.4
350.3
..
..
..
..
171.9
..
..
..
237.0
..
122.9
158.4
208.6
102.6
..
239.7
..
..
..
96.6
..
160.1
183.4
..

Imports price index
(goods and services,
2000 = 100)
2009
2010a

157.1
..
161.1
..
..
168.3
..
..
258.5
143.7
..
..
..
111.6
..
165.0
..
..
134.8
152.6
161.1
..
181.3
..
145.3
98.0
289.3
153.3
..
..
127.8
165.7
169.3
132.6
..
..
..
..
193.3
73.1
..
..
153.0
..
102.2
105.5
279.6
148.0
..
183.9
140.9
141.6
..
105.1
..
160.1
172.9
150.2

176.3
..
..
..
..
185.2
..
..
247.0
134.1
..
..
..
122.3
..
161.2
..
..
121.6
166.6
162.1
..
180.6
..
152.4
113.0
305.7
..
..
..
137.7
186.3
164.8
276.5
..
..
..
..
187.8
..
..
..
174.7
..
123.6
125.5
306.0
144.1
..
219.2
147.2
..
..
103.9
..
167.4
190.9
165.5

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

19

Table

2.13

Gross domestic savings

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria

Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

25.3
11.7
11.7
..
-6.4
26.7
-7.2
-0.6
21.7
..
-8.9
..
-10.1
10.1
35.7
20.4
..
..
..
60.6
5.8
4.9
..
-1.0
18.1
-52.0
5.0
-1.4
10.8
1.1
-3.5
10.4
-8.9
38.4
14.6
..
4.2
..
2.1
27.1
0.9
-12.9
37.9
2.1
1.2
..
23.2
-0.4
19.3
13.8
22.8
43.1
..
15.2
..
14.9
24.0
24.2

17.2
11.9
11.9
29.7
2.2
42.6
5.4
-5.4
20.7
25.3
-0.6
-7.7
-3.2
9.4
23.8
11.3
-20.1
..
9.7
36.9
10.7
5.5
22.2
2.8
18.5
-49.1
..
5.6
13.4
6.4
4.9
23.0
-5.8
18.2
1.2
..
6.2
..
2.4
20.3
8.7
-12.5
23.2
8.2
5.3
1.3
14.7
0.6
16.6
17.5
20.7
27.1
-10.5
16.2
27.2
19.9
20.0
18.8

15.8
14.1
14.1
25.1
5.5
40.5
1.8
-7.5
18.5
1.9
0.0
24.5
-8.5
4.0
52.2
20.0
78.9
-35.1
8.8
54.6
9.7
7.3
18.4
..
10.7
-46.8
-34.6
8.5
0.0
8.6
6.3
22.1
7.7
16.8
3.9
..
1.4
..
7.9
14.7
-0.4
..
17.8
18.7
12.7
16.2
-4.8
10.1
19.9
-2.6
27.6
47.7
4.3
15.6
42.7
24.2
20.8
21.1

15.8
14.4
14.4
41.3
6.9
43.1
4.8
-12.1
18.1
7.2
0.1
35.1
-12.3
5.9
49.8
17.2
83.7
-29.0
2.6
58.4
5.1
3.7
18.3
..
9.5
-50.0
-39.1
4.9
-5.5
11.0
9.7
16.5
6.5
19.8
13.4
..
2.0
..
14.2
6.6
4.1
..
17.5
19.0
10.9
16.2
-2.3
11.7
21.7
-7.4
29.8
54.9
8.6
15.7
48.1
23.2
21.3
22.1

15.9
14.6
14.6
56.2
6.9
40.0
2.8
-14.5
18.9
10.5
1.4
36.4
-14.8
-0.6
40.2
19.6
86.1
-18.2
1.5
56.0
10.7
6.1
13.9
..
7.2
-44.9
-87.5
9.3
1.2
14.8
25.8
15.3
8.8
20.6
..
..
1.8
..
10.8
12.8
7.6
..
17.2
18.6
10.4
14.5
-1.1
8.1
31.4
-9.3
33.4
56.6
12.1
17.1
66.8
24.0
21.6
23.8

16.6
15.0
15.0
43.9
6.1
39.3
..
-17.9
18.5
12.0
1.5
20.5
-15.4
8.7
46.8
14.6
86.9
-18.4
4.2
55.3
5.7
3.8
9.7
..
8.1
-41.7
-61.9
10.6
14.4
13.0
18.5
17.6
6.3
22.4
..
..
3.5
..
8.6
-1.7
6.1
..
18.3
26.7
11.0
12.8
-1.9
8.8
30.2
-1.5
32.8
57.5
17.4
16.3
63.6
23.4
21.9
24.0

16.3
13.5
13.5
41.3
7.1
32.0
..
-16.6
..
13.2
-1.3
27.4
-20.1
8.6
46.5
17.9
73.1
..
0.4
59.0
-1.3
2.0
10.3
..
5.1
-36.9
-76.1
10.0
4.5
..
12.5
14.1
1.6
21.8
..
..
7.0
..
3.9
5.8
1.7
..
19.1
26.8
1.7
16.1
0.9
15.3
24.6
-21.5
33.7
56.7
..
16.8
67.8
24.7
22.9
24.4

15.1
11.5
11.5
14.7
10.8
21.5
..
-9.3
..
6.8
2.7
5.7
-21.1
15.3
42.7
19.4
58.8
..
4.1
44.6
2.9
9.9
16.6
..
6.9
-41.7
-55.8
9.0
9.0
..
13.9
11.9
2.2
14.3
..
..
4.2
..
9.3
14.5
2.3
..
18.7
19.4
-2.0
17.1
2.4
12.7
25.6
-29.8
25.0
51.2
..
12.6
..
24.7
21.9
19.3

16.8
..
14.4
32.0
12.3
22.5
..
-12.4
..
18.3
..
10.7
..
..
50.9
18.9
58.5
..
0.4
51.9
2.4
15.0
16.0
..
9.0
-42.1
-49.9
..
8.2
..
15.7
12.5
6.0
26.9
..
..
1.2
..
10.8
..
3.3
..
19.1
24.2
-2.3
17.2
2.4
13.3
31.5
-26.8
25.6
50.7
..
14.1
..
25.2
21.1
20.7

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

20.1
11.9
11.9
24.0
-2.4
35.3
-1.6
3.1
24.2
29.8
-1.1
-8.1
-4.5
10.9
31.9
19.6
..
..
10.5
44.3
6.5
4.8
16.6
-0.9
18.3
-69.5
-8.0
2.9
12.7
-0.4
3.1
20.3
-6.2
10.8
7.3
..
5.0
..
4.3
24.1
9.1
-6.3
28.5
4.2
3.7
..
12.3
2.3
14.1
16.5
20.3
31.5
..
15.5
..
16.7
22.7
20.2

15.5
11.9
11.9
22.0
3.8
38.8
9.0
-5.3
18.5
7.0
3.7
-0.5
-4.9
8.8
28.8
17.8
13.7
-29.7
9.7
43.6
3.9
7.5
18.3
1.5
14.6
-36.6
..
4.2
3.4
7.6
10.8
24.1
-2.9
12.7
2.7
..
-5.5
..
5.4
21.7
2.8
-12.5
19.4
9.6
2.0
2.9
6.7
4.3
9.0
17.1
19.1
30.1
-6.4
14.2
17.6
17.8
21.8
17.1

16.1
13.7
13.8
32.2
7.1
36.0
2.6
-10.9
18.8
5.6
1.9
13.5
-11.1
5.9
47.3
19.3
76.4
-28.2
5.3
52.9
4.4
6.8
15.1
-13.2
8.4
-37.2
-29.3
9.2
4.1
12.2
10.5
19.3
6.0
18.1
5.9
..
2.3
..
9.2
14.0
-1.2
..
18.6
18.9
8.2
14.8
0.1
9.9
19.2
-6.1
27.8
49.8
5.7
14.8
46.6
23.8
21.5
21.3

a. Provisional.

20

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.14

Gross national savings

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria

Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

23.4
..
10.9
..
4.2
27.4
9.3
..
5.2
..
1.6
..
-0.4
..
26.1
8.6
..
..
..
47.8
16.4
6.3
..
..
17.2
49.6
14.6
-0.7
7.9
8.4
5.4
10.4
-6.6
..
17.1
..
14.0
..
2.7
32.4
2.9
20.1
33.9
4.5
..
..
27.2
1.9
7.8
12.0
25.9
41.0
..
21.0
..
18.6
25.3
24.5

15.8
12.8
12.8
9.0
5.3
41.7
15.9
8.7
16.2
53.9
6.2
2.3
14.4
..
6.9
-5.1
2.1
..
12.8
24.3
21.9
10.5
19.2
14.5
18.5
70.5
..
9.1
16.4
15.0
7.5
25.8
6.6
34.8
-0.6
..
11.3
..
1.6
21.7
-1.0
..
19.1
1.2
19.7
10.1
21.0
5.6
19.6
15.6
27.6
24.3
..
31.1
..
25.1
23.4
20.8

16.3
17.5
17.5
12.6
6.8
36.2
5.4
12.0
17.1
25.3
..
..
..
..
19.7
12.4
..
..
22.1
35.4
15.0
22.9
11.4
..
16.1
14.0
90.8
14.2
5.1
8.6
..
22.6
8.0
28.2
6.9
..
14.8
..
14.7
12.4
4.8
..
15.0
16.1
17.2
20.4
2.2
21.2
14.1
..
25.2
..
24.4
21.1
34.4
31.0
21.2
19.9

16.2
17.9
17.9
27.1
10.1
41.5
8.3
11.0
16.7
32.7
..
..
..
..
16.6
10.0
..
..
13.7
44.2
9.6
19.3
8.0
..
16.1
21.2
77.4
8.0
1.6
11.4
..
17.4
7.1
27.6
18.5
..
15.1
..
21.1
5.6
10.0
..
14.5
19.4
21.6
17.5
4.9
20.0
14.9
..
32.6
51.9
28.3
21.8
46.0
30.9
20.3
23.8

15.5
16.6
16.6
40.9
10.0
40.9
6.9
4.8
19.2
32.5
..
..
..
..
5.9
12.1
..
..
9.7
..
16.7
2.6
1.8
..
14.8
26.5
86.0
..
7.6
14.5
..
17.1
7.1
31.8
..
..
10.4
..
18.7
12.9
9.0
..
14.4
15.5
15.4
17.4
8.2
16.7
23.9
..
37.0
54.1
33.4
23.0
69.8
32.2
21.2
25.6

15.6
..
17.2
31.0
8.8
43.3
..
0.8
20.3
32.3
..
..
..
..
15.2
8.4
..
..
21.6
..
10.9
-1.1
-2.8
..
15.3
28.6
71.3
..
17.2
18.6
..
22.1
6.6
31.8
..
..
14.1
..
19.1
-6.6
10.3
..
14.1
19.2
18.7
15.7
7.9
16.1
21.9
..
37.6
57.9
37.1
23.6
66.5
32.3
20.9
26.0

15.4
..
15.9
24.8
10.6
35.0
..
-4.8
..
30.4
..
..
..
..
..
12.2
..
..
16.6
..
2.2
-1.3
-0.8
..
12.6
38.4
43.3
..
10.6
..
..
17.2
3.8
32.1
..
..
17.2
..
16.1
2.1
5.3
..
15.0
19.0
8.5
18.0
10.6
21.9
18.9
..
37.8
57.6
..
23.6
67.1
32.9
21.6
26.3

15.5
..
15.5
5.2
13.9
26.4
..
5.2
..
23.6
..
..
..
..
..
14.5
..
..
14.8
..
12.2
17.5
6.5
..
14.2
32.6
53.0
..
12.8
..
..
13.9
7.6
27.5
..
..
15.0
..
19.4
14.6
10.3
..
15.5
12.8
0.4
19.5
12.4
18.2
19.0
..
28.7
54.1
..
16.9
..
30.2
21.2
21.4

17.2
..
..
21.6
..
27.7
..
-5.4
..
34.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.6
..
9.4
20.6
7.1
..
15.6
12.7
29.0
..
..
..
..
15.6
12.2
34.1
..
..
12.2
..
..
..
13.0
..
16.5
17.5
2.4
20.1
..
19.0
22.5
..
27.7
48.4
..
17.8
..
30.8
20.3
22.2

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

18.6
13.1
12.4
13.8
4.6
34.3
14.6
11.2
18.8
59.2
6.1
6.2
15.0
..
25.5
6.8
..
..
13.4
33.7
16.9
7.3
12.4
1.8
18.0
42.0
-3.9
3.0
12.5
6.1
7.2
20.2
-2.3
..
8.8
..
12.0
..
4.2
27.3
7.7
19.2
24.4
3.7
..
..
16.8
5.5
3.2
14.6
23.6
29.4
..
21.8
..
20.5
23.7
20.8

15.2
14.0
14.0
1.6
7.8
40.5
21.5
6.2
13.4
34.9
8.1
4.6
15.4
..
5.3
6.0
14.7
32.8
15.5
29.3
8.9
13.5
18.7
9.0
21.8
50.6
..
5.1
8.1
14.7
17.3
26.5
6.0
27.5
3.7
..
14.2
..
6.3
21.5
0.8
..
16.6
4.0
16.2
8.7
10.8
14.4
7.1
15.7
28.3
28.6
11.4
24.7
..
21.6
21.7
18.4

15.9
16.3
16.2
18.5
9.8
35.8
6.7
4.4
16.5
27.0
..
..
..
..
17.0
11.7
..
4.4
17.5
37.1
10.4
14.2
8.4
-7.3
14.7
28.9
64.4
11.8
8.8
13.1
..
21.2
8.1
28.8
8.6
..
13.3
..
16.4
11.1
6.6
..
15.3
14.1
15.4
17.4
6.9
17.9
13.6
..
30.3
54.0
22.3
20.1
49.7
30.5
21.1
21.6

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

21

Table

2.15

General government final
consumption expenditure

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

15.1
..
16.1
..
8.6
21.3
9.2
9.2
9.7
..
15.1
..
30.9
8.4
17.6
16.9
..
..
..
13.2
31.2
11.2
..
27.6
19.8
21.8
21.3
12.1
19.3
11.6
45.3
14.0
12.2
17.4
10.4
..
12.5
..
24.8
28.7
8.4
15.6
14.3
16.0
27.0
..
22.4
..
25.5
18.5
15.9
15.2
..
15.7
..
18.3
14.5
15.5

17.5
15.6
15.6
34.5
11.0
24.1
21.1
10.8
12.8
16.3
14.9
10.1
24.5
11.5
13.9
16.8
39.7
..
13.2
13.4
13.8
9.3
11.0
10.3
18.6
25.8
..
8.0
15.1
13.8
25.9
13.6
13.5
30.6
15.0
..
10.1
..
18.4
27.7
7.8
..
19.7
5.8
14.3
17.8
14.2
7.5
19.0
19.5
15.2
16.1
31.5
11.3
24.4
15.5
16.4
16.4

16.5
13.9
13.9
..
13.6
21.1
21.6
19.6
10.2
28.7
10.6
4.9
14.3
8.2
15.0
8.3
2.9
44.8
13.1
9.3
7.1
12.2
7.0
..
17.9
35.6
11.1
6.9
12.5
10.0
17.6
14.3
10.8
20.4
12.5
..
18.4
..
13.7
28.3
13.3
..
19.4
11.8
15.1
16.9
10.3
13.9
18.0
21.0
14.3
13.8
29.7
12.8
13.1
18.7
16.9
15.5

16.7
14.2
14.2
20.0
15.0
22.4
22.2
19.0
10.0
28.5
13.3
5.1
13.5
8.2
13.0
8.3
2.7
39.7
12.3
8.3
7.7
15.3
7.0
..
17.4
36.7
11.4
9.0
14.3
10.0
18.0
14.8
10.4
19.3
11.5
..
18.2
..
9.6
20.5
13.8
..
19.5
18.2
15.2
17.6
11.5
14.5
9.7
15.2
13.8
11.6
27.1
12.7
11.8
19.4
16.9
15.4

16.4
13.4
13.4
18.5
..
19.0
21.7
20.4
9.6
25.7
11.1
4.9
14.2
7.6
13.9
8.3
2.6
38.0
12.1
8.4
8.0
11.3
8.1
..
17.6
35.4
9.4
8.8
14.6
9.9
15.2
14.2
10.7
19.5
..
..
18.2
..
9.7
18.8
13.8
..
19.7
17.3
13.9
17.5
11.4
14.1
10.2
5.9
13.2
11.2
28.0
12.3
10.7
18.6
16.7
14.9

15.9
13.1
13.1
15.3
..
19.4
..
28.8
9.2
25.8
2.7
10.3
14.3
10.3
17.0
8.7
2.3
32.8
10.4
8.9
7.9
11.6
6.8
..
17.9
35.7
13.6
12.3
14.1
10.3
14.8
12.9
11.8
20.7
..
..
16.5
..
10.0
16.2
11.8
..
19.0
15.5
14.1
19.3
9.2
12.9
10.3
3.2
12.9
11.3
25.1
11.3
11.6
18.2
16.5
14.5

16.2
13.0
13.0
17.1
..
18.9
..
30.0
..
25.6
6.6
12.4
15.3
11.0
12.0
8.6
2.7
..
9.7
8.2
9.6
11.2
9.3
..
16.5
36.9
18.3
11.3
17.3
..
14.7
12.7
12.1
20.8
..
..
14.7
..
9.7
12.8
12.5
..
19.3
15.8
13.4
17.4
..
11.2
8.8
2.1
12.5
12.9
..
10.9
9.3
17.2
16.1
14.5

17.5
13.8
13.8
17.4
..
24.3
..
26.9
..
25.7
4.5
15.1
15.3
7.6
12.2
8.7
3.9
..
8.2
11.5
9.3
11.7
7.9
..
15.8
39.8
20.7
11.6
20.9
..
16.2
14.1
13.3
25.0
..
..
14.5
..
8.7
11.1
14.0
..
21.1
13.9
14.7
17.5
..
11.6
13.1
13.3
13.7
14.2
..
11.4
..
18.2
16.2
15.8

18.2
..
14.6
17.6
..
20.9
..
31.6
..
26.1
..
13.2
..
..
10.4
8.6
..
..
10.2
10.0
9.6
9.5
7.5
..
16.7
37.2
18.6
..
20.2
..
13.1
13.9
12.7
24.2
..
..
15.5
..
8.7
..
12.3
..
21.5
15.2
26.8
18.2
..
11.7
13.3
19.1
..
..
..
11.2
..
17.5
16.3
16.4

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

16.5
15.6
15.6
31.5
12.7
24.4
15.6
9.3
10.1
14.5
15.7
11.4
28.6
9.0
17.7
16.5
27.4
..
11.2
18.3
29.1
9.0
11.6
18.9
18.3
23.3
24.3
9.8
17.5
12.3
30.7
12.6
13.8
27.9
11.9
..
13.0
..
19.3
33.1
7.7
17.6
17.4
11.1
21.5
..
16.9
9.9
23.1
20.1
16.6
17.2
..
16.2
..
16.6
16.5
16.5

16.7
14.4
14.4
40.7
10.5
26.7
22.5
17.0
10.6
17.1
13.9
8.1
20.3
9.9
18.1
11.9
25.1
39.7
9.8
13.2
12.2
11.7
8.2
8.4
15.8
33.6
..
7.9
16.6
12.7
15.5
14.0
9.7
31.0
14.6
..
11.5
..
15.1
29.0
10.6
..
19.4
6.1
17.1
14.8
12.8
11.1
17.7
17.6
15.3
16.6
31.8
10.9
24.3
17.0
16.2
16.1

16.4
13.5
13.6
17.6
12.9
21.3
22.2
22.0
9.9
26.0
9.9
8.8
14.7
7.8
14.1
8.2
3.4
44.4
12.4
9.7
9.1
11.3
7.6
13.1
16.9
37.2
11.4
9.5
15.5
9.4
17.7
13.9
10.8
21.8
12.2
..
15.0
..
11.1
20.5
14.1
..
19.4
13.2
16.3
16.0
10.2
13.9
11.8
14.3
13.9
13.3
28.0
11.8
14.4
18.3
16.7
15.3

a. Provisional.

22

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.16

Household final consumption
expenditure

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

59.0
..
71.6
..
97.7
52.0
98.0
91.4
68.6
..
93.7
..
79.2
81.6
46.8
62.8
..
..
..
26.1
63.0
83.9
..
73.3
62.1
130.3
73.7
89.3
69.9
87.4
58.2
75.6
96.7
44.2
75.1
..
83.3
..
73.1
44.2
90.7
97.3
47.8
81.9
71.8
..
54.5
..
55.2
67.7
61.3
41.7
..
69.2
..
66.8
61.5
60.0

65.2
72.3
72.3
35.8
86.8
33.2
73.5
94.6
66.6
58.5
85.7
97.6
78.7
79.1
62.4
71.9
80.3
..
77.2
49.7
75.6
85.2
66.9
86.9
62.8
123.3
..
86.4
71.5
79.8
69.2
63.4
92.3
51.2
83.8
..
83.7
..
79.2
52.0
83.5
..
57.1
86.1
80.5
81.0
71.1
91.9
64.4
63.1
64.1
56.8
78.9
72.6
48.4
64.6
63.6
64.7

67.9
72.5
72.5
..
80.9
38.4
76.6
87.9
71.4
69.4
89.5
70.6
94.2
87.8
32.8
71.7
18.2
90.4
78.2
36.2
83.2
80.5
74.6
..
71.4
111.2
123.6
84.5
87.5
81.4
76.1
63.7
81.4
62.8
83.6
..
80.3
..
78.4
57.0
87.2
..
62.9
69.5
72.2
66.9
94.5
76.0
62.1
81.6
58.1
38.5
66.0
71.7
44.2
57.2
62.3
63.4

67.5
71.4
71.4
38.7
78.1
34.5
73.0
93.1
72.0
64.2
86.6
59.8
98.8
85.9
37.2
74.5
13.6
89.3
85.1
33.3
87.2
81.0
74.8
..
73.2
113.3
127.8
86.2
91.1
79.1
72.3
68.7
83.2
60.9
75.1
..
79.8
..
76.3
72.9
82.2
..
63.1
62.8
73.9
66.3
90.8
73.8
68.6
92.2
56.4
33.6
64.3
71.6
40.2
57.5
61.8
62.5

67.7
71.9
71.9
25.4
..
41.0
75.5
94.1
71.5
63.8
87.6
58.7
100.6
93.0
45.9
72.0
11.3
80.2
86.4
35.6
81.3
82.6
78.0
..
75.2
109.5
178.2
82.0
84.2
75.3
59.0
70.5
80.5
60.0
..
..
80.1
..
79.6
68.4
78.6
..
63.1
64.1
75.7
68.0
89.7
77.9
58.4
103.5
53.4
32.2
59.9
70.6
22.5
57.5
61.7
61.2

67.4
71.7
71.7
40.8
..
41.4
..
89.2
72.2
62.1
95.9
69.2
101.2
81.0
36.2
76.8
10.8
85.6
85.5
35.9
86.5
84.6
83.6
..
74.0
106.0
148.3
77.1
71.5
76.8
66.7
69.5
81.9
56.9
..
..
80.0
..
81.4
85.6
82.0
..
62.7
57.8
74.9
67.9
92.8
78.4
59.5
98.3
54.3
31.2
57.5
72.4
24.8
58.4
61.6
61.4

67.4
73.3
73.3
41.6
..
49.2
..
86.6
..
61.2
94.7
60.2
104.8
80.4
41.6
73.6
24.2
..
89.9
32.9
91.7
86.8
80.5
..
78.4
100.0
157.8
78.8
78.2
..
72.8
73.2
86.4
57.5
..
..
78.4
..
86.4
81.4
85.9
..
61.6
57.5
84.9
66.4
..
73.5
66.5
119.4
53.8
30.4
..
72.3
22.9
58.1
61.0
61.0

67.3
74.6
74.6
67.9
..
54.2
..
82.4
..
67.5
92.8
79.3
105.9
77.1
45.0
71.9
37.3
..
87.6
43.8
87.8
78.4
75.5
..
77.3
101.9
135.1
79.4
70.1
..
69.9
74.1
84.5
60.6
..
..
81.3
..
82.0
74.5
83.7
..
60.3
66.7
87.3
65.5
..
75.7
61.3
116.4
61.3
34.7
..
76.1
..
57.1
61.9
64.7

64.9
..
71.0
50.4
..
56.6
..
80.8
..
55.6
..
76.1
..
..
38.6
72.5
..
..
89.4
38.2
88.0
75.5
76.5
..
74.4
104.8
131.3
..
71.7
..
71.2
73.6
81.4
49.0
..
..
83.3
..
80.5
..
84.4
..
59.4
60.6
75.5
64.7
..
75.0
55.2
107.7
..
..
..
74.7
..
57.3
62.7
66.5

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

63.3
72.5
72.4
44.5
89.7
40.4
86.0
87.5
65.8
55.7
85.5
96.8
76.0
80.0
50.3
63.9
..
..
78.4
37.4
64.4
86.2
71.8
82.0
63.3
146.3
83.7
87.2
69.8
88.1
66.3
67.1
92.3
61.3
80.8
..
82.0
..
76.4
42.7
83.2
100.6
54.2
84.8
74.7
..
70.8
87.2
62.9
63.4
63.1
51.3
..
68.3
..
66.7
60.8
63.2

67.9
74.0
74.0
42.6
85.7
34.5
68.5
88.3
70.9
75.9
82.4
92.5
84.6
81.3
53.1
70.3
61.2
90.0
80.5
43.2
84.0
80.8
73.5
90.1
69.6
103.0
..
87.9
80.0
79.7
73.7
62.0
93.2
56.3
82.7
..
94.0
..
79.6
49.3
86.6
..
61.2
84.3
80.9
82.3
80.5
84.6
73.3
65.3
65.6
53.3
73.8
75.0
58.1
65.3
62.0
66.9

67.5
73.0
72.8
44.1
81.3
42.7
75.2
88.9
71.4
68.5
88.2
77.8
96.4
86.3
38.6
72.5
18.4
83.9
82.3
37.4
86.5
81.9
77.3
100.1
74.7
99.9
118.0
81.3
80.4
78.4
71.8
66.8
83.1
60.2
81.9
..
82.7
..
79.7
65.6
87.1
..
62.0
67.9
75.5
69.1
90.4
76.3
69.0
91.7
58.1
37.0
66.3
73.4
39.0
58.0
61.9
63.7

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

23

Table

2.17

Final consumption expenditure
plus discrepancy

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excl. South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

74.8
88.3
88.3
..
106.4
73.3
107.2
100.6
78.3
..
108.9
..
110.1
89.9
64.4
79.6
..
..
..
39.4
94.2
95.1
..
101.0
81.9
152.0
95.0
101.4
89.2
98.9
103.5
89.6
108.9
61.6
85.4
..
95.8
..
97.9
72.9
99.1
112.9
62.1
97.9
98.8
..
76.8
100.4
80.7
86.2
77.2
56.9
..
84.8
..
85.2
76.0
75.8

82.8
88.1
88.1
70.3
97.8
57.4
94.6
105.4
79.3
74.7
100.6
107.7
103.2
90.7
76.2
88.7
120.1
..
90.4
63.1
89.3
94.5
77.8
97.2
81.5
149.1
..
94.5
86.6
93.6
95.1
77.0
105.8
81.8
98.9
..
93.8
..
97.6
79.7
91.3
112.5
76.8
91.9
94.8
98.7
85.3
99.4
83.4
82.6
79.3
72.9
110.5
83.9
72.8
80.1
80.0
81.2

84.2
86.0
86.0
74.9
94.5
59.5
98.2
107.5
81.5
98.1
100.0
75.5
108.5
96.0
47.8
80.0
21.1
135.1
91.2
45.4
90.3
92.7
81.6
..
89.3
146.8
134.6
91.5
100.0
91.4
93.7
78.0
92.3
83.2
96.1
..
98.6
..
92.1
85.3
100.4
..
82.2
81.3
87.3
83.8
104.8
89.9
80.1
102.6
72.4
52.3
95.7
84.4
57.3
75.8
79.2
78.9

84.2
85.6
85.6
58.7
93.1
56.9
95.2
112.1
82.0
92.8
99.9
64.9
112.3
94.1
50.2
82.8
16.3
129.0
97.4
41.7
94.9
96.3
81.8
..
90.6
150.0
139.1
95.1
105.5
89.0
90.3
83.5
93.5
80.2
86.6
..
98.0
..
85.8
93.4
95.9
..
82.5
81.0
89.1
83.9
102.3
88.3
78.3
107.4
70.2
45.1
91.4
84.3
52.0
76.8
78.7
77.9

84.1
85.4
85.4
43.8
93.1
60.0
97.2
114.5
81.1
89.5
98.6
63.6
114.8
100.6
59.8
80.4
13.9
118.2
98.5
44.0
89.3
93.9
86.1
..
92.8
144.9
187.5
90.8
98.8
85.3
74.2
84.7
91.2
79.5
..
..
98.2
..
89.3
87.2
92.4
..
82.8
81.4
89.6
85.5
101.1
92.0
68.6
109.3
66.6
43.4
87.9
82.9
33.2
76.1
78.4
76.2

83.4
85.0
85.0
56.1
93.9
60.7
..
117.9
81.5
88.0
98.5
79.5
115.4
91.3
53.2
85.4
13.1
118.4
95.8
44.7
94.4
96.2
90.3
..
91.9
141.7
161.9
89.4
85.6
87.0
81.5
82.4
93.7
77.6
..
..
96.5
..
91.4
101.7
93.9
..
81.7
73.3
89.0
87.2
101.9
91.2
69.8
101.5
67.2
42.5
82.6
83.7
36.4
76.6
78.1
76.1

83.7
86.5
86.5
58.7
92.9
68.0
..
116.6
..
86.8
101.3
72.6
120.1
91.4
53.6
82.2
26.9
..
99.6
41.0
101.3
98.0
89.7
..
94.9
136.9
176.1
90.0
95.5
..
87.5
85.9
98.4
78.3
..
..
93.1
..
96.1
94.2
98.3
..
80.9
73.2
98.3
83.9
99.1
84.7
75.4
121.5
66.3
43.3
..
83.2
32.2
75.3
77.1
75.6

84.9
88.5
88.5
85.3
89.2
78.5
..
109.3
..
93.2
97.3
94.3
121.1
84.7
57.3
80.6
41.2
..
95.9
55.4
97.1
90.2
83.4
..
93.1
141.7
155.8
91.0
91.0
..
86.1
88.1
97.8
85.7
..
..
95.8
..
90.7
85.5
97.7
..
81.4
80.6
102.0
83.0
97.6
87.3
74.4
129.8
75.0
48.8
..
87.5
..
75.3
78.1
80.7

83.2
..
85.6
68.0
87.7
77.5
..
112.4
..
81.7
..
89.3
..
..
49.1
81.1
41.5
..
99.6
48.1
97.6
85.0
84.0
..
91.1
142.1
149.9
..
91.8
..
84.3
87.5
94.0
73.1
..
..
98.8
..
89.2
..
96.7
..
80.9
75.8
102.3
82.8
97.7
86.7
68.5
126.8
74.4
49.3
..
85.9
..
74.8
78.9
79.3

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

79.9
88.1
88.1
76.0
102.4
64.7
101.6
96.9
75.8
70.2
101.1
108.1
104.5
89.1
68.1
80.4
..
..
89.5
55.7
93.5
95.3
83.4
100.9
81.7
169.5
108.0
97.1
87.3
100.4
96.9
79.7
106.2
89.2
92.7
..
95.0
..
95.7
75.9
90.9
106.3
71.5
95.8
96.3
..
87.7
97.7
86.0
83.5
79.7
68.5
..
84.5
..
83.3
77.4
79.8

84.6
88.1
88.1
78.0
96.2
61.2
91.0
105.3
81.5
93.0
96.3
100.5
104.9
91.2
71.2
82.2
86.3
129.7
90.3
56.4
96.1
92.5
81.7
98.5
85.4
136.6
..
95.8
96.6
92.4
89.2
75.9
102.9
87.3
97.3
..
105.5
..
94.6
78.3
97.2
112.5
80.6
90.4
98.0
97.1
93.3
95.7
91.0
82.9
80.9
69.9
106.4
85.8
82.4
82.2
78.2
82.9

83.9
86.3
86.2
67.8
92.9
64.0
97.4
110.9
81.2
94.5
98.1
86.5
111.1
94.2
52.7
80.7
23.6
128.2
94.7
47.1
95.6
93.2
84.9
113.2
91.6
137.2
129.3
90.8
95.9
87.8
89.5
80.7
94.0
82.0
94.1
..
97.7
..
90.8
86.0
101.2
..
81.4
81.1
91.8
85.2
100.0
90.1
80.8
106.1
72.2
50.2
94.3
85.2
53.4
76.2
78.5
78.7

a. Provisional.

24

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.18

Final consumption expenditure
plus discrepancy per capita

Current prices
($)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

455
367
382
..
414
781
287
224
579
..
382
..
413
479
610
953
..
..
..
2,468
360
387
..
134
366
501
422
476
177
244
484
1,054
316
1,320
365
..
215
..
633
1,667
345
106
1,818
494
888
..
327
99
543
790
848
1,281
..
432
..
819
1,041
527

497
361
373
698
378
1,574
315
213
726
659
510
311
589
233
893
765
424
..
226
4,046
293
376
360
233
299
492
..
258
174
261
486
1,929
192
1,359
315
..
341
..
771
4,196
149
156
2,444
557
1,224
165
379
242
349
693
1,112
1,788
888
636
4,857
835
1,205
610

595
371
380
928
517
3,229
364
137
749
1,942
321
352
628
112
645
698
1,877
347
126
2,426
358
389
336
..
414
885
203
230
211
349
580
4,036
260
2,690
234
..
229
..
699
7,234
222
..
3,860
586
2,079
285
384
259
389
473
1,310
1,373
803
914
3,385
1,435
2,487
708

655
408
417
1,005
523
3,112
366
173
774
1,907
336
352
676
118
864
752
2,208
316
161
2,633
402
477
266
..
476
994
237
268
227
359
647
4,219
296
2,799
227
..
275
..
688
10,330
231
..
4,319
721
2,263
305
400
287
490
492
1,404
1,404
801
1,019
3,961
1,504
2,534
772

717
468
479
1,077
560
3,553
389
189
812
2,073
356
385
701
150
1,275
762
2,128
308
197
3,007
385
864
264
..
571
993
342
272
233
368
721
4,402
304
2,993
..
..
324
..
749
10,510
247
..
4,525
944
2,592
307
403
312
625
475
1,509
1,523
820
1,179
3,178
1,626
2,662
839

810
557
570
1,934
642
3,900
..
202
918
2,424
402
538
791
150
1,197
907
2,562
325
241
3,636
494
1,043
406
..
668
1,075
344
346
218
444
852
5,093
345
3,165
..
..
372
..
902
12,190
285
..
4,843
1,068
2,664
357
455
358
668
430
1,773
1,701
834
1,420
4,338
1,859
2,973
959

881
675
691
2,739
743
4,679
..
238
..
2,781
474
570
913
171
1,655
1,013
7,478
..
334
4,112
642
1,202
355
..
753
1,046
409
433
278
..
952
6,526
436
3,143
..
..
438
..
1,091
10,429
343
..
4,540
1,310
2,876
411
543
390
891
431
2,118
2,149
..
1,730
4,876
2,136
3,350
1,076

893
684
700
3,470
683
4,568
..
243
..
3,036
446
611
906
148
1,394
960
7,406
..
377
4,101
568
983
356
..
721
1,129
357
384
298
..
772
6,100
414
3,412
..
..
488
..
957
8,243
316
..
4,668
1,335
2,883
407
522
426
749
607
2,248
1,930
..
2,073
..
2,165
3,258
1,107

990
698
714
2,938
650
5,755
..
272
..
2,734
..
680
..
..
1,457
941
8,587
..
356
4,221
593
1,121
399
..
724
1,426
371
..
311
..
881
6,635
370
3,566
..
..
523
..
923
..
315
..
5,884
1,512
3,584
423
515
446
858
754
2,449
2,250
..
2,318
..
2,126
3,310
1,217

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

455
340
352
598
330
816
245
216
663
501
359
224
393
299
693
679
..
..
200
2,564
278
353
348
171
299
453
436
320
150
203
451
1,103
275
1,437
278
..
272
..
574
2,170
255
138
2,094
670
754
..
287
231
418
703
957
1,697
..
529
..
641
961
547

477
312
321
484
347
1,803
226
173
636
1,084
352
237
500
158
628
642
418
239
159
2,716
631
363
386
214
314
557
..
245
183
237
532
2,484
187
1,662
219
..
280
..
602
5,142
192
156
2,782
415
1,490
197
334
221
346
544
1,150
1,216
830
832
5,175
987
1,527
597

658
457
468
1,483
530
3,409
300
180
682
2,061
338
400
639
122
955
742
3,210
282
203
2,925
481
655
328
184
530
859
256
295
225
307
666
4,459
297
2,730
196
..
314
..
728
8,404
253
..
3,830
840
2,190
323
397
307
544
502
1,618
1,509
790
1,385
3,678
1,561
2,564
813

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

25

Table

2.19

Gross fixed capital formation

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

22.6
..
18.9
..
..
34.5
14.1
13.9
20.0
..
7.0
..
28.5
8.8
35.8
24.4
..
..
..
26.7
..
6.1
..
28.2
18.3
35.6
..
14.4
22.2
15.5
21.4
23.2
7.6
27.2
25.5
..
12.2
..
14.6
36.5
14.9
43.1
25.9
10.8
35.0
..
28.2
..
18.2
14.1
26.8
33.8
..
24.6
..
22.2
28.3
24.5

18.3
17.5
17.5
11.1
13.4
32.4
17.7
15.2
17.3
25.3
11.4
4.8
11.9
12.8
17.2
8.5
17.4
..
12.9
21.5
22.3
14.4
22.9
29.9
20.7
57.0
..
14.8
20.1
23.0
20.0
30.6
22.1
21.2
11.4
..
14.7
..
18.0
23.0
9.6
14.9
19.1
10.4
14.6
25.8
25.3
12.7
13.5
18.2
24.5
27.0
14.2
26.9
13.9
24.0
24.4
21.1

17.3
18.5
18.5
9.1
17.5
24.8
19.3
10.3
18.3
38.9
6.2
22.7
9.4
12.8
21.9
9.9
40.5
18.9
25.5
24.4
24.2
28.4
19.8
..
16.3
26.5
6.3
23.4
16.2
21.0
44.4
21.6
18.7
18.6
15.8
..
15.0
..
22.7
12.7
10.5
..
16.0
17.2
15.3
22.2
15.7
19.9
23.0
5.1
19.7
24.1
21.5
16.4
13.9
26.3
22.1
18.4

18.2
19.5
19.5
8.9
18.9
24.5
19.3
8.7
17.7
35.8
8.9
16.7
9.3
14.0
19.7
9.7
37.6
19.7
23.0
21.3
21.6
29.0
18.6
..
18.7
21.1
13.3
22.2
20.2
22.7
59.0
21.4
18.7
18.6
18.5
..
15.8
..
29.6
23.8
17.0
..
16.8
24.1
15.0
24.7
15.8
22.2
22.4
2.0
20.3
22.3
19.0
17.9
15.8
27.5
21.3
19.2

19.0
19.5
19.5
15.4
18.2
21.6
20.5
14.2
16.7
38.7
9.2
13.2
9.6
12.6
21.3
9.3
31.4
13.3
24.2
25.9
23.8
21.6
16.6
..
19.1
21.5
24.4
25.3
22.7
22.9
27.4
24.3
17.7
21.6
..
..
16.0
..
28.2
24.8
15.2
..
18.3
25.1
12.8
27.2
16.2
20.9
22.5
2.2
21.6
22.9
29.6
18.7
20.7
28.1
22.6
20.2

20.3
20.5
20.5
13.5
21.4
23.9
..
18.2
17.1
46.4
9.0
17.0
11.2
19.5
21.4
8.7
33.3
11.0
23.5
25.9
18.3
20.1
13.9
..
19.4
22.0
27.1
32.4
24.0
22.4
27.6
25.1
16.1
23.7
..
..
18.1
..
30.9
29.7
13.2
..
20.2
26.5
12.3
29.2
14.4
21.9
23.8
5.1
24.3
26.0
37.5
20.9
25.0
31.3
23.0
22.1

21.8
20.9
20.9
16.2
20.7
22.8
..
18.7
..
46.2
11.6
23.9
14.3
23.8
18.0
10.1
28.4
..
19.9
24.4
14.0
21.5
15.6
..
19.4
28.2
34.2
40.4
23.3
..
27.3
24.6
15.7
26.1
..
..
22.7
..
30.2
24.5
14.7
..
22.7
22.7
11.1
29.4
14.0
22.8
22.2
3.3
25.6
26.4
..
22.3
27.9
33.0
23.5
23.6

22.1
21.6
21.6
15.2
25.3
28.8
..
18.8
..
39.1
10.8
31.6
12.4
28.7
22.2
11.4
60.1
..
22.5
27.0
18.0
19.7
21.3
..
19.1
28.0
24.6
33.0
21.8
..
24.6
26.4
20.7
25.5
..
..
21.6
..
27.9
22.0
15.4
..
22.7
21.8
11.0
28.4
16.0
23.9
22.2
2.4
26.2
38.3
..
18.9
..
30.9
24.2
23.9

20.4
..
21.3
12.6
26.1
27.1
..
18.0
..
46.8
..
31.8
..
..
20.3
13.8
..
..
21.5
26.6
19.4
21.8
20.0
..
19.9
28.5
34.5
..
21.7
..
24.5
24.9
24.7
25.7
..
..
21.0
..
29.0
..
15.8
..
19.6
20.4
11.1
28.4
18.9
23.3
22.4
5.7
..
..
..
18.6
..
30.7
24.3
21.0

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

20.1
16.6
17.1
14.2
14.8
29.0
17.4
16.1
21.1
29.8
10.2
4.5
24.3
11.4
32.5
15.8
..
..
15.7
33.8
19.0
7.9
16.4
32.0
18.8
40.3
..
10.8
15.8
17.2
27.1
21.2
12.2
18.6
14.2
..
14.4
..
17.4
25.6
11.4
26.9
23.1
12.4
25.4
..
19.0
9.3
12.5
16.0
27.9
31.9
..
27.8
..
23.1
27.5
23.5

17.1
17.9
17.9
23.2
15.7
27.2
21.2
9.0
14.5
29.6
11.2
11.0
14.7
8.0
24.9
11.4
59.5
26.1
16.5
25.5
10.6
19.7
20.0
25.9
17.6
65.4
..
12.4
15.2
22.5
20.2
26.9
20.7
21.0
9.0
..
14.5
..
19.9
29.2
7.2
14.9
16.3
10.6
16.7
21.5
15.6
15.9
12.4
19.0
21.3
26.2
11.1
20.4
12.7
22.2
25.0
19.0

18.7
19.3
19.4
13.2
20.2
24.9
18.2
11.7
18.0
38.3
8.9
29.3
10.8
14.1
21.8
10.4
43.9
22.3
22.5
24.7
15.7
23.1
17.6
12.0
18.2
29.5
17.2
24.2
19.0
23.4
28.1
23.5
21.4
21.5
14.2
..
18.5
..
26.3
23.9
12.7
..
17.9
18.9
15.4
23.5
15.5
21.3
21.5
6.7
21.7
25.2
18.6
18.6
16.9
28.1
23.6
20.1

a. Provisional.

26

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.20

Gross general government fixed capital formation

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

6.6
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
12.8
4.5
..
3.7
..
23.2
5.1
..
11.4
..
..
..
5.3
..
..
..
..
0.0
9.9
..
..
17.5
..
21.4
8.4
7.6
15.7
20.4
..
12.2
..
4.7
..
5.3
..
6.4
6.9
11.9
..
20.2
..
..
1.8
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
15.0
..

5.6
7.2
7.2
..
7.4
8.6
9.7
12.5
5.5
11.3
4.7
..
5.2
4.0
5.6
3.6
10.5
..
4.0
3.9
7.4
7.5
9.7
27.4
9.7
26.2
..
7.9
7.7
10.5
6.2
11.4
12.0
8.2
7.4
..
5.9
..
4.1
8.2
3.9
..
3.9
..
4.5
10.5
7.3
6.2
6.2
3.4
10.8
8.2
9.1
14.7
..
4.8
8.7
7.8

5.4
6.3
6.3
4.9
5.4
8.3
7.2
7.6
2.6
10.8
2.0
7.8
4.4
2.8
6.5
2.8
13.1
14.4
15.8
4.2
10.0
12.4
3.7
..
4.3
7.7
2.1
10.0
9.1
7.5
8.9
6.6
10.7
6.3
5.1
..
8.9
..
6.7
3.1
4.5
..
4.3
5.0
8.1
5.7
1.6
4.9
8.7
5.1
8.4
10.6
7.7
8.8
12.3
3.8
3.5
6.7

5.2
6.1
6.1
5.5
6.7
7.2
7.3
4.7
2.5
12.9
4.0
7.8
4.5
3.7
6.3
2.7
10.3
17.9
14.7
4.2
8.0
12.0
2.8
..
2.5
4.3
1.1
8.7
7.2
7.7
6.8
6.3
8.6
6.4
6.3
..
8.7
..
10.0
4.4
5.7
..
4.3
5.9
7.9
6.0
2.8
5.0
7.0
2.0
8.9
10.8
9.3
9.3
14.1
3.7
3.0
6.9

5.8
6.5
6.5
13.0
4.6
6.2
7.9
6.2
2.4
12.8
3.7
8.1
5.0
3.0
9.5
3.1
15.1
12.2
16.7
4.8
8.4
8.8
2.6
..
3.1
5.5
1.3
10.6
7.8
8.6
5.9
7.7
11.8
6.8
..
..
7.5
..
9.7
7.7
5.1
..
5.0
6.7
6.8
5.9
3.4
4.6
4.1
2.2
8.9
12.0
7.5
8.0
16.7
3.6
3.1
7.2

6.5
6.8
6.8
11.5
7.5
8.6
..
9.2
2.4
11.4
2.7
7.3
6.2
8.8
10.4
2.6
16.9
9.8
16.8
4.5
4.7
8.5
2.3
..
3.9
4.7
2.2
7.0
14.8
8.4
6.7
5.4
11.7
2.9
..
..
8.7
..
11.2
4.5
3.5
..
6.1
9.5
6.5
7.2
2.0
4.9
4.1
1.3
10.2
16.5
12.2
7.8
19.8
3.6
2.9
8.2

7.6
7.2
7.2
14.1
5.8
12.5
..
9.4
..
13.8
4.5
7.9
9.3
12.6
8.9
3.1
16.9
..
14.0
4.6
3.7
9.4
3.5
..
4.4
9.0
3.0
7.1
9.4
..
6.5
4.1
11.5
3.5
..
..
10.9
..
10.0
3.2
6.2
..
8.0
6.5
5.8
8.2
3.2
4.5
5.1
0.3
10.6
16.1
..
7.9
22.0
4.6
2.8
9.0

8.6
8.0
8.0
12.4
9.7
15.8
..
9.1
..
14.0
3.8
10.5
4.7
22.9
10.8
3.0
43.0
..
16.6
6.0
7.4
5.2
4.6
..
5.3
11.5
3.5
3.2
6.9
..
7.1
6.6
12.9
5.5
..
..
11.1
..
10.1
3.0
7.8
..
9.2
5.5
5.8
8.6
5.5
6.2
4.4
0.8
11.1
24.0
..
8.0
..
6.0
3.5
9.7

7.6
..
7.5
9.7
10.0
13.2
..
8.0
..
18.8
..
9.1
..
..
10.1
4.6
..
..
16.5
9.2
8.2
3.9
4.3
..
0.0
12.7
5.7
..
10.1
..
7.9
6.1
13.6
6.5
..
..
11.5
..
10.8
..
7.7
..
7.7
7.3
5.8
8.3
7.9
5.6
4.1
5.6
12.0
27.7
..
6.4
..
5.7
..
9.4

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

6.1
6.6
6.3
..
9.1
9.7
10.4
13.8
6.9
21.4
5.5
3.8
18.7
4.4
11.1
7.1
..
..
4.9
6.7
10.4
6.3
7.5
33.3
0.8
17.2
..
6.9
9.5
10.2
17.6
7.4
9.5
10.7
11.2
..
12.1
..
3.7
12.0
4.0
..
5.7
4.3
8.0
..
11.2
4.4
..
2.9
13.0
13.8
..
16.9
..
7.1
14.1
8.9

4.7
6.5
6.5
7.8
7.5
11.7
10.5
9.3
2.9
20.2
6.2
7.4
7.0
1.7
6.4
5.6
6.9
17.6
6.6
6.5
7.4
11.1
6.1
20.2
7.1
18.7
..
6.9
9.2
10.1
3.4
9.2
12.1
8.2
5.6
..
7.2
..
4.5
9.9
3.8
..
2.8
0.7
5.4
6.0
3.7
5.6
6.8
3.0
10.4
7.2
6.1
14.5
..
4.2
9.3
7.1

5.9
6.4
6.5
8.9
7.1
10.4
7.0
6.4
2.3
12.7
3.6
9.1
5.3
5.8
8.6
3.0
14.6
17.1
14.8
4.8
7.2
9.1
3.8
10.9
3.7
8.9
4.2
7.3
8.9
7.7
7.3
6.6
11.5
5.8
7.0
..
8.2
..
8.2
7.1
5.4
..
5.3
5.2
6.4
6.0
3.1
5.3
7.5
2.2
9.2
14.1
6.6
8.4
14.9
4.4
3.5
7.4

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

27

Table

2.21

Private sector fixed capital formation

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

16.3
..
..
..
..
34.5
..
1.1
15.6
..
3.2
..
5.3
3.7
..
13.0
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
8.2
25.7
..
..
4.8
..
0.0
14.9
0.0
11.4
5.1
..
..
..
9.9
..
9.5
..
19.5
3.9
23.1
..
8.0
..
..
12.3
..
22.8
..
..
..
16.7
13.3
..

13.0
10.8
10.8
1.7
6.0
23.8
8.0
2.7
11.9
14.0
6.7
..
6.7
8.9
11.6
4.9
6.9
..
8.9
17.6
14.9
6.9
8.8
8.4
10.9
30.8
..
6.9
12.4
12.4
13.8
19.2
10.1
13.0
4.0
..
8.7
..
13.9
14.8
5.7
..
15.3
..
10.1
15.3
18.0
6.5
7.3
14.8
15.4
18.8
5.1
12.3
..
19.2
15.6
14.0

12.0
12.3
12.3
4.2
12.1
16.5
..
2.7
15.7
28.2
4.1
14.9
5.0
10.0
15.4
7.1
27.4
4.5
9.7
20.2
14.2
16.0
16.1
..
12.0
18.7
4.2
13.4
7.1
13.5
35.5
15.0
8.0
15.7
10.7
..
6.2
..
16.0
9.7
5.9
..
11.7
12.2
7.2
16.5
14.1
15.0
14.3
0.0
11.3
13.6
13.8
7.7
1.6
22.4
18.6
11.7

13.0
13.5
13.5
3.4
12.2
17.3
..
4.0
15.2
23.0
4.9
8.9
4.8
10.4
13.5
7.0
27.4
1.9
8.3
17.1
13.6
17.0
15.8
..
16.2
16.8
12.2
13.5
13.0
15.0
52.1
15.1
10.1
16.2
12.2
..
7.0
..
19.7
19.4
11.3
..
12.5
18.2
7.1
18.7
13.1
17.2
15.5
0.0
11.4
11.5
9.7
8.6
1.7
23.8
18.3
12.3

13.2
13.1
13.1
2.4
13.6
15.4
..
8.0
14.3
25.9
5.6
5.1
4.7
9.6
11.7
6.3
16.2
1.2
7.6
21.1
15.5
12.8
14.0
..
16.0
16.0
23.1
14.8
15.0
14.3
21.4
16.6
5.8
18.4
..
..
8.5
..
18.5
17.2
10.1
..
13.4
18.4
6.1
21.3
12.8
16.3
18.5
0.0
12.7
11.0
22.0
10.7
4.0
24.5
19.5
13.0

13.8
13.5
13.5
2.0
13.9
15.3
..
9.0
14.7
35.0
6.3
9.7
5.0
10.7
11.1
6.1
16.4
1.3
6.7
21.5
13.6
11.6
11.6
..
15.5
17.3
24.9
25.4
9.2
14.0
20.8
19.7
4.4
16.2
..
..
9.3
..
19.7
25.2
9.7
..
14.1
17.0
5.8
22.1
12.4
16.9
19.8
3.8
14.1
9.5
25.2
13.1
5.2
27.6
20.2
13.9

14.1
13.5
13.5
2.1
14.9
10.3
..
9.3
12.5
32.4
7.1
16.0
5.0
11.3
9.2
7.1
11.5
..
5.9
19.8
10.3
12.1
12.1
..
15.0
19.3
31.2
33.3
13.9
..
20.8
20.5
4.1
14.9
..
..
11.8
..
20.2
21.3
8.6
..
14.8
16.2
5.2
21.2
10.8
18.3
17.1
3.0
15.0
10.2
..
14.4
5.9
28.4
20.7
14.5

13.4
13.4
13.4
2.8
15.6
13.1
..
9.8
12.4
25.0
7.0
21.0
7.7
5.8
11.4
8.4
17.2
..
5.9
21.0
10.6
14.6
16.7
..
13.8
16.5
21.1
29.8
14.9
..
17.5
19.8
7.8
16.1
..
..
10.6
..
17.8
19.0
7.6
..
13.5
16.3
5.2
19.9
10.5
17.7
17.8
1.7
..
..
..
10.9
..
24.9
20.7
14.1

12.8
13.7
13.7
3.0
16.1
14.0
..
10.0
12.6
28.1
..
22.7
..
..
10.2
9.2
..
..
5.0
17.4
11.2
17.9
15.7
..
19.9
15.8
28.8
..
16.9
..
16.6
18.8
11.0
16.3
..
..
9.5
..
18.2
..
8.0
..
11.9
13.1
5.3
20.1
11.0
17.7
18.3
0.1
..
..
..
12.2
..
24.9
..
13.7

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

14.4
9.8
9.8
9.3
4.5
19.4
8.8
2.3
14.2
8.4
4.7
0.6
5.5
7.1
11.4
8.7
..
..
12.8
27.2
8.6
3.8
8.9
10.0
10.7
23.1
..
3.6
6.3
9.9
9.5
13.8
2.7
7.8
3.0
..
7.8
..
13.7
10.1
7.3
..
17.4
8.9
17.3
..
7.8
5.4
4.9
13.1
12.8
18.1
..
9.3
..
16.1
13.5
13.3

12.5
11.5
11.5
16.5
8.3
15.5
10.8
-0.3
11.7
9.4
5.0
4.3
7.7
6.3
18.5
6.2
52.6
8.6
9.9
18.9
14.9
8.6
11.7
7.7
9.8
46.8
..
5.5
6.0
12.4
16.8
17.7
8.6
12.9
3.4
..
7.2
..
15.4
19.3
3.3
..
13.5
9.9
11.3
15.6
11.8
10.3
5.7
16.0
12.2
19.0
5.8
5.9
..
18.0
15.7
12.3

12.7
12.8
12.8
4.3
13.2
14.5
10.4
5.3
14.8
25.6
5.3
20.2
5.4
8.3
13.2
7.5
29.2
5.1
7.7
19.9
12.7
14.1
13.8
1.1
12.6
20.6
13.0
16.9
10.0
15.7
20.8
16.9
9.9
15.5
7.2
..
10.2
..
18.2
16.8
7.3
..
12.6
13.8
9.1
17.5
12.4
16.0
14.0
4.5
12.7
12.3
11.9
10.2
3.2
23.7
20.0
12.9

a. Provisional.

28

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.22

External trade balance (exports minus imports)

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

1.1
-4.8
-8.7
..
-21.5
-13.4
-22.3
-14.5
0.8
-49.9
-15.9
-11.9
-43.2
0.1
-0.1
-6.2
..
..
..
33.1
-20.9
-0.7
..
-29.2
-6.4
-89.1
-0.1
-16.4
-14.0
-14.4
-29.8
-10.2
-16.5
7.8
-13.6
10.2
-12.0
..
-14.5
-11.2
-15.4
-55.3
8.0
-12.6
-39.4
..
-5.3
-6.6
-4.0
-3.2
-7.2
4.0
..
-12.4
..
-9.4
-5.4
-2.3

1.0
-2.3
-6.1
18.0
-12.0
5.3
-13.5
-19.9
2.9
0.0
-12.9
-14.4
-22.9
0.3
7.9
4.6
-37.4
..
-3.3
15.2
-11.7
-9.0
-2.4
-27.1
-5.6
-105.2
..
-11.4
-9.6
-16.6
-15.1
-7.2
-27.9
-15.5
-6.9
14.6
-8.5
..
-6.8
-4.3
-1.3
-28.0
5.5
-3.0
-9.9
-24.8
-11.9
-12.1
-0.7
0.1
-6.0
-1.5
-24.6
-12.7
8.6
-5.4
-7.1
-2.0

-1.3
-2.0
-5.4
16.0
-12.7
7.3
-13.5
-18.0
-0.4
-37.6
-6.2
0.3
-17.9
-8.8
29.7
9.2
35.1
-54.0
-16.7
30.2
-14.5
-21.1
-2.3
..
-6.3
-73.4
-40.9
-14.9
-18.2
-12.4
-41.0
-2.4
-10.9
-2.3
-10.0
12.9
-13.6
..
-12.9
2.0
-10.9
..
-0.3
-3.8
-2.5
-6.4
-19.3
-10.1
-4.4
-7.1
5.6
14.4
-17.2
-1.4
31.1
-5.0
-2.5
1.6

-1.3
-1.9
-5.8
32.4
-12.7
16.8
-15.5
-20.7
-1.0
-28.8
-8.8
17.2
-21.6
-8.2
29.7
7.5
43.8
-48.8
-20.4
37.0
-16.5
-25.3
-1.3
..
-7.5
-72.0
-52.4
-17.3
-28.1
-11.7
-51.8
-6.0
-12.2
0.1
-9.2
15.5
-13.8
..
-15.6
-20.8
-12.9
..
-0.5
-9.9
-4.1
-8.9
-18.6
-10.6
-2.1
-9.0
8.1
23.4
-10.3
-2.3
38.1
-5.6
-0.4
2.7

-1.9
-1.6
-5.3
40.8
-11.3
16.4
-15.1
-28.6
2.1
-27.6
-7.9
22.0
-24.4
-13.2
18.5
10.3
53.7
-31.5
-22.7
30.1
-13.1
-15.5
-3.3
..
-10.7
-65.5
-111.9
-16.0
-24.5
-8.1
-4.2
-11.3
-8.9
-1.7
..
15.1
-14.2
..
-17.5
-17.1
-7.6
..
-2.5
-10.9
-2.4
-13.1
-17.9
-13.1
8.4
-10.9
10.1
27.1
-17.4
-1.6
45.8
-5.5
-1.9
3.2

-2.5
-2.2
-6.1
30.4
-15.3
12.3
..
-36.1
0.8
-35.0
-7.5
2.5
-26.6
-10.7
25.0
5.9
51.6
-29.4
-19.3
29.4
-12.6
-16.3
-4.6
..
-10.9
-65.9
-89.0
-21.7
-12.6
-9.4
-18.0
-9.3
-9.8
-1.3
..
15.1
-14.6
..
-22.3
-31.5
-7.0
..
-2.9
-3.8
-1.3
-16.9
-16.6
-13.3
6.4
-8.6
6.5
23.3
-20.1
-4.6
38.2
-9.1
-1.9
1.3

-3.7
-4.2
-8.1
25.1
-13.6
3.7
..
-35.3
-3.0
-33.0
-12.9
2.6
-34.4
-15.2
28.2
7.7
47.3
-21.7
-19.4
34.6
-15.3
-19.5
-5.3
..
-14.1
-64.7
-110.3
-30.4
-21.8
..
-23.0
-13.2
-14.1
-6.8
..
12.3
-15.8
..
-26.3
-18.7
-13.1
..
-3.0
0.8
-9.3
-13.6
-16.4
-7.7
2.4
-26.6
5.6
23.4
..
-5.6
39.9
-13.4
-3.0
0.3

-4.3
-6.8
-10.4
-0.5
-14.5
-10.3
..
-28.2
-4.8
-32.3
-8.0
-27.0
-33.5
-13.4
20.2
8.1
12.2
-15.9
-18.3
17.6
-15.1
-13.0
-4.7
..
-12.5
-69.8
-80.4
-24.0
-15.9
..
-16.7
-9.4
-18.5
-13.7
..
8.2
-17.4
..
-18.6
-7.5
-13.1
..
-0.9
-5.8
-13.0
-11.9
-15.6
-11.4
3.5
-31.9
-4.3
4.5
..
-6.6
..
-11.0
-2.9
-4.3

-2.7
-4.7
-7.5
19.4
-13.8
-7.0
..
-30.4
-3.1
-28.5
..
-22.0
..
-12.9
30.4
4.6
..
..
-21.1
25.3
-17.0
-11.8
-4.4
..
-10.3
-70.1
-84.4
..
-16.6
..
-11.6
-11.4
-18.7
1.2
..
6.7
-19.8
..
-18.2
..
-12.4
..
-0.2
0.9
-13.4
-11.7
-16.5
-10.2
9.1
-29.7
-2.3
9.3
..
-4.8
..
-9.9
-5.3
-2.6

-0.5
-4.8
-6.2
9.1
-17.5
5.3
-19.6
-13.5
0.4
-32.0
-12.1
-13.5
-33.3
-0.8
-0.5
3.2
-28.6
..
-5.3
9.7
-13.2
-3.1
0.3
-32.9
-4.9
-110.0
3.2
-7.7
-6.7
-17.6
-24.4
-3.3
-18.4
-7.6
-8.0
1.1
-10.3
..
-12.1
-2.3
-3.1
-35.1
5.1
-8.3
-23.5
..
-7.2
-6.2
-2.1
-0.8
-8.9
-2.5
..
-13.2
..
-7.4
-6.1
-3.8

-1.5
-4.5
-6.5
2.2
-12.5
9.8
-13.5
-14.4
3.7
-22.6
-7.8
-13.6
-23.0
1.2
2.9
6.5
-45.8
-55.8
-6.8
17.7
-6.7
-12.4
-3.0
-24.5
-3.7
-101.9
-39.6
-8.2
-14.3
-14.9
-10.2
-4.1
-23.6
-10.0
-6.2
4.1
-19.9
..
-7.2
-8.6
-4.5
..
2.8
-6.7
-15.2
-19.0
-9.6
-11.7
-5.6
-2.4
-3.1
1.6
-17.5
-6.7
3.6
-4.9
-4.2
-2.2

-1.7
-3.1
-6.2
19.1
-13.3
7.5
-14.2
-22.5
-0.7
-32.8
-6.9
-17.5
-21.8
-8.7
25.0
8.8
33.4
-44.2
-17.2
28.2
-11.3
-17.2
-3.1
-25.2
-9.4
-66.7
-46.6
-15.1
-16.9
-11.2
-21.6
-4.8
-15.4
-4.2
-8.8
10.9
-16.2
..
-15.7
-10.8
-13.9
..
0.3
-4.8
-7.2
-9.1
-16.1
-11.6
-3.1
-11.7
3.6
16.7
-12.9
-4.1
29.1
-6.6
-3.0
0.6

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

29

Table

2.23

Exports of goods and services, nominal

Current prices
($ millions)
1980

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 82,272
Excluding South Africa
53,753
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
33,576
Angola
..
Benin
222
Botswana
563
Burkina Faso
173
Burundi
81
Cameroon
1,880
Cape Verde
24
Central African Republic
201
Chad
175
Comoros
11
Congo, Dem. Rep.
2,372
Congo, Rep.
1,024
Côte d'Ivoire
3,561
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
2,770
Gambia, The
103
Ghana
376
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
14
Kenya
2,145
Lesotho
91
Liberia
614
Madagascar
539
Malawi
307
Mali
263
Mauritania
261
Mauritius
579
Mozambique
383
Namibia
1,712
Niger
617
Nigeria
18,859
Rwanda
168
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
837
Seychelles
100
Sierra Leone
252
Somalia
200
South Africa
28,555
Sudan
806
Swaziland
405
Tanzania
..
Togo
580
Uganda
242
Zambia
1,608
Zimbabwe
1,561
NORTH AFRICA
37,700
Algeria
14,541
Djibouti
..
Egypt, Arab Rep.
6,992
Libya
..
Morocco
3,273
Tunisia
3,518
AFRICA
121,303

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

79,567
52,145
40,208
3,993
264
2,087
340
89
2,251
0
220
234
36
2,759
1,502
3,421
42
..
672
2,740
190
993
829
24
2,207
98
..
512
447
415
465
1,724
201
1,220
372
12,366
145
..
1,453
230
146
90
27,149
499
658
538
545
312
1,180
2,009
47,088
14,546
244
8,647
11,468
6,830
5,353
126,772

185,099
127,221
88,566
13,780
539
4,444
549
64
3,061
296
168
2,252
55
1,976
3,744
7,517
4,724
64
1,498
4,465
198
3,487
862
..
4,283
696
124
1,424
655
1,237
470
3,450
1,759
2,630
491
38,609
232
..
2,123
685
247
..
57,890
3,822
2,056
2,520
747
1,008
2,079
2,001
107,580
34,067
246
22,258
21,117
16,726
13,166
292,638

233,717
166,090
113,791
24,286
577
5,256
542
92
3,393
367
170
3,234
55
2,450
5,123
8,354
7,183
68
1,858
5,610
204
3,907
994
..
5,342
669
129
1,422
663
1,359
671
3,761
2,087
2,937
512
52,238
295
..
2,344
717
292
..
67,647
4,992
2,250
2,945
847
1,310
2,482
1,931
139,233
48,761
288
27,214
29,230
19,234
14,505
372,898

278,472
200,187
137,155
33,346
538
5,292
665
93
4,131
500
207
3,852
57
2,621
6,507
9,144
8,332
84
2,105
5,912
222
5,136
1,108
..
6,101
765
186
1,640
705
1,884
1,454
4,009
2,722
3,180
..
62,959
344
..
2,401
860
355
..
78,318
6,013
2,259
3,233
841
1,524
4,120
1,957
167,999
56,953
307
32,191
40,275
22,449
15,823
446,412

323,452
233,953
165,863
44,707
900
5,964
..
93
4,563
570
254
3,845
68
2,707
6,592
9,466
10,298
86
2,489
7,203
231
6,041
1,267
..
7,294
832
239
2,227
1,033
1,871
1,449
4,509
2,839
4,468
..
68,061
410
..
2,871
993
346
..
89,549
9,288
2,311
4,079
957
1,993
4,802
2,000
198,536
63,297
484
39,469
48,510
26,892
19,883
521,931

397,178
299,421
213,004
64,243
1,019
5,662
..
106
7,718
708
211
4,413
74
2,719
8,912
10,890
14,520
61
3,038
9,675
227
7,140
1,259
..
8,411
915
292
2,498
1,206
..
2,114
5,103
3,192
4,787
..
86,396
680
..
3,498
1,091
319
..
98,005
12,974
1,793
5,208
1,123
3,506
5,267
1,831
254,602
79,123
..
53,800
62,780
33,312
24,966
651,768

300,792
223,380
161,187
41,451
922
3,745
..
98
5,895
570
290
2,879
79
1,908
6,756
9,722
8,549
84
3,381
6,143
229
7,609
1,671
..
7,386
784
176
2,447
1,240
..
1,521
4,323
2,398
4,301
..
62,227
610
..
3,117
912
296
..
77,548
8,223
1,755
4,963
1,162
3,753
4,560
1,798
177,527
40,454
..
47,164
..
26,094
19,606
480,784

374,652
275,208
200,864
51,400
937
4,917
..
124
6,502
640
..
3,331
..
3,412
10,221
9,316
..
..
3,392
8,094
230
9,461
1,649
..
8,861
955
247
..
1,547
..
2,241
5,098
2,421
4,738
..
74,610
610
..
3,186
..
327
..
99,399
13,242
2,027
5,975
1,185
4,087
7,142
3,608
197,350
49,939
..
46,732
..
29,965
21,569
578,332

64,895
38,474
30,911
2,613
214
999
189
111
2,240
18
181
153
22
2,016
1,092
3,142
32
..
608
1,964
108
554
660
15
1,805
67
519
414
295
255
387
807
215
1,139
420
7,725
173
..
989
123
187
119
26,088
841
394
..
464
371
1,060
1,530
34,578
12,221
..
6,654
..
3,790
3,312
100,096

87,503
55,756
43,527
4,265
327
2,378
286
89
2,198
62
185
254
40
1,595
1,393
4,129
160
132
715
2,728
195
1,684
798
32
2,594
187
43
673
465
514
556
2,257
373
1,543
325
12,563
107
..
1,347
298
155
90
31,523
579
886
949
441
500
1,099
2,467
49,081
12,420
210
12,435
8,527
8,363
7,126
136,621

234,335
168,508
119,586
27,851
636
4,314
417
78
4,058
402
197
2,292
55
2,026
5,263
7,734
6,160
77
1,986
5,398
201
4,849
1,091
62
5,478
645
204
1,613
834
1,262
1,036
3,845
1,961
3,224
403
48,935
342
..
2,327
750
256
..
65,869
6,070
1,798
3,283
820
1,812
3,149
2,175
139,197
41,927
276
30,567
27,469
20,236
15,249
374,308

a. Provisional.

30

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.24

Imports of goods and services, nominal

Current prices
($ millions)
1980

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 75,495
Excluding South Africa
53,607
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
40,487
Angola
..
Benin
524
Botswana
705
Burkina Faso
603
Burundi
214
Cameroon
1,829
Cape Verde
95
Central African Republic
327
Chad
298
Comoros
64
Congo, Dem. Rep.
2,354
Congo, Rep.
1,026
Côte d'Ivoire
4,190
Equatorial Guinea
..
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
..
Gabon
1,354
Gambia, The
153
Ghana
407
Guinea
..
Guinea-Bissau
46
Kenya
2,608
Lesotho
475
Liberia
614
Madagascar
1,202
Malawi
480
Mali
520
Mauritania
473
Mauritius
695
Mozambique
965
Namibia
1,542
Niger
957
Nigeria
12,324
Rwanda
307
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
Senegal
1,344
Seychelles
117
Sierra Leone
421
Somalia
534
South Africa
22,073
Sudan
1,763
Swaziland
619
Tanzania
..
Togo
640
Uganda
324
Zambia
1,764
Zimbabwe
1,771
NORTH AFRICA
38,418
Algeria
12,847
Djibouti
..
Egypt, Arab Rep.
9,822
Libya
..
Morocco
5,033
Tunisia
3,987
AFRICA
115,086

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

74,234
53,382
45,113
2,147
486
1,888
758
314
1,931
0
411
485
93
2,731
1,282
2,927
92
..
1,069
1,837
227
1,522
892
90
2,691
666
..
864
629
817
619
1,915
888
1,584
545
8,203
364
..
1,840
246
154
346
21,016
877
768
1,595
738
834
1,203
2,002
53,378
15,472
355
14,109
8,996
8,227
6,220
127,918

181,588
123,074
95,531
10,621
1,055
3,707
1,240
225
3,128
643
246
2,241
120
2,551
2,363
6,093
2,882
663
3,175
2,299
282
5,356
947
..
5,290
1,602
315
2,072
1,134
1,841
1,221
3,601
2,381
2,780
795
27,282
517
..
3,162
671
367
..
58,544
4,650
2,117
3,343
1,121
1,807
2,319
2,413
89,716
21,808
361
23,330
10,723
19,547
13,947
271,113

220,707
151,942
116,769
15,144
1,120
3,534
1,390
323
3,562
647
289
2,324
138
3,036
3,318
7,132
3,583
603
4,366
2,400
309
6,617
1,031
..
6,740
1,654
413
2,296
1,438
1,979
1,802
4,138
2,891
2,927
825
34,849
651
..
3,700
908
452
..
68,809
7,701
2,356
4,205
1,241
2,292
2,631
2,446
104,096
24,838
361
29,246
12,452
22,569
14,630
324,566

259,629
174,943
133,839
16,289
1,075
3,451
1,547
447
3,763
805
324
2,509
156
3,789
5,073
7,356
3,179
465
5,548
3,037
309
8,304
1,202
..
8,514
1,702
862
2,525
1,468
2,360
1,581
4,744
3,351
3,317
..
40,726
787
..
4,037
1,034
463
..
84,706
9,992
2,329
5,116
1,236
2,829
3,221
2,551
116,482
25,211
441
33,931
14,383
26,044
16,471
375,813

306,452
208,566
165,191
26,305
1,750
4,438
..
569
4,395
1,035
381
3,670
192
3,780
4,493
8,302
3,809
474
6,262
3,805
336
10,057
1,460
..
10,268
1,885
897
3,823
1,469
2,542
2,054
5,234
3,626
4,583
..
43,039
955
..
5,400
1,313
462
..
97,946
11,042
2,350
6,915
1,375
3,581
4,068
2,455
153,178
31,633
654
45,443
21,074
33,750
20,624
459,396

383,052
277,279
215,685
43,122
1,928
5,159
..
677
8,435
1,224
468
4,195
256
4,499
5,574
9,085
5,814
361
8,215
4,652
385
12,690
1,460
..
12,719
1,968
1,230
5,357
2,092
..
2,937
6,373
4,585
5,387
..
61,006
1,423
..
7,018
1,271
575
..
106,345
12,537
2,074
8,035
1,643
4,618
4,909
3,005
200,067
39,171
..
62,909
25,589
45,214
26,329
582,915

2009

330,040
250,911
202,261
41,829
1,875
4,934
..
609
6,967
1,087
449
4,794
258
3,413
4,816
7,866
7,063
380
9,240
4,215
377
10,989
1,865
..
11,196
1,978
883
4,484
1,991
..
2,027
5,151
4,190
5,524
..
48,373
1,524
..
5,497
975
539
..
79,982
11,381
2,140
7,511
1,656
5,557
4,118
3,662
173,941
34,282
..
59,713
..
36,084
20,872
503,682

2010a

378,688
278,780
216,094
35,421
1,839
5,956
..
740
7,200
1,113
..
5,213
..
5,097
6,568
8,270
..
..
9,653
4,754
409
13,265
1,859
..
12,192
2,482
1,081
..
2,387
..
2,661
6,202
4,144
4,603
..
61,486
1,721
..
5,530
..
564
..
100,119
12,665
2,522
8,653
1,709
5,833
5,672
5,831
178,504
34,820
..
57,200
..
38,969
23,921
557,929

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

66,191
44,684
37,060
1,895
447
842
567
254
2,219
62
292
305
67
2,107
1,093
2,906
61
..
1,093
1,586
137
709
658
67
2,154
496
491
668
384
536
576
853
773
1,284
583
7,362
354
..
1,408
123
225
403
21,441
1,744
515
..
542
619
1,148
1,598
40,555
13,875
..
10,787
..
4,955
3,834
107,439

90,234
62,348
51,051
4,032
579
1,916
640
234
1,816
175
282
469
93
1,537
1,309
3,406
270
482
1,330
1,823
242
2,509
905
91
3,071
926
180
942
716
882
692
2,400
1,001
1,844
448
11,214
405
..
1,719
344
191
346
27,961
1,289
1,109
1,986
586
1,039
1,283
2,644
53,671
11,636
295
16,572
7,464
9,907
7,797
144,006

230,880
164,173
128,053
19,734
1,241
3,688
1,016
380
4,239
746
301
2,740
143
2,854
3,581
6,340
3,238
498
4,980
2,905
291
7,433
1,206
114
7,608
1,513
572
2,624
1,378
1,742
1,524
4,275
2,962
3,514
629
35,781
850
..
3,879
850
426
..
66,885
7,383
1,971
4,804
1,178
2,947
3,022
2,854
116,148
24,192
365
36,045
12,328
25,027
16,219
346,946

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

31

Table

2.25

Exports of goods and services
as a share of GDP

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

31.9
29.0
28.9
..
15.8
53.1
9.0
8.8
27.9
17.1
25.2
16.9
8.7
16.5
60.0
35.0
..
..
..
64.7
42.7
8.5
..
12.7
29.5
21.0
71.8
13.3
24.8
14.7
36.8
51.0
10.9
78.9
24.6
29.4
14.4
..
23.9
68.0
22.9
33.2
35.4
10.6
74.6
..
51.1
19.4
41.4
23.4
30.2
34.3
..
30.5
..
17.4
40.2
31.2

26.4
27.9
24.4
38.9
14.3
55.1
11.0
7.9
20.2
0.0
14.8
13.5
14.3
29.5
53.7
31.7
32.2
..
5.6
46.0
59.9
16.9
31.1
9.9
25.7
18.1
..
16.6
23.8
17.2
45.6
65.0
8.2
51.9
15.0
43.4
5.6
..
25.4
62.5
22.5
9.8
24.2
4.0
59.0
12.6
33.5
7.2
35.9
22.9
26.5
23.4
53.8
20.1
39.7
26.5
43.6
26.4

31.1
34.5
32.4
69.7
13.3
44.2
10.7
7.1
19.4
32.0
13.2
51.0
15.1
30.4
80.5
48.6
90.1
5.8
14.9
62.2
34.2
39.3
23.5
..
26.6
56.4
26.5
32.6
25.0
25.4
25.7
54.0
30.9
39.8
16.1
44.0
11.1
..
26.4
97.8
22.5
..
26.4
17.6
84.9
19.7
38.6
12.7
38.2
34.5
36.8
40.1
37.0
28.2
63.3
29.4
42.2
33.5

32.7
36.5
34.2
86.0
13.5
51.3
9.9
8.2
20.5
37.8
12.6
61.0
14.1
34.1
84.2
51.1
87.4
6.2
15.1
64.7
32.1
36.5
33.8
..
28.5
48.9
23.8
28.2
24.1
25.6
30.7
59.9
31.7
40.5
15.0
46.5
11.4
..
26.9
78.2
23.6
..
27.4
18.2
87.1
20.8
40.0
14.2
34.6
33.6
40.4
47.7
40.6
30.3
66.4
32.3
44.9
35.9

33.4
35.8
34.3
79.8
11.4
47.0
11.4
7.5
23.0
45.1
14.0
63.2
14.2
29.7
84.2
52.7
86.8
6.9
13.9
61.9
33.2
25.2
39.3
..
27.1
53.5
30.8
29.7
22.6
32.1
47.8
61.6
38.4
39.9
..
42.9
11.1
..
25.6
84.3
24.9
..
30.0
16.5
76.6
22.6
38.2
15.3
38.5
36.0
41.4
48.6
39.9
30.0
71.3
34.2
46.0
36.8

33.7
35.5
34.2
74.0
16.2
48.2
..
7.0
22.1
42.8
15.0
54.8
14.7
27.0
78.5
47.8
81.9
6.5
12.7
62.3
27.7
24.5
30.1
..
26.8
52.1
32.4
30.3
29.9
26.2
43.2
57.9
35.4
50.7
..
41.0
11.0
..
25.4
97.4
20.8
..
31.3
20.0
75.7
24.2
37.9
16.7
41.6
37.8
41.4
46.6
57.1
30.3
67.6
35.8
51.1
36.9

36.1
36.4
35.1
76.3
15.2
42.1
..
6.5
32.5
45.3
10.7
52.8
13.9
23.3
75.2
46.5
78.8
4.4
11.4
66.6
21.8
25.0
33.3
..
27.6
56.3
34.4
26.6
29.6
..
59.0
52.9
32.3
54.2
..
41.7
14.4
..
26.1
113.3
16.3
..
35.8
22.4
59.4
25.1
35.5
24.3
36.0
41.5
43.0
46.3
..
33.0
67.4
37.5
55.6
39.1

29.9
31.8
30.6
54.9
14.0
32.5
..
5.4
26.6
35.6
14.7
40.6
14.7
17.0
70.4
42.2
69.9
4.5
10.6
56.1
23.2
29.3
40.1
..
24.2
45.8
20.1
28.8
26.2
..
50.2
49.0
24.8
48.2
..
36.9
11.6
..
24.4
108.4
16.0
..
27.4
15.1
59.5
23.2
36.8
23.8
35.6
30.8
28.7
29.3
..
25.0
..
28.7
45.1
29.4

31.2
34.3
33.4
62.3
14.3
33.0
..
6.1
28.9
38.6
..
39.0
..
26.0
85.1
40.6
..
..
11.4
61.3
21.9
29.4
34.8
..
27.5
43.8
25.0
..
30.6
..
62.0
52.5
26.3
42.6
..
37.9
10.9
..
24.8
..
17.1
..
27.3
19.8
54.8
26.1
37.3
23.8
44.1
48.3
28.4
30.8
..
21.4
..
33.0
48.8
30.1

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

26.9
25.4
26.4
34.8
16.6
62.0
9.5
10.4
25.7
13.2
20.5
14.3
14.7
21.4
52.0
37.1
35.9
..
6.6
53.3
47.8
11.2
30.2
9.9
25.7
16.9
61.2
13.6
23.7
15.8
47.9
54.4
6.8
61.2
21.0
21.4
10.4
..
27.4
62.1
19.5
15.5
28.8
7.4
70.2
..
46.1
11.6
34.4
21.4
24.1
23.8
..
22.2
..
22.2
36.9
25.8

27.2
29.9
27.1
63.5
16.4
51.5
11.1
9.0
20.9
12.4
16.2
16.1
17.3
23.1
60.2
36.8
52.9
22.0
8.1
54.0
28.8
25.2
23.8
13.3
27.6
25.0
11.4
20.1
25.1
20.8
41.2
61.5
12.8
49.7
16.2
42.0
6.1
..
26.4
59.9
19.8
9.8
23.5
5.4
61.0
15.9
30.2
9.8
32.8
33.2
25.9
25.8
43.2
21.8
28.7
26.0
41.2
26.7

32.3
34.4
32.6
73.9
14.1
44.3
9.7
6.5
23.5
36.2
14.6
39.2
15.2
25.1
79.8
46.1
89.1
8.0
12.7
61.1
27.3
35.1
30.7
30.1
25.6
50.3
34.1
27.5
26.3
28.5
38.9
57.8
28.7
44.3
16.2
42.0
10.5
..
26.5
91.8
19.7
..
29.5
16.9
77.7
20.8
37.5
16.0
34.6
36.3
34.4
40.0
40.7
24.7
56.9
31.6
45.1
33.2

a. Provisional.

32

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.26

Imports of goods and services
as a share of GDP

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010a

30.9
33.8
37.7
..
37.3
66.4
31.3
23.3
27.1
67.0
41.1
28.9
51.9
16.4
60.1
41.2
..
..
..
31.6
63.6
9.2
..
41.8
35.9
110.1
71.8
29.7
38.8
29.1
66.7
61.2
27.4
71.1
38.1
19.2
26.4
..
38.4
79.1
38.2
88.5
27.4
23.2
114.1
..
56.4
26.0
45.4
26.5
37.3
30.3
..
42.9
..
26.7
45.6
33.5

25.4
30.2
30.5
20.9
26.3
49.8
24.5
27.8
17.3
0.0
27.6
27.9
37.2
29.2
45.8
27.1
69.6
..
8.9
30.9
71.6
25.9
33.4
37.0
31.3
123.2
..
28.0
33.4
33.7
60.7
72.2
36.1
67.4
22.0
28.8
14.1
..
32.2
66.7
23.8
37.7
18.8
7.1
68.9
37.5
45.3
19.4
36.6
22.8
32.4
24.9
78.4
32.7
31.1
31.9
50.6
28.4

32.4
36.6
37.8
53.7
26.1
36.9
24.3
25.1
19.8
69.6
19.4
50.8
33.0
39.2
50.8
39.4
55.0
59.8
31.6
32.0
48.8
60.4
25.8
..
32.9
129.8
67.4
47.5
43.2
37.8
66.6
56.4
41.8
42.1
26.0
31.1
24.8
..
39.4
95.8
33.5
..
26.7
21.5
87.5
26.1
57.9
22.8
42.6
41.6
31.2
25.7
54.2
29.6
32.1
34.3
44.7
31.9

34.0
38.4
40.0
53.6
26.1
34.5
25.5
28.9
21.5
66.6
21.4
43.8
35.8
42.2
54.5
43.6
43.6
54.9
35.5
27.7
48.6
61.7
35.1
..
36.0
120.9
76.3
45.6
52.2
37.3
82.5
65.9
43.9
40.3
24.2
31.1
25.2
..
42.5
99.0
36.5
..
27.9
28.1
91.2
29.7
58.7
24.8
36.7
42.5
32.2
24.3
50.9
32.6
28.3
37.9
45.3
33.2

35.3
37.4
39.6
39.0
22.7
30.7
26.5
36.1
21.0
72.7
21.9
41.1
38.6
43.0
65.6
42.4
33.1
38.4
36.6
31.8
46.4
40.7
42.6
..
37.8
119.1
142.7
45.8
47.1
40.2
52.0
72.9
47.2
41.6
..
27.7
25.3
..
43.1
101.4
32.5
..
32.5
27.5
79.0
35.7
56.1
28.4
30.1
46.9
31.3
21.5
57.3
31.6
25.5
39.7
47.9
33.6

36.2
37.6
40.3
43.5
31.6
35.9
..
43.1
21.3
77.8
22.5
52.3
41.3
37.7
53.5
41.9
30.3
36.0
32.0
32.9
40.3
40.8
34.7
..
37.7
118.0
121.4
52.1
42.5
35.6
61.2
67.2
45.2
52.0
..
25.9
25.6
..
47.7
128.9
27.8
..
34.2
23.7
77.0
41.1
54.5
30.1
35.2
46.4
34.9
23.3
77.2
34.8
29.4
44.9
53.0
35.6

39.8
40.6
43.2
51.2
28.9
38.4
..
41.8
35.5
78.4
23.6
50.2
48.3
38.5
47.0
38.8
31.6
26.1
30.8
32.0
37.1
44.5
38.6
..
41.7
121.0
144.6
57.0
51.4
..
81.9
66.1
46.4
60.9
..
29.5
30.2
..
52.4
132.0
29.4
..
38.8
21.6
68.7
38.8
51.9
32.0
33.5
68.1
37.4
22.9
..
38.6
27.5
50.9
58.7
38.8

34.2
38.7
41.0
55.4
28.5
42.8
..
33.6
31.4
67.9
22.7
67.7
48.2
30.5
50.2
34.1
57.7
20.4
28.9
38.5
38.3
42.3
44.8
..
36.6
115.6
100.4
52.8
42.1
..
67.0
58.4
43.3
61.9
..
28.7
29.0
..
43.1
115.9
29.0
..
28.3
20.8
72.5
35.2
52.5
35.2
32.2
62.7
33.0
24.8
..
31.6
..
39.7
48.0
33.7

34.0
39.0
40.9
43.0
28.1
40.0
..
36.5
32.0
67.1
..
61.0
..
38.9
54.7
36.1
..
..
32.5
36.0
38.9
41.2
39.3
..
37.9
113.9
109.5
..
47.2
..
73.6
63.8
45.0
41.3
..
31.2
30.6
..
43.0
..
29.5
..
27.5
18.9
68.2
37.8
53.8
33.9
35.0
78.0
30.7
21.5
..
26.1
..
42.9
54.1
32.7

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

27.4
30.1
32.6
25.6
34.1
56.7
29.2
23.8
25.3
45.2
32.5
27.7
47.9
22.2
52.6
33.9
64.5
..
11.9
43.6
61.0
14.3
29.9
42.8
30.6
126.9
58.0
21.3
30.4
33.4
72.2
57.6
25.1
68.7
29.0
20.3
20.7
..
39.6
64.4
22.5
50.6
23.8
15.7
93.7
..
53.3
17.8
36.5
22.2
33.0
26.3
..
35.4
..
29.7
43.1
29.6

28.6
34.4
33.6
61.3
28.9
41.7
24.6
23.4
17.2
35.0
24.0
29.7
40.2
21.9
57.3
30.3
98.6
77.8
14.9
36.3
35.5
37.6
26.9
37.8
31.4
126.9
51.0
28.3
39.4
35.7
51.4
65.6
36.4
59.7
22.4
37.8
26.0
..
33.5
68.4
24.2
37.7
20.7
12.1
76.1
34.9
39.8
21.5
38.4
35.6
29.1
24.2
60.7
28.5
25.1
30.9
45.3
28.8

34.0
37.4
38.9
54.8
27.4
36.9
23.9
29.0
24.2
69.0
21.5
56.7
37.0
33.8
54.9
37.4
55.8
52.2
30.0
32.9
38.6
52.3
33.8
55.3
35.1
117.0
80.7
42.6
43.2
39.6
60.5
62.7
44.1
48.4
25.0
31.1
26.7
..
42.2
102.7
33.5
..
29.2
21.7
84.9
29.9
53.6
27.6
37.6
48.0
30.7
23.3
53.6
28.8
27.8
38.1
48.1
32.6

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

33

Table

2.27

Balance of payments
and current account

Exports of goods and services
Current prices
Share of GDP
($ millions)
(%)
a
2010
2010a

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

374,652
275,208
200,864
51,400
937
4,917
..
124
6,502
640
..
3,331
..
3,412
10,221
9,316
..
..
3,392
8,094
230
9,461
1,649
..
8,861
955
247
..
1,547
..
2,241
5,098
2,421
4,738
..
74,610
610
..
3,186
..
327
..
99,399
13,242
2,027
5,975
1,185
4,087
7,142
3,608
197,350
49,939
..
46,732
..
29,965
21,569
578,332

31.2
34.3
33.4
62.3
14.3
33.0
..
6.1
28.9
38.6
..
39.0
..
26.0
85.1
40.6
..
..
11.4
61.3
21.9
29.4
34.8
..
27.5
43.8
25.0
..
30.6
..
62.0
52.5
26.3
42.6
..
37.9
10.9
..
24.8
..
17.1
..
27.3
19.8
54.8
26.1
37.3
23.8
44.1
48.3
28.4
30.8
..
21.4
..
33.0
48.8
30.1

Imports of goods and services
Current prices
Share of GDP
($ millions)
(%)
a
2010
2010a

378,688
278,780
216,094
35,421
1,839
5,956
..
740
7,200
1,113
..
5,213
..
5,096
6,568
8,270
..
..
9,653
4,754
409
13,265
1,859
..
12,192
2,482
1,081
..
2,387
..
2,661
6,202
4,144
4,603
..
61,486
1,721
..
5,530
..
564
..
100,119
12,665
2,522
8,653
1,709
5,833
5,672
5,831
178,504
34,820
..
57,200
..
38,969
23,921
557,929

34.0
39.0
40.9
43.0
28.1
40.0
..
36.5
32.0
67.1
..
61.0
..
38.9
54.7
36.1
..
..
32.5
36.0
38.9
41.2
39.3
..
37.9
113.9
109.5
..
47.2
..
73.6
63.8
45.0
41.3
..
31.2
30.6
..
43.0
..
29.5
..
27.5
18.9
68.2
37.8
53.8
33.9
35.0
78.0
30.7
21.5
..
26.1
..
42.9
54.1
32.7

Total trade (exports and imports)
Current prices
Share of GDP
($ millions)
(%)
a
2010
2010a

753,340
553,987
416,958
86,822
2,776
10,873
..
864
13,702
1,753
..
8,544
..
8,508
16,789
17,586
..
..
13,045
12,848
639
22,726
3,508
..
21,053
3,437
1,329
..
3,934
..
4,902
11,300
6,564
9,340
..
136,096
2,332
..
8,716
..
891
..
199,518
25,907
4,549
14,628
2,894
9,920
12,814
9,439
375,854
84,759
..
103,932
..
68,934
45,490
1,136,260

65.2
73.2
74.2
105.3
42.3
73.0
..
42.7
61.0
105.7
..
100.0
..
64.9
139.8
76.7
..
..
44.0
97.3
60.8
70.6
74.1
..
65.4
157.7
134.5
..
77.8
..
135.6
116.3
71.3
83.9
..
69.1
41.5
..
67.8
..
46.6
..
54.9
38.7
123.0
63.8
91.1
57.7
79.1
126.3
59.2
52.3
..
47.5
..
75.9
102.8
62.8

a. Provisional.

34

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Net income
Current prices
Share of GDP
($ millions)
(%)
a
2010
2010a

..
..
..
-8,172
..
-243
..
-11
-239
-68
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-64
..
-8
-535
-77
..
-155
532
24
..
..
..
..
202
-85
-564
..
-18,623
-46
0
..
-65
-49
..
-7,224
-2,472
-226
-216
..
-291
-1,363
..
..
-368
17
-5,912
-30
-1,242
-1,925
..

..
..
..
-9.9
..
-1.6
..
-0.5
-1.1
-4.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-0.2
..
-0.8
-1.7
-1.6
..
-0.5
24.4
2.5
..
..
..
..
2.1
-0.9
-5.1
..
-9.5
-0.8
-0.2
..
-6.7
-2.5
..
-2.0
-3.7
-6.1
-0.9
..
-1.7
-8.4
..
..
-0.2
..
-2.7
..
-1.4
-4.4
..

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Net current transfers
Current prices
Share of GDP
($ millions)
(%)
a
2010
2010a

..
..
..
-438
..
979
..
136
146
341
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,905
..
113
2,322
17
..
2,286
661
959
..
..
..
..
183
657
1,232
..
20,093
657
3
..
25
185
..
-2,278
2,131
400
824
..
1,313
432
..
..
2,650
95
12,439
-1,828
7,270
1,935
..

..
..
..
-0.5
..
6.6
..
6.7
0.7
20.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.5
..
10.7
7.2
0.4
..
7.1
30.3
97.1
..
..
..
..
1.9
7.1
11.1
..
10.2
11.7
1.3
..
2.6
9.7
..
-0.6
3.2
10.8
3.6
..
7.6
2.7
..
..
1.6
..
5.7
..
8.0
4.4
..

Current account balance
Current prices
Share of GDP
($ millions)
(%)
a
2010
2010a

-14,147
-4,029
-6,506
7,421
..
46
..
-301
-856
-184
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-425
..
52
-2,700
-327
..
-2,512
-421
-415
..
..
..
..
-800
-1,113
30
..
2,476
-421
-107
..
-225
-320
..
-10,117
157
-388
-1,978
..
-1,859
1,144
..
18,464
12,146
50
-4,504
16,801
-3,925
-2,104
4,317

-1.5
-0.7
-1.7
9.0
..
0.3
..
-14.8
-3.8
-11.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-1.4
..
5.0
-8.4
-6.9
..
-7.8
-19.3
-42.0
..
..
..
..
-8.2
-12.1
0.3
..
1.3
-7.5
-53.4
..
-23.4
-16.8
..
-2.8
0.2
-10.5
-8.6
..
-10.8
7.1
..
0.3
7.5
..
-2.1
..
-4.3
-4.8
-0.9

Total reserves including gold
Current prices
Share of GDP
($ millions)
(%)
a
2010
2010a

163,563
119,744
83,859
19,749
1,200
7,885
1,068
332
3,643
382
181
632
146
1,300
4,447
3,624
2,346
114
..
1,736
202
5,158
..
156
4,321
..
..
1,172
325
1,344
288
2,619
2,265
1,696
760
35,885
813
49
2,047
236
409
..
43,820
1,036
756
3,905
715
2,706
2,094
..
347,256
170,461
249
37,029
106,144
23,609
9,764
510,820

14.6
15.9
15.1
24.0
18.3
52.9
12.1
16.4
16.2
23.0
9.1
7.4
27.0
9.9
37.0
15.8
16.2
5.4
..
13.2
19.2
16.0
..
18.7
13.4
..
..
13.4
6.4
14.3
8.0
27.0
24.6
15.2
14.1
18.2
14.5
24.6
15.9
24.5
21.4
..
12.1
1.6
20.5
17.0
22.5
15.7
12.9
..
59.2
105.2
..
16.9
..
26.0
22.1
30.0

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

35

Table

2.28

Exchange rates and
purchasing power parity

Official exchange rate
(local currency units to US$)
2008
2009
2010

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

36

Purchasing power parity (PPP)
conversion factor
(local currency units to international $)
2008
2009
2010

Ratio of PPP conversion factor
to market exchange rate
2008
2009
2010

62.4
233.9
3.4
204.5
433.1
255.5
68.6
275.9
256.5
235.8
317.5
371.3
307.0
370.3
8.1
3.5
307.4
7.6
0.9
1,992.2
229.8
35.1
4.3
32.1
796.0
51.7
268.2
107.2
17.2
13.1
5.3
235.1
77.1
239.5
9,313.4
271.6
4.7
1,336.1
..
4.5
1.4
4.2
460.4
258.0
667.2
3,193.3
..

57.2
231.6
3.2
207.2
481.2
244.2
70.7
282.7
229.4
244.1
424.5
291.6
303.6
242.6
10.3
4.4
245.1
8.0
1.0
2,105.5
229.9
37.9
4.5
31.3
854.0
54.7
274.7
99.9
17.0
13.5
5.5
242.2
72.9
263.8
10,464.1
264.8
5.9
1,391.3
..
4.7
1.4
4.1
489.1
260.2
756.4
3,498.9
..

69.2
232.3
3.7
210.5
512.1
248.7
72.2
284.4
253.9
250.5
512.6
348.1
305.9
300.4
11.4
4.5
287.5
8.4
1.2
2,501.9
231.2
38.3
4.6
33.0
912.4
57.8
283.0
117.8
17.1
14.6
5.5
239.4
78.8
267.3
11,559.3
265.5
5.5
1,572.9
..
5.1
1.6
4.3
517.1
261.8
818.9
3,864.3
..

75.0
447.8
6.8
447.8
1,185.7
447.8
75.3
447.8
447.8
335.9
559.3
447.8
447.8
447.8
15.4
9.6
447.8
22.2
1.1
4,601.7
447.8
69.2
8.3
63.2
1,708.4
140.5
447.8
238.2
28.5
24.3
8.3
447.8
118.6
546.9
14,695.2
447.8
9.5
2,981.5
..
8.3
2.1
8.3
1,196.3
447.8
1,720.4
3,745.7
..

79.3
472.2
7.2
472.2
1,230.2
472.2
79.4
472.2
472.2
354.1
809.8
472.2
472.2
472.2
15.4
11.8
472.2
26.6
1.4
4,801.1
472.2
77.4
8.5
68.3
1,956.2
141.2
472.2
262.4
32.0
27.5
8.5
472.2
148.9
568.3
16,208.5
472.2
13.6
3,385.7
..
8.5
2.3
8.5
1,320.3
472.2
2,030.5
5,046.1
..

91.9
495.3
6.8
495.3
1,230.8
495.3
83.3
495.3
495.3
371.5
905.9
495.3
495.3
495.3
15.4
14.4
495.3
28.0
1.4
5,726.1
495.3
79.2
7.3
71.4
2,090.0
150.5
495.3
275.9
30.8
34.0
7.3
495.3
150.3
583.1
18,498.6
495.3
12.1
3,978.1
..
7.3
2.3
7.3
1,409.3
495.3
2,177.6
4,797.1
..

0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.7
0.3
0.8
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
..
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.9
..

0.7
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.4
..
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.7
..

0.8
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.4
0.6
0.3
0.8
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
..
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.8
..

40.1
92.8
2.0
1.1
5.0
0.6

35.2
93.4
2.2
0.7
5.0
0.6

40.5
..
2.4
..
5.0
0.6

64.6
177.7
5.4
1.2
7.8
1.2

72.7
177.7
5.5
1.3
8.1
1.4

74.4
177.7
5.6
1.3
8.4
1.4

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.9
0.7
0.5

0.5
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.5

0.5
..
0.4
..
0.6
0.4

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Gross domestic product

2008

Real effective exchange rate
(index: 2000 = 100)
2009

105.8
106.0
105.8
..
..
..
..
100.6
105.6
..
113.3
..
..
106.3
..
105.8
115.5
..
..
104.5
114.8
99.5
..
..
..
87.7
..
..
98.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
116.4
..
..
..
..
112.5
..
80.4
..
..
..
104.3
106.3
138.7
..
100.1
103.2
..
..
..
100.1
95.4
105.0

107.6
107.7
107.6
..
..
..
..
110.6
107.8
..
115.6
..
..
597.4
..
105.5
119.3
..
..
105.3
104.0
91.6
..
..
..
93.2
..
..
107.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
109.0
..
..
..
..
114.1
..
87.6
..
..
..
104.5
105.3
119.1
..
102.0
102.0
..
..
..
102.2
94.3
105.4

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

2010

106.1
108.2
106.1
..
..
..
..
113.3
101.1
..
110.3
..
..
1,025.3
..
99.6
120.5
..
..
101.3
101.0
97.6
..
..
..
106.1
..
..
101.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
117.9
..
..
..
..
110.2
..
101.2
..
..
..
98.1
111.4
126.0
..
98.0
102.4
..
..
..
98.0
93.6
101.9

2008

PPP $ billions
2009

2010

1,749.2
1,249.0
926.3
101.2
12.8
26.7
18.3
4.4
41.6
1.7
3.2
14.6
0.8
20.6
14.3
34.2
22.3
2.6
70.2
21.2
3.0
34.9
10.4
1.6
60.1
3.1
1.7
20.2
11.1
14.6
8.0
15.9
18.4
13.7
10.2
318.3
10.8
0.3
22.1
1.9
4.4
..
508.8
88.1
5.9
53.8
5.5
36.7
17.2
..
1,052.1
275.4
1.9
443.5
102.3
137.2
91.8
2,798.5

1,814.6
1,318.0
968.8
104.7
13.4
25.6
19.0
4.6
42.9
1.8
3.3
14.6
0.8
21.4
15.5
35.8
23.8
2.8
77.2
21.1
3.3
36.6
10.5
1.7
62.4
3.2
1.9
19.4
12.2
15.4
8.0
16.6
19.8
13.8
10.2
344.2
11.3
0.3
22.8
2.0
4.5
..
506.3
92.6
6.1
57.7
5.7
39.8
18.5
..
1,102.7
285.0
2.0
469.3
105.6
145.3
95.6
2,914.5

1,931.6
1,415.5
1,034.4
109.5
14.0
27.8
20.8
4.9
44.8
1.9
3.5
16.7
0.8
23.2
17.1
37.1
23.9
2.9
85.8
22.7
3.5
40.0
10.8
1.8
66.6
3.5
2.1
20.0
13.2
16.5
8.5
17.5
21.4
14.9
11.2
375.4
12.3
0.3
24.0
2.1
4.8
..
526.9
97.8
6.3
62.5
6.0
42.6
20.1
..
1,162.2
297.8
..
499.1
..
152.4
99.6
3,091.5

2008

Per capita
PPP $
2009

2010

2,176.0
1,654.1
1,532.6
5,608.7
1,531.4
13,638.7
1,178.5
558.6
2,217.8
3,517.7
759.4
1,370.1
1,083.1
329.2
3,727.9
1,799.1
33,643.2
531.8
883.5
14,593.4
1,857.9
1,498.4
1,091.2
1,129.9
1,563.7
1,465.1
458.4
1,031.5
791.3
1,009.2
2,417.5
12,550.6
823.8
6,230.6
708.0
2,112.5
1,075.2
1,810.9
1,872.3
22,100.8
777.3
..
10,427.4
2,127.4
5,747.0
1,312.0
950.5
1,171.6
1,387.2
..
6,518.3
7,998.4
2,199.6
5,663.0
16,634.5
4,313.2
8,884.4
2,899.2

2,203.2
1,702.2
1,563.0
5,643.3
1,560.6
12,941.5
1,190.4
567.9
2,236.5
3,655.2
766.1
1,332.6
1,085.3
332.9
3,941.0
1,851.9
34,959.0
541.8
950.6
14,273.5
1,948.2
1,537.7
1,076.9
1,152.0
1,580.7
1,507.6
499.6
966.2
845.5
1,033.6
2,354.6
13,002.5
864.9
6,153.1
684.3
2,227.9
1,097.5
1,872.6
1,880.7
22,364.6
792.8
..
10,265.3
2,179.3
5,812.0
1,365.4
970.6
1,229.5
1,451.4
..
6,728.9
8,153.8
2,290.1
5,886.7
16,854.6
4,519.6
9,158.8
2,951.5

2,288.7
1,782.8
1,627.6
5,739.9
1,580.3
13,831.8
1,260.9
581.1
2,284.2
3,855.6
785.4
1,483.9
1,091.9
351.2
4,226.5
1,880.5
34,128.7
543.5
1,034.7
15,105.9
2,034.7
1,640.9
1,085.9
1,181.0
1,643.9
1,594.1
535.2
964.4
882.9
1,073.1
2,445.7
13,632.7
913.1
6,515.1
721.6
2,369.5
1,155.1
1,945.2
1,929.0
24,356.1
823.2
..
10,540.2
2,245.8
5,928.3
1,435.1
996.9
1,275.5
1,555.1
..
6,987.3
8,395.5
..
6,152.6
..
4,691.1
9,443.2
3,060.0

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

37

Table

2.29

Agriculture value added

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2008

2010a

18.5
31.5
31.5
..
35.4
14.7
29.4
62.3
31.3
18.6
40.0
45.1
34.0
26.8
11.7
25.9
..
..
..
6.8
30.9
60.1
..
44.3
32.6
24.6
..
30.1
43.7
48.3
30.4
13.1
37.1
11.2
43.1
..
45.9
..
20.1
6.8
33.0
68.4
6.2
32.9
22.7
..
27.5
72.0
15.1
15.7
15.7
8.5
..
18.3
..
18.5
16.3
17.3

18.8
31.4
31.4
17.9
36.1
4.9
28.8
55.9
24.6
14.4
47.6
29.3
41.4
31.0
12.9
32.5
61.6
..
54.3
7.3
29.0
45.1
23.8
60.8
29.5
25.0
..
28.6
45.0
45.5
29.6
12.9
37.1
11.7
35.3
..
32.6
..
19.9
4.8
46.9
65.5
4.6
40.6
10.4
46.0
33.8
56.6
20.6
16.5
17.0
11.4
3.1
19.4
..
18.3
17.7
18.1

17.1
27.2
25.7
8.6
32.1
2.0
32.9
44.6
20.5
9.9
55.3
23.5
50.9
47.3
5.5
23.2
4.1
11.6
44.2
5.6
28.7
41.6
25.1
..
28.0
9.6
..
28.8
34.6
36.4
35.5
6.5
27.4
9.7
..
34.2
38.6
22.6
15.9
3.0
44.9
..
3.1
35.2
8.9
33.3
36.2
22.9
23.0
19.6
12.3
10.2
3.6
15.2
3.0
16.3
11.0
15.0

16.5
26.6
25.3
8.5
32.2
1.8
34.1
44.5
19.5
9.0
54.4
12.3
51.0
45.5
4.5
22.8
2.6
24.2
46.7
4.9
28.4
40.9
24.2
..
27.2
9.0
..
28.3
32.6
36.6
30.5
6.0
27.0
11.3
..
32.8
38.4
16.8
16.7
2.4
51.6
..
2.7
32.0
8.8
31.8
39.4
26.7
23.3
18.6
11.3
8.2
3.5
14.9
2.3
14.7
10.1
14.3

16.0
25.7
24.2
7.7
..
1.8
33.3
43.7
19.9
8.3
55.0
11.7
45.2
45.7
4.0
22.9
2.8
26.1
47.9
4.9
22.1
30.4
23.8
..
26.8
7.9
..
27.5
31.2
36.9
22.9
5.6
27.9
10.5
..
32.0
38.4
..
14.8
2.3
51.1
..
2.9
30.1
7.8
30.4
35.9
25.6
22.4
20.3
11.2
8.0
3.5
14.1
2.0
16.9
10.2
14.0

15.8
25.1
23.3
7.9
..
2.0
..
37.8
19.5
7.2
53.9
12.5
45.3
42.5
4.3
23.9
2.7
25.4
46.2
4.9
21.0
29.1
25.4
..
25.0
7.7
..
25.7
30.3
36.5
25.6
4.5
27.7
9.4
..
32.7
35.7
..
13.4
2.1
49.9
..
3.4
28.1
8.0
30.0
35.8
23.6
21.8
21.6
10.7
8.0
3.9
14.1
2.1
13.7
9.4
13.6

13.0
22.9
22.9
6.6
..
2.0
..
35.4
..
6.4
52.9
13.6
45.8
40.2
3.7
25.0
2.0
17.4
43.9
4.1
24.8
31.0
24.9
..
25.8
8.0
..
24.8
30.1
..
18.9
4.1
30.5
9.3
..
..
32.4
..
15.6
2.0
50.2
..
3.2
26.3
7.9
29.7
40.7
22.7
19.0
19.4
10.2
6.9
..
13.2
1.9
14.6
8.5
11.7

13.5
24.2
24.2
10.2
..
3.0
..
35.2
..
8.8
56.5
..
46.3
42.9
4.5
24.7
3.2
14.5
50.8
5.4
26.8
31.8
16.9
..
27.2
7.7
..
29.1
30.5
..
20.2
3.9
31.5
9.4
..
..
33.9
..
17.2
1.8
52.3
..
3.0
29.7
8.7
28.8
42.7
24.7
21.6
17.2
12.0
6.9
..
13.7
..
16.4
8.9
12.9

11.2
..
21.1
9.8
..
2.5
..
35.2
..
9.9
..
..
..
..
3.8
22.8
..
..
47.7
4.1
28.5
29.9
13.0
..
25.2
8.6
..
..
..
..
17.2
3.7
31.9
7.5
..
..
32.2
..
17.4
..
49.0
..
2.5
23.6
8.0
28.1
42.8
24.3
9.2
16.0
11.9
6.9
..
14.0
..
15.4
8.0
11.5

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

18.4
31.0
31.0
15.2
33.8
8.7
29.8
58.1
25.7
14.9
44.3
36.9
36.3
30.4
10.0
27.2
65.9
..
56.5
7.7
34.0
52.5
24.0
48.6
32.4
24.7
..
34.3
44.2
44.4
30.4
14.9
39.7
11.2
38.7
..
40.2
..
22.0
6.1
40.0
66.5
5.5
35.4
19.5
..
31.8
57.6
15.9
16.2
16.4
9.9
3.3
19.8
..
16.4
15.8
17.5

18.2
30.7
30.7
11.3
36.1
4.3
33.8
50.8
24.3
12.5
48.4
36.7
40.2
47.0
10.5
27.2
41.5
22.9
58.4
7.7
19.4
42.6
20.1
56.3
30.8
19.3
..
28.6
37.3
46.7
35.6
10.2
34.7
11.3
39.4
..
40.6
..
19.7
3.9
47.9
65.5
4.1
42.1
12.0
44.5
37.4
47.9
21.1
17.0
15.6
11.2
3.4
17.3
..
17.8
15.2
17.2

15.8
26.7
25.0
8.1
33.7
2.2
33.8
41.3
20.9
9.5
55.0
25.6
48.4
47.6
4.9
24.1
4.6
18.2
46.4
5.3
25.3
35.7
21.8
55.0
27.9
9.5
..
28.2
34.0
37.5
28.7
5.6
27.8
10.1
39.3
37.2
36.1
20.0
16.5
2.6
49.9
..
3.2
33.7
9.1
31.2
38.2
25.5
20.8
18.1
12.2
8.6
3.6
15.0
3.0
15.8
9.8
14.3

a. Provisional.

38

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.30

Industry value added

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excluding South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2008

2010a

37.8
..
25.5
..
12.3
50.7
20.5
12.6
25.6
17.0
20.1
8.9
13.2
35.0
46.6
19.7
..
..
..
60.4
14.9
12.3
..
19.7
20.9
26.5
..
16.1
22.5
13.2
26.0
26.2
34.4
55.8
22.9
..
21.6
..
20.1
15.6
21.9
8.0
48.4
..
30.2
..
24.8
4.5
42.1
29.0
40.8
57.7
..
36.8
..
31.0
36.0
39.1

32.2
25.1
25.1
40.9
13.2
61.0
21.0
19.0
29.5
21.4
19.7
17.7
8.3
29.0
40.6
23.2
10.6
..
11.1
43.0
13.1
16.9
33.3
18.6
19.0
34.4
..
12.8
28.9
15.9
28.8
32.8
18.4
38.0
16.2
..
24.6
..
22.2
16.3
19.2
..
40.1
15.3
43.2
17.7
22.5
11.1
51.3
33.1
34.7
48.2
22.1
28.7
..
33.4
33.6
33.2

30.9
30.7
28.1
66.1
13.3
51.0
23.2
18.1
30.7
15.0
14.0
47.1
12.2
24.5
65.9
23.1
92.1
21.3
14.1
55.3
14.5
27.1
33.7
..
18.2
32.5
..
16.0
17.4
23.9
27.3
29.1
27.4
29.4
..
42.1
13.9
21.1
24.9
28.2
24.2
..
31.3
25.8
46.4
22.4
17.2
22.1
27.9
26.4
43.0
56.4
16.6
36.5
68.6
28.5
28.4
36.0

31.6
31.9
29.3
67.1
13.4
50.2
22.7
18.5
30.4
15.7
14.1
60.4
11.0
26.9
71.9
25.9
94.4
21.9
13.0
61.4
14.7
27.5
38.9
..
19.1
33.1
..
15.8
17.0
24.2
33.2
27.6
25.3
29.2
..
43.5
14.1
20.5
23.8
21.2
23.6
..
31.2
28.3
44.7
22.7
17.2
25.0
31.6
28.7
44.7
61.3
16.6
35.9
75.5
28.2
29.2
37.2

31.8
32.3
30.1
67.5
..
54.0
22.4
18.5
31.4
16.0
14.2
60.6
11.8
27.7
75.5
25.9
94.4
19.3
12.7
61.2
15.5
20.8
43.4
..
18.5
35.3
..
16.1
17.0
24.0
46.5
27.6
26.4
34.6
..
41.9
13.8
..
23.1
19.4
23.2
..
31.2
29.2
46.7
22.9
18.4
24.2
35.3
32.3
46.3
62.3
16.4
38.4
78.5
27.2
29.7
38.0

31.8
32.3
30.4
66.6
..
52.6
..
19.0
30.6
15.7
14.2
54.3
11.9
28.4
73.2
25.3
94.6
20.1
13.3
60.3
14.9
20.8
43.4
..
18.5
35.9
..
16.3
16.3
24.2
39.6
27.0
25.9
35.6
..
40.7
14.0
..
23.6
20.3
24.3
..
31.2
31.2
46.5
23.3
18.7
26.6
38.5
33.1
45.1
61.3
16.9
36.3
76.4
27.3
31.3
37.5

32.0
31.1
31.1
67.5
..
52.6
..
17.9
..
18.5
14.2
48.8
12.0
28.0
77.4
26.1
95.7
26.9
13.0
64.3
13.7
20.4
46.7
..
19.8
37.3
..
16.2
16.1
..
40.5
28.1
23.7
37.8
..
..
14.8
..
22.2
19.4
23.5
..
32.8
34.0
46.4
23.1
18.2
27.4
41.4
31.1
46.7
62.1
..
37.5
78.2
30.3
33.1
38.8

29.7
28.1
28.1
59.1
..
40.1
..
18.1
..
18.3
14.8
..
12.1
24.0
71.1
25.5
92.6
22.4
10.8
53.5
12.4
19.0
52.1
..
19.2
32.9
..
16.0
16.1
..
35.1
28.0
23.6
32.7
..
..
14.4
..
21.8
17.9
22.5
..
31.3
26.0
50.6
24.3
16.0
25.8
34.1
27.8
41.3
62.1
..
37.3
..
28.6
31.6
34.7

30.4
..
30.0
59.9
..
45.0
..
18.3
..
18.0
..
..
..
..
75.4
27.2
..
..
14.3
59.4
12.3
18.6
47.2
..
19.8
31.9
..
..
..
..
43.9
27.0
23.4
19.6
..
..
15.0
..
22.4
..
20.7
..
30.8
33.0
46.5
25.5
15.7
25.5
37.2
26.8
41.6
62.1
..
37.5
..
29.7
32.3
35.4

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

..
..
31.1
60.2
..
46.8
..
18.6
..
17.8
..
..
..
..
76.8
30.3
..
..
12.6
60.7
12.0
25.3
..
..
19.2
33.7
..
..
..
..
46.3
26.6
24.2
19.6
..
..
..
..
23.8
..
18.2
..
..
39.8
45.9
26.5
16.0
25.4
37.7
22.9
..
..
..
36.7
..
29.9
33.3
..

34.4
24.9
24.9
39.4
14.0
57.5
21.0
15.1
31.8
18.0
16.2
13.5
12.5
30.1
45.1
20.9
8.9
..
11.6
53.7
13.7
13.8
33.6
15.7
19.4
27.7
..
13.8
22.7
14.8
27.0
28.9
24.8
44.3
19.8
..
21.0
..
20.7
16.5
15.9
8.0
43.8
15.4
32.3
..
22.0
9.4
45.5
30.2
36.8
52.1
20.6
30.6
..
33.2
36.1
35.4

29.6
24.9
24.9
56.9
13.7
54.9
21.1
18.7
30.3
19.2
20.2
13.7
11.4
20.6
45.4
22.2
38.5
18.4
10.2
48.2
6.2
24.5
30.1
12.5
17.8
42.3
..
12.2
22.7
17.0
26.5
32.1
17.1
30.6
17.4
..
19.5
..
23.5
21.5
32.4
..
35.0
13.5
43.4
16.4
21.0
14.9
39.2
30.5
36.1
49.7
16.6
31.8
..
32.0
32.0
32.3

a. Provisional.

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

39

Table

2.31

Services plus discrepancy value added

Share of GDP
(%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Excl. South Africa
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia
AFRICA

1980

1990

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2008

2010a

44.7
43.9
43.9
..
52.3
34.6
50.1
25.1
43.1
64.5
39.9
46.0
52.8
38.2
41.7
54.4
..
..
..
32.8
54.3
27.6
..
36.1
46.6
48.9
..
53.9
33.7
38.5
43.6
60.7
28.5
33.0
34.0
..
32.6
..
59.9
77.5
45.0
23.6
45.4
53.0
47.1
..
47.7
23.5
42.8
55.3
43.5
33.8
..
45.0
..
50.5
47.7
44.2

49.2
43.8
43.8
41.2
50.7
34.1
50.2
25.2
46.0
64.2
32.7
53.0
50.3
40.0
46.5
44.3
27.8
..
34.5
49.7
57.9
38.1
42.9
20.6
51.4
40.7
..
58.6
26.1
38.6
41.6
54.4
44.5
50.3
48.6
..
42.8
..
57.9
78.9
33.9
..
55.3
44.2
46.5
36.4
43.7
32.4
28.1
50.4
48.3
40.5
74.9
52.0
..
48.3
48.7
48.8

52.0
42.1
46.2
25.3
54.6
47.0
44.0
37.3
48.9
75.1
30.7
29.4
36.9
28.3
28.6
53.8
3.8
67.1
41.8
39.1
56.8
31.4
41.3
..
53.7
57.9
..
55.3
47.9
39.8
37.2
64.4
45.2
60.8
..
23.7
47.6
56.4
59.2
68.8
30.9
..
65.6
38.9
44.7
44.3
46.6
55.0
49.1
54.0
44.7
33.5
79.8
48.4
28.4
55.2
60.6
48.9

51.9
41.4
45.5
24.4
54.4
48.0
43.2
37.1
50.1
75.3
31.4
27.3
38.0
27.6
23.6
51.3
3.0
53.9
40.4
33.8
56.9
31.6
36.9
..
53.7
57.9
..
55.9
50.3
39.3
36.3
66.4
47.7
59.5
..
23.7
47.6
62.7
59.6
72.9
24.8
..
66.2
39.7
46.5
45.5
43.4
48.3
45.1
52.7
43.9
30.5
79.9
49.2
22.2
57.1
60.7
48.5

52.2
42.0
45.7
24.8
..
44.2
44.4
37.9
48.8
75.6
30.7
27.8
43.0
26.6
20.5
51.2
2.9
54.6
39.4
33.9
62.4
48.8
32.8
..
54.8
56.8
..
56.4
51.9
39.1
30.5
66.9
45.7
54.9
..
26.1
47.8
..
62.2
73.2
25.7
..
66.0
40.8
45.5
46.7
45.7
50.2
42.3
47.4
42.5
29.7
80.1
47.5
19.5
56.0
60.1
48.1

52.5
42.7
46.5
25.6
..
45.4
..
43.2
49.9
77.1
31.9
33.2
42.8
29.1
22.4
50.9
2.8
54.5
40.5
34.9
64.1
50.2
31.3
..
56.5
56.4
..
58.1
53.4
..
34.8
68.6
46.4
55.0
..
26.6
50.4
..
63.1
77.5
25.9
..
65.4
40.7
45.5
46.7
45.5
49.8
39.8
45.3
44.2
30.7
79.3
49.6
21.5
59.0
59.3
49.0

55.1
46.0
46.0
25.9
..
45.4
..
46.8
..
75.1
32.9
37.5
42.2
31.8
18.9
48.9
2.3
55.8
43.1
31.6
61.5
48.6
28.4
..
54.4
54.7
..
59.0
53.8
..
40.6
67.8
45.9
52.9
..
..
52.8
..
62.3
78.6
26.3
..
64.0
39.7
45.7
47.2
41.1
49.9
39.7
49.5
43.2
31.0
..
49.3
19.9
55.0
58.4
49.5

56.8
47.7
47.7
30.8
..
56.9
..
46.7
..
72.9
28.7
..
41.6
33.1
24.4
49.9
4.2
63.0
38.5
41.2
60.8
49.2
31.0
..
53.6
59.4
..
54.9
53.4
..
44.7
68.1
44.9
58.0
..
..
51.6
..
61.0
80.3
25.2
..
65.7
44.3
40.7
46.9
41.3
49.5
44.4
55.0
46.7
31.0
..
49.0
..
55.0
59.5
52.5

58.4
..
48.9
30.2
..
52.5
..
46.6
..
72.1
..
..
..
..
20.8
50.0
..
..
38.0
36.5
59.3
51.4
39.4
..
55.0
59.5
..
..
..
..
38.9
69.4
44.8
72.9
..
..
52.8
..
60.3
..
30.4
..
66.7
43.3
45.5
46.5
41.5
50.3
53.6
57.2
46.5
31.0
..
48.5
..
55.0
59.7
53.1

Annual average
1980–89 1990–99 2000–10

47.5
44.4
44.4
45.4
52.2
33.8
49.2
26.8
42.5
67.1
39.5
49.6
51.2
39.6
44.9
52.0
25.2
..
31.9
38.6
52.3
33.6
42.4
35.7
48.2
47.6
..
51.9
33.1
40.8
42.6
56.2
35.6
44.6
41.6
..
38.8
..
57.3
77.4
44.2
25.1
50.8
49.5
48.2
..
46.2
33.0
38.6
53.6
46.8
38.0
76.1
49.7
..
50.4
48.2
47.2

52.2
44.4
44.4
31.8
50.2
40.9
45.1
30.5
45.4
68.3
31.4
49.6
48.4
32.4
44.1
50.6
20.0
58.7
31.4
44.0
74.5
32.9
49.9
31.1
51.5
38.4
..
59.3
40.1
36.4
37.9
57.7
48.2
58.1
43.3
..
40.0
..
56.8
74.7
19.7
..
60.9
44.5
44.5
39.1
41.7
37.2
39.7
52.5
48.2
39.1
80.0
51.0
..
50.2
52.8
50.5

53.6
43.6
46.3
25.9
52.6
46.9
44.2
40.5
47.3
74.5
30.3
37.1
39.8
28.1
24.9
51.1
3.8
59.7
40.5
37.7
63.1
40.1
38.4
32.0
53.7
56.6
..
56.3
48.8
38.1
37.4
65.6
47.1
59.1
43.5
23.6
50.0
61.3
59.9
72.5
26.0
..
65.2
39.9
44.6
46.4
44.2
49.9
47.4
55.1
45.3
32.5
80.2
49.0
23.0
55.9
59.8
50.0

a. Provisional.

40

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.32

Central government finances

1990

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republica
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.a
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopiaa
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenyaa
Lesothoa
Liberiaa
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiaa
Niger
Nigeriaa
Rwandaa
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegala
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togo
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Moroccoa
Tunisiaa
ALL AFRICA

..
..
..
50.8
..
..
14.3
..
..
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
12.4
..
19.4
12.5
..
..
..
44.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.3
..
..
10.8
..
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.4
24.1
..
..
..
23.0
..
..
30.7
..

Revenue, excluding grants
2000
2005

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
28.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.7
50.7
..
11.7
..
13.4
..
..
..
30.1
..
..
..
..
16.9
38.7
11.4
..
26.4
..
25.6
..
..
10.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.5
..

23.3
..
16.4
..
12.8
..
..
27.6
..
..
..
14.7
39.9
12.1
..
..
11.0
..
..
23.7
..
..
20.2
52.1
0.3
11.0
..
18.0
..
..
..
28.2
10.5
9.4
..
..
..
44.8
11.5
..
30.1
..
..
..
14.7
11.9
17.6
..
..
..
..
24.3
..
30.7
26.2
24.3

2010

1990

Share of GDP
(%)
Expense
2000
2005

..
..
18.2
..
15.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
36.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.6
..
17.4
..
..
..
..
24.8
..
31.8
29.0
..

..
..
..
26.7
..
..
14.6
..
..
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
..
16.2
..
17.2
..
..
..
..
33.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.5
..
..
..
24.0
..
..
30.4
..

..
..
..
26.7
..
..
14.6
..
..
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
..
16.2
..
17.2
..
..
..
..
33.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.5
..
..
..
24.0
..
..
30.4
..

22.8
..
13.6
..
11.6
..
..
30.2
..
..
..
22.1
14.8
16.9
..
..
15.0
..
..
22.8
..
..
18.2
41.9
0.2
11.0
..
15.1
..
..
..
25.6
9.1
5.0
..
..
..
37.7
23.0
..
29.9
..
..
..
16.1
16.7
22.9
..
..
..
..
27.4
..
30.0
26.2
24.7

2010

1990

..
..
15.0
..
12.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.5
..
17.2
..
..
..
..
28.9
..
30.6
27.0
..

..
..
..
19.1
..
..
-5.6
..
..
..
..
-6.5
..
..
..
..
-6.6
..
2.1
..
..
..
..
-0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-2.6
..
..
..
-2.0
..
..
-3.2
..

Cash surplus or deficit
2000
2005

..
..
..
19.1
..
..
-5.6
..
..
..
..
-6.5
..
..
..
..
-6.6
..
2.1
..
..
..
..
-0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-2.6
..
..
..
-2.0
..
..
-3.2
..

-0.3
..
-0.6
..
-5.4
..
..
-3.0
..
..
..
-1.0
19.5
-6.7
..
..
-4.5
..
..
-1.4
..
..
1.5
4.2
0.0
-4.7
..
-2.5
..
..
..
-0.1
-1.9
2.5
..
..
..
2.5
-1.7
..
-0.2
..
..
..
-5.7
-0.8
-4.7
..
..
..
..
-6.5
..
-2.5
-2.8
-2.2

2010

..
..
-1.0
..
-5.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-5.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
-2.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.6
..
-1.5
..
..
..
..
-7.7
..
-2.6
-1.3
..
(continued)

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

41

Table

2.32

Central government finances (continued)
Share of GDP
(%)
Net incurrence of liabilities
1990

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republica
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.a
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopiaa
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenyaa
Lesothoa
Liberiaa
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiaa
Niger
Nigeriaa
Rwandaa
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegala
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togo
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Moroccoa
Tunisiaa
ALL AFRICA

..
..
..
-0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.5
..
..
..
..
5.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
-7.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.6
..

Domestic
2000
2005

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.3
..
-1.0
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
0.3
0.7
..
..
1.6
..
..
..
..
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..

..
..
..
..
0.4
..
..
4.9
..
..
..
1.7
..
-0.1
..
..
4.3
..
..
-1.7
..
..
-0.5
..
0.0
1.3
..
-1.0
..
..
..
1.5
-0.6
-0.1
..
..
..
-8.1
..
..
2.5
..
..
..
..
1.2
..
..
-0.2
..
..
15.4
..
-0.2
-0.2
..

2010

..
..
-0.3
..
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
-4.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
-0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
-2.7
..
..
..
2.3
..
..
9.2
..
2.3
-0.6
..

1990

..
..
..
0.0
..
..
5.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.8
..

Foreign
2000
2005

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.7
..
3.0
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
0.5
13.1
..
..
0.3
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-0.2
..

..
..
..
..
4.8
..
..
3.0
..
..
..
-1.5
..
1.8
..
..
1.0
..
..
2.5
..
..
..
..
0.0
3.9
..
3.9
..
..
..
-0.3
2.6
..
..
..
..
2.9
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
0.8
..
..
-0.3
..
..
-0.8
..
-0.3
0.8
..

2010

..
..
2.0
..
3.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
-1.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
0.2
..
2.1
-0.4
..

1990

..
3.2
2.0
2.8
1.1
3.8
4.6
1.9
2.0
0.7
0.4
3.7
18.6
11.7
..
..
2.0
3.0
11.9
6.2
6.3
3.5
9.2
4.3
0.8
7.2
7.1
2.8
14.3
5.7
3.2
..
4.0
11.7
0.8
..
5.7
5.8
3.3
1.2
..
0.4
4.0
4.2
5.3
3.4
6.1
5.4
10.5
14.2
2.4
7.1
..
7.0
11.7
7.9

Total debt
2000
2005

3.9
18.7
3.3
1.2
1.8
2.6
5.5
3.0
1.5
1.8
1.6
0.6
1.4
9.8
..
0.5
1.7
6.9
2.7
7.8
5.0
2.4
4.7
8.3
0.1
3.0
3.6
3.8
6.4
9.9
2.3
..
1.5
4.0
2.1
..
4.8
3.4
7.3
..
2.9
2.0
2.0
1.6
2.3
1.2
5.7
6.3
5.0
8.2
2.4
1.8
..
7.3
8.9
4.4

3.1
9.2
1.1
0.5
0.8
3.5
5.0
3.7
0.5
1.0
1.0
3.0
1.8
1.9
..
1.8
0.8
2.2
4.5
2.6
5.6
1.1
2.9
5.8
0.2
1.6
2.8
1.9
3.0
3.6
1.2
..
1.2
7.9
1.1
5.8
2.3
6.4
1.4
..
1.3
1.5
1.3
0.9
1.0
1.9
3.9
4.1
4.6
5.8
2.2
2.5
..
4.6
6.3
3.5

2010

1.2
2.8
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.2
0.9
2.2
0.1
0.9
0.8
2.0
1.6
1.7
..
1.1
0.7
3.4
1.9
1.0
1.9
2.1
1.2
1.6
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.7
3.0
1.4
1.0
..
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.8
2.4
5.0
0.6
..
1.4
0.7
1.1
0.9
1.1
0.4
0.9
1.5
1.8
0.4
..
1.4
..
3.7
5.3
1.4

a. Data were reported on a cash basis and have been adjusted to the accrual framework.

42

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.33

Central government expenses

1990

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republica
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.a
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopiaa
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenyaa
Lesothoa
Liberiaa
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiaa
Niger
Nigeriaa
Rwandaa
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegala
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togo
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Moroccoa
Tunisiaa
ALL AFRICA

..
..
..
35.2
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
..
56.3
..
..
..
..
43.1
..
28.3
..
..
..
..
30.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.7
..
..
..
22.4
..
..
7.0
..

Goods and services
2000
2005

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
56.1
25.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.3
..
..
17.7
..
37.6
..
..
..
20.8
..
..
..
..
26.0
24.6
14.9
..
11.3
..
26.1
..
..
55.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.6
..

..
..
28.1
..
22.7
..
..
21.3
..
..
..
22.0
30.0
29.0
..
..
18.8
..
..
18.2
..
..
23.4
27.7
36.4
..
..
33.3
..
..
..
16.3
29.3
18.5
..
..
..
25.3
25.6
..
12.0
..
..
..
48.3
29.2
25.5
..
8.6
..
..
8.6
..
15.2
7.2
..

2009

Share of expense
(%)
Compensation of employees
1990
2000
2005
2009

1990

Interest payments
2000
2005

2009

..
..
17.7
..
19.1
..
..
16.3
..
..
..
21.0
..
29.5
..
..
..
..
..
16.5
..
..
20.2
..
..
..
..
30.6
..
11.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.2
24.3
..
12.9
..
..
..
24.2
31.2
19.5
..
8.5
11.3
..
8.0
..
9.0
6.6
..

..
..
..
29.1
..
..
55.6
..
..
..
..
25.4
..
..
..
..
48.1
..
28.7
..
..
..
..
38.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
43.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40.9
..
..
..
26.6
..
..
31.4
..

..
..
..
2.8
..
..
7.8
..
..
..
..
7.4
..
..
..
..
5.6
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
18.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.8
..
..
..
16.3
..
..
10.9
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.8
..
..
13.4
..
8.0
..
..
..
6.6
..
..
..
..
10.7
17.4
22.0
..
18.1
..
2.4
..
..
5.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.1
..

..
..
3.3
..
3.4
..
..
5.3
..
..
..
3.7
..
8.7
..
..
..
..
..
15.7
..
..
10.3
..
..
..
..
2.5
..
13.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.1
7.1
..
7.2
..
..
..
5.5
8.6
10.1
..
5.6
1.4
..
14.0
..
3.7
7.5
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.1
27.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
55.2
..
..
40.7
..
36.5
..
..
..
51.2
..
..
..
..
41.4
36.3
23.4
..
15.6
..
44.6
..
..
12.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.8
..

..
..
42.5
..
42.7
..
..
42.2
..
..
..
19.7
30.0
38.7
..
..
12.3
..
..
40.1
..
..
59.8
37.2
48.4
40.9
..
32.6
..
..
..
49.8
38.5
30.9
..
..
..
37.1
27.9
..
14.3
..
..
..
30.8
13.1
36.4
..
39.0
..
..
28.5
..
47.2
39.0
..

..
..
47.2
..
45.8
..
..
43.3
..
..
..
32.1
..
38.4
..
..
..
..
..
40.0
..
..
37.3
..
..
..
..
34.4
..
35.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.8
27.7
..
13.4
..
..
..
40.3
14.2
43.8
..
34.9
33.7
..
24.6
..
47.8
36.1
..

..
..
2.3
..
5.5
..
..
7.4
..
..
..
13.4
18.2
12.2
..
..
7.0
..
..
16.0
..
..
10.4
6.2
1.3
23.9
..
4.4
..
..
..
9.8
6.4
9.0
..
..
..
14.2
15.3
..
10.9
..
..
..
6.5
8.9
19.4
..
9.7
..
..
20.2
..
7.8
9.7
..

(continued)

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

43

Table

2.33

Central government expense (continued)

Share of expense
(%)
1990

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republica
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.a
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopiaa
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenyaa
Lesothoa
Liberiaa
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiaa
Niger
Nigeriaa
Rwandaa
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegala
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togo
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Moroccoa
Tunisiaa
ALL AFRICA

..
..
..
31.8
..
..
13.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.2
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
8.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44.9
..

Subsidies and other transfers
2000
2005

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
10.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.4
..
..
9.7
..
0.5
..
..
..
10.4
..
..
..
..
18.7
21.6
5.5
..
52.9
..
27.0
..
..
27.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
1.3
..
10.0
..
..
23.5
..
..
..
11.0
19.4
14.9
..
..
41.8
..
..
25.5
..
..
..
28.9
13.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.4
4.1
41.7
..
..
..
22.7
19.1
..
57.7
..
..
..
1.7
48.5
18.0
..
26.7
..
..
26.7
..
24.7
33.6
..

2009

..
..
29.7
..
11.1
..
..
30.1
..
..
..
35.7
..
16.3
..
..
..
..
..
27.9
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
..
15.0
..
30.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.8
22.6
..
62.9
..
..
..
17.6
44.7
22.0
..
41.0
45.4
..
44.8
..
26.6
37.2
..

1990

..
..
..
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
9.5
..
..
..
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.8
..

Other expense
2000
2005

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.8
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.2
..
..
18.6
..
17.5
..
..
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
34.3
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
25.9
..
19.1
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
33.8
2.5
5.3
..
..
20.1
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
0.0
..
8.6
..
..
..
..
..
13.8
21.7
..
..
..
..
0.7
12.1
..
6.1
..
..
..
12.7
0.4
0.7
..
10.5
..
..
16.0
..
5.2
10.5
..

2009

..
..
2.1
..
20.7
..
..
5.0
..
..
..
7.6
..
7.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
..
..
17.5
..
9.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
18.4
..
4.4
..
..
..
12.5
1.4
4.6
..
10.7
8.3
..
8.7
..
12.9
12.7
..

a. Data were reported on a cash basis and have been adjusted to the accrual framework.

44

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.34

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republica
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.a
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopiaa
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenyaa
Lesothoa
Liberiaa
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiaa
Niger
Nigeriaa
Rwandaa
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegala
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togo
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Moroccoa
Tunisiaa
ALL AFRICA

Central government revenues

1990

Interest payments
2000
2005

2009

..
..
..
1.4
..
..
8.0
..
..
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
7.2
..
14.3
10.2
..
..
..
10.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.3
..
..
7.3
..
..
..
25.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.1
17.7
..
..
..
16.0
..
..
10.6
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.2
10.0
..
9.3
..
5.0
..
..
..
6.2
..
..
..
..
7.4
18.6
32.5
..
19.1
..
2.0
..
..
4.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.3
..

..
..
2.5
..
2.2
..
..
4.2
..
..
..
2.0
..
7.1
..
..
..
..
..
15.2
..
..
10.4
..
..
..
..
1.7
..
11.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.4
8.3
..
8.4
..
..
..
4.0
7.7
8.5
..
5.0
1.0
..
15.2
..
3.1
6.9
..

..
..
1.6
..
3.7
..
..
6.3
..
..
..
8.8
6.5
15.9
..
..
6.5
..
..
12.1
..
..
8.9
4.8
1.0
15.8
..
3.0
..
..
..
8.9
3.2
4.7
..
..
..
11.7
16.5
..
10.8
..
..
..
7.1
7.7
17.9
..
9.6
..
..
22.4
..
7.5
9.6
..

Share of revenues
(%)
Taxes on income, profits and capital gains
1990
2000
2005
2010

..
..
..
37.6
..
..
18.9
..
..
..
..
21.9
..
..
..
..
28.2
..
9.7
20.6
..
..
..
8.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.6
..
..
14.0
..
..
..
29.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.5
43.7
..
..
..
18.1
..
..
12.3
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.5
17.2
..
11.7
..
12.5
..
..
..
31.8
..
..
..
..
21.3
17.3
15.4
..
51.7
..
24.1
..
..
9.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.4
..

..
..
18.7
..
16.0
..
..
18.3
..
..
..
4.8
4.9
15.4
..
..
9.9
..
..
20.8
..
..
33.0
19.5
34.5
9.2
..
14.5
..
..
..
35.0
8.9
0.1
..
..
..
12.5
15.1
..
48.8
..
..
..
18.9
16.6
30.1
..
26.1
..
..
23.8
..
26.1
26.2
..

..
..
17.0
..
13.8
..
..
18.2
..
..
..
10.5
..
15.3
..
..
..
..
..
22.6
..
..
40.0
..
..
..
..
19.5
..
22.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.2
17.0
..
52.6
..
..
..
16.7
22.0
35.5
..
28.1
59.7
..
27.8
..
28.4
27.3
..

1990

..
..
..
1.8
..
..
22.2
..
..
..
..
15.1
..
..
..
..
24.3
..
28.3
26.8
..
..
..
16.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.9
..
..
27.1
..
..
..
22.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.4
25.6
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
19.1
..

Taxes on goods and services
2000
2005
2010

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.2
15.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.4
12.5
..
21.6
..
41.6
..
..
..
22.7
..
..
..
..
33.7
5.1
7.6
..
33.1
..
13.2
..
..
29.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.1
..

..
..
36.0
..
37.3
..
..
41.1
..
..
..
9.4
6.4
..
..
..
10.6
..
..
35.9
..
..
44.2
16.1
16.6
17.2
..
38.0
..
..
..
24.5
13.7
1.8
..
..
..
33.7
11.9
..
33.0
..
..
..
48.3
37.1
29.4
..
30.2
..
..
23.7
..
30.2
34.8
..

..
..
37.9
..
36.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
49.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.4
..
32.3
..
31.3
..
..
22.1
..
36.1
31.3
..
(continued)

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

45

Table

2.34

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benina
Botswanaa
Burkina Faso
Burundia
Cameroona
Cape Verde
Central African Republica
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.a
Congo, Rep.a
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopiaa
Gabon
Gambia, Thea
Ghanaa
Guineaa
Guinea-Bissau
Kenyaa
Lesothoa
Liberiaa
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiaa
Niger
Nigeriaa
Rwandaa
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegala
Seychelles
Sierra Leonea
Somalia
South Africa
Sudana
Swazilanda
Tanzania
Togo
Ugandaa
Zambiaa
Zimbabwea
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.a
Libya
Moroccoa
Tunisiaa
ALL AFRICA

Central government revenues (continued)

Taxes on international trade
1990
2000
2005
2010

1990

Share of revenues
(%)
Other taxes
Social contributions
2000
2005
2010
1990
2000
2005
2009

..
..
..
12.9
..
..
15.5
..
..
..
..
37.8
..
..
..
..
14.3
..
32.4
34.7
..
..
..
43.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.3
..
..
20.5
..
..
..
38.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.2
17.1
..
..
..
12.9
..
..
27.5
..

..
..
..
0.1
..
..
4.7
..
..
..
..
1.1
..
..
..
..
2.2
..
0.4
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
1.1
..
..
..
10.2
..
..
4.8
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.1
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
1.2
..
5.0
..
..
..
1.4
..
..
..
..
3.3
1.6
..
..
2.8
..
4.1
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.4
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.5
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.0
41.4
..
39.6
..
11.3
..
..
..
35.1
..
..
..
..
29.6
41.0
29.4
..
3.0
..
49.9
..
..
21.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.7
..

..
..
21.6
..
12.6
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
10.5
2.6
57.1
..
..
33.9
..
..
14.0
..
..
10.2
49.5
36.6
29.1
..
12.4
..
..
..
29.8
29.9
..
..
..
..
15.7
23.5
..
3.8
..
..
..
21.7
7.2
9.4
..
6.7
..
..
5.8
..
8.4
6.7
..

..
..
22.1
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.8
..
8.3
..
5.6
..
..
4.9
..
5.6
6.2
..

..
..
6.5
..
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.8
1.1
3.1
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
0.1
0.4
5.0
..
6.1
..
..
..
1.7
3.6
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
3.6
..
..
..
5.9
0.2
0.2
..
4.1
..
..
3.8
..
6.2
4.1
..

..
..
5.8
..
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.4
..
0.2
..
4.2
..
..
4.0
..
5.8
4.2
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
1.8
..
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
3.3
..
..
..
14.5
..
..
13.0
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
13.8
..
..
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.0
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.2
..
..
..
..
0.9
10.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
19.4
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.5
17.5
..

..
..
2.4
..
..
..
..
10.1
..
..
..
..
..
6.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.0
..
..
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.1
20.2
..

Grants and other revenue
1990
2000
2005
2010

..
..
..
47.6
..
..
27.5
..
..
..
..
23.1
..
..
..
..
29.1
..
28.9
10.4
..
..
..
31.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.2
..
..
30.0
..
..
..
9.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.8
9.2
..
..
..
31.6
..
..
23.4
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.1
76.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.7
28.9
..
26.0
..
29.5
..
..
..
8.5
..
..
..
..
12.2
21.3
47.7
..
7.4
..
8.7
..
..
38.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.5
..

..
..
17.2
..
32.0
..
..
30.3
..
..
..
70.5
84.0
14.2
..
..
45.2
..
..
29.3
..
..
12.1
14.8
11.9
39.5
..
29.1
..
..
..
8.4
43.9
98.1
..
..
..
18.8
49.5
..
8.8
..
..
..
5.2
38.9
31.0
..
15.7
..
..
43.0
..
15.7
10.8
..

..
..
15.5
..
35.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
59.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.6
..
15.1
..
14.1
..
..
43.8
..
14.1
10.0
..

a. Data were reported on a cash basis and have been adjusted to the accrual framework.

46

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Table

2.35

Structure of demand
Share of GDP
(%)

Household final
consumption
expenditure
1990 2000 2010a

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 65.2 68.4 64.9
Excluding South Africa
72.3 73.4
..
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria 72.3 73.4 71.0
Angola
35.8
.. 50.4
Benin
86.8 82.4
..
Botswana
33.2 30.8 56.6
Burkina Faso
73.5 78.5
..
Burundi
94.6 92.0 80.8
Cameroon
66.6 70.2
..
Cape Verde
58.5 72.1 55.6
Central African Republic
85.7 80.8
..
Chad
97.6 86.8 76.1
Comoros
78.7 94.0
..
Congo, Dem. Rep.
79.1 88.0
..
Congo, Rep.
62.4 29.1 38.6
Côte d'Ivoire
71.9 74.9 72.5
Equatorial Guinea
80.3 20.9
..
Eritrea
.. 79.1
..
Ethiopia
77.2 73.8 89.4
Gabon
49.7 32.2 38.2
Gambia, The
75.6 89.0 88.0
Ghana
85.2 84.3 75.5
Guinea
66.9 77.8 76.5
Guinea-Bissau
86.9 94.6
..
Kenya
62.8
77.7 74.4
Lesotho
123.3 83.4 104.8
Liberia
.. 85.7 131.3
Madagascar
86.4 83.2
..
Malawi
71.5 81.6 71.7
Mali
79.8 79.4
..
Mauritania
69.2 74.5 71.2
Mauritius
63.4 60.3 73.6
Mozambique
92.3 80.6 81.4
Namibia
51.2 63.1 49.0
Niger
83.8 83.4
..
Nigeria
..
..
..
Rwanda
83.7
87.7 83.3
São Tomé and Príncipe
..
..
..
Senegal
79.2 76.0 80.5
Seychelles
52.0 53.9
..
Sierra Leone
83.5 100.0 84.4
Somalia
..
..
..
South Africa
57.1 63.0 59.4
Sudan
86.1 76.5 60.6
Swaziland
80.5 77.3 75.5
Tanzania
81.0 78.3 64.7
Togo
71.1
87.6
..
Uganda
91.9 77.5 75.0
Zambia
64.4
87.4 55.2
Zimbabwe
63.1 59.9 107.7
NORTH AFRICA
64.1 61.2
..
Algeria
56.8 41.6
..
Djibouti
78.9 76.8
..
Egypt, Arab Rep.
72.6 75.9 74.7
Libya
48.4 45.7
..
Morocco
64.6 61.5 57.3
Tunisia
63.6 60.6 62.7
AFRICA
64.7 65.1 66.5

General government
final consumption
expenditure
1990 2000 2010a

17.5
15.6
15.6
34.5
11.0
24.1
21.1
10.8
12.8
16.3
14.9
10.1
24.5
11.5
13.9
16.8
39.7
..
13.2
13.4
13.8
9.3
11.0
10.3
18.6
25.8
..
8.0
15.1
13.8
25.9
13.6
13.5
30.6
15.0
..
10.1
..
18.4
27.7
7.8
..
19.7
5.8
14.3
17.8
14.2
7.5
19.0
19.5
15.2
16.1
31.5
11.3
24.4
15.5
16.4
16.4

15.6
13.3
13.3
..
11.6
25.4
20.8
15.5
9.5
30.7
14.0
7.7
11.7
7.5
11.6
7.2
4.6
63.8
17.9
9.6
11.2
10.2
6.8
14.0
15.1
41.7
7.5
9.0
14.6
8.6
20.2
14.1
9.0
23.5
13.0
..
11.0
..
12.8
24.2
14.3
..
18.2
7.6
18.2
11.7
10.5
14.5
9.5
24.3
14.6
13.6
29.7
11.2
20.8
18.4
16.7
15.1

18.2
..
14.6
17.6
..
20.9
..
31.6
..
26.1
..
13.2
..
..
10.4
8.6
..
..
10.2
10.0
9.6
9.5
7.5
..
16.7
37.2
18.6
..
20.2
..
13.1
13.9
12.7
24.2
..
..
15.5
..
8.7
..
12.3
..
21.5
15.2
26.8
18.2
..
11.7
13.3
19.1
..
..
..
11.2
..
17.5
16.3
16.4

Gross fixed capital
formation
1990 2000 2010a

Exports of goods
and services
1990 2000 2010a

18.3
17.5
17.5
11.1
13.4
32.4
17.7
15.2
17.3
25.3
11.4
4.8
11.9
12.8
17.2
8.5
17.4
..
12.9
21.5
22.3
14.4
22.9
29.9
20.7
57.0
..
14.8
20.1
23.0
20.0
30.6
22.1
21.2
11.4
..
14.7
..
18.0
23.0
9.6
14.9
19.1
10.4
14.6
25.8
25.3
12.7
13.5
18.2
24.5
27.0
14.2
26.9
13.9
24.0
24.4
21.1

26.4
27.9
24.4
38.9
14.3
55.1
11.0
7.9
20.2
0.0
14.8
13.5
14.3
29.5
53.7
31.7
32.2
..
5.6
46.0
59.9
16.9
31.1
9.9
25.7
18.1
..
16.6
23.8
17.2
45.6
65.0
8.2
51.9
15.0
43.4
5.6
..
25.4
62.5
22.5
9.8
24.2
4.0
59.0
12.6
33.5
7.2
35.9
22.9
26.5
23.4
53.8
20.1
39.7
26.5
43.6
26.4

16.3
17.3
17.3
15.1
18.9
25.8
18.7
4.2
16.0
30.5
9.5
20.9
10.1
3.5
20.9
11.2
61.3
23.8
20.3
21.9
4.6
23.1
18.9
11.3
16.7
42.5
7.5
15.0
12.3
24.6
16.2
22.9
31.0
16.6
11.2
..
18.3
..
22.4
25.2
6.9
..
15.1
12.1
18.1
16.4
14.5
19.2
16.0
11.8
20.1
20.7
8.8
18.9
13.1
26.0
25.2
18.0

20.4
..
21.3
12.6
26.1
27.1
..
18.0
..
46.8
..
31.8
..
..
20.3
13.8
..
..
21.5
26.6
19.4
21.8
20.0
..
19.9
28.5
34.5
..
21.7
..
24.5
24.9
24.7
25.7
..
..
21.0
..
29.0
..
15.8
..
19.6
20.4
11.1
28.4
18.9
23.3
22.4
5.7
..
..
..
18.6
..
30.7
24.3
21.0

32.4
35.6
31.5
89.6
15.2
53.3
9.1
6.6
23.3
27.0
19.8
16.9
16.7
22.4
80.3
40.4
98.6
15.1
12.0
69.0
25.8
48.8
23.6
31.8
21.6
34.2
26.1
30.7
25.6
26.8
30.0
61.4
16.5
40.9
17.8
54.0
8.7
..
27.9
78.2
18.1
..
27.9
15.3
74.3
13.4
34.4
10.7
27.1
38.2
27.9
41.2
35.1
16.2
35.6
28.0
39.6
30.5

Imports of goods
and services
1990 2000 2010a

31.2 25.4 30.6 34.0
34.3 30.2 34.8 39.0
33.4 30.5 35.4 40.9
62.3 20.9 62.8 43.0
14.3 26.3 28.1 28.1
33.0 49.8 41.2 40.0
.. 24.5 25.2
..
6.1 27.8 16.9 36.5
28.9
17.3 19.7 32.0
38.6
0.0 60.5
67.1
..
27.6
24.1
..
39.0 27.9 34.7 61.0
.. 37.2 32.5
..
26.0 29.2 21.4 38.9
85.1 45.8 43.6 54.7
40.6
27.1 33.3 36.1
.. 69.6 85.4
..
..
.. 81.8
..
11.4
8.9 24.0 32.5
61.3 30.9 32.7 36.0
21.9 71.6 30.6 38.9
29.4 25.9 67.3 41.2
34.8 33.4 27.9 39.3
..
37.0 51.6
..
27.5 31.3 31.7
37.9
43.8 123.2 103.4 113.9
25.0
.. 26.9 109.5
.. 28.0 38.0
..
30.6 33.4 35.3
47.2
.. 33.7 39.4
..
62.0 60.7 45.3 73.6
52.5 72.2 61.9 63.8
26.3 36.1
37.0 45.0
42.6
67.4 44.6 41.3
.. 22.0 25.7
..
37.9 28.8 32.0 31.2
10.9
14.1 25.7 30.6
..
..
..
..
24.8 32.2 37.2 43.0
.. 66.7 81.4
..
17.1 23.8 39.3 29.5
..
37.7
..
..
27.3 18.8 24.9 27.5
19.8
7.1
17.7 18.9
54.8 68.9 88.0 68.2
26.1 37.5 20.1 37.8
37.3 45.3
47.6 53.8
23.8 19.4 22.1 33.9
44.1 36.6 41.5 35.0
48.3 22.8 35.9 78.0
28.4 32.4 24.9 30.7
30.8 24.9 21.4 21.5
.. 78.4 50.4
..
21.4 32.7 22.8 26.1
..
31.1 15.5
..
33.0 31.9 33.4 42.9
48.8 50.6 42.9 54.1
30.1 28.4 28.2 32.7

Gross national
savings
1990 2000 2010a

15.8
12.8
12.8
9.0
5.3
41.7
15.9
8.7
16.2
53.9
6.2
2.3
14.4
..
6.9
-5.1
2.1
..
12.8
24.3
21.9
10.5
19.2
14.5
18.5
70.5
..
9.1
16.4
15.0
7.5
25.8
6.6
34.8
-0.6
..
11.3
..
1.6
21.7
-1.0
..
19.1
1.2
19.7
10.1
21.0
5.6
19.6
15.6
27.6
24.3
..
31.1
..
25.1
23.4
20.8

15.6
15.5
15.5
23.8
10.4
41.4
5.1
1.1
15.3
19.6
..
..
..
..
30.6
8.0
..
4.4
15.9
41.7
..
15.3
15.4
..
13.5
37.3
..
8.8
9.5
15.9
..
26.3
10.4
25.4
5.3
..
12.9
..
13.8
18.5
-3.7
..
15.8
9.3
13.3
13.2
5.0
14.4
-1.4
..
..
..
5.4
18.1
..
24.3
22.2
17.2

17.2
..
..
21.6
..
27.7
..
-5.4
..
34.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.6
..
9.4
20.6
7.1
..
15.6
12.7
29.0
..
..
..
..
15.6
12.2
34.1
..
..
12.2
..
..
..
13.0
..
16.5
17.5
2.4
20.1
..
19.0
22.5
..
27.7
48.4
..
17.8
..
30.8
20.3
22.2

a. Provisional

NATIONAL AND FISCAL ACCOUNTS

Part I. Basic indicators and national and fiscal accounts

47

Table

3.1

Millennium Development Goal 1:
eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25
a day (PPP) (% of population)
Surveys
Surveys
1990–99c
2000–11c
Year Percent Year Percent

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
South Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

48

1994
1998
1998
1996
1992

1998

1995
..
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
1999
1998
1994
1996
1996
1993
1994
1996

1994
1990
1995

1995
1992
1999
1998

1995
1996
1999
1995

..
..
31.2
70.0
86.4
24.9
..
83.2
..
..
..
..
24.1
..
..
60.5
..
65.6
39.1
63.8
52.1
19.6
46.2
..
82.3
83.1
86.1
23.4
..
80.6
49.1
78.2
68.5
..
..
53.6
..
62.8
..
21.4
..
..
78.6
72.6
..
60.5
55.7
..
6.8
..
2.5
..
6.8
6.5

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

2000
2003
2009
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008

2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2010
2004
2010
2008
2008
2004
2008
2010
2011
2001
2005
2007
2003
2009
2009
2010
2007
2006
2009
2006

2002
2008
2007
2005

54.31
47.3
..
44.6
81.3
9.6
21.0
62.8
61.9
46.1
87.7
54.1
23.8
..
..
39.0
4.8
33.6
28.6
43.3
48.9
43.4
43.4
83.8
81.3
73.9
50.4
23.4
..
59.6
31.9
43.6
68.0
63.2
28.2
33.5
0.3
53.4
..
13.8
19.8
..
40.6
67.9
38.7
38.0
68.5
..
..
18.8
1.7
..
2.5
1.4

International poverty linea
Poverty gap at $1.25 a day
Poverty headcount ratio at $2
(PPP) (%)
a day (PPP) (% of population)
Surveys
Surveys
Surveys
Surveys
c
c
1990–99
2000–11
1990–99c
2000–11c
Year Percent Year Percent Year Percent Year Percent

1994
1998
1998
1996
1992

1998

1995
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
1999
1998
1994
1996
1996
1993
1994
1996

1994
1990
1995

1995
1992
..
1999
1998

1995
1996
1999
1995

..
..
11.0
30.2
47.3
6.3
..
57.4
..
..
..
..
6.7
..
..
21.2
..
33.8
14.4
29.7
20.6
4.6
25.6
..
44.3
46.0
53.1
7.1
..
41.2
24.6
38.6
32.1
..
..
19.2
..
44.8
..
5.2
..
..
47.7
29.7
..
24.5
26.9
..
1.4
..
0.3
..
1.2
1.3

2000
2003
2009
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008

2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2010
2004
2010
2008
2008
2004
2008
2010
2011
2001
2005
2007
2003
2009
2009
2010
2007
2006
2009
2006

2002
2008
2007
2005

29.94
15.7
..
14.7
36.4
1.2
6.1
31.3
25.6
20.8
52.8
22.8
7.5
..
..
9.6
0.9
11.7
9.9
15.0
16.6
16.9
20.8
40.9
43.3
32.3
16.4
6.8
..
25.1
9.5
12.4
33.7
26.6
7.9
10.8
0.1
20.3
..
2.3
5.5
..
16.0
28.1
11.4
12.2
37.0
..
..
5.3
0.4
..
0.5
0.3

1994
1998
1998
1996
1992

1998

1995
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
..
1999
1998
1994
1996
1996
1993
1994
1996

1994
1990
1995

1995
1992
1999
1998

1995
1996
1999
1995

..
..
49.4
87.6
95.4
51.8
..
91.0
..
..
..
..
49.2
..
..
84.6
..
81.2
63.3
81.7
75.7
42.7
59.7
..
93.1
93.5
93.9
48.3
..
92.6
62.2
91.6
86.4
..
..
79.1
..
75.0
..
39.9
..
..
89.3
91.3
..
82.7
74.8
..
23.6
..
26.3
..
24.4
20.4

2000
2003
2009
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008

2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2010
2004
2010
2008
2008
2004
2008
2010
2006
2001
2005
2007
2003
2009
2009
2010
2007
2006
2009
2006

2002
2008
2007
2005

70.21
75.3
..
72.6
93.5
30.4
40.9
80.1
83.3
65.0
95.2
74.4
46.3
..
..
77.6
19.6
55.9
51.8
69.6
78.0
67.2
62.3
94.9
92.6
90.5
78.7
47.7
..
81.8
51.1
75.2
84.5
87.4
54.2
60.4
1.8
76.1
..
31.3
44.1
..
60.4
87.9
69.3
64.7
82.6
..
..
41.2
15.4
..
14.0
8.1

Poverty gap at $2 a day
(PPP) (%)
Surveys
Surveys
c
1990–99
2000–11c
Year Percent Year Percent

1994
1998
1998
1996
1992

1998

1995
1998
1998
1994
1993
1997
1994
1999
1998
1994
1996
1996
1993
1994
1996

1994
1990
1995

1995
1992
1999
1998

1995
1996
1999
1995

..
..
22.3
49.1
64.1
18.4
..
68.8
..
..
..
..
18.2
..
..
41.2
..
49.1
28.5
46.3
37.4
14.7
36.1
..
61.0
62.3
67.2
17.8
..
58.7
36.5
56.5
49.7
..
..
37.6
..
54.0
..
15.0
..
..
61.7
50.1
..
42.9
41.7
..
6.5
..
5.0
..
6.5
5.8

2000
2003
..
2009
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008
..
..
2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2010
2004
2010
2008
2008
2004
2008
2010
2006
2001
2005
2007
2003
2009
2009
2010
2007
2006
2009
2006

..
2002
2008
2007
2005

42.35
33.5
..
31.7
56.1
8.2
15.2
46.8
43.9
34.2
67.6
38.8
17.8
..
..
28.9
5.0
24.4
21.3
31.0
34.9
31.8
33.1
59.6
60.1
51.8
35.2
17.7
..
42.9
21.8
30.8
50.2
52.2
20.6
24.7
0.4
37.5
..
10.2
15.4
..
29.3
47.5
27.9
27.4
51.8
..
..
14.6
2.8
..
3.2
1.8

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Share of population below
national poverty line
(poverty headcount ratio)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–11c
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

1993

1998
1993
1995

1998

1994
1999
1998

1996

1995

1999
1998

1995
1996

1995

..
..
32.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
36.4f
..
69.0
45.5
..
..
39.5
..
..
..
66.6f
..
71.3
65.3
..
..
..
69.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.0
..
..
..
..
..
33.8
66.8
..
22.6
..
19.4
..
..
6.2

2007e
2003
2009e
2006e
2007e
2007e
2008e
2003e
2004
2006
2005
2008
2006
2011
2005
2010e
2006
2007e
2002e
2005e
2003
2007
2005
2010
2010e
2008e
2008
2004e
2007e
2004e
2011e
2009e
2011e
..
2003
2006
2009e
2009e
2001e
2007e
2011e
2009
2010
2003e

2008
2007
2005

..
33.3
30.6
46.7
66.9
39.9
26.6
62.0
55.0
44.8
71.3
50.1
42.7f
76.8
..
29.6
32.7
48.4
28.5
53.0
64.7
45.9
56.6f
63.8f
68.7
50.7
43.6
42.0
..
54.7
38.0
59.5
54.7
44.9
66.2
46.7
..
66.4
..
23.0
46.5
50.6
69.2
33.4
58.7
24.5
60.5
72.0
..
..
22.0
..
9.0
3.8

National poverty linea
Share of urban population below
national poverty line
(poverty headcount ratio)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–11c
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

1993

1998
1993
1995

1998

1994
1999
1998

1996

..
..
24.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.6f
..
62.0
33.2
..
..
19.4
..
..
..
36.7f
..
52.1
54.9
..
..
..
62.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1999
1998

1995

..
9.6
39.5
..
14.7
..
..
..
..
..

2000e
2007
2003
2009e
2006e
2007e
2007e
2008e
2003e
2004
2006
2008
2006
2011
2005
2010
2006
2007e
2002e
2005e
2003
2007
2005
2010
2010e
2008e
2008
2004e
2007e
2004e
2011e
2001e
2011e
2003

2009e
2009e
2001e
2007e
2011e
2009
2010

2008
2007

62.3
28.3
19.4
27.9
34.0
12.2
13.2
49.6
24.6
34.5
61.5
..
29.4f
31.5
..
25.7
29.8
32.7
10.8
30.5
51.6
33.7
41.5f
55.1f
52.0
17.3
18.9
20.8
..
49.6
17.0
36.7
43.1
22.1
45.0
33.1
..
47.0
..
..
26.5
24.2
49.0

Share of rural population below
national poverty line
(poverty headcount ratio)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–11c
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

1993

1998

1995

1998

1994
1999
1998

1996

21.8

34.6
9.1
27.5

..
..
10.6
..
4.8
..

1999
1998

1995

..
..
40.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.5f
..
..
47.5
..
..
49.6
..
..
..
68.9f
..
76.7
66.5
..
..
..
71.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.4
83.0
..
30.3
..
..
..
..
..

2007
2003
2009e
2006e
2007e
2007e
2008e
2003e
2004
2006
2008
2006
2011
2005
2010
2006
2007e
2002e
2005e
2003
2007
2005
2010
2010e
2008e
2008
2004e
2007e
2004e
2011e
2001e
2011e
2003

2009e
2009e
2001e
2007e
2011e
2009
2010

2008
2007

..
36.1
44.8
52.6
68.9
55.0
44.3
69.4
58.6
48.7
75.7
..
54.2f
79.9
..
30.4
44.6
73.9
39.2
63.0
69.1
49.1
60.5f
67.7f
73.5
56.6
50.6
59.4
..
56.9
49.0
63.9
63.8
48.7
64.9
57.1
..
78.5
..
..
57.6
55.4
75.0
37.4
73.4
27.2
77.9
..
..
..
30.0
..
14.5
..
(continued)

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

49

Table

3.1

Millennium Development Goal 1:
eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (continued)

Share of poorest quintile in national
consumption or incomeb
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–11c
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
South Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

1994

1998

1995

1998

1994
1999
1998

1996

1995

1999
1998

1995
1996

1995

..
..
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.8
..
..
7.2
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
1.5
..
5.9
4.8
..
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.6
..
..
..
..
..
5.9
3.4
..
7.0
..
9.5
..
..
5.7

2000
2003
2009
2006
2007
2002
2008
2003
2004
2006
2005
2008

2005
2005
2003
2006
2007
2002
2005
2003
2007
2010
2004
2010
2008
2008
2004
2008
2010
2011
2001
2005
2007
2003
2009
2009
2009
2010
2007
2006
2009
2006

2002
2008
2007
2005

2.0
7.0
..
6.7
9.0
6.7
4.5
3.4
6.3
2.6
5.5
5.0
5.6
..
..
9.3
6.2
4.8
5.2
6.4
7.3
4.8
3.0
6.4
5.4
7.0
8.0
6.0
..
5.2
3.2
8.1
4.4
5.2
5.2
6.2
3.7
6.1
..
2.7
6.8

Prevalence of child malnutrition, underweight
(% of children under age 5)
Surveys 1990–99c
Surveys 2000–11c
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

1996
1996
1996
1999

1999
1993

37
26.8
15.1
33.7
..
17.8
11.8
23.3
34.3
22.3
30.7
..
18.2
13.8
38.3
..
..
23.2
20.3
21.2
..
17.6
18.9
..
35.5
26.3
38.2
20.3
13.0
28.1
21.5
45.0
27.3
24.2
..
19.6
..
25.4
..
10.1
31.8

4.1
6.8
7.6
5.8
3.6
..

1999
1998
1995
1999
1999

..
6.0
9.2
..
6.5
5.9

1995
1996
1998
1995
1997
1997

1998
1994
1995
1997
1996
1995
1999
1997
1996

1996
1999
1999
1998
1993
1997
1998
1996
1996
1995
1997
1992
1998
1999
1996
1996
1990

2007
2006
2008
2009
2005
2006

Population below
minimum dietary
energy consumption
Share (%) Total (millions)
2006–08d
2006–08d

2008
2006
2008
2006

15.6
20.2
11.2
26.0
35.2
16.6
..
28.0
33.9
25.0
28.2
11.8
29.4
10.6
34.5
34.6
8.8
15.8
14.3
20.8
17.2
16.4
13.5
20.4
36.8
13.8
27.9
15.9
..
18.3
17.5
39.9
26.7
18.0
14.4
14.5
..
21.3
32.8
8.7
31.7

41
12
25
8
62
22
11
40
39
47
..
13
14
..
65
41
5
19
5
16
22
33
14
32
25
27
12
8
5
38
18
16
6
32
5
19
8
35
..
5
22

7.2
1.0
0.5
1.2
4.9
4.2
0.1
1.7
4.1
0.4
36.7
0.5
2.9
..
3.1
32.6
..
0.3
1.1
1.6
0.3
12.4
0.3
1.1
4.7
3.9
1.5
0.2
0.1
8.3
0.4
2.3
9.4
3.0
0.0
2.3
0.0
1.9
..
..
8.8

..
25.3
23.2
21.5
19.6
11.5

2008
2010
2008
2006
2007
2006

7.3
16.2
20.5
16.4
14.9
14.0

11.3
16.0
10.2
4.2
7.7
3.3

2005
2006
2008
2007
2004
2006

3.7
29.6
6.8
5.6
9.9
3.3

19
34
30
22
44
30
5
<5
26
<5
<5
<5
<5

0.2
13.9
1.9
6.7
5.4
3.7
0.2
1.4
0.2
..
..
1.6
..

2006
2004
2000
2007
2005
2007
2004
2002
2005
2001
2006
2008
2008
2008
2009
2010
2007
2004
2010
2006
2008
2008
2007
2006
2008
2005
2009
2005

National poverty estimates for Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Lesotho, Liberia, and Senegal are World Bank estimates.
a. Based on nominal per capita consumption expenditure average and distributions estimated from household survey data.
b. Expenditure shares by percentiles of population, ranked by per capita expenditure.
c. Survey year refers to the year in which the underlying household survey data were collected; in cases for which the data collection period bridged two calendar years, the year in which
most of the data were collected is reported as the reference year. Data are for most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Data for a 3-year period have been used for the estimation of the prevalence of undernourishment.
e. Poverty estimates based on survey data from earlier year(s) are available, but not comparable with the most recent year reported here.
f. World Bank estimates.

50

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Table

3.2

Millennium Development Goal 2:
achieve universal primary education

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Net primary enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
1990
2000
2010

Primary completion rate
(% of relevant age group)
1990
2000
2010

Share of cohort reaching grade 5
(% of grade 1 students)
1990
2000
2008–09a

Youth literacy rate
(% ages 15–24)
1991
2000
2009

..
41.2
86.9
..
..
71.1
92.7
57.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.4
..
24.9
..
..
70.7
..
70.3
..
..
..
97.2
44.0
79.1
22.8
..
..
96.1
45.1
..
..
..
..
..
74.3
51.4
62.3
..
..
..

..
..
80.9
34.1
44.7
..
98.9
..
54.5
73.5
..
..
56.0
72.1
37.7
40.3
..
66.9
64.2
46.6
51.0
65.1
76.0
..
67.0
..
..
61.1
92.5
56.0
88.1
27.0
64.5
..
..
59.6
..
..
..
89.7
40.2
71.8
53.1
87.0
..
70.3
..

85.7
93.8
..
58.1
..
92.4
93.2
70.5
..
..
..
90.8
..
56.3
33.5
81.3
..
65.5
..
77.0
73.9
..
73.4
..
..
..
62.0
74.0
93.4
91.9
..
57.2
57.6
98.8
98.4
75.5
..
..
..
..
..
85.6
..
..
90.9
91.4
..

..
19.5
89.8
19.3
40.9
54.2
53.6
30.4
16.3
..
..
58.8
40.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.8
..
..
58.4
..
37.0
28.1
..
29.1
113.7
26.5
..
15.8
..
49.2
77.9
42.0
..
..
..
..
..
62.7
..
35.0
..
..
93.6

..
39.8
89.1
23.8
26.3
51.0
107.2
..
22.9
..
..
..
42.7
..
36.2
23.0
..
66.6
71.1
32.3
29.7
..
59.8
..
37.1
65.5
29.4
..
95.6
16.2
91.4
18.7
..
22.9
..
40.3
106.6
..
..
86.4
36.7
60.7
..
69.0
..
62.7
..

46.6
..
..
45.1
56.1
78.7
98.9
41.1
34.5
..
58.7
70.8
..
52.4
39.8
72.2
..
70.5
..
64.1
67.6
..
69.6
..
72.5
66.8
54.8
74.8
96.0
60.6
..
41.2
74.4
69.6
85.3
59.2
133.2
..
..
..
..
76.9
89.9
73.7
57.2
103.3
..

..
27.3
75.7
55.6
57.2
66.6
53.0
42.7
35.6
..
..
70.6
60.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
50.6
..
..
66.3
..
34.0
32.3
..
63.8
..
33.8
..
57.0
..
51.5
..
72.8
..
..
..
..
..
60.0
..
44.5
..
..
68.7

..
84.2
89.0
69.1
58.8
..
89.2
..
54.9
..
..
..
88.0
..
60.5
64.6
..
73.0
66.3
..
..
..
67.2
..
36.1
..
..
..
98.4
52.5
90.9
74.0
..
41.7
..
72.3
91.0
..
..
..
..
74.0
81.4
74.7
57.1
..
..

44.8
60.4
96.6
75.1
62.4
76.3
..
56.3
36.5
..
60.0
..
66.1
69.6
69.0
50.5
..
65.1
78.4
68.6
..
..
80.4
..
34.6
60.9
84.0
74.3
98.0
53.7
91.5
64.3
86.3
47.2
77.4
73.7
94.9
..
..
..
..
96.2
89.8
77.7
57.1
71.0
..

..
..
89.3
20.2
53.6
..
88.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
91.2
..
88.1
..
71.2
74.9
93.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
69.8
..
..

..
..
..
..
73.3
83.1
..
58.5
37.6
80.2
..
..
60.7
94.9
..
..
..
52.6
70.7
..
59.5
80.3
90.9
..
70.2
..
..
61.3
94.5
..
..
..
..
77.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
88.4
..
74.4
..
..
..

73.1
54.3
95.2
..
76.6
..
98.2
64.7
46.3
85.3
67.7
..
66.6
97.9
88.7
..
97.6
65.5
80.1
61.1
70.9
92.7
92.0
75.6
..
86.5
..
67.7
96.5
70.9
93.0
..
71.8
77.2
95.3
65.0
..
57.6
..
..
..
93.4
77.4
..
..
74.6
98.9

87.5
29.3
..
..
56.2
92.6

91.6
26.7
90.4
..
76.2
95.6

95.6
..
94.4
..
93.7
..

80.8
32.0
..
..
51.4
80.3

82.4
27.8
94.3
..
57.4
88.2

96.0
..
101.0
..
84.7
..

83.8
73.9
..
..
68.9
80.0

97.1
..
..
..
80.0
93.1

95.0
64.3
97.2
..
93.9
96.1

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
99.9
79.5
..

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

51

Table

3.3

Millennium Development Goal 3:
promote gender equity and empower women

Ratio of girls to boys in primary
and secondary school
(%)
1990
2000
2010

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Ratio of young literate
women to men
(% ages 15–24)
1990
2000
2009

Women in
national parliament
(% of total seats)
1990
2000
2010

Share of women employed in
the nonagricultural sector
(%)
1990
2000
2000-10a

..
..
108.0
..
79.0
82.3
94.0
59.1
40.9
..
..
88.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
78.0
44.0
..
..
123.8
..
95.6
80.9
57.6
68.9
100.4
72.7
110.8
53.0
76.5
94.8
..
67.4
..
61.8
..
103.5
..
..
97.1
58.1
77.9
..
96.4

..
60.9
101.7
70.2
..
..
..
..
55.9
84.2
..
85.8
69.3
81.3
77.3
65.0
95.9
..
90.2
..
65.4
97.6
107.5
73.3
..
92.8
71.1
93.1
98.1
75.0
103.7
65.1
82.0
96.6
..
82.3
103.0
..
..
100.4
..
96.1
..
69.1
91.1
..
..

78.9
..
..
87.7
93.9
85.4
104.2
69.4
65.8
..
78.5
..
..
..
80.1
88.8
..
99.4
..
..
..
..
106.1
..
..
101.3
81.9
101.2
100.1
89.0
..
78.3
90.1
101.9
100.4
100.0
104.0
..
..
..
..
94.0
..
..
98.5
..
..

..
..
..
..
80.7
..
96.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
101.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
97.4
..

..
..
..
..
91.7
88.2
..
66.6
41.7
92.4
..
..
73.6
100.2
..
..
..
64.3
86.2
..
61.4
101.1
114.9
..
93.9
..
..
81.9
101.8
..
..
..
..
97.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
103.2
..
76.0
..
..
..

81.1
66.9
103.2
..
99.2
..
101.7
79.4
72.8
98.7
84.8
..
84.6
100.5
93.6
..
98.0
84.5
97.3
79.1
81.3
101.8
114.4
114.9
..
99.0
..
90.8
102.1
81.6
104.2
..
83.6
100.5
101.0
75.7
..
71.1
..
..
..
103.2
97.3
..
..
82.3
101.1

15.0
3.0
5.0
..
..
14.0
12.0
4.0
..
0.0
5.0
14.0
6.0
13.0
..
..
13.0
8.0
..
..
20.0
1.0
..
..
7.0
10.0
..
..
7.0
16.0
7.0
5.0
..
17.0
12.0
13.0
16.0
..
4.0
3.0
..
4.0
..
5.0
12.0
7.0
11.0

16.0
6.0
..
8.0
6.0
6.0
11.0
7.0
2.0
..
..
12.0
..
5.0
15.0
2.0
8.0
2.0
9.0
9.0
..
4.0
4.0
..
8.0
8.0
12.0
4.0
8.0
..
22.0
1.0
..
17.0
9.0
12.0
24.0
9.0
..
30.0
..
3.0
16.0
..
18.0
10.0
14.0

38.6
10.8
7.9
15.3
32.1
13.9
18.1
9.6
5.2
3.0
8.4
7.3
8.9
10.0
22.0
27.8
14.7
7.5
8.3
..
10.0
9.8
24.2
12.5
..
20.8
10.2
22.1
18.8
39.2
24.4
..
7.0
56.3
18.2
22.7
23.5
13.2
6.8
44.5
25.6
13.6
30.7
11.1
31.5
14.0
15.0

..
..
33.5
23.0
14.3
..
..
..
3.8
..
25.9
26.1
..
10.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.8
21.4
..
..
..
10.5
..
..
37.4
11.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.7
..
22.2
..
..
41.0
..
16.6
15.4

..
..
42.9
23.2
..
..
38.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.7
24.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.8
38.6
..
42.8
..
18.6
33.0
..
..
..
..
..
41.1
..
..
..
..
..
22.0
20.4

..
24.3
45.2
26.5
..
22.2
38.9
46.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
47.3
..
..
31.7
28.5
..
..
..
11.4
37.7
..
34.6
35.8
36.7
..
41.4
36.1
21.1
33.0
..
10.6
..
23.2
..
45.1
..
..
30.5
..
39.0
22.0
21.9

81.6
72.3
80.5
..
68.8
84.6

..
71.0
92.1
..
82.6
97.6

..
..
95.9
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
99.9
83.2
..

2.0
0.0
4.0
..
0.0
4.0

3.0
0.0
2.0
..
1.0
12.0

7.7
13.8
1.8
7.7
10.5
27.6

..
..
20.5
..
..
..

..
..
19.0
..
..
24.3

15.0
26.7
18.1
15.8
20.8
25.0

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

52

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Table

3.4

Millennium Development Goal 4:
reduce child mortality

1990

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Under-five mortality rate
(per 1,000)
2000
2009

2010

1990

Infant mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)
2000
2009

2010

Child immunization rate, measles
(% of children ages 12–23 months)
1990
2000
2009
2010

243
178
59
205
183
137
59
165
207
125
181
116
151
190
141
184
93
165
122
229
210
99
89
227
159
222
255
124
24
219
73
311
213
163
94
139
17
276
180
60
125
96
155
147
175
183
78

200
143
96
191
164
148
46
176
190
104
181
104
148
152
93
141
88
128
99
175
177
111
127
169
102
167
213
116
19
177
74
218
186
177
87
119
14
233
180
78
114
114
130
124
144
157
115

164
118
49
178
143
138
37
161
175
87
172
94
125
125
63
109
75
101
77
134
152
87
92
109
65
98
182
112
15
140
44
150
147
98
81
79
14
180
180
61
104
82
80
106
103
116
83

161
115
48
176
142
136
36
159
173
86
170
93
123
121
61
106
74
98
74
130
150
85
85
103
62
92
178
111
15
135
40
143
143
91
80
75
14
174
180
57
103
78
92
103
99
111
80

144
107
46
103
110
85
46
110
113
88
117
74
105
118
87
111
68
78
77
135
125
64
72
151
97
131
131
80
21
146
49
132
126
99
61
70
14
162
108
47
78
70
95
87
106
109
52

119
89
64
98
100
91
37
115
105
75
117
67
100
98
60
87
63
66
64
106
107
69
88
115
65
99
113
77
16
119
49
98
112
106
57
63
12
142
108
54
72
77
81
76
88
94
69

100
75
37
93
89
85
30
107
100
64
113
61
87
82
44
70
55
58
51
84
93
56
67
78
45
61
101
75
13
95
32
75
90
63
54
51
12
117
108
43
67
57
53
67
65
72
52

98
73
36
93
88
84
29
106
99
63
112
61
86
81
42
68
54
57
50
81
92
55
65
74
43
58
99
75
13
92
29
73
88
59
53
50
12
114
108
41
66
55
60
66
63
69
51

38
79
87
79
74
56
79
82
32
87
38
75
56
88
..
38
76
86
61
35
53
78
80
..
47
81
43
38
76
59
..
25
54
83
71
51
86
..
30
79
57
85
80
73
52
90
87

41
70
91
59
76
49
86
36
28
70
46
34
68
51
76
52
55
89
98
42
71
75
74
63
55
73
55
62
84
71
69
37
33
74
69
48
97
37
24
72
58
92
78
58
57
85
75

77
72
94
94
91
74
96
62
49
79
67
76
67
51
95
75
55
99
93
51
61
88
85
64
64
92
60
59
99
67
76
69
64
93
90
79
97
78
43
65
82
94
91
84
63
87
76

93
69
94
94
92
79
96
62
46
72
68
76
70
51
99
81
55
97
93
51
61
86
85
64
67
93
63
67
99
70
75
71
71
82
92
60
99
82
46
65
90
94
92
84
55
91
84

68
123
94
45
86
49

49
106
47
27
55
28

37
93
24
18
37
17

36
91
22
17
36
16

55
95
68
33
67
39

41
83
37
22
46
24

32
74
20
14
32
15

31
73
19
13
30
14

83
85
86
89
79
93

80
50
98
93
93
95

92
84
95
98
98
98

95
85
96
98
98
97

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

53

Table

3.5

Millennium Development Goal 5:
improve maternal health

1990

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100,000 live births)
Modeled estimate
National estimate
2000
2010
1990–99a
2000–10a

Births attended by skilled health staff
(% of total)
Surveys 1990–99a
Surveys 2000–10a
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

1,200
770
140
700
1,100
670
200
930
920
440
930
420
710
1,200
880
950
270
700
580
1,200
1,100
400
520
1,200
640
1,100
1,100
760
68
910
200
1,200
1,100
910
150
670
..
1,300
890
250
1,000
300
870
620
600
470
450

890
530
350
450
1,000
730
170
1,000
1,100
340
770
540
590
450
390
700
270
520
550
970
970
490
690
1,300
400
840
740
630
28
710
280
870
970
840
110
500
..
1,300
1,000
330
870
360
730
440
530
540
640

450
350
160
300
800
690
79
890
1,100
280
540
560
400
240
240
350
230
360
350
610
790
360
620
770
240
460
540
510
60
490
200
590
630
340
70
370
..
890
1,000
300
730
320
460
300
310
440
570

..
498
326
484
..
..
..
1,100
830
..
..
..
600
..
998
..
..
..
..
530
910
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
590
..
..
..
560
..
..
1,000
150
..
229
..
478
..
..
700

..
400
200
310
620
670
54
540
1,100
380
550
780
540
..
..
670
520
730
450
980
410
488
1,200
990
500
810
460
690
22
500
450
650
550
750
160
400
57
860
1,000
400
1,100
589
450
..
440
590
730

1996
1996
1996
1999
..
1998
1998
1995
1997
1996
..
..
1999
1994
1995
..
..
1990
1998
1999
1995
1998
1993
..
1997
1992
1996
1991
1999
1997
1992
1998
1999
1992
..
1999
..
..
1999
1998
1990
1994
1999
1998
1995
1999
1999

22.5
59.8
87
30.9
..
58.2
88.5
45.9
15
51.6
..
..
47.1
5
20.6
..
..
44.1
44.3
34.8
25
44.3
60.9
..
47.3
54.8
40
40
98.5
44.2
68.2
17.6
41.6
25.8
..
48.3
..
..
34.2
84.4
69.4
56
35.8
50.5
37.8
47.1
72.5

2007
2006
2007
2006
2010
2006
2005
2009
2010
2000
2010
2005
2006
2000
2002
2005
2000
2010
2008
2007
2010
2009
2009
2007
2009
2006
2006
2007
2005
2008
2007
2006
2008
2010
2009
2005
..
2008
2006
2003
2006
2010
2010
2010
2006
2007
2009

47.3
74.0
94.6
53.5
60.3
63.0
77.5
43.7
22.7
61.8
79.3
83.4
56.8
64.6
28.3
5.7
85.5
56.7
57.1
46.1
44.0
43.8
61.5
46.3
43.9
53.6
49.0
60.9
99.2
55.3
81.4
17.7
38.9
69.0
81.7
51.9
..
42.4
33.0
91.2
49.2
82.0
48.9
60.1
41.9
46.5
60.2

220
290
230
99
300
130

140
290
100
67
170
84

97
200
66
58
100
56

117
74
..
77
332
69

..
550
55
..
130
..

1992
..
1998
1999
1995
1995

77
..
55.2
99
39.6
80.5

2006
2006
2008
2008
2004
2006

95.2
92.9
78.9
99.8
62.6
94.6

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

54

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Table

3.6

Millennium Development Goal 6:
combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Children sleeping under
insecticide-treated nets
(% of children under age 5)
Surveys 2000–10a
Year
Percent

Prevalence of HIV
(% ages 15–49)
1990
2009

Contraceptive use, any method
(% of married women ages 15–49)
Surveys 1990–99a
Surveys 2000–10a
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

0.5
0.2
3.5
3.9
3.9
0.6
..
3.1
1.1
<0.1
..
5.2
2.4
0.1
0.3
..
0.9
0.1
0.3
1.1
0.3
3.9
0.8
0.3
0.2
7.2
0.4
0.2
<0.1
1.2
1.6
0.1
1.3
5.2
..
0.2
..
<0.1
0.1
0.7
0.1
2.3
4.8
0.6
10.2
12.7
10.1

2.0
1.2
24.8
1.2
3.3
5.3
..
4.7
3.4
0.1
..
3.4
3.4
5.0
0.8
..
5.2
2.0
1.8
1.3
2.5
6.3
23.6
1.5
0.2
11.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
11.5
13.1
0.8
3.6
2.9
..
0.9
..
1.6
0.7
17.8
1.1
25.9
5.6
3.2
6.5
13.5
14.3

1996
1996
1996
1999
..
1998
1998
1995
1997
1996
1991
..
1999
..
1995
1997
..
1990
1999
1999
..
1998
1995
..
1999
1996
1996
1992
1991
1997
1992
1998
1999
1996
..
1999
..
1992
1999
1998
1999
..
1999
1998
1995
1999
1999

8.1
16.4
41.7
11.9
..
19.3
52.9
14.8
4.1
21.0
7.7
..
15.0
..
8.0
3.3
..
11.8
22.0
6.2
..
39.0
29.1
..
25.0
21.9
6.7
4.1
74.6
5.6
28.9
8.2
15.3
13.7
..
10.5
..
2.6
7.9
56.3
7.0
..
25.4
23.5
14.8
22.0
53.5

2001
2006
2007
2006
2010
2006
2005
2006
2010
2000
2010
2005
2006
2000
2002
2005
2000
2001
2008
2005
2010
2009
2009
2007
2009
2006
2006
2007
2002
2008
2007
2010
2008
2010
2009
2005
..
2008
2006
2004
2006
2010
2010
2010
2006
2007
2009

6.2
17.0
52.8
17.4
21.9
29.2
61.3
19.0
4.8
25.7
17.3
44.3
12.9
10.1
8.0
14.7
32.7
18.0
23.5
9.1
14.2
45.5
47.0
11.4
39.9
41.0
8.2
9.3
75.9
16.2
55.1
18.0
14.6
51.6
38.4
11.8
..
8.2
14.6
59.9
7.6
49.3
34.4
15.2
23.7
40.8
64.9

2007
2006
..
2006
2010
2006
..
2006
2010
2000
2010
2005
2006
2000
2008
2007
2008
2006
2008
2008
2010
2009
..
2009
2009
2010
2010
2004
..
2008
2009
2010
2010
2010
2009
2009
..
2008
2006
..
2009
2007
2010
2010
2009
2010
2009

17.7
20.1
..
9.6
45.2
13.1
..
15.1
9.8
9.3
35.7
6.1
3.0
0.7
48.9
33.1
55.1
49.0
28.2
4.5
35.5
46.7
..
26.4
45.8
56.5
70.2
2.1
..
22.8
34.0
63.7
29.1
69.8
56.2
29.2
..
25.8
11.4
..
25.3
0.6
63.6
56.9
32.8
49.9
17.3

<0.1
0.9
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

0.1
2.5
<0.1
..
0.1
0.1

1995
..
1998
1995
1997
1995

56.9
..
51.7
45.2
58.4
60.0

2006
2008
2008
..
2004
2006

61.4
22.5
60.3
..
63.0
60.2

..
2009
..
..
..
..

..
19.9
..
..
..
..
(continued)

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

55

Table

3.6

Millennium Development Goal 6:
combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases (continued)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

1990

Incidence of tuberculosis
(per 100,000 people)
1999

2010

Tuberculosis treatment success rate
(% of registered cases)
Surveys 1990–99a
Surveys 2000–09a
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

205
77
533
66
148
81
175
145
125
85
327
169
150
80
72
173
153
185
155
119
158
139
184
199
177
326
163
228
28
401
696
125
128
405
135
195
43
207
285
301
119
267
226
308
624
710
296

250
85
918
69
178
168
160
302
262
56
327
353
198
100
85
235
248
225
152
200
192
286
553
242
217
467
124
277
24
513
1077
152
172
286
114
237
37
377
285
576
119
803
236
374
427
713
726

304
94
503
55
129
177
147
319
276
37
327
372
139
135
100
261
553
273
86
334
233
298
633
293
266
219
68
337
22
544
603
185
133
106
96
288
31
682
286
981
119
1287
177
455
209
462
633

1998
1999
1999
1999
1998
1999
..
1995
1998
1999
1999
1999
1999
1997
1999
1999
1998
1997
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1997
1999
1999
..
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
..
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999

68.0
77.0
71.0
61.0
74.0
75.0
..
37.0
64.0
93.0
69.0
61.0
63.0
82.0
44.0
74.0
50.0
70.0
51.0
74.0
35.0
79.0
69.0
74.0
64.0
71.0
69.0
..
87.0
71.0
51.0
60.0
75.0
67.0
81.0
58.0
91.0
75.0
88.0
57.0
80.0
..
78.0
76.0
61.0
69.0
73.0

2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2008
2009
2009
2008
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009

72.0
90.0
79.0
76.0
90.0
78.0
74.0
53.0
76.0
90.0
88.0
78.0
79.0
66.0
85.0
84.0
55.0
89.0
87.0
79.0
67.0
86.0
70.0
83.0
82.0
88.0
78.0
63.0
88.0
85.0
85.0
79.0
83.0
85.0
98.0
85.0
64.0
79.0
85.0
73.0
80.0
69.0
88.0
81.0
67.0
90.0
78.0

66
619
34
40
147
29

87
619
26
40
109
24

90
620
18
40
91
25

1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999

87.0
72.0
85.0
67.0
88.0
91.0

2009
2009
2009
2008
2009
2009

91.0
79.0
88.0
69.0
84.0
83.0

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

56

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Table

3.7

Millennium Development Goal 7:
ensure environmental sustainability

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

1990

Forest area
(% of total land area)
2000

2010

Terrestrial protected areas
(% of total land area)
1990
2000
2010

GDP per unit of energy use
(2005 PPP $ per kg of oil equivalent)
1990
2000
2009

48.9
52.1
24.2
25.0
11.3
51.4
14.4
37.3
10.4
6.5
70.7
66.6
32.1
66.3
16.1
13.7
85.4
44.2
32.7
29.6
78.8
6.5
1.3
51.2
23.5
41.3
11.5
0.4
19.2
55.2
10.6
1.5
18.9
12.9
28.1
48.6
89.1
43.5
13.2
6.8
32.2
27.4
46.8
12.6
23.8
71.0
57.3

47.9
45.8
22.1
22.8
7.7
46.8
20.4
36.8
9.8
4.3
69.4
66.1
32.5
62.1
15.6
13.7
85.4
46.1
26.8
28.1
75.4
6.3
1.4
48.1
22.6
37.8
10.9
0.3
19.2
52.4
9.8
1.1
14.4
13.9
28.1
46.2
89.1
40.8
12.0
5.7
29.7
30.1
42.3
8.9
19.4
68.8
48.8

46.9
41.2
20.0
20.7
6.7
42.1
21.1
36.3
9.2
1.6
68.0
65.6
32.7
58.0
15.2
12.3
85.4
48.0
21.7
26.6
71.9
6.1
1.5
44.9
21.6
34.3
10.2
0.2
17.2
49.6
8.9
1.0
9.9
17.6
28.1
44.0
89.1
38.1
10.8
4.7
29.4
32.7
37.7
5.3
15.0
66.5
40.4

12.4
23.8
30.3
13.7
3.8
7.0
2.5
17.5
9.4
0.0
10.0
..
22.6
7.3
4.9
..
4.6
1.5
14.6
6.8
7.7
11.6
0.5
..
2.2
15.0
2.3
0.5
1.7
14.8
14.4
7.1
11.6
9.9
..
24.1
42.0
5.0
..
6.5
4.2
3.0
26.5
11.3
7.9
36.0
18.0

12.4
23.8
30.9
13.9
4.9
8.7
2.5
17.7
9.4
0.0
10.0
..
22.6
19.2
4.9
..
5.7
1.5
14.7
6.8
16.1
11.8
0.5
..
3.1
15.0
2.3
0.5
4.5
14.8
14.5
7.1
12.8
9.9
..
24.1
42.0
5.0
..
6.9
4.2
3.0
26.9
11.3
8.5
36.0
18.1

12.4
23.8
30.9
14.2
4.9
9.2
2.5
17.7
9.4
..
10.0
..
22.6
19.2
5.0
..
15.1
1.5
14.7
6.8
16.1
11.8
0.5
..
3.1
15.0
2.4
0.5
4.5
15.8
14.9
7.1
12.8
10.0
..
24.1
42.0
5.0
..
6.9
4.2
3.0
..
11.3
10.3
36.0
28.0

5.4
3.2
7.6
..
..
5.1
17.1
..
..
29.6
2.0
10.7
5.5
..
..
1.8
11.8
24.0
2.5
..
16.5
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.5
0.9
..
..
2.0
..
..
6.4
26.3
..
..
3.0
2.6
10.9
2.2
2.8
..
1.8
..

4.6
4.3
9.1
..
..
4.6
..
..
..
..
0.8
11.5
4.5
..
3.0
1.9
11.2
..
2.6
..
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.3
8.4
..
2.0
..
..
6.1
..
..
..
2.9
3.5
..
2.1
2.1
..
1.7
..

8.0
3.5
11.4
..
..
5.7
..
..
..
..
0.9
10.1
3.2
..
3.5
2.2
10.7
..
3.6
..
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
7.3
..
2.9
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
3.2
5.3
..
2.7
2.0
..
2.1
..

0.7
0.3
0.0
0.1
11.3
4.1

0.7
0.3
0.1
0.1
11.2
5.4

0.6
0.3
0.1
0.1
11.5
6.5

6.3
0.0
1.9
..
1.2
1.3

6.3
0.0
4.3
..
1.6
1.3

6.3
..
5.9
..
1.6
..

7.1
11.8
5.8
..
9.7
7.4

6.9
..
6.2
4.0
8.3
8.0

6.5
..
5.9
4.7
8.8
9.5
(continued)

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

57

Table

3.7

Millennium Development Goal 7:
ensure environmental sustainability (continued)

Carbon dioxide emissions
per capita
(metric tons)
1990
2000
2010

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

58

Population with sustainable access
to an improved water source
(%)
1990
2000
2010

Population with sustainable access
to improved sanitation
(%)
1990
2000
2010

0.4
0.2
1.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.3
..
0.1
5.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.3
1.4
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.6
0.4
1.6
0.1
0.0
9.5
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.3
1.5

0.7
0.3
2.4
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.9
0.2
0.1
0.9
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.5
2.3
0.1
0.9
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.6
0.4
7.0
0.2
0.1
8.4
0.2
1.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
1.1

1.4
0.5
2.5
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.4
7.3
0.1
0.1
1.7
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.6
3.1
0.1
1.8
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.8
0.4
7.8
0.2
0.1
8.9
0.3
1.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.7

42.0
57.0
93.0
43.0
70.0
49.0
..
58.0
39.0
87.0
45.0
..
76.0
..
43.0
14.0
..
74.0
53.0
51.0
36.0
44.0
80.0
..
29.0
41.0
28.0
30.0
99.0
36.0
64.0
35.0
47.0
66.0
..
61.0
..
38.0
..
83.0
65.0
39.0
55.0
49.0
43.0
49.0
79.0

46.0
66.0
95.0
60.0
72.0
64.0
83.0
63.0
45.0
92.0
44.0
70.0
77.0
51.0
54.0
29.0
85.0
83.0
71.0
63.0
50.0
52.0
80.0
61.0
38.0
62.0
46.0
40.0
99.0
42.0
81.0
42.0
53.0
66.0
79.0
66.0
..
46.0
22.0
86.0
62.0
52.0
54.0
55.0
58.0
54.0
80.0

51.0
75.0
96.0
79.0
72.0
77.0
88.0
67.0
51.0
95.0
45.0
71.0
80.0
..
..
44.0
87.0
89.0
86.0
74.0
64.0
59.0
78.0
73.0
46.0
83.0
64.0
50.0
99.0
47.0
93.0
49.0
58.0
65.0
89.0
72.0
..
55.0
29.0
91.0
58.0
71.0
53.0
61.0
72.0
61.0
80.0

29.0
5.0
38.0
8.0
44.0
48.0
..
11.0
8.0
17.0
9.0
..
20.0
..
9.0
3.0
..
..
7.0
10.0
..
25.0
..
..
9.0
39.0
15.0
16.0
89.0
11.0
24.0
5.0
37.0
36.0
..
38.0
..
11.0
..
71.0
27.0
48.0
7.0
13.0
27.0
46.0
41.0

42.0
9.0
52.0
11.0
45.0
49.0
44.0
22.0
10.0
28.0
16.0
20.0
22.0
89.0
11.0
9.0
36.0
63.0
10.0
14.0
14.0
28.0
25.0
12.0
12.0
46.0
18.0
21.0
89.0
14.0
28.0
7.0
34.0
47.0
21.0
45.0
..
11.0
22.0
75.0
27.0
52.0
9.0
13.0
30.0
47.0
40.0

58.0
13.0
62.0
17.0
46.0
49.0
61.0
34.0
13.0
36.0
24.0
18.0
24.0
..
..
21.0
33.0
68.0
14.0
18.0
20.0
32.0
26.0
18.0
15.0
51.0
22.0
26.0
89.0
18.0
32.0
9.0
31.0
55.0
26.0
52.0
..
13.0
23.0
79.0
26.0
57.0
10.0
13.0
34.0
48.0
40.0

3.1
0.7
1.3
9.3
1.0
1.6

2.9
0.6
2.1
9.5
1.2
2.1

3.2
0.6
2.7
9.5
1.5
2.4

94.0
78.0
93.0
54.0
73.0
81.0

89.0
82.0
96.0
54.0
78.0
90.0

83.0
88.0
99.0
..
83.0
..

88.0
66.0
72.0
97.0
53.0
74.0

92.0
60.0
86.0
97.0
64.0
81.0

95.0
50.0
95.0
97.0
70.0
..

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Table

3.8

Millennium Development Goal 8:
develop a global partnership for development

Debt sustainability
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
(HIPC) Debt Initiative
Decision pointa
Completion pointa

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Debt service relief
committed
($ millions)a

Public and publicly guaranteed debt service
(% of exports, excluding workers’ remittances)
1990
2000
2010

..
Jul. 2000
..
Jul. 2000
Aug. 2005
Oct. 2000
..
Sep. 2007
May 2001
Jun. 2010
Jul. 2003
Mar. 2006
Mar. 2009
..
..
Nov. 2001
..
Dec. 2000
Feb. 2002
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
..
..
Mar. 2008
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Sep. 2000
Feb. 2000
..
Apr. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Jun. 2000
..
Mar. 2002
..
..
..
..
Apr. 2000
Nov. 2008
Feb. 2000
Dec. 2000
..

..
Mar. 2003
..
Apr. 2002
Jan. 2009
Apr. 2006
..
Jun. 2009
..
..
Jul. 2010
Jan. 2010
..
..
..
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2007
Jul. 2004
..
Dec. 2010
..
..
Jun. 2010
Oct. 2004
Aug. 2006
Mar. 2003
Jun. 2002
..
Sep. 2001
..
Apr. 2004
..
Apr. 2005
Mar. 2007
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2006
..
..
..
..
Nov. 2001
Dec. 2010
May. 2000
Apr. 2005
..

..
460
..
930
1,366
4,917
..
804
260
136
15,222
1,738
3,415
..
..
3,275
..
112
3,500
800
790
..
..
4,600
1,900
1,628
895
1,100
..
4,300
..
1,190
..
1,316
263
850
..
994
..
..
..
..
3,000
360
1,950
3,900
..

7.1
8.4
4.3
7.7
40.7
12.5
8.9
7.5
2.3
2.5
..
30.9
14.7
..
..
33.2
3.8
17.3
19.9
17.7
22.0
22.7
4.1
..
31.9
22.4
9.7
24.8
4.5
17.2
..
3.2
22.3
9.4
28.6
13.7
7.6
7.8
..
..
4.5
5.3
25.1
8.6
47.1
12.6
18.2

20.4
10.7
2.0
15.1
25.1
13.5
10.7
..
..
..
..
0.5
14.9
..
2.8
12.2
8.8
..
12.0
17.6
..
15.7
6.8
..
8.4
10.8
10.2
..
16.3
7.0
..
6.0
8.2
15.3
19.9
13.2
3.3
29.6
..
5.5
10.1
2.1
10.3
3.2
6.5
17.4
..

4.4
..
1.3
..
1.8
2.7
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.9
..
7.0
2.8
4.9
..
3.9
1.5
1.0
..
..
..
..
1.5
2.8
..
..
0.4
2.3
5.6
..
3.7
2.0
..
1.9
4.1
1.8
1.3
..
1.7
0.8
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

63.3
..
23.2
..
23.1
23.0

..
4.8
8.5
..
23.0
20.0

0.6
6.8
5.7
..
6.8
8.5
(continued)

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

59

Table

3.8

Millennium Development Goal 8:
develop a global partnership for development (continued)
Youth unemployment rate (ages 15–24)
Female
Male
Total
(share of female
(share of male
(share of total
labor force)
labor force)
labor force)
Year
Percent
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Information and communication
Fixed-line and mobile
telephone subscribers
Internet users
(per 100 people)
(per 100 people)
1990
2000
2010
1995
2000
2010

..
2002
2000
2006
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
..
..
..
2008
2010
2005
..
..
..
2010
..
2004
2001
..
..
..
2006
2002
2004
..
2009
..
..
2006
..
2009
2005
2004

..
0.8
13.6
3.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
..
16.6
..
..
..
34.4
5.9
2.3
..
..
..
23.4
..
41.7
3.2
..
..
..
14.8
20.3
5.2
..
48.2
..
..
8.8
..
5.4
23.4
7.6

..
2002
2000
2006
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
..
..
..
2008
2010
2005
..
..
..
2010
..
2004
2001
..
..
..
2006
..
2004
..
2009
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
2004

..
1.1
13.2
4.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.5
..
..
16.4
..
..
..
29
3.9
1.7
..
..
..
19.4
..
36.7
4
..
..
..
11.9
..
7.3
..
44.6
..
..
7.4
..
..
23.1
7.6

..
2002
2000
2006
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
..
..
..
2008
2010
2005
..
..
..
2010
..
2004
2001
..
..
..
2006
..
2004
..
2009
..
..
2006
..
..
2000
2004

..
0.6
14
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.4
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
41.9
7.7
2.8
..
..
..
29
..
47
1.7
..
..
..
20.1
..
3.5
..
52.5
..
..
10.1
..
..
19.5
7.6

0.7
0.3
1.9
0.2
0.1
0.3
2.4
0.2
0.1
0.8
0.1
0.7
0.6
0.4
..
0.3
2.2
0.6
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3
5.5
0.4
3.8
0.1
0.3
0.2
1.9
0.6
12.4
0.3
0.2
9.4
0.2
1.6
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.8
1.2

0.7
1.6
20.4
0.6
0.6
1.3
17.0
0.4
0.2
1.2
0.1
2.9
4.4
2.1
0.8
0.4
12.9
3.0
1.8
0.8
0.9
1.3
2.2
0.3
0.8
0.9
0.4
1.3
38.8
0.8
10.1
0.2
0.5
0.7
3.3
4.8
57.4
0.8
1.4
30.2
1.2
6.4
0.8
1.9
0.8
1.8
4.1

48.3
81.5
124.6
35.5
14.1
46.8
89.5
22.4
24.3
25.4
18.0
94.2
77.6
59.0
4.6
9.4
109.0
88.3
72.6
40.3
39.5
62.6
47.3
39.5
37.9
21.5
49.2
81.4
123.2
31.3
73.9
25.1
55.8
33.8
66.8
69.9
160.5
34.3
8.0
109.2
41.4
73.6
47.2
44.2
39.4
42.8
64.3

..
..
0.1
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.1
0.2
2.9
0.1
0.1
0.3
1.8
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
1.2
0.9
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
7.3
0.1
1.6
0.0
0.1
0.1
4.6
0.4
7.2
0.1
0.0
5.4
0.0
1.0
0.1
1.9
0.2
0.2
0.4

10.0
3.1
6.0
1.4
2.1
4.0
30.0
2.3
1.7
5.1
0.7
5.0
2.6
6.0
5.4
0.8
7.2
9.2
9.6
1.0
2.5
25.9
3.9
7.0
1.7
2.3
2.7
3.0
28.7
4.2
6.5
0.8
28.4
13.0
18.8
16.0
41.0
..
..
12.3
..
9.0
11.0
5.4
12.5
10.1
11.5

2006
..
2007
..
2009
2005

24.3
..
24.8
..
21.9
30.7

2004
..
2007
..
2009
2005

42.8
..
17.2
..
22.8
31.4

2004
..
2007
..
2009
2005

46.3
..
47.9
..
19.4
29.3

3.2
1.0
2.8
5.1
1.6
3.7

6.1
1.4
10.1
12.3
13.1
11.2

100.7
20.7
99.0
190.9
111.8
117.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0

0.5
0.2
0.6
0.2
0.7
2.7

12.5
6.5
26.7
14.0
49.0
36.6

Note: 0.0 indicates less than 1.
a. As of end-July 2011.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

60

Part II. Millennium Development Goals

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Drivers of growth

Table

4.1

Doing Business

Overall ranking
2010
2011

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

171
173
52
151
177
165
129
183
182
156
176
180
170
161
178
104
160
145
60
179
181
106
142
155
144
141
148
162
21
132
74
172
133
50
174
157
109
150
..
36
135
123
125
158
119
80
168

172
175
54
150
169
161
119
182
183
157
178
181
167
155
180
111
156
149
63
179
176
109
143
151
137
145
146
159
23
139
78
173
133
45
163
154
103
141
..
35
135
124
127
162
123
84
171

143
167
108
..
115
40

148
170
110
..
94
46

Number of
procedures
2010 2011

9
8
7
10
4
9
6
8
8
13
11
10
10
10
21
13
5
9
8
7
12
17
11
7
5
2
10
6
9
5
9
10
9
8
2
10
4
10
6
..
6
10
12
12
7
18
6
9
9.4
14
11
6
..
6
10

8
8
6
10
3
9
5
8
7
11
11
10
10
10
21
13
5
9
8
7
12
9
11
7
4
3
10
4
9
5
9
10
9
8
2
4
3
10
6
..
5
10
12
12
7
16
6
9
9.4
14
11
6
..
6
10

Starting a business
Cost
Time spent for
(% of GNI
each procedure
per capita)
(days)
2010 2011
2010
2011

45
68
31
61
14
14
19
11
22
75
24
84
160
40
137
84
9
58
27
12
40
216
33
40
20
7
39
8
19
6
13
66
17
31
3
144
8
39
12
..
22
36
56
29
84
25
18
90
18.4
25
37
7
..
12
11

37
68
29
61
13
14
15
11
21
66
24
65
160
32
137
84
9
58
27
12
40
9
33
40
6
8
39
8
19
6
13
66
17
34
3
10
5
39
12
..
19
36
56
29
84
34
18
90
18.4
25
37
7
..
12
11

97.4
163.0
154.3
2.2
53.4
124.3
51.2
18.5
228.4
226.9
176.5
735.1
111.4
133.0
147.9
69.2
14.1
21.9
199.6
11.9
147.7
183.3
38.3
26.0
88.3
12.9
108.4
79.7
56.0
3.8
13.9
18.5
118.6
78.9
8.8
77.3
63.1
17.5
110.7
..
6.0
33.6
33.0
30.9
178.1
94.4
27.9
182.8
42.0
12.9
169.9
6.3
..
15.8
5.0

81.2
118.9
149.9
1.8
47.7
116.8
45.5
17.0
175.5
208.5
176.2
551.4
85.2
132.6
101.4
62.6
12.8
17.3
206.1
17.3
118.0
49.8
37.8
24.9
68.4
12.1
90.9
90.5
48.3
3.6
11.7
17.2
114.4
70.6
4.7
24.5
68.0
16.0
93.3
..
0.3
31.4
29.2
28.8
177.2
84.5
27.4
148.9
41.5
12.1
169.8
5.6
..
15.7
4.2

Registering property
Minimum capital
(% of GNI
per capita)
2010
2011

145.6
28.7
285.3
0.0
416.2
0.0
191.8
42.4
468.6
386.7
245.5
0.0
129.8
202.9
21.3
268.4
367.7
32.7
0.0
6.5
519.1
415.1
0.0
12.0
0.0
248.1
0.0
306.8
412.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
613.0
0.0
0.0
385.7
205.1
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
486.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
95.9
34.4
434.1
0.0
..
11.2
0.0

129.8
25.3
280.4
0.0
373.3
0.0
182.9
39.0
452.9
345.0
252.9
0.0
88.0
200.4
14.6
243.0
333.5
26.4
0.0
5.5
407.3
398.7
0.0
11.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
348.3
334.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
584.2
0.0
0.0
336.0
203.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
484.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
95.1
30.6
434.0
0.0
..
10.7
0.0

Number of
procedures
2010
2011

6
7
4
5
4
5
5
6
5
6
4
6
6
6
6
11
10
7
5
5
6
8
8
6
10
6
6
5
4
4
8
7
4
13
4
7
6
4
7
..
6
6
9
9
5
13
5
5
7
10
7
7
..
8
4

6
7
4
5
4
5
5
6
5
6
4
6
6
6
6
11
10
7
5
5
6
8
8
6
10
6
6
5
4
4
8
7
4
13
5
7
6
4
7
..
6
6
9
9
5
13
5
5
7
10
7
7
..
8
4

Time required
(days)
2010
2011

67
184
120
16
59
94
93
73
75
44
30
54
55
62
23
78
41
39
66
34
59
210
64
101
50
74
49
29
49
26
42
39
35
82
55
62
122
33
86
..
24
9
44
73
295
77
40
31
55
48
40
72
..
75
39

65
184
120
16
59
94
93
31
75
44
30
54
55
62
23
78
41
39
66
34
59
210
64
101
50
74
69
29
49
22
42
39
35
82
25
62
122
33
86
..
23
9
21
73
295
48
40
31
55
48
40
72
..
75
39

Cost
(% of property
value)
2010
2011

9.4
11.5
11.8
5.0
13.1
5.8
19.3
3.9
18.5
18.2
10.5
7.0
10.7
13.9
6.3
9.1
2.1
10.5
7.6
0.8
14.0
10.7
4.2
8.0
13.2
9.8
3.2
11.9
5.2
10.6
9.9
8.6
11.0
20.9
0.4
10.9
20.6
7.0
12.2
..
8.8
3.0
7.1
4.4
13.0
3.2
6.6
8.5
6.4
7.1
13.0
0.8
..
4.9
6.1

9.4
3.2
11.8
5.0
12.8
5.6
19.2
3.9
11.0
18.1
10.5
6.8
20.6
13.9
6.2
9.1
2.1
10.5
7.7
0.7
14.4
10.6
4.3
8.0
13.1
10.6
3.2
12.1
4.7
10.6
8.7
13.7
11.0
20.8
6.3
8.9
20.3
7.0
11.8
..
5.6
3.0
7.1
4.4
13.0
2.9
8.3
8.0
6.4
7.1
13.0
0.8
..
4.9
6.1
(continued)

PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

Part III. Development outcomes

61

Drivers of growth

Table

4.1

Doing Business (continued)

Enforcing contracts
Number of procedures
2010
2011

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

39
46
42
29
37
44
43
37
43
41
43
43
44
33
40
39
37
38
33
36
49
40
40
41
41
38
42
36
46
36
30
33
39
40
24
43
44
37
40
..
29
53
40
38
41
38
35
38
41
45
40
41
..
40
39

655
1011
795
625
446
832
800
425
660
743
506
610
560
770
553
405
620
1070
434
487
276
1715
465
785
1280
871
312
620
370
645
730
270
545
457
230
1185
780
915
515
..
600
810
972
462
588
490
471
410
788
630
1225
1010
..
510
565

Time required (days)
2010
2011

Cost
(% of debt)
2010
2011

651
1,011
825
625
446
832
800
425
660
743
506
610
560
770
553
405
620
1,070
434
487
276
1,715
465
785
1,280
871
312
620
370
645
730
270
545
457
230
1,185
780
720
515
..
600
810
972
462
588
490
471
410
788
630
1,225
1,010
..
510
565

39.1
46.0
42.0
29.0
37.0
44.0
43.0
37.0
43.0
41.0
43.0
43.0
44.0
33.0
40.0
39.0
37.0
38.0
33.0
36.0
49.0
40.0
40.0
41.0
41.0
38.0
42.0
36.0
46.0
36.0
30.0
33.0
39.0
40.0
24.0
43.0
44.0
37.0
40.0
..
29.0
53.0
40.0
38.0
41.0
38.0
35.0
38.0
41.0
45.0
40.0
41.0
..
40.0
39.0

50
44
65
28
82
39
47
20
82
46
89
152
53
42
19
23
15
34
38
23
45
25
47
20
35
42
94
52
23
17
143
36
60
32
79
51
27
15
150
..
33
20
56
14
48
45
39
113
26
22
34
26
..
25
22

39.0
46.0
42.0
28.0
37.0
44.0
43.0
37.0
43.0
41.0
43.0
43.0
44.0
33.0
40.0
39.0
37.0
38.0
33.0
36.0
49.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
41.0
38.0
42.0
36.0
46.0
36.0
30.0
33.0
39.0
40.0
24.0
43.0
43.0
37.0
39.0
..
29.0
53.0
40.0
38.0
41.0
38.0
35.0
38.0
41.0
45.0
40.0
41.0
..
40.0
39.0

Dealing with construction permits
Number of
Time required
Cost
procedures
(days)
(% of GNI per capita)
2010
2011
2010
2011
2010
2011

15
11
12
22
12
22
11
17
18
13
15
11
14
18
15
..
9
13
14
16
29
12
8
12
23
16
18
11
22
16
13
12
12
15
12
13
13
17
20
..
13
16
13
19
12
15
14
12
18
19
14
22
..
16
17

15
11
12
22
12
22
11
17
18
13
15
11
14
18
15
..
9
13
14
16
29
12
8
12
23
16
18
11
18
16
13
12
12
15
12
13
13
17
20
..
13
16
13
19
12
15
14
12
18
19
15
22
..
15
17

213
321
372
145
98
135
147
122
203
154
155
117
186
583
166
..
128
201
143
218
287
170
125
510
75
172
200
187
168
136
370
139
326
85
164
211
210
126
238
..
127
270
95
303
309
125
196
614
171
281
171
218
..
104
88

211
321
372
145
98
135
147
122
203
154
155
117
186
583
166
..
128
201
143
218
287
170
125
510
75
172
200
179
119
136
370
139
326
85
164
211
210
126
238
..
127
270
95
303
309
125
196
614
171
281
172
218
..
97
88

990.9
259.0
134.9
245.4
524.1
6,295.5
1,149.5
570.0
116.1
6,452.4
63.0
2,692.2
232.4
207.3
219.7
..
406.9
26.6
207.3
598.7
351.5
1,075.0
164.4
1,122.1
824.4
468.8
1,304.7
390.0
61.4
32.3
146.0
113.0
2,323.9
564.2
349.8
565.1
439.6
34.7
325.2
..
23.1
100.1
130.0
1,255.5
998.4
1,064.0
2,410.5
7,553.7
516.7
26.0
1,828.1
173.8
..
246.1
309.7

823.7
180.3
132.6
203.0
345.0
4,065.7
1,096.2
523.8
112.2
5,756.5
62.8
1,670.7
157.7
204.8
150.6
..
369.1
21.5
192.9
560.3
275.8
1,032.7
160.9
1,038.7
694.1
422.2
1,077.5
439.3
49.9
30.6
123.0
103.0
2,214.5
504.8
312.0
536.8
435.2
30.3
272.6
..
21.2
88.0
115.2
1,170.1
994.0
946.8
2,015.2
6,154.3
591.9
23.1
2,285.7
155.3
..
234.6
260.6

a. Average of the disclosure, director liability, and shareholder suits indexes.

62

Part III. Development outcomes

PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

Disclosure
index
2010
2011

5
5
6
7
6
4
6
1
6
6
6
3
6
6
6
4
4
6
2
7
6
6
3
2
4
5
4
6
5
6
5
5
6
5
7
3
6
4
6
..
8
0
2
3
6
2
3
8
6
6
5
8
..
7
5

5
5
6
7
6
8
6
1
6
6
6
3
6
6
6
4
4
6
2
7
6
6
3
2
4
5
4
6
5
6
5
5
6
5
7
3
6
4
6
..
8
0
2
3
6
2
3
8
6
6
5
8
..
7
5

Protecting investors
(0 least protection to 10 most protection)
Director liability
Shareholder suits
index
index
2010
2011
2010
2011

3
6
1
8
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
5
4
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
6
7
1
3
8
4
5
1
7
9
1
1
8
7
..
8
6
5
4
1
5
6
1
4
6
2
3
..
2
7

PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

4
6
1
8
1
6
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
5
4
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
6
7
1
3
8
4
5
1
7
9
1
1
8
7
..
8
6
5
4
1
5
6
1
4
6
2
3
..
2
7

5
6
3
3
4
5
6
6
5
3
5
4
3
3
4
5
5
3
5
6
1
5
10
8
6
6
5
4
3
9
9
6
3
5
3
6
2
5
6
..
8
4
6
8
4
5
7
4
3
4
0
5
..
1
6

5
6
3
3
4
4
6
6
5
3
5
4
3
3
4
5
5
3
5
6
1
5
10
8
6
6
5
4
3
9
9
6
3
5
3
6
2
5
6
..
8
4
6
8
4
5
7
4
4
4
0
5
..
6
6

Investor protection
indexa
2010
2011

4.4
5.7
3.3
6.0
3.7
3.3
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.7
4.7
4.3
3.3
2.7
6.0
2.7
4.0
5.0
3.7
3.7
5.7
5.3
3.7
3.7
7.7
6.0
5.3
3.3
5.7
6.3
3.3
3.0
5.7
6.3
..
8.0
3.3
4.3
5.0
3.7
4.0
5.3
4.3
4.4
5.3
2.3
5.3
..
3.3
6.0

4.5
5.7
3.3
6.0
3.7
6.0
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.7
4.7
4.3
3.3
2.7
6.0
2.7
4.0
5.0
3.7
3.7
5.7
5.3
3.7
3.7
7.7
6.0
5.3
3.3
5.7
6.3
3.3
3.0
5.7
6.3
..
8.0
3.3
4.3
5.0
3.7
4.0
5.3
4.3
4.8
5.3
2.3
5.3
..
5.0
6.0

Time
(years)
2010

3
6
4
2
4
..
3
..
5
4
..
5
3
2
..
..
3
5
3
2
4
..
5
3
3
2
3
4
8
2
5
2
5
2
3
6
3
..
3
..
2
2
2
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
5
4
..
2
1

2011

3
6
4
2
4
..
3
..
5
4
..
5
3
2
..
..
3
5
3
2
4
..
5
3
3
2
3
4
8
2
5
2
5
2
3
6
3
..
3
..
2
2
2
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
5
4
..
2
1

Resolving insolvency
Cost
(% of estate)
2010
2011

22.9
22.0
22.0
15.0
9.0
..
34.0
..
76.0
60.0
..
29.0
25.0
18.0
..
..
15.0
15.0
15.0
22.0
8.0
..
22.0
8.0
43.0
30.0
25.0
18.0
9.0
15.0
9.0
15.0
18.0
22.0
50.0
22.0
7.0
..
42.0
..
18.0
20.0
15.0
22.0
15.0
30.0
9.0
22.0
14.4
7.0
18.0
22.0
..
18.0
7.0

22.9
22.0
22.0
15.0
9.0
..
34.0
..
76.0
60.0
..
29.0
25.0
18.0
..
..
15.0
15.0
15.0
22.0
8.0
..
22.0
8.0
43.0
30.0
25.0
18.0
9.0
15.0
9.0
15.0
18.0
22.0
50.0
22.0
7.0
..
42.0
..
18.0
20.0
15.0
22.0
15.0
30.0
9.0
22.0
14.4
7.0
18.0
22.0
..
18.0
7.0

Recovery rate
(cents on the dollar)
2010
2011

18.4
8.4
20.2
63.7
26.8
0.0
13.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
17.8
32.8
0.0
0.0
31.3
15.2
19.8
23.7
19.4
0.0
29.8
36.4
8.4
14.3
17.9
24.6
10.3
35.1
17.7
41.5
16.0
26.8
3.2
4.0
32.0
0.0
8.4
..
34.4
32.3
37.6
21.9
30.6
39.7
27.2
0.2
33.0
41.7
15.6
17.4
..
38.4
51.7

19.1
6.9
20.2
64.5
27.3
0.0
13.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
17.9
37.6
0.0
0.0
31.4
15.2
19.3
26.0
19.3
0.0
30.9
37.4
8.4
13.5
18.5
24.9
10.3
35.1
15.5
41.9
21.9
28.2
3.2
7.4
32.0
0.0
9.2
..
35.2
33.2
38.2
22.0
30.5
40.2
29.3
10.0
33.3
41.7
16.5
17.7
..
38.3
52.2

Part III. Development outcomes

63

Drivers of growth

Table

4.2

Investment climate
Enterprise Surveys
Viewed by firms as a major constraint (% of firms)
Firms that
Domestic
Private
sector fixed Net foreign credit to believe the court
Customs
Crime,
system is fair,
private
direct
capital
theft, and
Tax
Labor
Labor
Transpor- and trade
impartial, and
sector
formation investment
regulations
rates
Finance Electricity regulations
skills
tation
(% of GDP) ($ millions) (% of GDP) uncorrupt (%) Corruption discord
2010a
2010a
2010a
2010-11b
2010-11b 2010-11b 2010-11b 2010-11b 2010-11b 2010-11b 2010-11b 2010-11b 2010-11b

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

12.8
3.0
16.1
14.0
..
10.0
12.6
28.1
..
22.7
..
..
10.2
9.2
..
..
5.0
17.4
11.2
17.9
15.7
..
19.9
15.8
28.8
..
16.9
..
16.6
18.8
11.0
16.3
..
..
9.5
..
18.2
..
8.0
..
11.9
13.1
5.3
20.1
11.0
17.7
18.3
0.1
..
..
..
12.2
..
24.9
..

..
-4,567.6
..
264.7
..
0.8
35.3
111.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
288.3
..
37.4
2,527.4
101.4
..
184.2
119.3
452.3
..
..
..
..
301.7
789.8
802.7
..
5,133.3
42.3
24.5
..
161.2
86.6
..
1,385.6
2,063.7
131.8
433.4
..
547.3
633.9
..
8,347.7
2,044.0
36.5
5,210.1
-938.0
660.6
1,334.5

64.1
20.9
23.3
23.3
17.6
18.7
13.2
62.1
8.9
5.1
19.1
6.6
5.5
18.0
7.5
16.0
..
8.1
14.0
15.3
..
6.2
33.8
13.8
19.4
11.7
16.0
18.0
27.9
87.9
26.8
49.9
13.0
29.0
..
38.8
25.9
28.0
10.4
..
145.6
11.6
23.0
16.2
22.8
15.6
11.5
..
36.9
15.6
..
33.1
..
68.7
68.8

23.6
..
6.4
..
..
..
..
8.9
..
..
33.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

75.6
..
27.4
..
..
..
..
41.4
..
..
72.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1.5
..
1.5
..
..
..
..
25.6
..
..
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

26.4
..
16.9
..
..
..
..
31.9
..
..
39.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

38.5
..
25.5
..
..
..
..
46.0
..
..
73.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

35.7
..
34.8
..
..
..
..
76.1
..
..
51.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
33.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

26.1
..
14.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

25.9
..
32.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
65.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

25.3
..
20.1
..
..
..
..
33.4
..
..
38.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

35.8
..
15.8
..
..
..
..
31.9
..
..
54.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

64

Part III. Development outcomes

PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

Number of tax
payments
2011

37
31
55
19
46
24
44
41
54
54
20
32
61
62
46
18
19
26
50
33
56
46
41
21
33
23
19
59
37
7
37
37
41
35
18
42
59
21
29
..
9
42
33
48
53
32
37
49
24
29
35
29
..
17
8

Time to prepare,
file, and pay taxes
(hours)
2011

Enterprise Surveys
Regulation and tax administration
Average time to clear customs
Time dealing
(days)
Highest marginal with officials
(% of
Total tax rate tax rate, corporate
management time) Direct exports
Imports
(%)
(% of profi t)
2011
2009
2010-11b
2010-11b
2010-11b

318
282
270
152
270
274
654
186
504
732
100
336
606
270
492
216
198
488
376
224
416
208
393
324
158
201
157
270
696
161
230
375
270
938
148
424
666
76
357
..
200
180
104
172
270
213
132
242
270
451
82
433
..
238
144

PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

57
53.2
66.0
19.4
43.6
46.2
49.1
37.8
54.6
65.4
217.9
339.7
65.9
44.3
46.0
84.5
31.1
43.5
283.5
33.6
54.3
45.9
49.6
16.0
43.7
36.6
28.2
51.8
68.3
25.0
34.3
9.8
43.8
32.7
31.3
32.5
46.0
32.2
32.1
..
33.1
36.1
36.8
45.5
49.5
35.7
14.5
35.6
53.4
72.0
38.7
43.6
..
49.6
62.9

..
35.0
..
25.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38.0
..
25.0
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.0
32.0
35.0
..
30.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
34.6
35.0
30.0
30.0
..
45.0
35.0
30.9
..
..
..
20.0
40.0
..
30.0

12.2
..
10.2
..
..
..
..
9.2
..
..
29.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

6.7
..
6.2
..
..
..
..
9.5
..
..
18.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

11.4
..
3.7
..
..
..
..
11.9
..
..
45.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

Interest rate
spread
(lending rate
minus deposit
rate)
2010

Listed
domestic
companies
2010

9.7
9.8
..
5.9
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
8.8
39.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.4
..
..
..
9.8
7.5
..
38.5
21.0
..
9.0
0.5
6.6
4.7
..
11.1
9.6
17.8
..
9.8
12.3
..
3.4
..
5.9
8.0
..
12.5
13.5
..
5.5
6.3
9.4
4.8
3.5
..
..

950
..
..
21
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
55
..
..
..
14
..
..
86
..
7
..
215
..
..
..
..
..
..
360
..
5
11
..
8
19
76
342
..
..
213
..
73
56

Market
capitalization of Turnover ratio for
listed companies traded stocks
(%)
(% of GDP)
2010a
2010a

148.8
..
..
27.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.0
..
..
..
..
..
11.0
..
..
44.9
..
..
..
27.0
..
..
67.0
..
10.6
..
25.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
278.5
..
..
5.5
..
10.4
17.4
153.5
45.9
..
..
37.7
..
76.2
24.2

..
..
..
3.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
3.4
..
..
8.6
..
..
..
1.5
..
..
6.4
..
1.8
..
12.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.6
..
..
..
..
0.4
9.2
15.0
32.9
..
..
43.0
..
16.3
17.2

Part III. Development outcomes

65

Drivers of growth

Table

4.3

Financial sector infrastructure
Macroeconomy
Foreign currency sovereign ratings
Long-term
Short-term
2011–12b
2011–12b

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

B+
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
B+
..
..
..
BB..
..
..
..
..
..
..
BBB..
BBB
..
..
B
..
..
BBB+
..
..
..
..
..
B+
..

B
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
B
..
..
..
B
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
F3
..
B
B
..
..
B
..
..
F2
..
..
..
..
..
B
..

..
..
BB
B
BBBBBB-

..
..
B
B
F3
F3

Gross national savings
(% of GDP)
2009
2010 c

15.5
5.2
13.9
26.4
..
5.2
..
23.6
..
..
..
..
..
14.5
..
..
14.8
..
12.2
17.5
6.5
..
14.2
32.6
53.0
..
12.8
..
..
13.9
7.6
27.5
..
..
15.0
..
19.4
14.6
10.3
..
15.5
12.8
0.4
19.5
12.4
18.2
19.0
..
28.7
54.1
..
16.9
..
30.2
21.2

17.2
21.6
..
27.7
..
-5.4
..
34.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.6
..
9.4
20.6
7.1
..
15.6
12.7
29.0
..
..
..
..
15.6
12.2
34.1
..
..
12.2
..
..
..
13.0
..
16.5
17.5
2.4
20.1
..
19.0
22.5
..
27.7
48.4
..
17.8
..
30.8
20.3

Money and quasi money (M2)
(% of GDP)
2009
2010 c

47.1
31.1
36.8
47.2
24.2
23.1
20.1
81.5
15.8
14.2
28.6
13.8
22.2
29.9
11.1
113.3
..
22.3
39.6
25.5
..
23.5
41.0
36.7
33.8
22.3
23.5
25.3
32.7
101.2
35.3
51.4
17.6
38.1
..
34.2
35.2
53.9
23.7
..
80.5
20.3
27.6
28.8
38.5
20.9
20.6
..
75.6
65.9
83.0
79.5
53.7
105.3
58.3

47.0
32.5
37.9
40.3
26.3
24.6
21.1
78.3
17.1
12.7
31.4
14.6
20.5
33.8
12.1
114.9
..
19.5
41.1
26.0
..
25.8
45.5
38.6
39.2
22.4
24.8
26.0
29.7
102.9
38.5
62.4
19.5
36.1
..
34.3
37.5
58.8
25.8
..
75.7
20.6
29.6
30.7
42.4
23.2
20.4
..
75.1
59.2
..
76.3
..
107.8
60.6

Real interest rate
(%)
2009
2010 c

..
25.0
..
20.4
..
1.6
..
6.5
..
..
5.7
22.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.0
..
..
..
5.2
7.7
15.6
33.7
17.1
..
26.9
9.5
11.1
6.6
..
23.9
4.3
15.5
..
-7.8
16.1
..
3.8
..
12.5
7.1
..
5.6
10.2
..
..
21.7
9.3
0.7
57.8
..
..

..
0.1
..
-2.8
..
4.4
..
7.5
..
..
6.4
28.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.0
..
..
..
11.9
6.8
7.4
37.9
16.5
..
-2.0
6.9
5.7
8.6
..
7.6
13.8
15.3
..
18.5
6.0
..
1.8
..
3.4
7.1
..
9.7
8.2
..
..
-7.1
..
0.8
..
..
..

a. Data are consolidated for regional security markets where they exist.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
c. Provisional.

66

Part III. Development outcomes

PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

Capital marketsa

Intermediation
Domestic credit to
private sector
(% of GDP)
2009
2010 c

Interest rate spread
(lending rate minus
deposit rate)
2009
2010 c

62.9
21.2
22.5
25.8
17.0
15.9
12.1
62.0
6.6
5.0
16.0
7.3
4.8
17.3
7.0
16.8
..
10.2
13.5
15.7
..
5.6
30.3
12.8
16.0
11.6
14.2
17.5
30.4
82.8
24.8
48.4
12.5
38.6
..
33.4
24.8
22.8
9.5
..
147.7
12.3
25.0
15.3
19.8
13.3
12.0
..
35.1
16.5
29.4
36.1
10.9
64.7
62.2

8.4
8.1
..
6.3
..
..
..
8.1
..
..
8.6
49.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.5
..
..
..
8.8
8.2
10.1
33.5
21.8
..
11.5
0.8
6.2
4.9
..
5.1
..
19.2
..
5.6
13.1
..
3.2
..
6.0
7.1
..
11.2
15.0
..
5.9
6.3
9.7
5.5
3.5
..
..

64.1
20.9
23.3
23.3
17.6
18.7
13.2
62.1
8.9
5.1
19.1
6.6
5.5
18.0
7.5
16.0
..
8.1
14.0
15.3
..
6.2
33.8
13.8
19.4
11.7
16.0
18.0
27.9
87.9
26.8
49.9
13.0
29.0
..
38.8
25.9
28.0
10.4
..
145.6
11.6
23.0
16.2
22.8
15.6
11.5
..
36.9
15.6
..
33.1
..
68.7
68.8

PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

9.7
9.8
..
5.9
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
8.8
39.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.4
..
..
..
9.8
7.5
..
38.5
21.0
..
9.0
0.5
6.6
4.7
..
11.1
9.6
17.8
..
9.8
12.3
..
3.4
..
5.9
8.0
..
12.5
13.5
..
5.5
6.3
9.4
4.8
3.5
..
..

Ratio of bank
nonperforming loans to
total gross loans (%)
2009
2010 c

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.2
..
16.2
..
..
7.9
3.7
..
..
..
..
..
3.3
1.8
2.7
..
29.1
13.1
..
18.7
3.8
10.6
..
5.9
..
8.1
..
..
4.2
..
..
13.2
..
..
13.4
..
5.5
13.2

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.9
..
17.6
..
..
6.3
3.7
..
..
..
..
..
2.8
1.9
2.0
..
17.2
10.8
..
20.2
5.5
15.6
..
5.8
..
8.0
..
..
2.1
..
..
11.0
..
..
11.0
..
4.4
12.1

Listed domestic
companies
2009
2010 c

..
..
..
20
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
55
..
..
..
15
..
..
89
..
7
..
214
..
..
..
..
..
..
363
..
5
15
..
8
19
76
..
..
..
305
..
78
52

950
..
..
21
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
55
..
..
..
14
..
..
86
..
7
..
215
..
..
..
..
..
..
360
..
5
11
..
8
19
76
342
..
..
213
..
73
56

Market capitalization
of listed companies
(% of GDP)
2009
2010 c

Turnover ratio for
traded stocks
(%)
2009
2010 c

..
..
..
37.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.7
..
..
..
..
..
9.7
..
..
35.2
..
..
..
29.3
..
..
53.7
..
9.5
..
19.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
249.0
..
..
..
..
23.7
21.9
65.6
..
..
..
47.6
..
69.2
21.0

..
..
..
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
4.6
..
..
..
1.3
..
..
8.1
..
3.0
..
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.3
..
..
..
..
0.3
..
..
..
..
..
60.1
..
45.7
16.2

148.8
..
..
27.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.0
..
..
..
..
..
11.0
..
..
44.9
..
..
..
27.0
..
..
67.0
..
10.6
..
25.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
278.5
..
..
5.5
..
10.4
17.4
153.5
45.9
..
..
37.7
..
76.2
24.2

..
..
..
3.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
3.4
..
..
8.6
..
..
..
1.5
..
..
6.4
..
1.8
..
12.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.6
..
..
..
..
0.4
9.2
15.0
32.9
..
..
43.0
..
16.3
17.2

Part III. Development outcomes

67

Drivers of growth

Table

5.1

International trade and tariff barriers
Trade
Annual average
Merchan- Services
trade
Exports
Imports
Exports
Imports
dise trade
Exports
Imports
Total
(% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) ($ millions) ($ millions) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2000-10
2000-10

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

68

65.2
105.3
42.3
73.0
..
42.7
61.0
105.7
..
100.0
..
64.9
139.8
76.7
..
..
44.0
97.3
60.8
70.6
74.1
..
65.4
157.7
134.5
..
77.8
..
135.6
116.3
71.3
83.9
..
69.1
41.5
..
67.8
..
46.6
..
54.9
38.7
123.0
63.8
91.1
57.7
79.1
126.3
59.2
52.3
..
47.5
..
75.9
102.8

Part III. Development outcomes

58.4
90.9
51.8
69.4
37.8
30.1
39.4
47.4
24.2
70.8
38.4
74.8
92.4
79.2
111.7
33.2
36.4
93.6
27.7
57.8
49.6
41.3
53.6
138.6
94.2
42.9
58.7
55.2
106.7
68.4
83.6
84.5
56.9
64.1
30.7
61.3
54.0
109.1
58.0
..
48.4
32.1
87.9
50.3
74.0
35.8
77.3
84.3
52.0
60.1
..
36.3
..
58.2
87.4

12.8
23.8
..
8.5
..
12.2
12.9
49.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.1
..
15.2
13.9
9.7
..
17.7
25.9
125.2
..
..
..
..
48.2
19.6
14.0
..
12.9
15.4
23.0
..
107.3
10.7
..
8.9
3.8
25.1
17.2
..
18.9
7.7
..
16.1
9.6
..
17.6
..
22.0
20.7

374,652
51,400
937
4,917
..
124
6,502
640
..
3,331
..
3,412
10,221
9,316
..
..
3,392
8,094
230
9,461
1,649
..
8,861
955
247
..
1,547
..
2,241
5,098
2,421
4,738
..
74,610
610
..
3,186
..
327
..
99,399
13,242
2,027
5,975
1,185
4,087
7,142
3,608
197,350
49,939
..
46,732
..
29,965
21,569

378,688
35,421
1,839
5,956
..
740
7,200
1,113
..
5,213
..
5,096
6,568
8,270
..
..
9,653
4,754
409
13,265
1,859
..
12,192
2,482
1,081
..
2,387
..
2,661
6,202
4,144
4,603
..
61,486
1,721
..
5,530
..
564
..
100,119
12,665
2,522
8,653
1,709
5,833
5,672
5,831
178,504
34,820
..
57,200
..
38,969
23,921

31.2
62.3
14.3
33.0
..
6.1
28.9
38.6
..
39.0
..
26.0
85.1
40.6
..
..
11.4
61.3
21.9
29.4
34.8
..
27.5
43.8
25.0
..
30.6
..
62.0
52.5
26.3
42.6
..
37.9
10.9
..
24.8
..
17.1
..
27.3
19.8
54.8
26.1
37.3
23.8
44.1
48.3
28.4
30.8
..
21.4
..
33.0
48.8

34.0
43.0
28.1
40.0
..
36.5
32.0
67.1
..
61.0
..
38.9
54.7
36.1
..
..
32.5
36.0
38.9
41.2
39.3
..
37.9
113.9
109.5
..
47.2
..
73.6
63.8
45.0
41.3
..
31.2
30.6
..
43.0
..
29.5
..
27.5
18.9
68.2
37.8
53.8
33.9
35.0
78.0
30.7
21.5
..
26.1
..
42.9
54.1

32.3
73.9
14.1
44.3
9.7
6.5
23.5
36.2
14.6
39.2
15.2
25.1
79.8
46.1
89.1
8.0
12.7
61.1
27.3
35.1
30.7
30.1
25.6
50.3
34.1
27.5
26.3
28.5
38.9
57.8
28.7
44.3
16.2
42.0
10.5
..
26.5
91.8
19.7
..
29.5
16.9
77.7
20.8
37.5
16.0
34.6
36.3
34.4
40.0
40.7
24.7
56.9
31.6
45.1

34.0
54.8
27.4
36.9
23.9
29.0
24.2
69.0
21.5
56.7
37.0
33.8
54.9
37.4
55.8
52.2
30.0
32.9
38.6
52.3
33.8
55.3
35.1
117.0
80.7
42.6
43.2
39.6
60.5
62.7
44.1
48.4
25.0
31.1
26.7
..
42.2
102.7
33.5
..
29.2
21.7
84.9
29.9
53.6
27.6
37.6
48.0
30.7
23.3
53.6
28.8
27.8
38.1
48.1

Annual growth
Terms of
(%)
trade index
Exports
Imports (2000 = 100)
2010a
2010a
2010a

..
-2.71
..
16.2
..
57.8
-0.1
24.5
..
..
..
52.9
..
-0.5
..
..
14.4
3.5
0.2
24.6
1.5
..
16.5
2.4
5.8
..
..
..
12.2
10.0
2.2
-42.4
..
..
..
..
5.6
..
..
..
4.6
..
-4.6
-4.3
-0.7
5.6
..
60.0
..
..
..
-3.0
..
16.3
4.8

..
-20.89
..
9.7
..
59.2
8.2
9.7
..
..
..
36.3
..
7.6
..
..
15.9
3.3
7.7
21.0
0.1
..
3.8
8.9
15.9
..
..
..
21.8
7.1
1.7
-60.1
..
..
..
..
3.5
..
..
..
9.6
..
-2.6
-3.1
-5.7
7.8
..
33.6
-0.7
..
..
-3.2
..
3.3
3.8

..
..
..
87.3
..
..
121.5
159.1
..
..
..
129.3
..
94.8
..
..
112.2
156.1
86.9
..
96.5
..
116.1
96.5
30.4
..
..
..
262.5
74.6
50.0
126.7
..
..
..
..
91.6
..
..
..
135.6
..
99.4
126.2
68.2
71.2
..
109.3
..
..
..
93.0
..
95.6
96.1

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Food
2009

13.7
..
..
5.2
26.8
67.5
..
72.6
..
..
..
..
..
48.2
..
..
77.5
..
53.0
..
..
..
44.0
..
..
28.8
86.6
..
..
32.4
23.3
..
..
4.5
42.3
92.4
29.5
..
..
..
10.2
5.6
..
35.5
..
..
7.5
19.4
6.3
0.3
0.4
..
..
22.1
9.2

Structure of merchandise exports
(% of total)
Agricultural
raw materials
Fuel
Ores and metals Manufactures
2009
2009
2010
2010

3.0
..
..
0.2
60.5
4.8
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
5.7
..
..
11.9
..
1.0
..
..
..
13.2
..
..
5.2
3.8
..
..
0.9
3.1
..
..
1.1
1.7
0.7
1.1
..
..
..
1.9
1.4
..
9.8
..
..
1.4
23.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
..
..
1.6
0.5

36.9
..
..
0.3
0.0
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30.0
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
4.2
..
..
4.9
0.1
..
..
0.0
17.5
..
..
90.4
0.1
0.0
24.0
..
..
..
11.1
92.1
..
1.0
..
..
0.9
0.9
63.5
97.7
6.5
..
..
2.0
13.6

17.7
..
..
14.5
1.7
5.2
3.0
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
0.3
..
..
1.1
..
9.7
11.3
..
..
2.0
..
..
9.5
11.1
0.7
30.4
0.4
54.5
..
59.6
1.1
36.9
0.0
3.8
..
..
..
32.7
..
..
33.7
5.6
1.9
86.0
34.9
3.3
0.3
..
6.3
..
11.7
1.6

30.8
..
..
79.5
9.1
5.9
7.5
17.5
..
..
..
..
..
16.2
..
..
8.9
..
10.4
20.7
..
..
34.7
..
..
48.2
9.0
20.2
0.0
60.2
2.0
..
14.1
6.7
7.6
4.7
40.1
..
..
..
46.6
..
..
24.1
74.2
22.9
6.3
36.4
29.5
1.8
..
43.4
..
66.3
76.0

Food
2010

10.5
..
..
12.4
15.1
13.7
17.7
27.8
..
..
..
..
..
19.2
..
..
11.0
..
36.1
15.3
..
..
12.1
..
..
13.6
13.6
11.6
19.4
21.1
11.6
..
15.1
10.3
..
29.8
22.4
..
..
..
5.8
..
..
10.0
15.7
12.4
4.7
18.8
14.5
16.3
..
19.1
..
11.5
9.4

Structure of merchandise imports
(% of total)
Agricultural
raw materials
Fuel
Ores and metals Manufactures
2010
2010
2010
2010

1.0
..
..
0.8
0.7
1.4
1.6
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
0.5
..
0.9
1.1
..
..
1.6
..
..
1.0
1.1
0.5
0.5
2.2
1.0
..
2.1
0.8
..
0.8
1.5
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
0.9
1.4
1.1
0.6
2.6
2.4
1.6
..
3.2
..
2.2
2.1

16.7
..
..
14.7
22.0
2.1
27.5
11.9
..
..
..
..
..
23.7
..
..
18.6
..
20.4
1.0
..
..
22.1
..
..
15.2
10.0
26.0
26.4
19.3
19.9
..
12.5
1.4
..
16.1
29.9
..
..
..
19.8
..
..
27.6
13.9
20.0
11.6
11.2
13.5
2.1
..
13.4
..
23.1
12.6

2.0
..
..
2.0
0.9
0.7
0.8
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
1.2
..
..
1.2
..
0.9
1.2
..
..
1.5
..
..
0.4
1.0
0.6
0.2
1.1
0.5
..
0.9
1.1
..
1.1
1.7
..
..
..
1.6
..
..
1.1
1.9
1.3
21.0
13.8
3.2
1.5
..
4.1
..
3.3
3.6

66.5
..
..
68.5
61.0
81.6
52.4
57.8
..
..
..
..
..
54.6
..
..
68.7
..
40.9
81.1
..
..
62.8
..
..
69.5
74.1
61.2
52.9
56.4
49.6
..
69.4
86.5
..
52.0
44.4
..
..
..
65.4
..
..
60.4
67.2
65.1
61.6
52.2
66.0
78.4
..
60.1
..
58.8
72.3
(continued)

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Part III. Development outcomes

69

Drivers of growth

Table

5.1

International trade and tariff barriers (continued)
Export indexes
(0 low to 1 high)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Import indexes
(0 low to 1 high)

Diversification
2010

Concentration
2010

Diversification
2010

Concentration
2010

0.39
0.97
0.37
0.60
0.50
0.54
0.36
0.48
0.14
0.33
0.51
0.37
0.76
0.35
0.82
0.12
0.35
0.74
0.32
0.46
0.44
0.89
0.19
0.44
0.43
0.18
0.52
0.63
0.48
0.25
0.51
0.22
0.38
0.77
0.40
0.44
0.27
0.46
0.27
0.41
0.15
0.75
0.24
0.19
0.21
0.19
0.69
0.20

0.58
0.83
0.75
0.86
0.82
0.75
0.72
0.73
0.36
0.76
0.75
0.81
0.79
0.70
0.74
0.65
0.80
0.84
0.69
0.82
0.81
0.75
0.64
0.88
0.69
0.69
0.80
0.87
0.81
0.71
0.84
0.76
0.80
0.80
0.82
0.63
0.75
0.82
0.71
0.75
0.58
0.81
0.73
0.75
0.69
0.74
0.86
0.76

0.09
0.07
0.17
0.14
0.17
0.10
0.21
0.11
0.07
0.15
0.11
0.07
0.06
0.25
0.28
0.11
0.16
0.08
0.15
0.12
0.17
0.16
0.13
0.28
0.63
0.11
0.11
0.21
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.26
0.10
0.07
0.08
0.15
0.18
0.24
0.36
0.28
0.22
0.08
0.09
0.18
0.24
0.15
0.14
0.10

0.29
0.50
0.62
0.46
0.54
0.51
0.49
0.47
0.22
0.52
0.53
0.49
0.47
0.48
0.56
0.53
0.50
0.46
0.58
0.39
0.51
0.57
0.38
0.79
0.81
0.49
0.51
0.54
0.57
0.39
0.50
0.58
0.56
0.42
0.49
0.49
0.45
0.57
0.63
0.67
0.31
0.45
0.47
0.48
0.61
0.45
0.49
0.50

0.52
0.30
0.13
0.79
0.16
0.16

0.79
0.62
0.59
0.81
0.66
0.54

0.09
0.09
0.07
0.09
0.09
0.08

0.49
0.50
0.39
0.44
0.33
0.39

Competitiveness
Indicator (%)
Sectoral Global
Binding
effect
effect
coverage
2005–09 2005–09
2010

24.1
5.8
-16.8
-8.2
8.0
9.4
-5.1
-1.2
20.7
-23.3
3.2
24.2
2.9
21.9
-6.1
8.1
22.3
-2.6
6.2
17.3
8.8
0.4
-7.0
-19.3
-8.2
-3.9
-13.7
23.9
-5.0
-5.8
-4.4
4.3
23.5
20.2
1.7
5.9
2.9
-6.9
-4.3
9.3
19.1
-4.3
1.5
12.4
-0.7
12.4
2.4

63.8
-14.6
-13.9
-6.7
-1.3
-10.8
17.7
-10.9
7.4
3.0
31.1
11.8
-7.9
28.5
19.4
12.4
-17.2
-5.2
-2.0
-16.2
-20.9
-1.8
-9.7
-36.2
-9.0
-1.1
-12.1
10.4
-8.0
7.2
-9.0
-30.6
-1.5
-49.5
-26.7
-7.5
-19.7
1.0
-0.7
-5.8
23.8
-10.7
2.5
19.9
10.8
2.1
-16.2

21.6

-3.9

8.0
21.7
2.4
0.4

14.3
11.2
0.4
2.9

..
..
39.5
96.1
39.4
22.3
..
100.0
..
..
..
..
..
33.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
97.6
15.2
100.0
..
..
..
40.5
..
..
..
96.1
96.6
19.5
100.0
..
100.0
..
..
..
96.1
..
96.1
13.8
14.3
16.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Simple
mean
bound
rate
2010

..
..
28.7
19.0
42.5
67.8
..
15.8
..
..
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48.6
95.3
78.9
..
..
..
28.9
..
..
..
19.4
44.9
119.4
89.3
..
30.0
..
..
..
19.4
..
19.4
120.0
80.0
73.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Tariff barriers, all products (%)
Share of
lines with Share of Share of
lines with lines with
interSimple
mean
Weighted national domestic specific
rates
peaks
tariff mean tariff peaks
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010

..
..
13.3
8.8
12.4
9.8
..
14.7
..
..
..
..
..
13.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.3
12.1
9.5
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
6.3
13.0
10.9
9.9
..
13.4
..
..
..
7.6
..
10.9
12.9
12.8
12.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
15.4
5.2
8.8
5.5
..
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
7.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.9
9.2
10.5
..
..
..
8.4
..
..
..
1.8
9.1
10.6
6.0
..
8.9
..
..
..
4.4
..
10.2
8.2
14.2
8.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
50.2
20.2
44.5
29.8
..
44.3
..
..
..
..
..
47.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.8
36.6
21.6
..
..
..
47.9
..
..
..
16.7
48.9
34.9
31.4
..
50.5
..
..
..
17.9
..
26.2
39.9
47.3
37.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
0.0
8.5
0.0
1.1
..
11.9
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.8
5.7
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
7.1
0.0
0.0
1.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
7.5
..
12.0
1.0
0.0
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

70

Part III. Development outcomes

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Tariff barriers,
primary products (%)

Tariff barriers,
manufactured products (%)

Simple
mean tariff
2010

Weighted
mean tariff
2010

Simple
mean tariff
2010

Weighted
mean tariff
2010

..
..
15.5
6.1
11.4
15.4
..
16.2
..
..
..
..
..
15.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.6
16.0
9.2
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
4.1
14.0
11.8
11.5
..
14.1
..
..
..
5.4
..
9.7
17.5
14.4
15.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
12.4
0.5
8.1
9.4
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.0
12.6
1.6
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
..
2.1
10.7
9.1
6.4
..
7.7
..
..
..
1.9
..
1.3
8.7
12.4
8.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
12.9
9.0
12.5
9.1
..
14.3
..
..
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.9
11.7
9.5
..
..
..
12.8
..
..
..
6.7
12.8
10.7
9.7
..
13.2
..
..
..
7.8
..
11.1
12.4
12.6
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
11.8
8.2
11.8
11.6
..
10.1
..
..
12.3
..
..
11.8
..
..
17.4
..
..
..
11.8
11.8
11.6
8.2
..
11.3
12.1
11.8
..
1.2
9.6
8.2
11.8
11.5
11.6
..
11.8
..
..
..
8.2
18.1
8.2
11.6
11.8
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Average cost to ship 20 ft container
from port to final destination ($)
Export
Import
2010
2010

1,960
1,850
1,049
3,185
2,412
2,965
1,379
1,200
5,491
5,902
1,207
3,055
3,818
1,969
1,411
1,431
1,760
1,945
831
1,013
855
1,448
2,055
1,680
1,220
1,197
1,675
2,202
1,520
737
1,100
1,800
3,545
1,263
3,275
690
1,098
876
1,573
..
1,531
2,050
1,855
1,255
940
2,880
2,678
3,280
809
1,248
836
613
..
577
773

2,502
2,690
1,496
3,420
4,030
4,855
2,167
1,000
5,554
8,525
1,191
3,285
7,709
2,577
1,411
1,581
2,660
1,955
885
1,315
1,391
2,006
2,190
1,665
1,200
1,555
2,570
3,067
1,523
689
1,545
1,905
3,545
1,440
4,990
577
1,740
876
1,639
..
1,795
2,900
2,030
1,430
1,109
3,015
3,315
5,101
958
1,318
911
755
..
950
858

Average time to clear customs
(days)
Direct exports
Imports
2010-11b
2010–11b

6.7
..
6.2
..
..
..
..
9.5
..
..
18.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

11.4
..
3.7
..
..
..
..
11.9
..
..
45.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

71

Drivers of growth

Table

5.2

Top three exports and share in total exports, 2010
First

Product

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Benin
Petroleum oils & oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than
crude) & preparation
Botswana
Diamonds non-industrial unworked or simply sawn, cleaved or bruted
Burkina Faso
Cotton, not carded or combed

Second

97.3
35.3
43.7
37.4

Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad

Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Yellowfin tunas (Thunnus albacares)
Wood in the rough, other
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

70.2
42.1
20.2
31.0
80.6

Comoros
Congo
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Cote d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali

Cloves (whole fruit, cloves and stems)
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Cathodes and sections of cathodes
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Sheep
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Cashew nuts, in shell
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Aluminium ores and concentrates
Cashew nuts, in shell, fresh or dried
Black tea (fermented) and other partly fermented tea
Diamonds non-industrial unworked or simply sawn, cleaved or bruted
Technically specified natural rubber
Shrimps and prawns
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed/stripped
Cotton, not carded or combed

38.8
85.1
24.7
32.3
78.0
11.2
42.1
75.8
20.3
46.4
31.7
92.9
18.6
37.0
19.4
9.5
53.0
35.7

Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal

Iron ores & concentrates, non-agglomerated
Tunas, skipjack and bonito
Aluminium unwrought, not alloyed
Natural uranium and its compounds
Natural uranium and its compounds
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Petroleum oils & oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than
crude) & preparations
Tunas, skipjack and bonito
Diamonds non-industrial unworked or simply sawn, cleaved or bruted
Goats
Platinum unwrought or in powder form
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Raw sugar, cane
Other Precious metal ores and concentrates, other than silver
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Copper cathodes and sections of cathodes unwrought
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed/stripped

49.3
11.3
48.0
26.8
80.6
85.9
30.4
36.3
26.4
49.6
26.9
31.3
7.6
90.3
16.5
14.5
26.7
32.9
48.0
20.5

Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Live animals, n.e.s.
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Phosphoric acid and polyphosphoric acids

45.0
49.7
18.3
82.1
7.6

Tunisia

Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

11.7

Africaa

Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous
minerals, crude

Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco

Share
of total
exports
(%)

Share
of total
exports
(%)
Product

46.6
[46.6]

Gold (incl. gold plated with platinum), in unwrought forms (excl. powder)

15.5

Nickel mattes
Gold (incl. gold plated with platinum), non-monetary,
in semi-manufactured forms
Black tea (fermented) and other partly fermented tea
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Fish, whole or in pieces, but not minced :-- Other
Diamonds unsorted whether or not worked
Petroleum oils & oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude)
& preparations

21.9
15.8
13.1
15.8
19.6
22.3
8.6

Vessels for the transport of goods & for the transport of both persons & goods

20.3

Cobalt ores and concentrates
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Natural gas, liquefied
Cardamoms
Sesamum seeds
Manganese ores and concentrates
Crude oil
Cocoa paste, not defatted
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Ferrous waste and scrap, iron or steel, nes
Cut flowers fresh
Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of cotton, not knitted
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude
Vanilla
Black tea (fermented) and other partly fermented tea
Petroleum oils & oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude)
& preparations
Copper ores and concentrates
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, of cotton, knitted
Electrical energy
Diamonds non-industrial unworked or simply sawn, cleaved or bruted
Light oils and preparations
Natural gas, liquefied
Niobium, tantalum and vanadium ores and concentrates
Wrist-watches other than automatic winding
Portland cement (excl. white cement, whether/not artificially coloured),
whether/not coloured
Bigeye tunas (Thunnus obesus)
Aluminium ores and concentrates
Sheep
Gold (incl. gold plated with platinum), in unwrought forms (excl. powder)

17.8
12.5
14.7
9.2
22.5
12.3
14.9
7.2
21.0
0.0
13.1
15.0
15.4
6.6
6.9
29.1

8.3
14.8
29.5
6.9

Mixtures of odoriferous substances, of a kind used in the food or drink industries
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed/stripped
Gold (incl. gold plated with platinum), in unwrought forms (excl. powder)
Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed/stripped
Unrefined copper; copper anodes for electrolytic refining
Ferro-chromium containing by weight more than 4% of carbon

15.2
8.7
12.8
9.9
26.7
15.3

Natural gas, in gaseous state
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Natural gas, liquefied
Natural gas, in gaseous state
Ignition wiring sets and other wiring sets of a kind used in vehicles,
aircraft or ships
Ignition wiring sets and other wiring sets of a kind used in vehicles,
aircraft or ships
Natural gas, in gaseous state

20.0
12.3
9.5
6.9
6.5

13.6
11.0
7.5
16.1
7.6
6.9
24.8
17.4
10.5

6.8
3.2
[10.2]

Note: Includes only products that account for more than 4 percent of total exports.
a. Values in brackets are Africa’s share of total world exports for product.

72

Part III. Development outcomes

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Third
Share of total
exports
(%)

Number
of exports
accounting for
75 percent of
total exports

9.3

1
6

Diamonds non-industrial nes excluding mounted or set diamonds
Gold (incl. gold plated with platinum), in unwrought forms (excl. powder)

8.9
10.8

4
5

Tropical wood specified
Mackerel
Tropical wood specified

7.2
12.0
15.7

2
6
6
4
1

Essential oils, nes

15.6

Copper ores and concentrates
Cocoa paste, not defatted

11.9
8.8

Men’s/boys’ shirts, of cotton
Cut flowers fresh

8.6
10.7

Titanium ores and concentrates
Manganese ores and concentrates
Natural gas, liquefied
Logs, non-coniferous nes
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Women’s/girls’, trousers & shorts, of cotton, not knitted
Vessels for the transport of goods & for the transport of both persons & goods
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waist-coats & similar articles, knitted/crocheted, of wool
Natural uranium and its compounds
Sesamum seeds

11.2
5.7
20.7
0.0
6.1
7.5
15.0
4.6
6.8
7.8

Octopus, other than live/fresh/chilled
Cane/beet sugar & chemically pure sucrose, in solid form, not containing added flavouring/colouring matter
Natural gas, liquefied
Unwrought Zinc, containing by weight 99.99 % or more of zinc

7.0
6.4
5.0
13.4

Black tea (fermented) and other partly fermented tea
Articles of jewelry & parts thereof , of silver, whether/not plated/clad with other precious metal
Phosphoric acid and polyphosphoric acids

13.8
9.7
9.8

Yellowfin tunas (Thunnus albacares)
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted
Live bovine animals other than pure-bred breeding animals

6.9
11.8
13.1

Food preparations nes
Coffee, not roasted, not decaffeinated
Cement clinkers
Fish fillets and other fish meat (whether or not minced), fresh or chilled

10.7
6.4
10.1
9.3

Product

Light oils and preparations

4
1
6
10
1
19
3
1
9
9
4
1
48
6
6
32
5
4
4
43
8
6
1
1
4
8
18
5
11
4
92
1
20
24
8
13
3
17

Nickel, not alloyed, unwrought

7.1

Natural gas, liquefied
Sheep
Light oils and preparations
Petroleum oils & oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude) & preparations

8.7
8.5
5.5
4.5

4
4
76
1
69

Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of cotton, not knitted

4.7

94

3.1
[16.3]

34

Natural gas, liquified

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Part III. Development outcomes

73

Drivers of growth

Table

5.3

Regional integration, trade blocs
Year of
entry into
force
Type of
of most
most recent
recent
Year
established agreement agreementa

Economic and Monetary Community
of Central African States (CEMAC )

1994

Economic Community of the
Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

1976

1999

CU
NNA

1990

1995

Merchandise exports within bloc
($ millions)
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008

119.6

96.1

201.0

247.4

305.0

354.7

300.5

383.0

7.0

8.0

10.2

20.2

24.4

29.1

72.6

63.6

80.7

2,917.3

4,021.0

6,674.7

6,140.4

8,157.8

1,061.5 1,385.2

1,797.0

1,572.2 1,996.7

1994

1994

FTA

East African Community (EAC)

1996

2000

CU

334.5

628.4

689.4

1,075.3

Economic Community of Central
African States (ECCAS)

1983

2004b

NNA

159.7

157.1

181.6

254.6

Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS)

1975

1993

PTA

1,532.3

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

1984

2005b

NNA

62.6

Southern African Development
Community (SADC)

1992

2000

FTA

1,655.3

West African Economic and
Monetary Union (UEMOA)

1994

2000

CU

620.8

Economic and Monetary Community
of Central African States (CEMAC )

1994

Economic Community of the
Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

1976

Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA)

1994

East African Community (EAC)
Economic Community of Central
African States (ECCAS)

2010

138.7

Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA)

Year of
entry into
force
of most
Type of
recent
most recent
Year
established agreement agreementa

2009

1,146.0 1,366.9

1990

1,442.6 2,694.4

449.2

378.3

482.5

1,874.8 2,728.2 5,546.1 5,955.4 6,802.2 9,469.9

7,319.6

8,910.7

182.4

184.1

113.0

106.0

3,615.4 4,426.5

162.1

312.8

181.7

385.4

214.0

217.7

7,798.5 8,700.2 12,050.6 16,009.9 12,003.3 14,575.9

559.7

760.4

1,412.1

1,531.7

1,779.4

2,339.1

1995

Merchandise exports within bloc
(% of total bloc exports)
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008

1,937.6 2,250.3

2009

2010

CU

2.3

2.1

1.0

0.9

0.9

1.1

0.8

1.2

1.2

NNA

0.5

0.5

0.8

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.9

2.2

1.5

1994

FTA

4.7

6.1

4.6

4.6

3.9

4.5

5.4

7.1

7.7

1996

2000

CU

17.7

19.5

22.6

18.0

16.3

17.8

19.2

18.9

20.3

1983

2004b

NNA

1.4

1.5

1.0

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.4

0.6

0.6

1999

Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS)

1975

1993

PTA

8.0

9.0

7.7

9.4

7.9

7.9

8.7

9.9

8.8

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

1984

2005b

NNA

3.9

5.9

4.4

4.9

5.0

5.8

5.7

5.8

5.3

Southern African Development
Community (SADC)

1992

2000

FTA

6.6

10.2

9.5

9.3

9.1

10.2

10.3

11.3

9.8

West African Economic and
Monetary Union (UEMOA)

1994

2000

CU

13.0

10.3

13.5

13.7

13.3

15.4

16.4

13.2

14.6

74

Part III. Development outcomes

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Year of
entry into
force
Type of
of most
most recent
recent
Year
established agreement agreementa

Economic and Monetary Community
of Central African States (CEMAC )

1994

Economic Community of the
Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)

1976

1999

Merchandise exports by bloc
(% of world exports)
2005
2006
2007

1990

1995

2000

2008

2009

2010

CU

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

NNA

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA)

1994

1994

FTA

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.7

0.7

East African Community (EAC)

1996

2000

CU

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Economic Community of Central
African States (ECCAS)

1983

2004b

NNA

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.7

0.5

0.6

Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS)

1975

1993

PTA

0.9

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.7

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

1984

2005b

NNA

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Southern African Development
Community (SADC)

1992

2000

FTA

1.4

1.1

1.1

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.0

0.8

1.0

West African Economic and
Monetary Union (UEMOA)

1994

2000

CU

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Note: Regional Bloc membership is as follows: Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC: formerly Central African Customs and Economic Union [UDEAC]),
Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon; Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL), Burundi, the
Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda; Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Burundi, Comoros, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, the Arab
Republic of Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libyan Arab Republic, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe; East African
Community (EAC), Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda; Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic,
Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe; Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS),
Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo; Indian Ocean Commission,
Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion, and Seychelles; Southern African Development Community (SADC), Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe; West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU or
UEMOA), Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.
a. CU is customs union; EIA is economic integration agreement; FTA is free trade agreement; NNA is not notified agreement, which refers to preferential trade agreements established among
member countries that are not notified to the World Trade Organization (these agreements may be functionally equivalent to any of the other agreements); and PTA is preferential trade
agreement.
b. From the official website of the trade bloc.

TRADE AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION

Part III. Development outcomes

75

Drivers of growth

Table

6.1

Water and sanitation
Financing
Access,
supply side
Internal
fresh water
resources per
capita (cubic
meters)
2009

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

4,708
7,976
1,197
1,211
782
1,231
14,237
610
32,653
1,371
1,677
14,018
56,324
3,971
38,173
549
1,503
110,997
1,784
1,272
23,153
10,781
525
2,433
52,139
16,746
1,118
4,024
118
2,158
4,388
2,747
234
1,431
921
13,414
2,131
..
27,878
658
908
706
2,530
1,930
1,949
1,205
6,303
983
288
322
344
23
96
917
402

Access, demand side
Population with sustainable access
Population with sustainable
to an improved water source
access to improved sanitation
(% of
(% of
(% of
(% of
(% of
(% of
rural
urban
total
rural
urban
total
population) population) population)
population) population) population)
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010

61
51
75
96
79
72
77
88
67
51
95
45
71
80
..
..
44
87
89
86
74
64
59
78
73
46
83
64
50
99
47
93
49
58
65
89
72
..
55
29
91
58
71
53
61
72
61
80
92
83
88
99
..
83
..

83
60
84
99
95
83
95
90
92
70
91
79
95
91
..
..
97
95
92
91
90
91
82
91
88
74
95
87
52
100
77
99
100
74
76
89
93
100
87
66
99
67
91
79
89
95
87
98
95
85
99
100
..
98
99

49
38
68
92
73
71
52
85
51
44
97
27
32
68
..
..
34
41
85
80
65
53
52
73
60
34
80
51
48
99
29
90
39
43
63
88
56
..
35
7
79
52
65
44
40
68
46
69
88
79
54
99
..
61
..

31
58
13
62
17
46
49
61
34
13
36
24
18
24
..
..
21
33
68
14
18
20
32
26
18
15
51
22
26
89
18
32
9
31
55
26
52
..
13
23
79
26
57
10
13
34
48
40
90
95
50
95
97
70
..

42
85
25
75
50
49
58
73
43
30
50
24
20
36
..
..
29
33
70
19
32
44
32
32
29
21
49
35
51
91
38
57
34
35
52
30
70
98
23
52
86
44
64
20
26
34
57
52
94
98
63
97
97
83
96

23
19
5
41
6
46
36
43
28
6
30
24
15
11
..
4
19
30
65
8
11
9
32
24
7
12
51
14
9
88
5
17
4
27
56
19
39
..
6
6
67
14
55
7
3
34
43
32
84
88
10
93
96
52
..

Committed
nominal
investment in
water projects
with private
participation
($ millions)
2000-10a

..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
3.4
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
120.7
..
8.5
..
0.0
0.0
..
468.0
..
..
..
..
..

ODA gross
disbursements for
water supply and
sanitation sector
($ millions)
2009
2010

1,786.4
15.1
54.1
0.0
58.9
19.5
6.5
20.4
9.4
28.6
1.4
65.2
0.4
30.7
0.0
7.4
114.4
2.1
5.0
56.2
11.3
2.6
94.7
23.1
8.1
12.3
16.1
69.2
82.7
1.1
94.8
12.0
42.2
102.4
19.5
1.0
58.3
0.6
9.7
5.2
60.9
55.2
0.3
190.3
5.3
105.9
50.8
7.6
370.6
10.9
6.8
129.0
0.0
122.3
94.3

1,892.8
8.7
69.1
0.8
64.9
31.5
17.7
11.8
5.4
34.5
0.8
98.6
2.0
36.2
..
7.3
116.8
8.7
3.2
89.6
10.0
1.0
143.0
36.5
7.3
9.8
22.2
49.0
78.7
0.5
94.1
13.5
38.5
109.6
35.5
3.1
48.7
0.6
10.4
3.0
48.7
62.1
0.6
211.9
4.6
61.1
38.8
15.9
358.9
11.0
8.1
72.3
..
145.2
116.6

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

76

Part III. Development outcomes

INFRASTRUCTURE

Drivers of growth

Table

6.2

Transportation
Access, supply side

Road network
(km)
2000–09a

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

51,429
19,000
25,798
92,495
12,322
28,857
1,350
24,307
40,000
880
153,497
17,000
81,996
2,880
4,010
44,359
9,170
3,742
109,515
44,348
3,455
61,945
5,940
10,600
49,827
15,451
22,474
11,066
2,066
30,331
42,100
18,948
193,200
14,008
320
14,825
508
11,300
22,100
362,099
11,900
3,594
103,706
11,652
70,746
66,781
97,267
112,039
3,065
100,472
83,200
58,216
19,371

Rail lines
(km)
2010

..
..
..
888
622
..
977
..
..
..
..
3,641
..
639
..
..
..
810
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
728
..
3,116
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22,051
4,508
300
..
..
..
..
..
11,935
3,512
..
5,195
..
2,109
1,119

Access, demand side
Vehicle fleet (per 1,000 people)

Road density
Ratio to total land
(road km/100 sq km
of land area)
2000–09a

Commercial
vehicles
2000–09a

Passenger
vehicles
2000–09a

4.0
17.0
4.0
34.0
44.0
11.0
33.0
4.0
3.0
39.0
7.0
5.0
25.0
10.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
33.0
24.0
18.0
12.0
11.0
20.0
10.0
8.0
13.0
2.0
1.0
99.0
4.0
0.0
1.0
21.0
53.0
33.0
8.0
110.0
..
3.0
30.0
1.0
21.0
9.0
21.0
29.0
12.0
25.0

38.0
22.0
133.0
11.0
6.0
14.0
101.0
0.3
6.0
33.0
5.0
27.0
20.0
..
11.0
3.0
..
8.0
30.0
..
33.0
23.0
..
3.0
26.0
8.0
14.0
..
166.0
12.0
103.0
8.0
31.0
5.0
2.0
22.0
173.0
6.0
..
162.0
27.0
89.0
7.0
2.0
8.0
21.0
114.0

8.0
18.0
69.0
7.0
2.0
10.0
73.0
0.3
2.0
31.0
..
16.0
16.0
..
6.0
1.0
..
5.0
18.0
..
27.0
13.0
..
2.0
7.0
4.0
8.0
..
129.0
9.0
46.0
6.0
31.0
2.0
2.0
16.0
103.0
5.0
..
110.0
19.0
45.0
4.0
2.0
3.0
13.0
98.0

5.0
14.0
10.0
5.0
13.0
12.0

112.0
..
45.0
290.0
70.0
114.0

74.0
..
33.0
225.0
53.0
76.0
(continued)

INFRASTRUCTURE

Part III. Development outcomes

77

Drivers of growth

Table

6.2

Transportation (continued)
Quality

Ratio of paved to
total roads (%)
2000–09a

SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

10.4
9.5
32.6
4.2
10.4
17.0
69.0
..
0.8
76.5
1.8
7.1
7.9
..
21.8
13.7
12.0
19.3
12.6
9.8
27.9
14.3
18.3
6.2
11.6
45.0
24.6
26.9
98.0
20.8
14.7
20.7
15.0
19.0
68.1
32.0
96.5
8.0
11.8
17.3
36.3
30.0
6.7
21.0
23.0
22.0
19.0
74.0
45.0
89.4
57.2
70.3
75.2

Pricing
Price of
diesel fuel
($ per liter)
2010

1.15
0.43
1.21
0.97
1.28
1.42
1.10
1.33
1.69
1.31
..
1.27
0.84
1.30
..
1.07
0.78
..
..
0.83
0.95
..
1.27
1.07
0.96
1.26
1.54
1.25
0.99
1.23
0.86
1.09
1.16
0.77
1.62
..
1.34
..
0.94
..
1.14
0.43
1.10
1.19
1.17
1.11
1.52
1.15
0.57
0.19
1.07
0.32
0.13
0.88
0.82

Financing
Price of
gasoline
($ per liter)
2010

1.22
0.65
1.04
0.93
1.44
1.43
1.20
1.84
1.71
1.32
..
1.28
1.27
1.68
..
2.54
0.91
..
..
0.82
0.95
..
1.33
0.97
0.98
1.52
1.71
1.42
1.16
1.55
1.11
1.06
1.07
0.44
1.63
..
1.57
..
0.94
..
1.19
0.62
1.07
1.22
1.18
1.42
1.66
1.29
0.71
0.32
1.63
0.48
0.17
1.23
0.94

Committed nominal
investment in transport
projects with private
participation ($ millions)
2000-09a

53.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.5
..
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
3.9
..
0.0
159.0
..
404.0
..
120.0
17.5
..
55.4
..
..
0.0
..
..
382.0
..
..
264.0
..
130.0
..
3483.0
30.0
..
134.0
..
404.0
15.6
..
108.0
396.0
640.0
..
200.0
840.0

ODA gross disbursements for
transportation and storage
($ millions)
2009
2010

2,254.6
8.3
92.1
12.9
60.6
46.0
92.0
56.0
17.8
45.3
2.2
136.6
21.2
17.6
..
2.9
229.6
10.3
9.7
105.9
28.6
15.1
127.3
9.2
30.8
40.3
22.3
28.1
27.6
..
103.0
52.9
39.2
57.7
34.7
1.6
89.7
..
34.1
1.7
0.1
79.6
0.4
145.5
0.2
103.1
35.0
0.0
600.8
76.0
15.9
111.3
..
304.3
88.4

2,714.0
25.0
116.6
6.3
59.8
55.7
94.7
73.7
27.0
5.0
1.8
146.1
9.2
26.8
..
3.2
226.8
25.5
19.4
136.4
50.0
1.3
118.7
16.7
68.4
55.0
24.9
65.8
21.0
6.5
109.6
42.6
53.1
63.9
20.9
1.8
111.8
0.0
43.1
7.9
7.4
85.9
0.8
271.1
1.5
153.0
32.9
3.9
853.6
22.4
6.7
198.6
..
487.6
130.6

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

78

Part III. Development outcomes

INFRASTRUCTURE

Drivers of growth

Table

6.3

Information and communication technology
Access, supply side
Telephone subscribers (per 100 people)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Cote d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Total
2010

Mainline
telephone
2010

Mobile
telephone
2010

46.4
48.3
81.5
124.6
35.5
14.1
46.8
89.5
22.4
24.3
25.4
18.0
94.2
77.6
59.0
4.6
9.4
109.0
88.3
72.6
40.3
39.5
62.6
47.3
39.5
37.9
21.5
49.2
81.4
123.2
31.3
73.9
25.1
55.8
33.8
66.8
69.9
160.5
34.3
8.0
109.2
41.4
73.6
47.2
44.2
39.4
42.8
64.3
106.1
100.7
20.7
99.0
190.9
111.8
117.6

1.4
1.6
1.5
6.9
0.9
0.4
2.8
14.5
0.1
0.5
2.9
0.1
0.2
1.4
1.9
1.0
1.1
2.0
2.8
1.1
0.2
0.3
0.9
1.8
0.2
0.7
1.1
0.8
2.1
29.8
0.4
6.7
0.5
0.7
0.4
4.6
2.8
25.5
0.2
1.1
8.4
0.9
3.7
0.4
3.5
1.0
0.7
3.0
11.3
8.2
2.1
11.9
19.3
11.7
12.3

45.0
46.7
79.9
117.8
34.7
13.7
44.1
75.0
22.3
23.8
22.5
17.9
94.0
76.1
57.0
3.5
8.3
106.9
85.5
71.5
40.1
39.2
61.6
45.5
39.3
37.2
20.4
48.4
79.3
91.7
30.9
67.2
24.5
55.1
33.4
62.0
67.1
135.9
34.1
7.0
100.5
40.5
61.8
46.8
40.7
38.4
41.6
61.3
94.8
92.4
18.6
87.1
171.5
100.1
106.0

Access, demand side
Average delay for
Unmet
Households with firm in obtaining
demand
(% of mainline own telephone a mainline phone
telephones) (% of households) connection (days)
2008
2009-10a
2009-10a

..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
0.4
..
..
22.9
..
..
..
..
49.5
2.1
..
..
0.2
..
..
0.4
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.8
..
..
..
0.0
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.3
..
..
0.9

1.5
..
..
..
16.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.2
..
..
1.0
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
0.3
..
14.5
..
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.1

9.3
89.4
17.1
19.5
..
19.2
8.2
..
13.3
..
20.1
25.5
5.8
..
..
..
8.6
..
..
..
..
..
53.7
..
29.9
45.9
13.8
..
38.6
..
..
13.9
..
..
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
..
51.0
..
..
..

24.8
..
43.9
..
39.4
24.1

..
..
..
..
..
..

Internet
users
(per 100
people)
2010

11.3
10.0
3.1
6.0
1.4
2.1
4.0
30.0
2.3
1.7
5.1
0.7
5.0
2.6
6.0
5.4
0.8
7.2
9.2
9.6
1.0
2.5
25.9
3.9
7.0
1.7
2.3
2.7
3.0
28.7
4.2
6.5
0.8
28.4
13.0
18.8
16.0
41.0
..
..
12.3
..
9.0
11.0
5.4
12.5
10.1
11.5
28.0
12.5
6.5
26.7
14.0
49.0
36.6

Quality
Telephone faults
Cleared by next
Total
working day
(per 100
(%)
mainlines)
2010
2010

..
..
6.0
..
..
..
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
10.2
..
61.0
5.9
..
..
1.1
..
..
3.7
..
..
12.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
36.0
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
29.0

..
..
35.0
..
..
..
..
93.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.3
64.3
..
..
72.0
..
..
72.6
..
..
83.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
98.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
87.0
..
..
..
97.5
..
..
90.0
(continued)

INFRASTRUCTURE

Part III. Development outcomes

79

Drivers of growth

Table

6.3

Information and communication technology (continued)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Cote d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Cost of 3-minute call
during peak hours ($)

Fixed
broadband
internet
subscription
($ per month)
2010

Fixed
telephone
local
2010

55.6
133.2
50.5
29.3
83.2
..
80.8
31.8
603.7
11.9
390.4
..
180.1
40.4
242.3
..
295.7
..
292.9
31.5
903.5
..
37.9
50.5
..
89.5
562.2
50.5
23.6
16.2
50.1
117.7
60.1
53.2
162.9
282.8
36.3
47.2
..
..
27.2
28.6
867.2
31.9
166.8
16.2
58.0
..
13.3
14.8
60.2
8.0
39.5
11.8
10.5

0.23
0.25
0.12
0.23
0.30
0.06
0.36
0.14
..
0.36
0.13
..
0.61
0.36
..
..
0.01
..
..
0.13
0.03
..
0.23
0.23
0.00
0.28
0.18
0.11
0.37
0.08
0.27
0.25
0.15
0.18
0.37
0.09
0.24
0.06
0.00
..
0.27
..
0.08
0.30
0.21
0.21
0.83
..
0.09
0.15
0.09
0.03
..
0.24
0.02

Pricing
Cost of 3-minute call
during off-peak hours ($)

Connection charge
($)
Mobile cellular

Cellular
local
2009

Fixed
telephone
local
2010

Cellular
local
2009

Residential
telephone
2010

Business
telephone
2010

0.63
0.65
0.55
0.75
0.95
..
0.95
0.91
0.76
1.14
0.64
..
..
0.63
..
0.35
0.21
..
0.37
0.31
..
0.57
0.31
0.70
..
0.65
0.59
0.70
0.63
0.13
0.72
0.89
0.79
0.60
0.45
0.47
0.54
0.92
..
..
0.89
0.18
0.78
0.59
0.73
0.50
0.70
..
0.41
0.33
0.54
0.11
..
1.34
0.49

0.13
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.1
..
0.4
0.1
..
0.6
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
0.1
0.0
..
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
..
0.2
..
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.5
..
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
..
0.2
0.0

0.65
0.7
0.6
0.8
1.0
..
1.0
0.9
0.8
1.1
0.6
..
..
0.6
..
0.4
0.2
..
0.4
..
..
0.6
0.3
0.7
..
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.1
0.7
0.9
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.9
..
..
0.9
0.2
0.8
..
0.7
..
0.7
..
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.1
..
1.3
0.5

37.6
49.0
194.8
37.9
59.6
22.8
48.2
36.0
..
107.2
109.0
..
168.1
20.2
47.4
..
16.8
..
..
31.5
5.2
..
42.9
46.0
0.2
28.2
13.9
78.0
0.0
37.4
14.3
40.1
30.3
0.0
51.5
22.7
46.5
46.2
0.0
..
67.1
..
29.1
18.2
71.5
67.8
10.4
..
14.0
5.4
56.3
6.1
..
71.3
14.0

46.5
49.0
354.7
55.6
59.6
22.8
120.4
..
..
107.2
109.0
..
168.1
..
..
..
16.8
..
..
31.5
19.0
..
42.9
..
..
28.2
..
78.0
18.1
74.7
14.3
40.1
30.3
..
..
22.7
46.5
46.2
0.0
..
67.1
..
48.6
..
71.5
67.8
31.3
..
77.1
..
56.3
97.8
..
142.6
14.0

Prepaid
2009-10a

Postpaid
2009-10a

..
2.1
1.5
..
..
2.0
..
..
1.1
..
..
1.3
..
..
50.1
2.7
2.0
0.3
0.7
..
1.0
0.6
6.8
..
1.0
..
0.0
1.8
3.5
0.7
2.7
1.6
1.0
0.0
4.5
4.2
2.0
..
..
..
2.2
2.1
0.5
2.1
..
..
..

..
5.3
1.4
6.4
..
5.3
..
2.1
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
100.2
14.4
..
11.3
0.7
..
1.1
1.3
5.9
..
0.5
2.8
2.1
1.9
3.1
0.7
2.2
3.2
..
1.8
8.6
4.2
3.7
..
..
17.6
2.2
1.8
0.4
2.1
1.5
..
..

5.5
60.2
2.5
7.9
2.5
3.6

6.9
28.1
2.9
..
14.9
3.7

Fixed
broadband
internet
2010

61.2
58.8
30.3
40.5
..
..
101.0
27.6
199.9
506.8
161.5
..
108.1
50.5
252.4
..
..
..
35.7
38.4
2371.7
..
50.5
61.5
..
0.0
702.7
98.9
25.3
37.4
..
40.1
48.1
0.0
171.5
113.1
50.5
60.9
..
..
81.7
47.7
316.3
..
119.1
135.5
962.8
..
0.0
..
60.2
0.0
55.3
0.0
0.0

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

80

Part III. Development outcomes

INFRASTRUCTURE

Financing
Annual investment
($ millions)

Fixed telephone
service
2010

Mobile
communication
2010

140.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.3
..
..
1.3
..
31.4
..
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.6
..
12.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.5
..
..
..
193.1
..
..
193.1
..
..
..

1,477.2
..
93.4
..
..
..
..
..
26.8
..
..
119.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
752.3
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
180.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
278.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.6
..
..
..
1,132.0
..
..
1,132.0
..
..
..

INFRASTRUCTURE

Annual revenue ($ millions)

Committed nominal
investment in
telecommunication projects with
private participaTelecommunications
tion ($ millions)
2010
2010

2,728.5
..
93.4
..
..
..
..
..
27.1
..
..
120.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
766.4
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
193.0
..
..
..
..
..
740.6
181.5
..
327.1
..
..
..
..
..
26.9
..
46.1
194.3
..
..
4,252.9
..
..
3,537.0
..
715.9
..

11,957.0
534.0
394.0
59.0
299.0
233.0
16.0
10.0
345.0
..
174.0
77.0
319.0
..
125.0
290.0
71.0
19.0
492.0
11.0
15.0
132.0
116.0
254.0
133.0
26.0
80.0
..
107.0
3,036.0
63.0
..
236.0
..
38.0
2,101.0
478.0
15.0
625.0
23.0
257.0
453.0
301.0
4,440.0
237.0
..
2,113.0
..
1,124.0
966.0

ODA gross disbursements for
communication
($ millions)
2010

Fixed telephone
service
2010

Mobile
communication
2010

Telecommunications
2010

145.3
2.9
2.1
0.4
3.1
1.3
1.2
0.2
0.5
0.2
0.0
2.0
0.2
0.7
..
..
6.8
0.0
0.7
7.5
0.2
1.0
6.8
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.2
0.3
0.2
0.0
8.6
(5.5)
0.9
14.9
5.6
0.1
1.0
0.0
0.6
..
21.2
1.6
0.0
6.2
0.0
2.5
1.2
0.4
19.4
0.4
9.1
1.5
0.0
2.0
5.6

1,914.6
..
21.8
..
..
..
138.4
..
2.0
..
..
5.7
..
..
..
28.0
175.5
..
..
102.6
..
..
..
..
..
34.7
..
47.7
..
44.3
..
..
..
346.9
..
..
583.5
..
..
..
..
..
94.0
..
106.4
183.1
..
..
2,207.8
..
..
956.8
..
1,251.0
..

11,904.9
..
339.0
..
..
..
712.8
..
54.3
221.4
..
644.3
..
..
..
38.8
313.8
..
..
1,044.0
..
..
..
..
..
210.3
..
515.5
..
154.9
..
..
..
6,323.0
..
..
698.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
194.5
439.6
..
..
7,632.0
..
..
4,549.0
..
3,083.0
..

14,137.3
..
360.8
..
..
..
851.2
..
57.8
228.2
..
650.0
..
..
..
67.7
489.3
..
..
1,171.0
..
..
..
66.2
..
245.0
..
563.3
..
234.2
..
..
..
6,670.0
167.1
..
1,282.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
300.9
732.6
..
..
11,275.0
..
..
6,974.0
..
4,301.0
..

Part III. Development outcomes

81

Drivers of growth

Table

6.4

Energy

Total
(billion kWh)
2009

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

418.4
4.2
0.1
0.4
..
..
5.7
..
..
..
..
7.8
0.5
5.9
..
0.3
4.1
1.7
..
9.0
..
..
6.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.0
1.7
..
19.8
..
..
2.9
..
..
..
246.8
6.8
..
4.6
0.1
..
10.3
7.9
249.9
42.8
..
139.0
30.4
21.4
15.7

Hydroelectric
2009

18.2
76.1
0.0
0.0
..
..
70.0
..
..
..
..
99.6
64.0
35.9
..
0.0
87.3
53.2
..
76.8
..
..
31.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
99.9
82.0
..
22.9
..
..
8.4
..
..
..
0.6
47.8
..
60.2
73.8
..
99.7
53.3
6.4
0.8
..
9.3
0.0
12.1
0.5

Access, demand side
Energy production
Sourcea
(% of total)
Coal
Natural gas
Nuclear
2009
2009
2009

56.6
0.0
0.0
100.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
17.5
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
94.1
0.0
..
2.7
0.0
..
0.0
46.4
4.5
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
52.4
0.0

4.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
7.2
..
..
..
..
0.4
36.1
61.9
..
0.0
0.0
26.4
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
0.0
..
64.3
..
..
1.8
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
36.2
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
66.6
97.2
..
68.7
41.0
13.3
89.7

3.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
5.2
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Oil
2009

4.2
24.0
100.0
0.0
..
..
22.7
..
..
..
..
0.1
0.0
0.1
..
99.3
12.4
20.1
..
23.2
..
..
44.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.5
..
12.8
..
..
86.4
..
..
..
0.0
52.2
..
0.9
24.6
..
0.3
0.3
21.7
2.0
..
21.3
59.0
20.3
9.2

GDP per unit of
Electric power energy use (2005
PPP $ per kg of
consumption
(kWh per capita) oil equivalent)
2009
2009

517.4
202.2
91.3
1,503.4
..
..
271.2
..
..
..
..
103.9
146.4
203.5
..
51.0
45.8
922.5
..
265.1
..
..
147.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
453.4
1,576.2
..
120.5
..
..
196.0
..
..
..
4,532.0
114.3
..
85.7
110.8
..
635.0
1,026.2
1,356.4
971.0
..
1,548.6
4,170.1
755.6
1,311.3

3.2
8.0
3.5
11.4
..
..
5.7
..
..
..
..
0.9
10.1
3.2
..
3.5
2.2
10.7
..
3.6
..
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
7.3
..
2.9
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
3.2
5.3
..
2.7
2.0
..
2.1
..
6.4
6.5
..
5.9
4.7
8.8
9.5

a. Shares may not sum to 100 percent because other sources of generated electricity (such as geothermal, solar, and wind) are not shown.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

82

Part III. Development outcomes

INFRASTRUCTURE

Firms identifying
electricity as major or
very severe obstacle
to business operation
and growth (%)
2009–10 b

Quality
Average delay for
firm in obtaining
Electric power
electrical
transmission and
connection
distribution losses
(days)
(% of output)
b
2009–10
2009

35.7
51.9
34.8
53.9
..
58.6
53.1
76.1
74.6
..
51.6
71.1
39.8
..
0.2
..
58.0
..
..
..
..
..
44.3
59.1
54.6
37.6
33.5
..
42.9
..
..
63.2
..
..
..
..
..
53.4
..
..
..
..
..
50.9
..
..
..

7.7
86.8
39.2
23.1
..
17.6
30.5
11.8
10.6
..
48.0
8.4
20.9
..
0.0
..
34.5
..
..
..
..
..
13.9
0.0
92.1
59.2
32.9
..
18.6
..
..
37.1
..
..
..
..
..
14.8
..
..
..
..
..
53.9
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

INFRASTRUCTURE

11.2
10.1
..
79.3
..
..
9.4
..
..
..
..
4.9
73.5
25.0
..
11.9
9.5
18.2
..
23.3
..
..
15.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.0
15.3
..
5.9
..
..
17.0
..
..
..
9.8
28.1
..
19.4
..
..
23.4
6.6
12.9
20.6
..
10.5
14.0
11.7
13.0

Financing
Committed nominal
investment in energy
ODA gross
projects with private
disbursements
participation
for energy
($ millions)
($ millions)
b
2009-10
2010

Electric power
outages in a
typical month
(number)
2009–10 b

Firms that
share or own
their
own generator
(%)
2009–10 b

Firms using
electricity from
generator
(%)
2009–10 b

5.4
13.9
4.5
10.8
..
10.6
4.9
32.7
22.6
..
21.8
25.3
3.8
..
3.0
..
7.2
..
..
..
..
..
6.8
5.4
13.6
1.0
5.3
..
3.2
..
..
20.1
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
..
..
..
..
..
11.1
..
..
..

79.0
50.5
34.5
28.3
..
34.8
48.8
81.5
75.5
..
49.3
81.8
6.5
..
36.8
..
22.9
..
..
..
..
..
30.9
66.5
29.3
25.3
20.1
..
24.5
..
..
34.5
..
..
..
..
..
81.8
..
..
..
..
..
63.6
..
..
..

17.3
10.1
0.6
2.5
..
4.5
10.9
14.8
52.0
..
4.2
43.2
1.0
..
1.0
..
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
63.1
5.2
2.0
0.5
..
0.8
..
..
5.2
..
..
..
..
..
36.6
..
..
..
..
..
9.3
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
4.0
..
..
..
..
..
116.0
..
170.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.0
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

1,278.1
1.3
13.8
13.2
28.7
14.9
5.4
63.0
0.1
1.2
..
30.3
0.4
59.6
0.0
15.7
118.0
7.9
1.3
111.7
0.3
1.2
81.5
0.2
22.6
4.5
16.2
23.4
65.8
0.5
31.8
2.4
0.1
29.8
40.9
0.2
7.9
..
14.1
0.3
9.6
37.6
..
136.1
3.7
135.6
20.1
16.3
822.6
0.9
16.1
397.2
27.2
108.9
260.9

Part III. Development outcomes

83

Participating in growth

Table

7.1

Education
Primary education
Literacy rate (%)
Youth (ages 15–24)
Adult (ages 15 and older)
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009
2009

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

84

..
73.1
54.3
95.2
..
76.6
..
98.2
64.7
46.3
85.3
67.7
..
66.6
97.9
88.7
..
97.6
65.5
80.1
61.1
70.9
92.7
92.0
75.6
..
86.5
..
67.7
96.5
70.9
93.0
..
71.8
77.2
95.3
65.0
..
57.6
..
..
..
93.4
77.4
..
..
74.6
98.9
..
..
..
..
99.9
79.5
..

Part III. Development outcomes

..
80.8
64.9
93.7
..
76.9
..
97.4
72.2
53.5
85.8
73.3
..
72.1
97.7
91.6
..
98.6
71.0
81.2
68.1
78.2
91.9
85.7
70.4
..
86.9
..
70.9
95.5
78.1
91.1
..
78.2
77.0
94.9
74.2
..
67.6
..
..
..
91.9
78.5
..
..
81.8
98.4
..
..
..
..
99.9
86.7
..

..
65.5
43.4
96.7
..
76.3
..
99.0
57.3
39.0
84.7
62.1
..
61.0
98.2
85.8
..
96.6
60.0
78.9
53.8
63.6
93.6
98.1
80.9
..
86.0
..
64.3
97.6
63.7
94.9
..
65.3
77.4
95.8
56.2
..
48.1
..
..
..
94.9
76.4
..
..
67.3
99.5
..
..
..
..
99.8
72.2
..

..
70.0
41.7
84.1
..
66.6
..
84.8
55.2
33.6
74.2
67.0
..
55.3
93.3
66.6
..
87.7
46.5
66.6
39.5
52.2
87.0
89.7
59.1
..
73.7
..
57.5
87.9
55.1
88.5
..
60.8
70.7
88.8
49.7
..
40.9
..
..
..
86.9
72.9
..
..
70.9
91.9
..
..
..
..
88.9
56.1
..

..
82.9
54.2
83.8
..
72.6
..
90.1
69.1
44.5
79.7
79.5
..
64.7
97.0
77.9
..
91.4
57.6
72.8
50.8
66.9
90.5
82.9
63.7
..
80.6
..
64.5
90.6
70.1
88.9
..
72.0
75.0
93.7
61.8
..
52.7
..
..
..
87.8
79.0
..
..
80.6
94.7
..
..
..
..
95.2
68.9
..

..
57.6
29.1
84.4
..
60.9
..
80.3
42.1
23.1
68.7
54.9
..
45.3
89.8
56.0
..
84.1
35.8
60.4
28.1
38.0
83.5
95.3
54.5
..
67.0
..
50.3
85.3
41.5
88.1
..
49.8
66.8
84.1
38.7
..
30.1
..
..
..
86.2
66.9
..
..
61.3
89.4
..
..
..
..
82.0
43.9
..

Gross enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
2010
2010
2010

..
124.5
125.9
..
75.6
156.3
119.8
109.6
93.4
92.5
..
93.7
115.0
..
86.6
44.6
101.6
..
82.6
..
94.4
123.1
..
103.2
..
148.6
135.5
80.4
102.0
99.4
115.1
..
66.3
83.3
142.6
130.7
86.8
117.2
..
..
..
..
115.8
102.3
139.6
121.1
115.3
..
..
110.2
..
100.7
..
111.4
..

103.2
137.3
134.6
..
79.1
157.3
128.6
113.9
109.3
107.0
..
100.4
117.9
..
87.9
48.5
106.2
..
81.7
..
102.6
127.1
..
104.5
..
149.8
133.0
85.9
99.5
99.1
121.1
..
72.5
87.1
141.1
130.9
84.4
117.3
..
..
..
..
120.7
101.5
147.1
120.3
114.5
..
..
113.4
..
102.8
..
115.0
..

95.8
111.6
117.1
..
72.0
155.3
110.9
105.3
77.7
78.0
..
87.0
112.0
..
85.4
40.6
96.8
..
83.5
..
85.9
119.2
..
102.0
..
147.3
138.0
74.7
104.5
99.7
109.0
..
59.7
79.3
144.0
130.4
89.3
117.2
..
..
..
..
110.9
103.1
132.2
122.0
116.0
..
..
106.8
..
98.4
..
107.6
..

Net enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
2010
2010
2010

..
85.7
93.8
..
58.1
..
92.4
93.2
70.5
..
..
..
90.8
..
56.3
33.5
81.3
..
65.5
..
77.0
73.9
..
73.4
..
..
..
62.0
74.0
93.4
91.9
..
57.2
57.6
98.8
98.4
75.5
..
..
..
..
..
85.6
..
..
90.9
91.4
..
..
95.6
..
94.4
..
93.7
..

77.4
93.1
..
..
60.4
..
98.7
94.3
80.8
..
..
..
92.3
..
56.5
35.8
83.9
..
64.4
..
83.2
75.5
..
72.0
..
..
..
66.3
72.5
92.4
94.5
..
62.8
60.2
..
97.1
73.3
..
..
..
..
..
86.1
..
..
89.6
90.3
..
..
96.6
..
..
..
94.5
..

73.1
78.2
..
..
55.6
..
85.9
92.1
60.4
..
..
..
89.3
..
56.0
31.0
78.6
..
66.6
..
70.5
72.4
..
74.8
..
..
..
57.4
75.7
94.5
89.2
..
51.2
54.9
..
99.7
77.7
..
..
..
..
..
85.0
..
..
92.1
92.5
..
..
94.6
..
..
..
92.8
..

Studentteacher
ratio
2010

45.7
45.8
46.4
..
47.8
50.6
45.5
23.6
84.3
62.2
..
37.0
49.2
..
27.2
38.0
54.1
..
..
..
42.2
51.9
..
33.8
..
40.1
79.3
50.4
37.2
21.5
58.5
..
38.6
36.0
64.6
26.2
33.7
12.6
..
..
..
..
32.3
50.8
40.6
48.6
58.0
..
25.6
23.3
..
26.3
..
26.2
..

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Secondary education
Gross enrollment ratio
Net enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010

..
31.3
..
..
20.7
24.8
42.2
87.5
12.6
24.6
..
37.7
..
..
..
31.9
35.7
..
54.1
..
..
..
..
46.4
..
..
32.1
37.7
24.4
89.4
25.5
..
13.4
44.1
32.2
50.9
37.4
119.3
..
..
..
..
58.1
..
..
28.1
..
..
..
..
..
72.5
..
..
..

43.5
37.2
..
..
23.4
28.9
46.0
79.7
16.0
34.6
..
47.8
..
..
..
36.3
39.3
..
55.6
..
..
..
..
39.0
..
..
33.6
44.3
26.4
89.5
28.0
..
16.1
46.8
31.9
50.2
39.9
114.4
..
..
..
..
58.1
..
..
30.4
..
..
..
..
..
73.9
..
..
..

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

35.6
25.5
..
..
17.9
20.7
38.4
95.4
9.3
14.6
..
27.6
..
..
..
27.6
32.1
..
52.6
..
..
..
..
53.9
..
..
30.6
30.9
22.4
89.3
22.9
..
10.7
41.2
32.4
51.7
34.9
124.7
..
..
..
..
58.1
..
..
25.8
..
..
..
..
..
71.1
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
15.6
16.2
..
65.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.9
..
..
27.5
29.5
..
..
16.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
70.1
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
17.5
17.7
..
61.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.8
..
..
27.9
34.8
..
..
17.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
71.4
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
13.6
14.6
..
70.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.0
..
..
27.2
23.9
..
..
15.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
68.6
..
..
..

Studentteacher ratio
2010

..
38.7
..
..
30.3
29.9
..
17.5
52.3
32.5
..
16.0
..
..
..
38.7
43.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
35.0
..
29.6
33.1
..
..
32.3
12.2
..
..
..
..
18.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.5
..
..
..

Tertiary education
Gross enrollment ratio
(% of relevant age group)
Total
Male
Female
2010
2010
2010

..
3.7
..
..
3.3
3.3
11.5
17.8
2.6
2.2
7.9
..
5.5
..
..
2.0
5.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
0.7
5.8
4.4
..
..
..
1.5
..
5.5
4.5
7.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.1
..
..
..
6.2
..
30.8
..
32.4
..
..
..

8.3
4.1
..
..
4.5
4.2
12.6
15.6
3.9
3.7
9.1
..
..
..
..
3.0
8.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.9
0.9
8.1
6.2
..
..
..
2.2
..
6.2
4.5
9.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.3
..
..
..
6.9
..
25.2
..
34.0
..
..
..

5.2
3.3
..
..
2.2
2.3
10.3
20.2
1.3
0.6
6.7
..
..
..
..
1.0
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.5
0.6
3.4
2.5
..
..
..
0.8
..
4.8
4.4
5.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.9
..
..
..
5.5
..
36.6
..
30.7
..
..
..

Public spending on
education (%)
Share of
government
expenditure Share of GDP
2010
2010

..
8.5
..
..
20.8
25.1
17.9
14.4
12.0
10.1
..
8.9
..
..
..
..
25.4
..
22.8
24.4
..
..
17.2
..
..
..
12.1
22.0
15.3
..
..
..
16.9
..
18.2
..
..
..
..
..
19.2
..
16.0
18.3
..
..
..
8.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

4.7
3.4
..
..
4.0
9.2
3.5
5.6
1.2
2.8
..
2.5
6.2
..
..
..
4.7
..
5.0
5.5
..
..
6.7
..
..
..
4.6
4.5
4.3
..
..
8.1
3.9
..
5.0
..
5.6
..
..
..
6.0
..
7.4
6.2
4.5
..
..
2.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

85

Participating in growth

Table

7.2

Health
Mortality
Life expectancy at birth
(years)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

86

Total
2010

Male
2010

Female
2010

Under-five
mortality rate
(per 1,000)
2010

54.2
50.7
55.6
53.1
54.9
49.9
51.1
73.8
47.6
49.2
60.6
48.1
57.0
54.7
50.8
61.0
58.7
62.3
58.2
63.8
53.6
47.7
56.5
47.4
56.2
66.5
53.5
51.0
58.2
73.0
49.7
62.1
54.3
51.4
55.1
64.4
59.0
73.0
47.4
50.9
52.1
61.1
48.3
57.4
56.6
53.6
48.5
49.9
72.8
72.9
57.5
73.0
74.8
71.9
74.6

53.1
49.2
53.8
54.0
54.0
48.5
50.1
70.1
46.1
47.8
59.3
46.5
55.8
53.7
49.6
58.7
57.2
61.3
57.0
62.9
52.1
46.2
55.4
48.1
55.2
64.9
53.4
49.9
56.6
69.5
48.7
61.5
53.8
50.6
53.8
63.0
57.9
68.4
46.8
49.4
51.4
59.4
48.8
56.5
55.1
53.0
48.0
50.7
70.9
71.4
56.1
71.1
72.2
69.7
72.6

55.3
52.1
57.5
52.2
56.0
51.3
52.1
77.7
49.2
50.7
62.0
49.7
58.2
55.9
52.2
63.4
60.3
63.4
59.4
64.8
55.3
49.3
57.6
46.6
57.2
68.1
53.5
52.1
60.0
76.7
50.7
62.7
54.7
52.2
56.4
65.8
60.0
77.9
48.0
52.5
52.8
62.9
47.9
58.3
58.1
54.3
48.9
49.0
74.8
74.4
59.0
75.0
77.4
74.2
76.7

122
161
115
48
176
142
136
36
159
173
86
170
93
123
121
61
106
74
98
74
130
150
85
85
103
62
92
178
111
15
135
40
143
143
91
80
75
14
174
180
57
103
78
92
103
99
111
80
27
36
91
22
17
36
16

Part III. Development outcomes

Diseases
Infant
Maternal mortality
mortality rate
ratio, modeled
(per 1,000
estimate (per
live births)
100,000 live births)
2010
2008

77
98
73
36
93
88
84
29
106
99
63
112
61
86
81
42
68
54
57
50
81
92
55
65
74
43
58
99
75
13
92
29
73
88
59
53
50
12
114
108
41
66
55
60
66
63
69
51
23
31
73
19
13
30
14

505
450
350
160
300
800
690
79
890
1,100
280
540
560
400
240
240
350
230
360
350
610
790
360
620
770
240
460
540
510
60
490
200
590
630
340
70
370
..
890
1,000
300
730
320
460
300
310
440
570
78
97
200
66
58
100
56

Prevalence
of HIV
(% ages
15–49)
2010

Incidence
of tuberculosis
(per 100,000
people)
2010

5.5
2.0
1.2
24.8
1.2
3.3
5.3
..
4.7
3.4
0.1
..
3.4
3.4
5.0
0.8
..
5.2
2.0
1.8
1.3
2.5
6.3
23.6
1.5
0.2
11.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
11.5
13.1
0.8
3.6
2.9
..
0.9
..
1.6
0.7
17.8
1.1
25.9
5.6
3.2
6.5
13.5
14.3
0.1
0.1
2.5
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

277
304
94
503
55
129
177
147
319
276
37
327
372
139
135
100
261
553
273
86
334
233
298
633
293
266
219
68
337
22
544
603
185
133
106
96
288
31
682
286
981
119
1,287
177
455
209
462
633
52
90
620
18
40
91
25

Malaria
Clinical
cases
Reported
reportedb deathsb
2010
2010

71,412,328 132,524
2,783,619
8,114
1,432,095
964
12,196
8
5,409,156
9,024
2,919,866
2,677
1,845,691
4,536
47
1
66,484
526
466,034
..
47,364
53
7,439,440 23,476
0
..
..
1,023
0
..
53,750
27
4,068,764
1,581
159,313
182
116,353
151
2,642,221
3,859
1,092,554
735
0
..
4,585,712 26,017
..
..
2,263,973
1,422
202,450
122
6,851,108
8,206
1,018,846
3,006
238,565
211
..
..
1,522,577
3,354
25,889
63
620,058
3,929
3,873,463
4,238
638,669
670
2,262
14
0
..
..
..
934,028
8,188
24,553
6
8,060
83
1,465,496
1,023
1,722
8
0
..
617,101
1,507
11,084,045
8,431
4,229,839
4,834
648,965
255
4,673
4
408
..
3,962
0
85
2
..
..
218
2
..
..

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Prevention and treatment
Child
immunization
rate (% of
children ages
12–23 months)
Measles DPT c
2010
2010

75
93
69
94
94
92
79
96
62
46
72
68
76
70
51
99
81
55
97
93
51
61
86
85
64
67
93
63
67
99
70
75
71
71
82
92
60
99
82
46
65
90
94
92
84
55
91
84
96
95
85
96
98
98
97

77
91
83
96
95
96
84
99
54
59
74
63
90
85
33
99
86
45
98
94
57
76
83
83
64
74
93
76
64
99
74
83
70
69
80
98
70
99
90
45
63
90
89
91
92
60
82
83
97
95
88
97
98
99
98

Malnutrition (% of
children under age 5)
Stunting Underweight
2007–10a 2007–10a

Contraceptive use
(% of married women
ages 15–49)

Births
attended
by skilled
health staff
(% of total)
2007–10a

Any
method
2007–10a

29.2
..
31.4
35.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
45.8
..
39.0
..
..
..
..
..
28.6
40.0
28.1
35.2
39.0
39.4
49.2
47.8
..
23.0
..
43.7
29.6
..
41.0
..
31.6
..
..
37.4
..
23.9
..
40.4
42.5
26.9
..
45.8
..

15.6
..
11.2
26.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.2
..
29.4
..
..
..
..
..
14.3
20.8
17.2
16.4
13.5
20.4
..
13.8
..
15.9
..
18.3
17.5
..
26.7
..
14.4
..
..
21.3
..
8.7
..
7.3
16.2
20.5
..
14.9
..

47.3
..
94.6
..
60.3
..
..
43.7
22.7
..
79.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
56.7
57.1
46.1
44.0
43.8
61.5
46.3
43.9
..
..
60.9
..
55.3
81.4
..
38.9
69.0
81.7
..
..
42.4
..
..
..
82.0
48.9
60.1
..
46.5
60.2

..
..
52.8
..
21.9
..
..
..
4.8
..
17.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.5
..
14.2
45.5
47.0
11.4
39.9
..
..
9.3
..
16.2
55.1
18.0
14.6
51.6
38.4
..
..
8.2
..
..
..
49.3
34.4
15.2
..
40.8
64.9

..
..
30.7
21.0
..
..

..
..
6.8
5.6
..
..

..
..
78.9
99.8
..
..

..
22.5
60.3
..
..
..

Modern
method
2007–10a

Children under
age 5 sleeping
under insecticidetreated nets
(% )
2007–10a

Tuberculosis
case detection rate
(%, all forms)
2009

Tuberculosis
treatment
success rate
(% of registered
cases)
2009

..
..
..
51.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.6
..
..
38.9
45.6
10.3
28.2
42.2
..
8.0
..
12.2
53.5
..
8.1
26.1
33.1
..
..
6.0
..
..
..
63.0
26.1
13.2
..
26.5
..
..
..
..
57.6
..
..
..

..
17.7
..
..
..
45.2
..
..
..
9.8
..
35.7
..
..
..
48.9
33.1
55.1
..
28.2
4.5
35.5
46.7
..
26.4
45.8
56.5
70.2
..
..
22.8
34.0
63.7
29.1
69.8
56.2
29.2
..
25.8
..
..
25.3
0.6
63.6
56.9
32.8
49.9
17.3
..
..
19.9
..
..
..
..

48.0
75.0
47.0
62.0
14.0
25.0
70.0
44.0
60.0
26.0
46.0
46.0
69.0
27.0
89.0
58.0
50.0
42.0
47.0
31.0
26.0
59.0
85.0
93.0
52.0
44.0
49.0
16.0
24.0
41.0
46.0
76.0
36.0
19.0
19.0
49.0
31.0
57.0
31.0
42.0
74.0
52.0
67.0
77.0
10.0
44.0
80.0
46.0
..
100.0
71.0
63.0
82.0
93.0
86.0

79.0
72.0
90.0
79.0
76.0
90.0
78.0
..
53.0
76.0
..
88.0
78.0
79.0
66.0
85.0
84.0
55.0
89.0
87.0
79.0
67.0
86.0
70.0
83.0
82.0
88.0
78.0
63.0
88.0
85.0
85.0
79.0
83.0
85.0
98.0
85.0
64.0
79.0
85.0
73.0
80.0
69.0
88.0
81.0
67.0
90.0
78.0
..
91.0
79.0
88.0
..
84.0
83.0

Children under age 5
with fever receiving
any antimalarial
treatment same
or next day
(%)
2007–10a

29.3
..
..
..
17.2
..
..
..
35.7
..
39.1
..
..
..
13.1
9.5
..
..
43.0
73.9
51.2
23.2
..
67.2
19.7
30.9
..
20.7
..
36.7
20.3
..
49.1
10.8
8.4
9.1
..
30.1
..
..
35.8
0.6
59.1
33.8
59.6
34.0
23.6
..
0.9
..
..
..
..
(continued)

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Part III. Development outcomes

87

Participating in growth

Table

7.2

Health (continued)
Water and sanitation
Population with sustainable access
Population with sustainable access
to an improved water source
to improved sanitation
(% of total
(% of urban
(% of rural
(% of total
(% of urban
(% of rural
population)
population)
population)
population)
population)
population)
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

61
51
75
96
79
72
77
88
67
51
95
45
71
80
..
..
44
87
89
86
74
64
59
78
73
46
83
64
50
99
47
93
49
58
65
89
72
..
55
29
91
58
71
53
61
72
61
80
92
83
88
99
..
83
..

83
60
84
99
95
83
95
90
92
70
91
79
95
91
..
..
97
95
92
91
90
91
82
91
88
74
95
87
52
100
77
99
100
74
76
89
93
100
87
66
99
67
91
79
89
95
87
98
95
85
99
100
..
98
99

49
38
68
92
73
71
52
85
51
44
97
27
32
68
..
..
34
41
85
80
65
53
52
73
60
34
80
51
48
99
29
90
39
43
63
88
56
..
35
7
79
52
65
44
40
68
46
69
88
79
54
99
..
61
..

31
58
13
62
17
46
49
61
34
13
36
24
18
24
..
..
21
33
68
14
18
20
32
26
18
15
51
22
26
89
18
32
9
31
55
26
52
..
13
23
79
26
57
10
13
34
48
40
90
95
50
95
97
70
..

42
85
25
75
50
49
58
73
43
30
50
24
20
36
..
..
29
33
70
19
32
44
32
32
29
21
49
35
51
91
38
57
34
35
52
30
70
98
23
52
86
44
64
20
26
34
57
52
94
98
63
97
97
83
96

23
19
5
41
6
46
36
43
28
6
30
24
15
11
..
4
19
30
65
8
11
9
32
24
7
12
51
14
9
88
5
17
4
27
56
19
39
..
6
6
67
14
55
7
3
34
43
32
84
88
10
93
96
52
..

Human resources
Health workers
(per 1,000 people)
Nurses and
Community
Physicians
midwives
workers
a
a
2008–09
2008–09
2008–09a

..
..
0.1
..
0.1
..
..
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.1
..
0.1
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.1
0.1
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.4
..
..
0.1
..
0.0
..
..
0.3
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
2.1
..
..
2.8
1.9
0.6
1.2

..
..
0.8
..
0.7
..
..
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
0.6
1.1
..
0.6
..
..
0.3
..
0.3
0.3
0.7
..
0.3
..
0.1
1.6
..
..
0.4
..
0.2
..
..
0.8
..
..
0.3
..
..
..
3.0
..
0.8
3.5
6.8
0.9
3.3

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
b. Data for Sudan, after 1999, only represents 15 northern states.
c. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus toxoid.

88

Part III. Development outcomes

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Expenditure on health
Share of GDP (%)

Share of total expenditure on health (%)

Total
2010

Public
2009

Private
2009

Public
2010

Private
2010

External resources
for health
2010

Out-of-pocket
(% of private
expenditure
on health)
2010

6.5
2.9
4.1
8.3
6.7
11.6
5.1
4.1
4.0
4.5
4.5
7.9
2.5
5.3
4.5
2.7
4.9
3.5
5.7
5.2
4.9
8.5
4.8
11.1
11.9
3.8
6.6
5.0
4.4
6.0
5.2
6.8
5.2
5.1
10.5
7.2
5.7
3.4
13.1
..
8.9
6.3
6.6
6.0
7.7
9.0
5.9
..
4.7
4.2
7.2
4.7
3.9
5.2
6.2

2.9
4.1
2.3
8.2
3.9
6.0
1.6
2.9
1.7
3.9
2.1
4.9
1.6
1.0
3.4
1.0
2.0
1.7
3.0
3.1
0.9
1.6
1.5
5.6
5.3
2.8
3.6
2.7
1.6
2.1
4.1
4.0
3.5
2.1
3.9
2.9
3.1
3.1
0.9
..
3.4
2.0
4.0
3.8
1.7
1.6
2.5
..
3.0
5.0
5.4
2.1
2.6
1.9
3.4

3.7
0.5
1.9
2.1
2.4
7.1
4.0
1.0
2.6
3.1
1.3
4.7
1.4
4.1
0.5
1.2
2.2
1.9
3.0
3.8
4.9
4.5
2.9
2.6
8.0
1.4
2.6
2.9
1.0
3.6
1.5
2.0
2.6
3.7
5.1
4.2
2.5
0.9
12.2
..
5.1
5.3
2.3
1.4
4.2
6.7
2.3
..
2.3
0.8
1.6
2.9
1.3
3.6
2.9

45.2
82.5
49.5
72.5
51.0
38.2
29.6
75.0
35.4
25.0
67.2
42.5
46.7
21.6
75.9
48.2
53.5
52.9
50.9
59.5
11.3
10.0
44.3
76.2
32.5
60.3
60.2
46.6
53.1
41.7
71.7
58.4
50.9
37.9
50.1
38.3
55.5
91.9
11.3
..
44.1
29.8
63.7
67.3
44.2
21.7
60.3
..
50.6
77.9
65.3
37.4
68.8
38.0
54.3

54.8
17.5
50.5
27.5
49.0
61.8
70.4
25.0
64.6
75.0
32.8
57.5
53.3
78.4
24.1
51.8
46.5
47.1
49.2
40.5
88.7
90.0
55.7
23.8
67.5
39.7
39.8
53.4
46.9
58.3
28.3
41.6
49.1
62.1
49.9
61.7
44.5
8.1
88.7
..
55.9
70.2
36.3
32.7
55.8
78.3
39.7
..
49.4
22.1
34.7
62.6
31.2
62.0
45.7

10.4
2.9
35.9
18.3
22.9
45.8
13.2
11.9
13.4
7.9
19.2
32.7
4.1
9.8
2.0
38.0
39.4
2.4
41.2
16.9
10.8
23.3
36.1
19.5
55.1
9.0
63.8
27.4
10.1
2.0
24.2
19.0
29.4
9.2
47.0
21.0
18.5
4.2
20.6
..
2.2
3.3
17.2
48.8
15.2
25.9
39.3
..
0.4
0.0
23.9
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.3

58.6
100.0
92.7
29.5
73.8
61.4
94.5
99.7
95.0
96.7
100.0
62.5
100.0
98.8
92.1
100.0
80.1
100.0
48.4
66.4
99.4
73.8
76.7
69.0
52.2
68.3
27.9
99.5
94.5
88.8
48.3
17.9
84.1
95.3
44.4
86.7
78.5
67.7
89.5
..
29.6
95.7
42.5
41.7
84.2
63.6
66.7
..
93.5
94.7
99.1
97.7
100.0
86.3
87.0

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Private prepaid
plans
(% of private
expenditure
Health expenditure
on health)
per capita ($)
2010
2010

32.8
0.0
7.3
5.6
3.7
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
1.2
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.0
3.1
6.2
0.0
0.0
9.3
0.0
0.0
15.2
15.8
0.5
0.6
6.3
0.0
61.2
4.4
3.1
10.2
0.0
17.9
23.0
1.0
..
66.1
1.0
19.0
10.1
4.3
0.2
3.6
..
6.0
5.1
0.9
1.7
0.0
13.7
11.2

85.0
123.2
31.1
614.6
39.8
20.7
61.3
154.6
18.2
30.6
33.2
15.8
72.3
59.8
896.2
11.9
15.7
302.1
26.1
67.0
23.0
46.9
36.9
108.9
29.2
15.9
25.6
31.7
42.7
448.9
21.3
361.3
18.3
62.8
55.5
90.0
58.5
368.5
42.5
..
648.7
83.9
203.1
30.9
40.6
46.7
72.9
..
160.6
178.3
91.7
123.2
483.7
148.0
237.8

Part III. Development outcomes

89

Participating in growth

Table

8.1

Rural development

Rural population (%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
South Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Share of total population
1990
2000
2010

71.9
62.9
65.5
58.1
86.2
93.7
59.3
55.9
63.2
79.2
72.1
72.2
45.7
60.3
65.3
84.2
87.4
30.9
61.7
63.6
72.0
71.9
81.8
86.0
54.7
76.4
88.4
76.7
60.3
56.1
78.9
72.3
84.6
64.7
94.6
56.4
61.0
50.7
67.1
70.3
48.0
73.4
..
77.1
81.1
69.9
88.9
60.6
71.0
51.4
47.9
24.3
56.5
24.3
51.6
42.1

67.4
51.0
61.7
46.8
83.4
91.7
50.1
46.6
62.4
76.6
71.9
70.2
41.7
56.5
61.2
82.2
85.1
19.9
50.9
56.0
69.0
70.3
80.3
80.0
45.7
72.9
84.8
72.1
60.0
57.3
69.3
67.6
83.8
57.5
86.2
46.6
59.4
49.0
64.5
66.8
43.1
63.9
..
76.7
77.7
63.5
87.9
65.2
66.2
48.7
40.2
16.7
57.4
23.6
46.7
36.6

62.7
41.5
58.0
38.9
79.6
89.0
41.6
38.9
61.1
72.4
71.8
64.8
37.9
49.9
60.3
78.4
82.4
14.0
41.9
48.5
64.6
70.0
77.8
73.1
38.5
69.8
80.2
66.7
58.6
57.4
61.6
62.0
83.3
50.2
81.1
37.8
57.1
44.7
61.6
62.6
38.3
54.8
..
74.5
73.6
56.6
86.7
64.3
61.7
46.3
33.5
11.9
57.2
22.1
43.3
32.7

1990

Annual growth
2000

2010

2.2
0.6
2.0
-2.1
2.3
2.2
1.4
-2.8
1.9
2.9
1.8
3.7
1.8
2.9
1.7
1.3
3.1
-1.0
2.3
1.7
4.1
0.4
3.1
1.3
-3.3
2.2
3.3
1.3
1.1
0.4
0.2
3.5
2.8
1.4
-0.3
0.2
2.5
0.9
0.9
0.0
1.0
1.9
..
3.1
2.7
1.7
3.1
2.8
1.9
1.5
0.8
4.1
2.2
1.8
0.5
0.5

1.9
1.1
2.5
-0.1
2.5
1.2
0.5
-0.1
1.8
3.0
2.7
2.0
1.7
1.3
3.2
3.3
2.4
-2.3
0.8
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.4
0.8
3.0
2.8
2.3
2.3
2.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
3.4
1.1
5.3
-0.2
2.3
0.4
2.4
2.3
1.4
0.7
..
0.1
2.0
2.0
3.0
3.3
0.2
1.1
-0.4
-1.4
1.9
1.5
0.5
0.1

1.7
0.7
2.2
-0.7
2.5
2.2
0.2
-1.0
1.6
2.0
2.5
1.8
1.5
0.7
2.5
2.5
1.8
-1.5
0.8
0.8
1.5
2.0
2.2
0.0
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.2
2.1
0.4
1.0
0.9
3.5
1.1
2.6
-0.4
2.2
-2.0
1.7
1.6
0.1
0.3
..
0.8
2.4
0.9
3.0
1.4
0.0
1.0
-0.4
-1.4
1.7
0.7
0.2
-0.2

Rural population density
(rural population per sq km of arable land)
1990
2000
2009

273.2
224.2
193.6
191.2
228.3
564.4
121.6
474.7
96.6
145.5
404.8
394.1
227.9
310.6
187.8
..
..
97.3
327.5
348.5
145.4
292.4
384.4
444.7
332.4
316.9
368.6
324.0
300.8
594.0
309.8
155.0
59.7
213.7
764.3
3,274.5
142.9
3,549.0
549.7
453.9
125.7
117.3
..
369.6
229.6
122.0
314.7
164.8
257.2
834.6
171.1
13,663.7
1,406.2
58.4
146.9
118.0

342.2
236.8
169.0
235.1
253.8
608.9
131.8
463.1
119.7
178.9
505.5
520.0
266.9
334.6
245.0
538.4
558.1
75.6
235.8
271.7
267.9
290.7
513.1
476.1
342.4
386.2
346.3
177.5
324.9
680.1
323.4
157.1
65.5
237.1
775.6
1,095.2
185.1
3,975.4
545.4
473.9
128.5
108.5
..
435.6
300.5
121.3
401.6
236.2
231.3
862.5
160.2
12,223.2
1,386.3
68.0
153.4
122.2

352.4
196.7
205.0
314.4
216.8
810.7
136.4
324.8
135.7
185.3
642.9
626.9
301.8
349.4
312.0
582.5
481.4
65.8
179.7
266.6
222.9
346.7
570.7
473.6
375.7
478.5
323.8
157.7
509.2
842.1
282.4
175.4
83.6
231.4
645.5
627.6
180.4
3,944.1
327.5
574.9
133.3
91.1
..
445.9
322.3
153.7
426.0
244.8
185.6
1,016.5
159.1
5,363.4
1,582.2
79.7
171.4
127.7

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
b. Poverty estimates based on survey data from earlier year(s) are available, but are not comparable with the most recent year reported here.
c. World Bank estimates.

90

Part III. Development outcomes

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

Share of rural population
below the national poverty line
Surveys
Surveys
1990–99a
2000–11a
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

1993

1998

1995

1998

1994
1999
1998

1996

1999
1998

1995

..
..
40.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.5c
..
..
47.5
..
..
49.6
..
..
..
68.9c
..
76.7
66.5
..
..
..
71.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.4
83.0
..
30.3
..
..
..
..
..

2007
2003
2009b
2006b
2007b
2007b
2008b
2003b
2004
2006
2008
2006
2011
2005
2010
2006
2007b
2002b
2005b
2003
2007
2005
2010
2010b
2008b
2008
2004b
2007b
2004b
2011b
2001b
2011b
2003

2009b
2009b
2001b
2007b
2011b
2009
2010

2008
2007

..
36.1
44.8
52.6
68.9
55.0
44.3
69.4
58.6
48.7
75.7
..
54.2c
79.9
..
30.4
44.6
73.9
39.2
63.0
69.1
49.1
60.5c
67.7c
73.5
56.6
50.6
59.4
..
56.9
49.0
63.9
63.8
48.7
64.9
57.1
..
78.5
..
..
57.6
55.4
75.0
37.4
73.4
27.2
77.9
..
..
..
30.0
..
14.5
..

Rural population poverty gap
(%)
Surveys
Surveys
1990–99a
2000–11a
Year
Percent
Year
Percent

1998

1995

1998

1993
1999
1998

1996

1999
1998

1995

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.3c
..
..
13.4
..
..
18.2
..
..
..
26.5c
..
21.4
23.9
..
..
..
29.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.2
44.5
..
4.5
..
..
..
..
..

2003
2003
2009b
2006b
2007b
2007b
2008b
2003b
2004
2006
2005
2008
2006
2005
2005
2003
2006
2007b
2002b
2005b
2007
2005
2004
..b
2008b
2008
2004b
2007b
2004b
2005b
2001b
2011b
2003

2009b
..b
2001b
2007b
2006b
2009
2006

..
14.0
18.4
17.4
24.2
17.5
14.3
35.0
23.3
17.8
34.9
20.6
20.3c
49.8
..
8.5
16.0
30.5
13.5
22.0
27.8
17.5
..c
26.3c
28.9
8.6
..
22.3
..
22.2
16.0
21.2
26.6
26.0
24.7
18.6
..
34.6
..
..
21.3
37.0
11.0
29.3
7.6
38.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Share of rural population
with sustainable access
(%)
To an improved
To an improved
water source
sanitation facilities
1990
2000
2010
1990
2000
2010

35.2
40.0
49.0
88.0
38.0
68.0
31.0
..
47.0
37.0
83.0
27.0
..
67.0
..
39.0
5.0
..
67.0
36.0
37.0
32.0
33.0
78.0
..
15.0
35.0
20.0
26.0
99.0
26.0
51.0
31.0
30.0
64.0
..
43.0
..
26.0
..
66.0
58.0

41.6
40.0
59.0
90.0
55.0
70.0
42.0
81.0
49.0
41.0
92.0
27.0
36.0
67.0
42.0
50.0
19.0
47.0
77.0
58.0
52.0
43.0
43.0
76.0
50.0
24.0
57.0
36.0
37.0
99.0
27.0
72.0
35.0
36.0
63.0
70.0
49.0
..
30.0
15.0
71.0
55.0

48.6
38.0
68.0
92.0
73.0
71.0
52.0
85.0
51.0
44.0
97.0
27.0
32.0
68.0
..
..
34.0
41.0
85.0
80.0
65.0
53.0
52.0
73.0
60.0
34.0
80.0
51.0
48.0
99.0
29.0
90.0
39.0
43.0
63.0
88.0
56.0
..
35.0
7.0
79.0
52.0

19.3
6.0
0.0
22.0
2.0
44.0
37.0
..
5.0
4.0
11.0
4.0
..
8.0
..
0.0
1.0
..
..
4.0
6.0
4.0
25.0
..
..
7.0
38.0
10.0
8.0
88.0
4.0
9.0
2.0
36.0
34.0
..
22.0
..
5.0
..
60.0
18.0

20.6
11.0
3.0
32.0
4.0
45.0
37.0
25.0
16.0
5.0
23.0
13.0
18.0
10.0
87.0
2.0
6.0
30.0
60.0
6.0
9.0
5.0
28.0
22.0
3.0
10.0
45.0
12.0
9.0
88.0
4.0
13.0
3.0
32.0
45.0
15.0
31.0
..
5.0
10.0
63.0
16.0

23.4
19.0
5.0
41.0
6.0
46.0
36.0
43.0
28.0
6.0
30.0
24.0
15.0
11.0
..
4.0
19.0
30.0
65.0
8.0
11.0
9.0
32.0
24.0
7.0
12.0
51.0
14.0
9.0
88.0
5.0
17.0
4.0
27.0
56.0
19.0
39.0
..
6.0
6.0
67.0
14.0

25.0
46.0
36.0
39.0
23.0
71.0
79.9
88.0
70.0
90.0
55.0
54.0
62.0

41.0
45.0
38.0
54.0
36.0
70.0
84.2
84.0
63.0
95.0
55.0
58.0
77.0

65.0
44.0
40.0
68.0
46.0
69.0
88.4
79.0
54.0
99.0
..
61.0
..

44.0
6.0
8.0
26.0
37.0
35.0
54.6
77.0
45.0
57.0
96.0
27.0
44.0

49.0
7.0
5.0
30.0
40.0
34.0
71.7
82.0
30.0
79.0
96.0
43.0
57.0

55.0
7.0
3.0
34.0
43.0
32.0
84.4
88.0
10.0
93.0
96.0
52.0
..

Part III. Development outcomes

91

Participating in growth

Table

8.2

Agriculture
Agriculture
Gross Production Index 2004-2006=100
value
added Agriculture
(% of GDP)
total
Crop Livestock Food
Cereal
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010a

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
11.2
Angola
9.8
151.2
163.2
114.3
Excluding South Africa
Benin
..
116.2
117.0
106.5
Excl. S. Africa & Nigeria
Botswana
2.5
113.3
89.8
118.5
Angola
Burkina
..
111.9
111.4
113.1
Benin Faso
Burundi
35.1
49.9
42.9
136.9
Botswana
Cameroon
..
123.3
123.2
123.4
Burkina Faso
Cape
Verde
9.9
120.2
109.5
129.8
Burundi
Central
African Republic
..
114.4
112.9
116.0
Cameroon
Chad
..
102.0
96.8
113.1
Cape Verde
Comoros
..
93.4
91.5
112.1
Central African Republic
Congo,
..
104.2
102.6
117.2
Chad Dem. Rep.
Congo,
Rep.
3.8
124.7
115.0
157.3
Comoros
Côte
d'Ivoire
22.8
105.8
104.6
120.1
Congo,
Dem. Rep.
Equatorial
Guinea
..
108.2
108.3
107.6
Congo, Rep.
Eritrea
..
101.3
81.4
117.7
Côte d’Ivoire
Ethiopia
47.7
125.1
127.5
119.6
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
4.1
110.5
109.3
113.9
Eritrea
Gambia,
28.5
133.3
138.7
107.9
Ethiopia The
Ghana
29.9
125.2
124.9
128.8
Gabon
Guinea
13.0
113.1
110.9
129.2
Gambia, The
Guinea-Bissau
..
119.9
120.4
117.6
Ghana
Kenya
25.2
123.5
112.9
136.0
Guinea
Lesotho
8.6
112.2
116.7
109.3
Guinea-Bissau
Liberia
..
101.6
97.6
134.1
Kenya
Madagascar
..
121.6
121.7
121.4
Lesotho
Malawi
..
165.9
166.2
162.4
Liberia
Mali
..
147.9
152.0
140.6
Madagascar
Mauritania
17.2
112.8
145.0
107.1
Malawi
Mauritius
3.7
97.1
89.1
121.2
Mali
Mozambique
31.9
114.9
117.8
100.7
Mauritania
Namibia
7.5
93.1
111.1
87.4
Mauritius
Niger
..
155.2
176.4
131.6
Mozambique
Nigeria
..
89.4
86.9
115.2
Namibia
Rwanda
32.2
137.1
137.3
135.5
Niger
São
Tomé and Príncipe
..
110.0
109.8
112.2
Nigeria
Senegal
17.4
151.8
158.6
134.7
Rwanda
Seychelles
..
76.9
70.4
81.2
São Tomé and Príncipe
Sierra
Leone
49.0
113.8
112.2
127.6
Senegal
Somalia
..
114.5
100.0
116.7
Seychelles
South
Africa
2.5
120.4
107.0
136.2
Sierra Leone
Sudan
23.6
118.6
97.5
129.5
Somalia
Swaziland
8.0
103.9
101.8
111.8
South Africa
Tanzania
28.1
110.0
109.7
111.1
Sudan
Togo
42.8
119.9
119.0
126.0
Swaziland
Uganda
24.3
108.1
107.1
112.6
Tanzania
Zambia
9.2
142.9
161.2
108.7
Togo
Zimbabwe
16.0
96.6
89.0
107.4
Uganda
NORTH
11.9
Zambia AFRICA
Algeria
6.9
123.6
131.5
110.2
Zimbabwe
Djibouti
..
207.5
114.4
223.1
NORTH AFRICA
Egypt,
14.0
110.0
105.5
123.9
AlgeriaArab Rep.
Libya
..
111.6
108.7
116.5
Djibouti
Morocco
15.4
125.7
123.0
131.9
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Tunisia
8.0
103.1
100.8
110.0
Libya
Morocco
a. Provisional.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
Tunisia
AFRICA

151.8
122.2
113.7
118.8
49.8
125.7
120.2
114.3
106.5
93.4
104.1
125.1
105.9
112.1
101.2
124.7
109.6
133.3
125.1
113.0
120.4
124.9
112.8
122.2
121.5
164.6
161.0
112.8
97.1
113.4
93.6
155.5
89.3
136.9
110.0
153.6
79.4
116.1
114.4
121.1
119.5
104.2
109.7
126.9
108.2
143.8
95.8

144.4
149.3
219.4
133.4
112.7
146.9
128.4
104.9
118.6
102.5
100.4
112.6
100.6
..
95.6
126.5
120.2
181.3
156.2
129.8
132.8
115.3
153.3
207.2
141.4
209.3
201.0
180.3
254.6
181.2
95.6
148.0
73.8
189.4
130.0
170.7
..
116.4
77.5
123.2
69.3
97.8
117.0
126.6
123.7
229.2
78.8

123.7
207.5
110.9
111.9
125.9
103.2

120.9
100.0
84.2
97.3
105.1
56.1

Cereal
(thousands of metric tons)
Production Exports Imports
2010
2009
2009

123,058
1,136
1,555
61
4,523
313
2,805
8
239
1,912
26
1,528
25
1,461
..
247
15,638
41
364
2,907
2,859
237
4,100
173
296
5,164
4,039
6,418
276
1
2,506
116
5,204
19,512
746
4
1,768
..
1,008
258
14,733
3,562
69
6,688
1,046
2,963
3,098
1,429
33,256
4,686
0
19,408
218
7,834
1,109

2,534
1
4
7
18
0
0
5
0
127
..
1
0
1
0
15
19
0
0
1
15
4
..
42
16
3
30
5
0
0
104
0
0
1,824
9
1
71
32
105
71
0
910
6
774
1
100
30

28,745
700
271
209
375
67
907
135
42
195
46
479
40
1,665
25
127
2,229
133
219
835
413
25
2,711
254
192
221
215
263
556
328
804
119
172
4,035
131
18
1,348
17
88
516
2,153
2,329
159
950
163
514
70
1,277
22,860
7,910
193
6,043
2,317
4,415
1,981

Trade
Agricultural
Food
Exports
Imports
Exports
Imports
($ millions) ($ millions) ($ millions) ($ millions)
2009
2009
2009
2009

26,440
9
432
177
364
60
970
1
19
76
10
55
29
5,101
2
15
1,318
27
49
1,655
55
102
2,479
1
83
187
1,038
203
24
307
308
228
90
985
82
6
303
5
26
88
5,458
563
222
827
372
774
390
860
7,747
124
63
4,522
9
1,811
1,218

31,202
2,061
734
616
312
81
799
202
67
148
52
859
92
1,342
84
77
1,184
412
134
1,281
306
65
1,618
144
167
333
281
413
504
669
663
349
273
4,244
164
35
1,190
78
143
418
4,362
1,503
219
604
208
542
248
926
22,012
6,459
440
7,605
2,079
3,785
1,644

16,849
8
321
150
104
6
749
0
17
54
10
13
11
4,272
2
15
774
2
44
1,607
25
101
589
1
11
166
160
127
18
261
155
182
80
819
7
6
192
1
23
87
3,852
451
208
316
325
208
205
115
6,631
98
62
3,806
1
1,585
1,079

25,748
1,555
683
473
244
76
722
169
59
120
49
756
78
1,157
51
76
1,109
332
105
1,167
261
48
1,473
116
145
278
209
341
438
517
582
209
203
3,789
146
28
1,074
67
123
355
2,742
1,259
178
530
187
463
182
825
18,236
5,470
397
6,329
1,895
2,904
1,241

Note:

92

Part III. Development outcomes

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

Share of land area (%)
Permanent cropland
2008

Cereal
cropland
2009

1.0
0.2
2.7
0.0
0.2
13.6
3.0
0.7
0.1
0.0
32.3
0.3
0.2
13.5
2.5
0.0
1.0
0.6
0.5
12.3
2.8
8.9
1.1
0.1
2.2
1.0
1.3
0.1
0.0
2.0
0.3
0.0
0.1
3.3
11.4
46.9
0.3
4.4
1.8
0.0
0.8
0.1
0.9
1.7
3.3
11.3
0.1
0.3
0.9
0.4
..
0.8
0.2
2.2
14.4

4.0
1.4
10.0
0.2
15.7
9.1
3.5
8.5
0.3
2.0
12.0
0.9
0.1
2.7
..
4.6
9.3
0.1
32.3
7.0
8.3
5.4
4.5
6.3
2.6
3.0
19.5
3.3
0.3
0.1
3.2
0.4
8.4
15.2
15.7
1.3
7.7
..
9.1
1.0
2.9
3.3
3.3
5.7
16.2
9.4
1.6
4.9
2.1
1.3
0.0
3.0
0.2
11.3
4.2

Agricultural
irrigated land
(% of
agricultural land)
2000–08b

..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
2.2
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.1
..
..
..
4.4
4.0

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

Fertilizer
consumption
(100 grams
per hectare of
arable land)
2009

10.5
1.1
..
..
9.1
0.9
7.4
..
..
..
..
0.5
1.1
15.9
..
..
7.9
6.1
6.8
11.9
0.6
..
32.5
..
..
2.6
26.6
3.2
..
209.5
..
1.6
0.1
2.1
1.1
..
5.0
36.0
..
..
49.2
7.9
..
8.7
3.3
2.1
27.3
28.0
..
7.8
..
502.8
40.3
20.8
42.3

Agricultural
machinery
(tractors per 100 sq
km of arable land)
2000–08b

Agricultural
employment
(% of total
employment)
2000–10 b

..
..
134.8
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
32.1
..
8.3
..
..
..
4.5
25.1
..
25.2
..
..
1.9
..
2.2
9.8
..
..
..
..
6.6
0.5
..
2.1
..
..
12.0
43.0
13.8
87.1
23.3
0.6
..
..
..

..
42.7
29.9
84.8
..
61.3
..
..
..
..
..
35.4
..
..
..
79.3
24.2
..
57.2
..
..
61.1
..
48.9
80.4
..
66.0
..
8.7
80.5
16.3
56.9
44.6
78.8
27.9
33.7
..
68.5
..
5.1
..
..
76.5
54.1
65.6
72.2
64.8

139.6
60.0
390.6
218.9
..
142.6

20.7
..
31.6
..
40.9
..

Agriculture value
added per worker
(2000 US$)
2010

..
333
..
534
..
84
..
3,335
..
..
..
..
..
1,056
..
..
226
1,825
440
..
242
..
351
215
672
..
169
..
813
5,692
234
881
..
..
..
..
271
..
..
..
3,951
929
1,213
289
531
200
214
161
3,028
2,254
..
3,265
..
3,315
3,050

Cereal yield
(kilograms per
hectare)
2010

1,336
644
1,402
544
1,054
1,346
1,711
222
1,466
775
1,157
772
785
1,717
..
536
1,674
1,782
1,127
1,814
1,409
1,555
1,613
909
1,179
2,987
2,206
1,615
946
10,000
1,006
373
490
1,413
1,930
3,000
1,197
..
1,554
432
4,162
452
1,226
1,333
1,187
1,608
2,547
752
2,772
1,568
1,111
6,541
662
1,548
1,702

Part III. Development outcomes

93

Participating in growth

Table

8.3

Producer food prices

1991

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Cote d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

94

Rice, paddy
(per tonne, current US$)
1995
2000
2005

2009

1991

Maize
(per tonne, current US$)
1995
2000
2005

2009

..
..
..
351.5
220.4
177.2
..
..
..
..
..
265.9
212.7
..
..
..
..
170.4
416.9
220.2
..
72.7
..
..
119.9
139.1
223.3
..
..
181.1
..
260.4
761.3
199.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
962.2
..
..
283.6
..
..
..

..
..
..
245.6
272.3
136.2
..
..
..
..
..
150.3
220.4
..
..
260.8
..
206.2
393.3
245.1
..
107.2
..
..
170.0
117.8
236.4
..
..
135.8
..
214.4
652.2
873.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
205.2
..
..
232.4
..
..
..

..
..
..
119.4
277.5
144.6
..
..
..
..
..
178.4
154.5
..
..
201.6
..
136.9
306.6
405.5
351.1
299.9
..
..
190.6
594.4
154.5
..
..
90.6
..
154.5
279.4
582.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
388.9
..
..
165.7
..
..
..

..
..
..
392.2
609.2
269.1
..
..
..
..
..
220.1
222.2
..
..
127.7
..
175.0
577.8
138.2
474.8
378.8
..
..
203.4
718.5
269.7
..
..
163.3
..
201.0
545.1
480.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
497.3
..
..
258.3
..
..
..

..
..
..
643.6
841.0
309.7
..
..
..
..
..
313.2
586.7
..
..
1,028.1
..
222.7
506.8
178.5
962.5
749.8
..
..
314.5
1,293.9
316.4
..
..
322.3
..
259.8
426.9
1,094.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,270.4
..
..
341.9
..
..
..

..
..
..
212.7
270.0
283.6
313.9
..
..
..
..
212.7
159.5
..
..
..
..
211.3
188.9
191.0
..
104.3
..
..
337.8
96.3
134.7
..
303.5
132.7
166.6
163.0
334.8
259.0
..
..
..
..
..
129.3
1,538.6
..
..
205.6
..
..
..

..
..
..
148.5
208.2
152.3
432.0
..
..
..
..
200.3
162.9
..
295.1
154.3
..
419.0
215.1
245.1
76.2
155.6
..
..
178.6
47.1
166.3
..
287.6
92.4
193.3
138.2
661.3
194.5
..
..
..
..
..
159.1
328.1
..
..
190.3
..
..
..

..
..
..
91.3
253.0
163.7
247.9
..
..
..
..
262.6
119.4
..
354.3
119.3
..
134.5
171.7
166.7
842.7
190.3
..
..
143.8
111.9
107.7
..
171.4
51.8
145.1
118.0
198.4
211.0
..
..
..
..
..
78.5
621.9
..
..
120.8
..
..
..

..
..
..
192.4
314.3
113.2
334.6
..
..
..
..
359.6
233.0
..
347.0
144.7
..
311.2
366.5
152.0
1,168.0
201.7
..
..
152.8
184.7
197.5
..
185.9
154.5
276.6
173.0
477.5
104.2
..
..
..
..
..
99.3
184.6
..
..
294.4
..
..
..

..
..
..
259.9
336.9
129.1
449.5
..
..
..
..
507.2
331.3
..
573.6
388.5
..
252.9
384.8
149.6
1,324.2
309.3
..
..
220.4
365.1
176.2
..
190.6
298.3
281.8
226.0
401.3
434.1
..
..
..
..
..
156.3
427.6
..
..
350.3
..
..
..

270.7
..
127.5
..
436.5
..

544.5
..
193.4
..
445.0
..

344.8
..
167.9
..
276.4
..

421.4
..
185.0
..
325.2
..

516.7
..
211.0
..
294.7
..

173.2
..
140.5
..
242.3
..

335.7
..
151.5
..
292.7
..

212.6
..
174.8
..
223.0
..

259.8
..
179.3
..
225.8
..

318.6
..
208.0
..
272.4
..

Part III. Development outcomes

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

1991

1995

Sorghum
(per tonne, current US$)
2000

..
..
..
212.7
330.6
177.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
342.4
..
..
..
..
213.6
217.5
187.0
..
207.7
..
..
..
176.6
145.3
..
..
63.9
147.8
140.2
368.1
234.0
..
..
..
..
..
106.8
943.0
..
..
237.5
..
..
..

..
..
..
134.4
328.3
160.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
252.2
..
212.4
193.2
..
193.3
212.9
263.8
..
194.1
..
..
..
72.0
198.3
..
..
47.9
182.0
96.2
847.7
450.1
..
..
..
..
..
132.9
92.7
..
..
246.4
..
..
..

..
..
..
84.3
374.7
313.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,103.1
..
284.7
142.1
..
129.0
153.1
179.4
351.1
204.1
..
..
..
500.6
87.4
..
..
51.8
157.4
77.3
190.3
211.0
..
..
..
..
..
74.9
165.6
..
..
140.5
..
..
..

..
..
..
178.7
324.2
217.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
336.6
..
391.7
188.7
..
334.3
424.4
120.7
854.6
331.8
..
..
..
514.4
233.6
..
..
141.3
263.2
117.4
509.0
138.8
..
..
..
..
..
70.9
335.2
..
..
364.6
..
..
..

..
..
..
217.8
439.5
247.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
293.4
..
657.5
487.9
..
272.8
469.5
164.1
1,235.1
472.1
..
..
..
753.2
235.7
..
..
216.4
262.2
153.9
290.8
434.1
..
..
..
..
..
179.0
312.7
..
..
378.0
..
..
..

..
..
..
212.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
460.8
..
..
..
..
218.8
308.6
..
..
256.6
..
..
..
133.2
156.0
..
..
..
147.8
150.1
339.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,206.4
..
..
265.9
..
..
..

..
..
..
152.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
391.3
..
337.2
216.0
..
388.9
245.0
..
..
361.3
..
..
..
65.1
194.3
..
..
..
209.5
96.2
413.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
278.6
..
..
238.4
..
..
..

..
..
..
84.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
245.7
..
434.3
144.8
..
128.2
205.9
..
..
311.1
..
..
..
518.6
85.1
..
..
..
157.4
108.2
184.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
655.1
..
..
122.2
..
..
..

..
..
..
178.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
415.4
..
645.3
170.0
..
310.1
495.3
..
..
485.5
..
..
..
642.7
254.5
..
..
..
263.2
135.1
493.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
433.6
..
..
305.8
..
..
..

..
..
..
210.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
307.4
..
1,070.2
507.9
..
229.9
570.0
..
..
672.6
..
..
..
1,071.8
286.6
..
..
..
262.2
175.5
323.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,065.2
..
..
361.0
..
..
..

152.3
..
141.2
..
218.2
..

207.7
..
166.9
..
402.8
..

131.5
..
184.0
..
218.3
..

160.8
..
186.7
..
292.5
..

197.1
..
251.4
..
370.6
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

2005

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

2009

1991

1995

Millet
(per tonne, current US$)
2000

2005

2009

Part III. Development outcomes

95

Participating in growth

Table

8.4

Environment
Renewable internal
fresh water resources
Annual
fresh water
Total
Forest area (billions Per capita withdrawals
(cubic
(billions of
(% of land of cubic
meters) cubic meters)
meters)
area)
1990 2010
2009
2009
2009

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

31.2
48.9
52.1
24.2
25.0
11.3
51.4
14.4
37.3
10.4
6.5
70.7
66.6
32.1
66.3
16.1
13.7
85.4
44.2
32.7
29.6
78.8
6.5
1.3
51.2
23.5
41.3
11.5
0.4
19.2
55.2
10.6
1.5
18.9
12.9
28.1
48.6
89.1
43.5
13.2
6.8
32.2
27.4
46.8
12.6
23.8
71.0
57.3
1.3
0.7
0.3
0.0
0.1
11.3
4.1

28.0
46.9
41.2
20.0
20.7
6.7
42.1
21.1
36.3
9.2
1.6
68.0
65.6
32.7
58.0
15.2
12.3
85.4
48.0
21.7
26.6
71.9
6.1
1.5
44.9
21.6
34.3
10.2
0.2
17.2
49.6
8.9
1.0
9.9
17.6
28.1
44.0
89.1
38.1
10.8
4.7
29.4
32.7
37.7
5.3
15.0
66.5
40.4
1.4
0.6
0.3
0.1
0.1
11.5
6.5

3,884
148
10
2
13
10
273
0
141
15
1
900
222
77
26
3
122
164
3
30
226
16
21
5
200
337
16
60
0
3
100
6
4
221
10
2
26
..
160
6
45
30
3
84
12
39
80
12
47
11
0
2
1
29
4

4,708
7,976
1,197
1,211
782
1,231
14,237
610
32,653
1,371
1,677
14,018
56,324
3,971
38,173
549
1,503
110,997
1,784
1,272
23,153
10,781
525
2,433
52,139
16,746
1,118
4,024
118
2,158
4,388
2,747
234
1,431
921
13,414
2,131
..
27,878
658
908
706
2,530
1,930
1,949
1,205
6,303
983
288
322
344
23
96
917
402

124.6
0.6
0.1
0.2
1.0
0.3
1.0
0.0
0.1
0.4
0.0
0.6
0.1
1.4
0.0
0.6
5.6
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.6
0.2
2.7
0.1
0.2
14.7
1.0
6.6
1.6
0.7
0.7
0.3
2.4
10.3
0.2
0.0
2.2
0.0
0.5
3.3
12.5
37.1
1.0
5.2
0.2
0.3
1.7
4.2
94.3
6.2
0.0
68.3
4.3
12.6
2.9

Water
productivity
(2000 $ per
cubic meter
of fresh water
withdrawal)
2009

4.3
39.5
24.9
40.5
4.4
3.9
14.1
42.0
15.3
8.1
24.2
10.4
101.3
8.0
346.3
1.3
3.0
45.8
16.1
8.3
3.3
1.4
6.6
20.4
5.3
0.3
2.7
0.6
1.3
8.8
11.3
19.3
1.1
7.7
22.3
..
3.0
52.0
3.0
..
14.6
0.6
1.8
3.6
9.1
36.4
3.0
0.9
3.9
12.4
41.1
2.2
11.4
4.6
11.3

Water pollution
Emissions of
organic water
Energy production
pollutants
(kilotons of oil
(kilograms
equivalent)
per day)
a
1990
2009
2000–07

..
..
3,246
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,540
32,159
..
..
16,048
..
..
..
5,252
..
92,770
32,672
..
..
15,446
..
..
..
..
..
..
6,621
..
..
..
229,582
38,567
..
30,322
..
2,105
..
..
..
..
..
..
73,989
..

474,530
28,652
1,774
910
..
..
10,976
..
..
..
..
12,019
8,746
3,382
..
..
14,052
14,630
..
4,392
..
..
9,013
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,608
..
..
150,452
..
..
964
..
..
..
114,535
8,775
..
9,064
1,054
..
4,918
8,550
235,228
100,114
..
54,869
73,173
773
5,728

Energy
Energy use
(kilotons of oil
equivalent)
1990
2009

808,735 313,233 511,206
100,958
5,883 11,896
1,996
1,661
3,475
938
1,261
2,048
..
..
..
..
..
..
8,849
4,980
6,918
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
18
..
23,346 11,798 22,921
15,276
797
1,402
11,891
4,323 10,353
..
..
..
562
..
726
30,373 14,866 32,678
13,587
1,181
1,794
..
62
..
7,047
5,291
9,240
..
..
..
..
75
..
15,573 10,940 18,723
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
480
..
11,918
5,922
9,766
329
..
1,713
..
..
..
228,722 70,582 108,252
..
..
..
..
23
..
1,256
1,686
2,939
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
160,637 93,876 144,041
35,198 10,629 15,815
..
309
..
18,046
9,733 19,616
2,191
1,263
2,627
..
..
..
7,241
5,399
7,856
8,530
9,297
9,514
337,026 77,423 156,831
152,292 22,192 39,758
..
130
..
88,186 31,825 72,015
87,136 11,330 20,405
782
6,941 15,083
7,811
4,946
9,200

Combustible
renewables and waste
(% of total energy use)
1990
2009

55.9
73.5
94.2
33.4
..
..
76.7
..
..
..
..
84.7
59.5
73.5
..
..
93.9
62.9
..
73.7
..
..
77.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
93.9
..
..
80.2
..
..
56.7
..
..
..
11.1
81.8
..
91.7
82.8
..
74.3
50.9
2.8
0.1
..
3.3
1.1
4.6
12.9

57.3
60.1
57.4
23.6
..
..
64.1
..
..
..
..
93.7
51.1
75.2
..
77.4
92.0
61.8
..
69.8
..
..
76.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.8
12.0
..
84.9
..
..
41.1
..
..
..
9.8
68.0
..
87.7
83.1
..
80.9
65.6
2.3
0.1
..
2.2
0.8
3.2
14.1

a. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.
b. Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride.

96

Part III. Development outcomes

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

Greenhouse gas emissions
Nitrous oxide

Methane

Carbon dioxide
(thousands of
metric tons)
1990
2008

462,711
4,430
715
2,178
587
304
1,738
88
198
147
77
4,070
1,188
5,798
121
..
3,018
4,844
191
3,931
1,056
253
5,823
..
484
986
612
422
2,666
1,463
1,001
7
832
45,375
682
66
3,183
114
389
18
333,514
5,559
425
2,373
774
818
2,446
15,504
232,367
78,896
400
75,944
40,319
23,542
13,267

687,172
24,371
4,067
4,840
1,856
180
5,302
308
260
495
125
2,816
1,936
7,015
4,815
414
7,107
2,472
411
8,592
1,393
282
10,392
..
609
1,911
1,228
594
1,999
3,953
2,314
3,968
851
95,756
704
128
4,976
682
1,335
649
435,878
14,052
1,093
6,465
1,419
3,748
1,889
9,076
453,399
111,304
524
210,321
58,331
47,906
25,013

Total
(kilotons of
carbon dioxide
equivalent)
1990
2005

..
..
49,530 45,409
4,847 4,080
5,812 4,501
..
..
..
..
13,503 18,518
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
96,593 56,445
6,231 5,584
11,243 10,997
..
..
1,884 2,467
39,325 52,243
8,103 8,218
..
..
7,238 8,990
..
..
..
..
17,952 22,130
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,863 12,843
3,435 5,057
..
..
117,467 130,317
..
..
..
..
5,277
7,129
..
..
..
..
..
..
51,179 63,785
43,370 67,441
..
..
25,817 32,024
2,752 2,889
..
..
26,944 19,294
10,112 9,539
104,128 134,629
40,726 54,219
..
..
27,839 46,996
22,473 14,682
9,132 10,573
3,958 8,160

Agricultural
(% of total)
1990 2005

Industrial
(% of total)
1990 2005

44.0
26.4
36.7
90.5
..
..
55.2
..
..
..
..
25.6
37.3
18.3
..
78.7
81.6
0.9
..
49.0
..
..
74.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.3
95.8
..
18.5
..
..
68.8
..
..
..
37.3
87.1
..
73.9
52.9
..
66.1
79.1
21.7
9.1
..
38.0
4.9
58.8
44.9

32.1
21.6
16.1
7.7
..
..
20.2
..
..
..
..
47.9
10.4
18.9
..
11.0
9.3
46.5
..
13.8
..
..
15.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.5
3.7
..
47.3
..
..
4.5
..
..
..
52.4
21.4
..
21.3
18.4
..
8.2
22.2
51.5
61.2
..
33.4
79.1
6.2
26.2

44.0
27.9
47.8
84.1
..
..
42.4
..
..
..
..
23.1
31.9
17.4
..
73.2
72.5
1.2
..
39.5
..
..
65.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44.2
94.9
..
19.8
..
..
68.3
..
..
..
31.4
85.2
..
63.2
39.9
..
59.3
73.3
20.6
8.2
..
31.7
5.7
51.8
25.5

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

30.2
11.6
8.9
17.9
..
..
17.9
..
..
..
..
49.6
7.7
11.2
..
7.5
10.0
79.9
..
10.7
..
..
18.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.9
4.7
..
45.5
..
..
4.7
..
..
..
54.3
21.5
..
20.3
14.8
..
5.7
24.8
48.2
66.3
..
31.2
77.6
2.6
32.1

Total
(metric tons of
carbon dioxide
equivalent)
1990 2005

..
41,667
3,695
5,511
..
..
10,530
..
..
..
..
87,098
4,307
7,485
..
1,028
25,545
305
..
5,187
..
..
9,222
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,881
2,580
..
19,153
..
..
2,976
..
..
..
21,300
36,669
..
21,468
2,209
..
35,669
7,284
24,023
3,843
..
11,818
1,176
5,180
2,006

..
38,881
2,902
3,081
..
..
9,127
..
..
..
..
54,643
3,566
7,364
..
1,189
30,510
482
..
4,899
..
..
10,542
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,501
3,797
..
21,565
..
..
4,083
..
..
..
24,048
49,472
..
21,647
1,738
..
25,068
6,114
33,358
4,898
..
18,996
1,285
5,814
2,366

Agricultural
(% of total)
1990 2005

Industrial
(% of total)
1990 2005

Other greenhouse
ODA gross
gasesb
disbursements
(thousands of
ODA gross
for general
metric tons of disbursements environment
carbon dioxide
for forestry
protection
equivalent)
($ millions)
($ millions)
1990
2005
2010
2010

64.5
39.2
50.5
90.9
..
..
68.1
..
..
..
..
37.9
48.6
22.7
..
93.0
91.9
25.6
..
75.5
..
..
91.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
82.0
93.2
..
82.1
..
..
88.1
..
..
..
63.3
92.0
..
82.8
74.3
..
75.2
84.2
72.0
64.3
..
71.5
67.2
85.1
59.0

0.3
0.0
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
3.6
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
5.9
5.6
4.4
..
8.2
0.0
0.0
10.6

..
0
0
0
..
..
932
..
..
..
..
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
..
596
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
0
..
242
..
..
0
..
..
..
1,491
0
..
0
0
..
0
0
2,668
326
..
2,059
282
0
0

66.1
38.4
61.5
92.0
..
..
75.9
..
..
..
..
31.3
51.8
29.3
..
90.9
88.8
23.3
..
70.5
..
..
88.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
71.4
94.3
..
77.3
..
..
88.5
..
..
..
59.8
92.6
..
78.8
67.5
..
71.7
85.2
75.3
58.6
..
80.0
51.9
82.6
66.4

0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
7.3
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
3.7
0.0
7.9
7.2
..
11.5
0.0
0.0
4.2

..
20
0
0
..
..
419
..
..
..
..
0
5
0
..
0
10
9
..
15
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
282
0
..
669
..
..
0
..
..
..
2,552
0
..
0
0
..
0
0
3,950
489
..
3,181
280
0
0

245.8
0.5
0.6
0.1
3.8
0.0
12.2
0.5
1.4
0.0
0.0
15.8
0.8
17.1
0.1
0.8
26.1
8.0
0.1
15.6
1.1
0.1
22.0
0.1
0.2
1.3
20.7
2.2
0.0
..
13.4
1.0
0.1
0.5
1.4
0.0
0.3
..
0.0
..
8.2
4.5
0.0
3.5
0.0
4.8
0.5
0.0
4.5
0.0
0.1
0.0
..
0.3
3.4

683.0
2.6
20.2
3.9
13.9
5.5
20.4
9.2
0.7
6.7
1.2
35.9
11.3
4.9
0.3
0.7
16.9
7.6
6.3
29.1
1.3
2.0
62.0
0.8
4.9
12.4
13.7
10.7
9.0
37.9
16.8
13.6
6.4
8.0
8.7
0.2
43.8
0.1
2.6
0.0
27.5
10.2
0.3
30.1
9.2
13.9
10.3
0.9
71.4
4.6
0.4
12.6
0.0
25.5
23.1

Part III. Development outcomes

97

Participating in growth

Table

8.5

Fossil fuel emissions
Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel
(thousand metric tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions
Total
(thousand metric tons
of carbon dioxide)
1990
2005
2008

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 462,711
Angola
4,430
Benin
715
Botswana
2,178
Burkina Faso
587
Burundi
304
Cameroon
1,738
Cape Verde
88
Central African Republic
198
Chad
147
Comoros
77
Congo, Dem. Rep.
4,070
Congo, Rep.
1,188
Cote d'Ivoire
5,798
Equatorial Guinea
121
Eritrea
..
Ethiopia
3,018
Gabon
4,844
Gambia, The
191
Ghana
3,931
Guinea
1,056
Guinea-Bissau
253
Kenya
5,823
Lesotho
..
Liberia
484
Madagascar
986
Malawi
612
Mali
422
Mauritania
2,666
Mauritius
1,463
Mozambique
1,001
Namibia
7
Niger
832
Nigeria
45,375
Rwanda
682
São Tomé and Príncipe
66
Senegal
3,183
Seychelles
114
Sierra Leone
389
Somalia
18
South Africa
333,514
Sudan
5,559
Swaziland
425
Tanzania
2,373
Togo
774
Uganda
818
Zambia
2,446
Zimbabwe
15,504
NORTH AFRICA
232,367
Algeria
78,896
Djibouti
400
Egypt, Arab Rep.
75,944
Libya
40,319
Morocco
23,542
Tunisia
13,267

647,225
19,156
2,567
4,525
1,126
165
3,696
293
235
400
110
2,369
1,606
7,825
4,712
766
5,490
1,786
323
7,008
1,360
264
8,562
..
741
1,705
917
568
1,657
3,410
1,823
2,659
825
104,044
689
128
5,860
697
1,261
579
408,199
11,995
1,019
5,086
1,338
2,340
2,259
10,774
399,960
107,128
473
174,641
52,093
42,823
22,801

687,172
24,371
4,067
4,840
1,856
180
5,302
308
260
495
125
2,816
1,936
7,015
4,815
414
7,107
2,472
411
8,592
1,393
282
10,392
..
609
1,911
1,228
594
1,999
3,953
2,314
3,968
851
95,756
704
128
4,976
682
1,335
649
435,878
14,052
1,093
6,465
1,419
3,748
1,889
9,076
453,399
111,304
524
210,321
58,331
47,906
25,013

1990

Per capita
(metric tons)
2005

2008

0.9
0.4
0.2
1.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.3
..
0.1
5.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.3
1.4
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.6
0.4
1.6
0.1
0.0
9.5
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.3
1.5
1.9
3.1
0.7
1.3
9.3
1.0
1.6

0.9
1.2
0.3
2.4
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.4
7.8
0.2
0.1
1.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.5
2.7
0.1
1.3
0.1
0.7
0.1
0.8
0.5
8.4
0.2
0.1
8.7
0.3
1.0
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.9
2.6
3.3
0.6
2.4
9.0
1.4
2.3

0.9
1.4
0.5
2.5
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.4
7.3
0.1
0.1
1.7
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3
..
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.6
3.1
0.1
1.8
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.8
0.4
7.8
0.2
0.1
8.9
0.3
1.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.7
2.8
3.2
0.6
2.7
9.5
1.5
2.4

1990

Total
2005

2008

129,277
1,208
195
594
160
83
..
24
54
40
21
1,110
324
1,581
33
..
823
1,321
52
1,072
288
69
1,588
..
132
269
167
115
727
399
273
2
227
12,374
186
18
868
31
106
5
90,950
1,516
116
647
211
223
667
4,228
63,367
21,515
109
20,710
10,995
6,420
3,618

180,471
5,224
700
1,234
307
45
..
80
64
109
30
646
438
2,134
1,285
209
1,497
487
88
1,911
371
72
2,335
..
202
465
250
155
452
930
497
725
225
28,373
188
35
1,598
190
344
158
111,317
3,271
278
1,387
365
638
616
2,938
109,070
29,214
129
47,625
14,206
11,678
6,218

191,223
6,646
1,109
1,320
506
49
..
84
71
135
34
768
528
1,913
1,313
113
1,938
674
112
2,343
380
77
2,834
..
166
521
335
162
545
1,078
631
1,082
232
26,113
192
35
1,357
186
364
177
118,865
3,832
298
1,763
387
1,022
515
2,475
123,643
30,353
143
57,355
15,907
13,064
6,821

1990

Solid fuel
consumption
2005

2008

110,635
0
0
592
0
4
..
0
0
0
0
209
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
2
0
0
110
..
0
9
13
0
4
54
42
0
88
35
0
0
0
0
0
0
72,352
0
116
3
0
0
227
3,662
3,576
825
0
917
4
1,278
72

142,854
0
0
702
0
2
..
0
0
0
0
273
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
91
..
0
12
43
0
0
264
0
14
103
8
0
0
114
0
0
0
95,970
0
104
54
0
0
85
2,315
6,204
666
0
837
0
3,844
0

149,617
0
0
624
0
4
..
0
0
0
0
317
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
112
..
0
9
37
0
0
471
7
299
104
8
0
0
184
0
0
0
100,605
0
112
65
0
0
1
1,943
6,228
793
0
787
0
3,788
0

Note: 0 refers to a negligible value that rounds to 0.

98

Part III. Development outcomes

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

Liquid fuel consumption
1990
2005
2008

41,937
489
154
2
160
79
..
24
54
40
21
838
265
1,513
33
..
777
244
52
978
288
69
1,273
..
125
252
141
112
709
345
220
2
136
9,823
177
18
801
31
106
0
16,596
1,493
0
571
157
219
381
471
34,280
6,835
109
14,323
6,058
4,541
2,414

46,087
1,292
666
532
303
43
..
80
64
109
30
373
358
1,136
142
203
1,284
387
87
1,653
322
72
1,956
..
182
433
184
155
411
666
392
711
115
10,616
173
35
1,120
190
321
158
11,519
3,226
173
962
256
552
471
542
51,706
8,413
129
24,317
9,347
6,102
3,398

50,785
2,476
891
696
502
45
..
84
71
135
34
447
444
995
166
107
1,690
539
111
2,085
331
77
2,296
..
144
475
265
162
501
607
472
783
121
8,695
177
35
733
186
332
177
13,846
3,787
186
1,192
278
934
419
478
61,967
11,299
143
29,438
10,217
7,484
3,386

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel
(thousand metric tons)
Gas fuel consumption
Gas flaring
1990
2005
2008
1990
2005

..
276
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
..
0
138
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,041
0
0
3
0
0
0
940
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17,525
10,619
0
3,552
2,599
30
682

..
341
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
12
910
605
0
0
65
1
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
38
0
0
5,307
0
0
7
0
0
0
2,269
0
0
185
0
0
0
0
39,938
16,706
0
18,057
3,010
237
1,831

AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND ENVIRONMENT

..
347
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
4
13
829
865
0
0
104
1
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
53
0
0
6,718
0
0
6
0
0
0
2,601
0
0
287
0
0
0
0
40,510
13,295
0
21,690
2,806
296
2,325

..
409
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
46
0
0
..
0
924
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
2,373
0
0
1,969
0
1

..
3,412
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
538
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,075
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
1,688
0
0
1,357
0
79

2008

1990

..
3,633
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
283
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10,013
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
2,600
0
0
2,068
0
82

2,901
35
41
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
63
12
68
0
..
46
16
0
92
0
0
205
..
7
8
13
3
14
0
11
0
3
476
8
0
64
0
0
5
1,062
23
0
73
54
4
59
95
4,177
862
0
1,918
367
571
449

Cement production
2005
2008

4,842
179
34
0
4
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
69
88
0
6
213
35
0
258
49
0
289
..
20
20
23
0
41
0
67
0
7
367
14
0
357
0
23
0
1,559
45
0
186
109
86
59
82
9,075
1,741
0
4,414
492
1,496
910

6,113
190
218
0
4
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
71
88
0
6
248
31
0
258
49
0
426
..
22
37
33
0
44
0
99
0
7
680
14
0
435
0
32
0
1,814
45
0
218
109
88
95
54
11,173
2,366
0
5,440
816
1,496
1,028

Part III. Development outcomes

99

Participating in growth

Table

9.1

Labor force participation
Ages 15 and older

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

100

2000

Total
(in thousands)
2005

2010

255,432
5,198
2,561
817
5,502
2,916
6,195
163
1,678
3,217
180
18,514
1,250
6,385
260
1,660
28,965
443
544
8,426
3,294
498
11,858
848
964
7,300
4,819
3,056
760
527
8,727
638
3,528
39,248
3,798
45
3,950
..
1,561
2,347
15,233
8,318
315
16,702
2,151
10,128
4,476
5,469
44,267
8,796
210
20,077
1,801
10,197
3,186

293,820
6,063
3,049
924
6,433
3,518
7,147
193
1,840
3,827
210
21,499
1,441
6,989
313
2,179
34,881
505
640
9,112
3,619
568
13,236
850
1,088
8,584
5,718
3,609
934
550
9,882
782
4,284
43,730
4,497
52
4,617
..
1,977
2,639
17,212
9,561
333
19,283
2,536
11,451
4,951
6,517
50,735
9,983
248
23,941
2,127
10,995
3,441

337,519
7,106
3,618
1,037
7,544
4,312
8,210
225
2,065
4,423
242
25,266
1,693
7,788
369
2,596
40,781
588
751
10,366
4,092
648
15,456
894
1,374
10,148
6,708
4,297
1,117
595
11,077
929
5,114
50,280
5,228
59
5,385
..
2,261
2,924
18,163
10,791
368
22,138
2,939
13,426
5,511
6,617
56,192
11,204
292
27,104
2,379
11,386
3,827

Part III. Development outcomes

2000

Labor force
Male
(% of total labor force)
2005

2010

55.0
51.6
53.5
53.1
51.8
46.8
54.9
61.9
53.6
54.5
72.0
49.9
51.9
65.0
55.7
52.7
54.8
54.5
53.0
51.9
55.4
54.5
53.2
51.0
51.0
51.3
50.3
62.5
76.7
65.5
45.0
55.6
69.1
59.9
47.7
64.7
57.1
..
46.8
67.2
56.9
72.1
59.7
50.3
51.0
50.0
52.8
53.6
78.1
86.3
67.6
78.5
73.9
72.1
75.1

54.2
53.1
52.5
53.3
52.2
47.4
54.6
61.7
53.2
54.6
70.9
49.8
51.2
63.8
55.5
51.7
53.1
53.8
52.5
52.1
55.3
53.4
53.5
52.5
51.3
51.1
51.5
63.9
74.9
64.2
45.7
54.2
69.1
56.7
47.8
63.9
56.6
..
48.8
66.9
56.3
71.8
60.1
49.9
49.5
50.5
53.7
51.2
77.8
85.0
66.3
78.6
72.1
72.3
73.6

54.3
54.1
52.5
53.7
52.4
47.9
54.3
61.6
52.9
54.7
69.8
50.2
51.5
62.6
55.3
51.4
52.8
53.7
52.1
52.4
54.8
52.7
53.6
54.0
52.3
51.1
48.5
64.5
73.5
62.4
46.4
53.7
68.8
57.2
48.2
62.8
56.1
..
49.3
66.4
57.2
71.3
60.3
50.2
49.5
50.7
53.9
50.7
76.3
83.1
65.2
75.8
72.0
72.9
73.1

2000

Female
(% of total labor force)
2005

2010

45.0
48.4
46.6
46.9
48.2
53.2
45.1
38.2
46.4
45.5
28.0
50.1
48.1
35.0
44.3
47.4
45.2
45.6
47.0
48.2
44.6
45.5
46.8
49.1
49.0
48.7
49.7
37.5
23.3
34.5
55.0
44.4
31.0
40.1
52.3
35.3
42.9
..
53.2
32.8
43.1
27.9
40.3
49.7
49.0
50.0
47.2
46.4
21.9
13.7
32.4
21.5
26.1
27.9
24.9

45.8
46.9
47.5
46.7
47.8
52.6
45.4
38.3
46.8
45.4
29.1
50.2
48.8
36.2
44.5
48.3
47.0
46.2
47.6
47.9
44.7
46.6
46.6
47.5
48.7
49.0
48.5
36.1
25.1
35.9
54.3
45.9
30.9
43.3
52.2
36.2
43.4
..
51.3
33.1
43.8
28.2
39.9
50.1
50.5
49.5
46.4
48.8
22.2
15.0
33.7
21.4
27.9
27.7
26.4

45.7
45.9
47.5
46.3
47.6
52.1
45.7
38.4
47.1
45.3
30.2
49.9
48.6
37.4
44.7
48.6
47.2
46.3
47.9
47.6
45.2
47.3
46.5
46.0
47.7
48.9
51.5
35.5
26.5
37.7
53.6
46.3
31.2
42.8
51.8
37.2
43.9
..
50.7
33.6
42.8
28.7
39.7
49.8
50.5
49.3
46.1
49.3
23.7
16.9
34.8
24.2
28.0
27.1
26.9

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Ages 15 and older

2000

Total
(% of total population)
2005

2010

69.0
71.3
72.2
74.9
83.7
85.0
69.1
63.8
78.2
72.3
54.4
71.7
68.2
66.2
87.1
82.1
81.7
60.8
77.1
74.6
70.8
70.6
68.1
73.5
60.0
86.8
79.2
51.2
50.2
60.6
85.4
56.4
62.7
55.8
85.9
55.7
76.1
..
65.4
56.8
52.2
52.3
56.3
88.8
79.0
81.6
80.2
75.0
47.5
43.8
48.8
46.4
50.9
53.3
47.6

69.2
70.2
72.1
75.7
83.8
83.3
69.7
64.9
78.4
72.2
56.0
71.3
69.5
66.6
86.7
83.7
84.6
60.0
77.4
69.8
71.0
72.1
64.9
68.1
60.3
86.6
82.7
51.8
52.1
58.8
85.5
61.5
64.5
54.7
84.8
57.9
76.4
..
67.2
57.0
53.4
53.0
56.2
89.5
80.2
78.6
79.9
86.6
47.9
43.2
49.9
48.2
53.1
51.9
46.2

69.5
69.7
72.6
76.6
83.8
82.8
70.5
66.4
78.7
72.2
57.5
71.3
70.5
66.8
86.7
84.6
84.0
60.5
77.6
69.2
71.8
72.9
66.3
65.8
60.9
86.1
83.1
52.9
53.7
59.5
84.7
64.0
64.6
55.5
85.8
59.4
76.9
..
67.6
56.9
52.0
53.6
56.6
89.3
80.8
77.9
79.5
86.1
47.8
43.3
51.2
48.8
53.8
49.5
47.4

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

2000

Participation rate
Male
(% of male population)
2005

2010

76.9
75.4
81.2
80.4
90.6
84.3
76.9
83.8
86.1
80.2
78.6
72.9
71.4
81.9
93.3
90.3
90.9
67.2
83.4
76.6
78.3
78.5
73.2
80.1
61.8
89.7
81.2
66.3
78.1
80.7
82.7
64.5
88.4
66.8
85.4
73.8
88.5
..
63.3
77.8
61.0
75.7
71.7
90.8
82.0
82.6
85.4
81.5
74.7
75.5
66.5
73.1
73.0
78.9
71.6

76.0
76.3
78.6
80.8
90.6
82.3
76.9
83.0
85.5
80.1
79.7
72.3
71.6
81.7
92.5
89.8
91.1
65.0
83.4
72.0
78.3
78.3
69.9
75.3
62.4
89.2
86.3
68.0
78.6
76.8
83.3
68.1
90.6
61.9
83.8
75.6
88.3
..
67.8
77.6
61.5
76.1
70.8
90.5
80.9
80.0
86.0
90.1
75.0
73.2
66.5
75.8
75.3
77.4
68.3

76.1
77.0
78.3
81.5
90.5
81.9
77.3
83.1
85.2
80.2
80.4
72.4
72.7
81.3
92.3
90.0
89.9
64.9
83.2
71.6
78.3
78.2
71.5
73.3
64.0
88.7
81.2
69.7
79.1
75.7
83.0
69.8
90.1
63.0
85.2
76.4
88.3
..
68.9
77.0
60.4
76.5
70.7
90.3
81.2
79.6
85.7
89.5
73.5
71.7
67.0
74.2
76.9
74.7
69.7

2000

Female
(% of female population)
2005

2010

61.3
67.4
64.0
69.5
77.3
85.6
61.6
46.0
70.7
64.6
30.3
70.6
65.1
48.8
80.4
74.6
72.8
54.6
71.1
72.6
63.3
63.1
63.1
67.6
58.2
84.0
77.2
37.2
23.1
41.2
87.7
48.8
38.0
44.8
86.4
38.4
64.1
..
67.3
36.6
43.8
29.1
42.7
87.0
76.0
80.7
75.1
68.7
20.7
12.0
31.4
19.9
27.4
29.0
23.7

62.7
64.4
66.1
70.7
77.4
84.1
62.6
48.0
71.7
64.5
32.5
70.5
67.5
50.2
80.4
78.0
78.4
55.1
71.8
67.7
63.7
66.1
60.0
61.6
58.3
84.1
79.2
36.4
26.0
41.4
87.4
55.2
39.2
47.5
85.7
40.9
64.9
..
66.6
37.1
45.7
29.9
42.9
88.6
79.6
77.1
73.8
83.1
21.1
13.0
33.4
20.6
30.2
27.9
24.3

63.0
62.7
67.1
71.6
77.5
83.7
63.9
50.2
72.5
64.5
34.7
70.2
68.2
51.5
80.6
79.6
78.3
56.0
72.4
66.8
65.2
67.8
61.2
58.7
57.8
83.5
85.0
36.8
28.4
43.9
86.3
58.4
39.8
47.8
86.3
43.2
66.0
..
66.4
37.6
43.8
30.8
43.5
88.3
80.3
76.2
73.3
82.9
22.5
14.7
35.5
23.5
30.4
25.9
25.3

Part III. Development outcomes

101

Participating in growth

Table

9.1

Labor force participation (continued)
Ages 15–64

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

102

2000

Total
(thousands)
2005

2010

2000

Labor force
Male
(% of total labor force)
2005

247,188
5033.0
2446.0
796.0
5359.0
2789.0
5889.0
156.0
1572.0
3041.0
172.0
17669.0
1190.0
6086.0
250.0
1619.0
28065.0
415.0
521.0
8046.0
3162.0
479.0
11286.0
797.0
926.0
6988.0
4523.0
2992.0
738.0
525.0
8252.0
618.0
3411.0
37176.0
3678.0
44.0
3821.0
..
1527.0
2298.0
15334.0
9888.0
321.0
16079.0
2065.0
9722.0
4247.0
5177.0
43344.0
8732.0
207.0
19696.0
1769.0
9893.0
3047.0

284,133
5871.0
2920.0
898.0
6278.0
3381.0
6799.0
186.0
1723.0
3633.0
202.0
20536.0
1373.0
6630.0
303.0
2129.0
33599.0
478.0
616.0
8701.0
3474.0
547.0
12676.0
802.0
1046.0
8225.0
5425.0
3541.0
907.0
550.0
9324.0
758.0
4152.0
41202.0
4356.0
50.0
4474.0
..
1938.0
2583.0
17311.0
11427.0
350.0
18501.0
2437.0
10961.0
4688.0
6172.0
49800.0
9912.0
245.0
23600.0
2090.0
10650.0
3303.0

326,648
6886.0
3462.0
1004.0
7369.0
4163.0
7831.0
218.0
1936.0
4214.0
234.0
24163.0
1617.0
7369.0
358.0
2534.0
39262.0
559.0
724.0
9885.0
3930.0
624.0
14860.0
850.0
1320.0
9739.0
6290.0
4220.0
1085.0
595.0
10445.0
902.0
4956.0
47331.0
5070.0
57.0
5231.0
..
2221.0
2867.0
18055.0
13399.0
401.0
21193.0
2823.0
12866.0
5284.0
6246.0
55048.0
11129.0
289.0
26643.0
2333.0
10956.0
3698.0

55.7
51.6
53.6
53.0
51.7
47.2
54.5
60.9
53.9
54.5
72.1
50.0
52.2
64.7
56.0
52.5
54.5
55.2
52.6
51.8
55.5
54.5
53.3
51.1
50.9
51.0
50.3
62.5
76.7
65.3
45.0
55.7
69.0
60.1
47.7
63.6
57.1
..
46.4
67.1
56.9
71.6
59.5
50.1
50.9
49.9
53.1
53.8
78.3
86.3
67.6
78.4
73.7
72.0
74.7

54.9
53.2
52.6
53.1
52.0
47.7
54.2
61.3
53.5
54.6
70.8
50.0
51.4
63.4
55.8
51.5
52.7
54.4
52.1
52.0
55.4
53.4
53.5
52.7
51.2
50.8
51.5
63.9
75.0
64.0
45.7
54.2
69.2
56.8
47.7
64.0
56.6
..
48.4
66.7
56.3
71.2
60.0
50.0
49.5
50.5
53.9
51.3
78.0
84.9
66.1
78.3
71.9
72.4
73.2

Part III. Development outcomes

2010

55.0
54.1
52.5
53.5
52.3
48.2
54.0
61.0
53.3
54.8
69.7
50.2
51.5
62.3
55.3
51.4
52.5
54.0
51.8
52.2
54.9
52.7
53.7
54.4
52.1
50.9
48.5
64.6
73.6
62.2
46.6
53.9
69.0
57.2
48.1
63.2
56.2
..
48.9
66.3
57.2
70.7
60.4
50.2
49.5
50.8
54.2
50.9
76.5
83.1
65.1
75.7
71.8
73.6
72.9

2000

Female
(% of total labor force)
2005

2010

45.7
48.4
46.4
47.0
48.3
52.9
45.5
38.5
46.1
45.5
27.9
50.0
47.8
35.3
44.0
47.5
45.5
44.8
47.4
48.2
44.5
45.5
46.7
48.9
49.2
49.0
49.7
37.5
23.2
34.5
55.1
44.3
31.0
39.9
52.3
36.4
42.9
..
53.6
32.9
43.2
28.4
40.5
49.9
49.1
50.1
46.9
46.2
23.1
13.7
32.4
21.7
26.3
28.0
25.4

46.3
46.8
47.4
46.9
48.0
52.3
45.8
38.7
46.5
45.4
29.2
50.0
48.7
36.6
44.2
48.5
47.3
45.6
47.9
48.0
44.6
46.6
46.5
47.3
48.9
49.2
48.5
36.1
25.0
36.0
54.3
45.8
30.8
43.2
52.3
36.0
43.4
..
51.7
33.3
43.8
28.8
40.0
50.0
50.5
49.5
46.1
48.7
23.2
15.1
33.9
21.7
28.1
27.6
26.8

46.3
45.9
47.5
46.5
47.7
51.8
46.0
38.5
46.8
45.2
30.3
49.8
48.5
37.7
44.4
48.7
47.5
46.0
48.2
47.8
45.1
47.3
46.4
45.7
47.9
49.1
51.5
35.4
26.5
37.8
53.5
46.2
31.1
42.8
51.9
36.8
43.8
..
51.1
33.7
42.8
29.3
39.7
49.8
50.6
49.2
45.8
49.2
24.2
16.9
35.0
24.3
28.2
26.4
27.1

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Ages 15–64

2000

Total
(% of total population)
2005

2010

2000

Participation rate
Male
(% of male population)
2005

70.0
72.5
73.0
76.7
85.1
86.0
70.0
67.2
78.6
72.6
54.8
72.1
69.3
66.6
89.2
83.8
83.7
61.9
77.2
75.5
72.3
72.0
68.3
74.7
60.5
88.1
78.8
52.7
51.1
64.9
85.6
57.8
63.2
56.0
87.4
58.4
77.2
..
66.4
58.5
54.7
53.1
57.5
90.2
80.3
82.7
80.4
75.5
50.0
46.4
50.6
48.9
52.6
55.6
50.6

70.2
71.3
73.0
77.8
85.2
84.2
70.5
68.9
78.7
72.5
56.6
71.7
70.7
67.2
88.5
85.3
86.3
61.2
77.5
70.8
72.4
73.5
65.3
69.4
60.9
88.0
83.2
53.1
53.0
63.3
85.6
63.2
65.2
54.7
86.1
60.8
77.5
..
68.2
58.7
56.4
53.9
57.5
90.8
81.6
79.2
80.1
87.6
50.6
45.8
51.9
51.1
55.2
54.4
49.4

70.5
70.8
73.4
78.9
85.3
83.8
71.5
70.5
79.1
72.6
58.2
71.7
71.8
67.5
88.3
86.3
85.8
61.7
77.8
70.4
73.2
74.4
66.8
67.1
61.5
87.5
82.6
54.2
54.6
64.3
84.9
66.0
65.4
55.5
87.2
62.1
78.0
..
68.7
58.7
55.2
54.6
58.0
90.6
82.2
78.5
79.8
87.3
50.6
45.9
53.4
51.8
56.2
51.6
50.7

77.6
76.3
81.5
81.3
91.2
85.0
76.8
86.4
86.4
80.1
78.7
73.0
72.5
82.2
95.3
91.0
92.2
68.7
83.2
77.2
79.5
79.7
73.3
81.0
61.8
90.5
80.6
67.7
79.0
85.2
82.5
65.8
89.0
67.0
86.4
76.6
89.8
..
63.9
79.7
63.2
75.9
72.8
91.4
82.9
83.1
85.7
81.8
78.0
79.4
68.4
76.2
75.2
82.0
75.7

76.6
77.2
78.8
81.8
91.2
83.0
76.9
85.9
85.8
80.1
79.9
72.3
72.7
82.2
94.4
90.5
91.9
66.5
83.2
72.5
79.5
79.5
70.2
76.4
62.5
90.0
86.5
69.3
79.5
81.5
83.0
69.6
91.6
61.7
84.7
78.5
89.7
..
68.4
79.5
64.1
76.4
71.9
91.3
81.8
80.4
86.3
90.9
78.7
77.0
68.6
79.7
77.8
80.8
72.6

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

2010

76.7
77.9
78.6
82.8
91.1
82.6
77.4
86.1
85.5
80.2
80.8
72.6
73.8
81.9
94.0
90.8
90.7
66.4
83.0
72.3
79.5
79.4
71.9
74.5
64.2
89.5
80.3
70.9
79.9
80.5
82.7
71.6
91.1
62.9
86.2
78.9
89.7
..
69.6
78.9
63.2
76.8
71.8
91.2
82.3
79.9
86.1
90.4
77.3
75.4
69.3
78.1
79.9
78.3
74.0

2000

Female
(% of female population)
2005

2010

62.5
68.8
65.2
72.1
79.5
86.8
63.2
49.8
71.1
65.2
30.8
71.3
66.1
49.5
82.6
77.0
75.5
55.2
71.5
73.9
64.9
64.6
63.3
69.0
59.1
85.9
77.0
38.5
23.6
44.8
88.3
50.2
38.4
44.9
88.3
40.8
65.0
..
68.7
37.9
46.5
30.2
43.9
89.1
77.8
82.3
75.2
69.2
22.0
12.8
32.9
21.3
28.6
30.5
25.6

63.9
65.6
67.4
73.7
79.6
85.3
64.2
52.4
71.9
65.2
33.1
71.2
68.8
51.0
82.1
80.3
80.8
56.0
72.2
69.0
65.3
67.7
60.4
62.9
59.3
86.0
79.9
37.6
26.5
45.3
88.0
57.0
39.6
47.6
87.5
43.6
65.9
..
67.9
38.5
48.9
31.2
44.2
90.3
81.4
78.0
74.0
84.3
22.6
14.0
35.1
22.3
31.6
29.3
26.4

64.3
64.0
68.5
74.8
79.8
84.9
65.6
54.8
72.8
65.2
35.4
70.9
69.7
52.4
82.0
82.0
80.9
57.1
72.8
68.4
66.8
69.4
61.8
60.0
58.9
85.4
84.9
37.9
29.0
48.3
86.8
60.5
40.2
48.0
88.2
45.8
66.9
..
67.8
39.0
47.2
32.2
44.9
90.0
82.2
77.0
73.5
84.3
23.9
15.7
37.4
25.3
32.0
26.4
27.5

Part III. Development outcomes

103

Participating in growth

Table

9.1

Labor force participation (continued)
Ages 15–24

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

104

2000

Total
(thousands)
2005

2010

2000

Labor force
Male
(% of total labor force)
2005

70,787
1,450
755
234
1,998
903
1,530
55
467
908
50
4,339
287
1,739
57
684
9,641
70
180
2,097
858
128
3,049
274
206
2,171
1,305
946
205
106
2,579
119
1,024
8,899
1,317
13
1,338
..
340
675
2,623
2,422
103
5,670
652
3,140
1,446
1,735
11,015
2,553
67
4,407
454
2,822
712

81,250
1,704
861
259
2,267
1,106
1,752
64
521
1,090
54
5,142
313
1,879
82
756
11,599
70
204
1,831
955
150
3,152
249
228
2,466
1,799
1,087
240
86
2,742
156
1,283
10,337
1,553
15
1,523
..
451
700
2,902
2,695
116
6,457
745
3,496
1,607
2,506
12,306
2,422
77
5,968
487
2,676
676

90,735
1,994
995
264
2,562
1,239
1,939
68
571
1,255
53
6,057
352
2,047
103
818
13,562
80
228
1,879
1,077
167
3,372
229
274
2,992
1,812
1,240
276
88
3,045
192
1,610
11,557
1,625
15
1,715
..
503
779
2,667
3,022
132
7,185
829
4,021
1,765
2,480
10,905
2,048
84
5,439
420
2,256
658

53.7
50.5
51.3
53.0
53.6
48.0
54.2
61.8
54.4
50.0
70.0
45.1
50.2
60.7
57.9
52.6
52.9
54.3
48.9
50.6
54.1
53.1
53.7
55.1
51.0
50.5
47.7
62.3
76.1
64.2
44.0
54.6
66.4
57.9
48.3
69.2
60.2
..
42.4
64.9
54.8
63.2
57.3
50.1
50.2
48.5
51.9
54.2
73.2
83.1
55.2
70.4
69.4
69.4
66.2

53.1
51.8
49.3
52.5
53.6
47.7
54.0
62.5
54.3
50.3
70.4
44.9
50.2
60.5
58.5
51.6
51.9
54.3
49.5
51.0
53.8
52.0
55.0
57.4
50.9
50.3
51.1
62.4
74.2
60.5
45.2
53.2
67.7
54.2
48.3
66.7
60.2
..
43.2
64.9
54.9
62.8
57.8
49.7
48.2
50.0
52.2
51.6
73.9
84.6
54.6
70.9
68.0
72.1
67.5

Part III. Development outcomes

2010

53.1
52.7
49.1
52.3
53.5
47.2
53.8
61.8
53.9
50.4
69.8
46.1
50.3
60.4
58.3
51.8
51.8
53.8
49.6
51.2
53.2
51.5
55.1
58.5
51.1
50.5
45.4
62.6
72.5
59.1
45.7
52.6
68.2
54.5
48.6
66.7
60.1
..
43.9
64.6
55.3
62.4
58.3
49.9
48.3
50.0
52.2
51.1
74.2
84.5
54.8
71.2
68.3
73.6
67.5

2000

Female
(% of total labor force)
2005

2010

47.5
49.5
48.7
47.0
46.5
52.1
45.8
38.2
45.6
50.0
30.0
54.9
49.8
39.3
42.1
47.4
47.1
45.7
51.1
49.4
45.9
46.9
46.3
44.9
49.0
49.5
52.3
37.7
23.9
35.9
56.0
45.4
33.6
42.1
51.7
30.8
39.8
..
57.7
35.1
45.2
36.8
42.7
50.0
49.9
51.5
48.1
45.8
28.6
16.9
44.8
29.6
30.6
30.6
33.9

47.9
48.2
50.8
47.5
46.5
52.4
46.0
37.5
45.7
49.7
29.6
55.2
49.8
39.5
41.5
48.4
48.1
45.7
50.5
49.0
46.2
48.0
45.1
42.6
49.1
49.7
48.9
37.6
25.8
39.5
54.8
46.8
32.4
45.8
51.7
33.3
39.8
..
56.8
35.1
45.1
37.2
42.2
50.3
51.8
50.0
47.9
48.4
27.8
15.4
45.5
29.1
32.0
28.0
32.5

47.9
47.3
51.0
47.7
46.5
52.8
46.2
38.2
46.1
49.6
30.2
53.9
49.7
39.6
41.8
48.2
48.2
46.3
50.4
48.8
46.8
48.5
44.9
41.5
48.9
49.5
54.6
37.4
27.5
40.9
54.3
47.4
31.8
45.5
51.4
33.3
39.9
..
56.1
35.4
44.7
37.6
41.7
50.1
51.8
50.0
47.8
48.9
27.5
15.5
45.2
28.8
31.7
26.4
32.5

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Ages 15–24

2000

Total
(% of total population)
2005

2010

2000

Participation rate
Male
(% of male population)
2005

53.2
54.0
60.2
59.4
78.2
70.6
47.7
60.6
63.5
56.8
39.6
46.2
44.9
51.3
76.9
79.4
78.9
29.0
65.5
53.9
53.5
53.1
44.5
62.8
35.0
75.1
58.9
40.5
38.0
50.6
71.6
30.9
53.6
35.6
75.9
41.2
67.5
..
40.6
47.3
28.7
35.7
45.1
82.1
65.9
65.4
68.4
59.6
36.2
36.9
45.3
31.5
35.2
46.4
36.4

53.3
53.2
57.7
59.8
77.7
67.6
47.8
60.2
63.3
56.7
40.5
45.8
44.8
51.5
76.0
77.4
79.3
25.5
65.3
41.7
53.7
54.8
39.7
51.8
35.1
73.7
71.4
40.7
39.0
42.7
67.7
36.6
56.1
36.8
73.1
42.8
66.9
..
44.3
45.8
29.5
35.6
44.5
82.0
66.2
61.3
68.8
80.4
37.2
32.5
44.6
37.8
38.2
42.1
32.9

52.9
52.8
57.0
59.6
77.1
65.1
47.8
59.8
62.7
56.6
39.6
45.4
44.9
51.1
76.0
77.3
77.1
25.1
64.4
38.6
54.4
55.2
39.9
45.2
35.3
72.8
59.7
40.9
39.9
40.7
66.1
39.8
57.0
37.4
73.6
40.8
66.6
..
44.2
45.0
26.5
35.3
44.5
81.0
66.2
59.9
67.7
79.6
33.2
28.1
44.1
34.0
37.4
36.0
33.0

56.3
54.9
62.9
62.3
82.8
68.3
51.5
74.8
69.8
56.9
54.9
41.6
44.9
62.0
89.3
83.5
83.7
31.5
66.4
53.5
56.8
56.6
47.7
68.9
35.5
75.8
56.1
49.7
56.9
64.4
64.4
33.5
76.8
40.4
74.8
55.9
81.2
..
35.2
61.6
31.4
44.6
52.6
82.0
66.3
63.5
70.9
64.5
52.1
60.3
49.6
43.6
48.2
64.7
47.7

55.9
55.6
57.5
62.2
82.1
64.7
51.4
73.7
69.4
57.0
55.9
41.0
44.7
62.2
88.1
80.7
82.5
27.5
66.1
41.6
56.9
57.2
43.6
59.0
35.4
74.1
72.8
49.9
56.9
51.1
61.4
38.8
80.6
39.2
71.3
57.6
80.3
..
39.3
59.5
32.2
44.0
51.6
81.5
64.1
61.5
71.5
83.5
54.0
54.0
48.5
52.8
51.1
61.1
43.9

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

2010

55.4
56.1
56.4
61.8
81.4
61.7
51.2
72.6
68.3
57.0
54.1
41.8
45.1
61.7
88.0
80.4
79.8
26.9
64.6
38.7
56.9
56.7
43.9
52.6
35.7
73.6
53.9
50.3
56.8
47.3
60.6
41.7
80.4
40.0
72.1
54.4
79.6
..
39.8
58.2
29.2
43.3
51.6
80.7
64.2
60.2
70.5
82.2
48.2
46.5
47.8
47.6
50.0
53.0
43.8

2000

Female
(% of female population)
2005

2010

50.0
53.2
57.6
56.4
73.5
72.9
43.9
46.4
57.4
56.7
24.0
50.8
44.8
40.5
64.4
75.3
74.2
26.5
64.7
54.4
50.1
49.6
41.4
56.6
34.5
74.3
61.7
31.1
18.4
36.7
78.5
28.2
33.6
30.5
77.1
26.3
53.8
..
45.9
33.1
26.0
26.7
37.9
82.1
65.5
67.3
65.9
54.6
20.0
12.7
41.0
19.0
21.8
28.2
24.9

50.7
50.9
58.0
57.3
73.1
70.5
44.1
46.3
57.3
56.5
24.7
50.6
44.9
40.8
63.7
74.3
76.2
23.4
64.6
41.9
50.5
52.5
35.9
44.4
34.8
73.2
69.9
31.2
20.6
34.1
74.1
34.3
34.3
34.4
74.9
27.8
53.5
..
49.2
32.1
26.7
26.8
37.4
82.5
68.3
61.1
66.0
77.4
20.0
10.2
40.5
22.3
24.8
23.3
21.6

50.4
49.6
57.6
57.4
72.7
68.4
44.4
46.4
57.2
56.3
24.7
49.1
44.8
40.6
63.8
74.2
74.5
23.3
64.3
38.6
51.7
53.6
35.9
37.7
34.9
72.1
65.5
31.2
22.4
33.8
71.6
37.8
35.1
34.6
75.0
26.8
53.3
..
48.5
31.8
23.8
26.9
37.3
81.2
68.2
59.6
64.8
77.1
17.7
8.9
40.3
19.9
24.2
19.0
21.8

Part III. Development outcomes

105

Participating in growth

Table

9.2

Labor force composition
Sectora
Industry

Agriculture

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Services

Male (% of male
employment)
2000–10 b

Female (% of female
employment)
2000–10 b

Male (% of male
employment)
2000–10 b

Female (% of female
employment)
2000–10 b

Male (% of male
employment)
2000–10 b

Female (% of female
employment)
2000–10 b

..
53.1
35.1
82.3
..
57.7
..
..
..
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
8.7
17.3
..
61.4
..
..
54.5
..
49.5
79.8
..
67.8
..
9.5
69.2
22.7
64.1
49.1
..
30.6
34.1
..
66.0
..
6.3
..
..
72.7
60.5
68.6
65.9
58.8

..
32.7
24.3
87.2
..
64.7
..
..
..
..
..
39.3
..
..
..
10.3
33.7
..
53.2
..
..
68.0
..
48.3
81.1
..
63.9
..
7.8
89.9
8.2
37.8
38.7
..
22.8
33.0
..
71.1
..
3.7
..
..
80.0
48.2
81.7
78.9
71.1

..
9.8
19.2
3.9
..
10.9
..
..
..
..
..
20.0
..
..
..
25.4
18.6
..
13.4
..
..
10.8
..
13.5
5.6
..
8.0
..
32.1
7.0
24.4
8.3
11.8
..
26.3
20.2
..
10.3
..
34.5
..
..
6.6
9.5
8.6
10.9
14.0

..
9.2
10.8
2.1
..
7.4
..
..
..
..
..
21.2
..
..
..
19.5
2.5
..
13.8
..
..
2.3
..
4.8
1.8
..
2.7
..
22.0
0.4
9.1
18.4
11.2
..
5.9
4.9
..
2.5
..
13.3
..
..
2.1
4.4
2.8
3.1
4.4

..
34.5
45.7
13.7
..
23.5
..
..
..
..
..
45.9
..
..
..
75.6
64.1
..
25.1
..
..
34.6
..
37.0
14.6
..
24.1
..
58.3
23.8
52.8
26.5
37.0
..
42.6
32.7
..
23.7
..
59.2
..
..
20.7
28.6
22.7
23.7
17.3

..
57.5
64.9
10.2
..
21.8
..
..
..
..
..
38.7
..
..
..
63.9
63.8
..
33.0
..
..
29.7
..
46.8
17.1
..
33.3
..
70.4
9.7
82.6
43.0
47.9
..
70.7
42.3
..
26.4
..
82.9
..
..
17.9
45.7
15.5
17.3
13.2

20.4
..
28.2
..
34.2
..

22.3
..
45.6
..
59.2
..

25.6
..
27.3
..
24.0
..

28.2
..
5.6
..
15.4
..

53.8
..
44.4
..
41.6
..

49.5
..
48.8
..
25.2
..

a. Components may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified data.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

106

Part III. Development outcomes

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Wage and salaried workers
Total
Male
Female
(% of total
(% of males
(% of females
employed)
employed)
employed)
2000–10 b
2000–10 b
2000–10 b

Statusa
Self-employed workers
Total
Male
Female
(% of total
(% of males
(% of females
employed)
employed)
employed)
2000–10 b
2000–10 b
2000–10 b

Contributing family workers
Total
Male
Female
(% of total
(% of males
(% of females
employed)
employed)
employed)
2000–10 b
2000–10 b
2000–10 b

..
10.1
60.5
7.1
5.2
16.0
38.9
..
..
..
..
21.7
19.6
..
..
7.9
44.8
..
19.9
..
..
..
..
18.1
13.4
..
8.0
..
80.0
8.8
72.8
5.3
..
..
..
21.6
..
7.6
..
84.6
..
..
10.5
10.9
23.6
17.0
37.7

..
16.3
62.2
9.7
..
29.3
43.8
..
..
..
..
35.5
25.4
..
..
9.3
52.2
..
29.7
..
..
..
..
27.5
16.0
..
12.4
..
77.9
15.7
76.0
5.9
..
..
..
26.1
..
11.3
..
84.3
..
..
15.3
16.6
22.2
25.7
51.0

..
4.2
58.6
4.0
..
8.7
33.0
..
..
..
..
8.6
12.2
..
..
6.2
34.5
..
10.9
..
..
..
..
8.7
10.8
..
3.6
..
83.8
3.0
68.8
3.9
..
..
..
15.1
..
3.7
..
85.1
..
..
6.1
5.7
7.5
9.0
23.1

..
89.9
39.5
90.4
94.7
84.0
42.1
..
..
..
..
76.2
76.3
..
..
91.8
54.0
..
79.9
..
..
..
..
81.7
86.4
..
82.9
..
20.0
91.2
26.7
85.4
..
..
..
77.7
..
92.4
..
15.4
..
..
89.5
89.1
76.4
82.0
62.3

..
83.7
37.8
87.8
..
66.5
39.1
..
..
..
..
61.7
70.1
..
..
90.3
46.4
..
70.2
..
..
..
..
72.3
83.9
..
76.5
..
22.1
84.3
23.6
83.8
..
..
..
73.2
..
88.7
..
15.8
..
..
84.7
83.4
77.8
74.3
49.0

..
95.8
41.4
93.5
..
88.9
45.7
..
..
..
..
89.9
84.3
..
..
93.5
64.6
..
89.1
..
..
..
..
91.1
89.1
..
89.0
..
16.2
97.0
30.7
89.5
..
..
..
84.1
..
96.3
..
14.9
..
..
93.9
94.3
92.5
91.0
76.9

..
16.1
3.2
46.0
30.8
26.8
10.3
..
..
..
..
4.0
28.2
..
..
50.3
4.1
..
20.4
..
..
..
..
16.1
52.3
..
26.4
..
2.4
36.7
4.4
3.2
..
..
..
24.0
..
18.1
..
0.9
..
..
11.4
25.9
29.2
38.0
11.9

..
13.9
2.1
26.5
..
9.5
6.5
..
..
..
..
3.3
15.8
..
..
34.6
2.3
..
11.7
..
..
..
..
12.5
32.1
..
18.5
..
1.0
12.7
3.2
3.3
..
..
..
23.5
..
14.8
..
0.4
..
..
9.7
23.1
10.3
25.4
10.4

..
18.2
4.4
69.2
..
27.2
14.8
..
..
..
..
4.7
44.2
..
..
68.5
6.7
..
28.5
..
..
..
..
19.7
73.0
..
34.1
..
4.9
56.8
5.8
2.8
..
..
..
24.7
..
21.6
..
1.4
..
..
13.0
28.4
40.5
61.8
13.6

38.2
..
58.5
..
44.4
64.3

36.0
..
61.4
..
47.5
..

51.1
..
47.9
..
34.0
..

34.4
..
41.5
..
53.3
35.6

34.4
..
38.6
..
52.4
..

34.0
..
52.1
..
65.9
..

7.2
..
14.1
..
22.9
8.7

7.2
..
8.7
..
15.0
..

7.3
..
33.9
..
48.6
..

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Part III. Development outcomes

107

Participating in growth

Table

9.3

Unemployment

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Total
2000–10 b

Unemployment
(% ages 15 and older)
Male
2000–10 b

Total
2000–10 b

Youth unemployment
(% ages 15–24)
Male
2000–10 b

Female
2000–10 b

Female
2000–10 b

..
0.7
17.6
3.3
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.5
..
..
3.6
..
..
..
25.3
3.7
2.6
7.8
8.8
33.0
7.7
..
37.6
1.5
..
..
16.7
10.0
5.5
3.4
..
23.8
..
..
4.3
..
4.2
15.9
4.2

..
0.9
15.3
2.9
..
2.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.1
..
..
3.5
..
..
..
23.0
3.4
1.7
5.4
7.2
8.9
4.6
..
32.5
1.7
..
..
11.0
7.9
6.1
4.5
..
22.0
..
..
2.8
..
3.1
14.1
4.2

..
0.4
19.9
1.7
..
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.9
..
..
3.6
..
..
..
28.0
4.1
3.5
10.0
10.9
41.2
12.8
..
43.0
0.9
..
..
24.5
13.6
4.9
2.3
..
25.9
..
..
5.8
..
5.1
11.3
4.1

..
0.8
13.6
3.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
..
16.6
..
..
..
34.4
5.9
2.3
..
..
..
23.4
..
41.7
3.2
..
..
..
14.8
20.3
5.2
..
48.2
..
..
8.8
..
5.4
23.4
7.6

..
1.1
13.2
4.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.5
..
..
16.4
..
..
..
29.0
3.9
1.7
..
..
..
19.4
..
36.7
4.0
..
..
..
11.9
..
7.3
..
44.6
..
..
7.4
..
..
23.1
7.6

..
0.6
14.0
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.4
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
41.9
7.7
2.8
..
..
..
29.0
..
47.0
1.7
..
..
..
20.1
..
3.5
..
52.5
..
..
10.1
..
..
19.5
7.6

11.4
59.5
9.4
..
10.0
14.2

10.0
54.6
5.2
..
9.8
13.1

20.0
68.6
22.9
..
10.5
17.3

24.3
..
24.8
..
21.9
30.7

42.8
..
17.2
..
22.8
31.4

46.3
..
47.9
..
19.4
29.3

a. Components may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified data.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

108

Part III. Development outcomes

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Unemployment by education levela
(% of total unemployed)
Secondary
Total
Male
Female
2000–10 b
2000–10 b
2000–10 b

Total
2000–10 b

Primary
Male
2000–10 b

Female
2000–10 b

..
..
61.5
47.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.2
..
43.9
..
..
..
43.5
..
..
..
..
60.7
..
40.2
..
..
..
15.4
..
..
71.6
..
..
..
16.2

..
..
60.1
44.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.9
..
42.9
..
..
..
43.4
..
..
..
..
62.8
..
42.2
..
..
..
18.6
..
..
74.6
..
..
..
14.3

..
..
62.6
58.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
56.5
..
44.4
..
..
..
43.6
..
..
..
..
59.4
..
37.9
..
..
..
12.5
..
..
69.3
..
..
..
17.2

..
..
24.1
19.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
33.5
..
23.8
..
..
..
29.6
..
..
..
..
24.1
..
6.9
..
..
..
80.7
..
..
7.2
..
..
..
82.0

..
..
22.8
16.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.4
..
25.8
..
..
..
25.2
..
..
..
..
23.0
..
7.5
..
..
..
77.0
..
..
7.8
..
..
..
83.6

59.3
..
..
..
51.1
41.4

65.2
..
..
..
57.7
46.0

32.5
..
..
..
36.6
31.9

23.0
..
..
..
22.4
37.7

21.4
..
..
..
21.7
37.3

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Total
2000–10 b

Tertiary
Male
2000–10 b

Female
2000–10 b

..
..
25.2
33.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
40.4
..
22.7
..
..
..
32.2
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
6.2
..
..
..
84.0
..
..
6.7
..
..
..
81.0

..
..
28.2
6.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
..
9.3
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
..
..
5.9
..
2.5
..
..
..
0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.3

..
..
26.2
5.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
..
14.0
..
..
..
9.6
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
2.8
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.7

..
..
29.8
8.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
..
6.6
..
..
..
7.0
..
..
..
..
9.4
..
2.1
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1

30.4
..
..
..
23.9
38.5

11.4
..
..
..
21.6
13.6

6.6
..
..
..
16.2
9.0

33.0
..
..
..
33.5
23.3

Part III. Development outcomes

109

Participating in growth

Table

9.4

Migration and population

Migrant stock
Share of
population (%)
Total
2010
2010

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

110

2.07
0.34
2.62
5.72
6.33
0.72
1
2.43
1.83
3.46
1.84
0.67
3.54
12.19
1.06
0.31
0.66
18.87
16.78
7.59
3.95
1.27
2.02
0.29
2.41
0.18
1.85
1.06
2.87
3.35
1.92
6.08
1.3
0.71
4.38
3.18
1.69
12.53
1.82
0.24
3.73
1.73
3.83
1.47
3.08
1.93
1.8
2.96
0.82
0.68
12.84
0.3
10.74
0.15
0.32

Part III. Development outcomes

International migration
Worker remittances, Migrant remittance
received
inflows
Net
Total
Share of
Total
Share of
migration ($ millions) GDP (%) ($ millions) GDP (%)
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010

17,645,403 -1,985,547
..
65,387
82,005
18.0
232,036
50,000
..
114,838
18,730
12.1
1,043,035
-125,000
..
60,770
370,000
34.5
196,570
-19,000
93.6
12,053
-17,279
130.4
80,492
5,000
..
388,251
-75,000
..
13,525
-10,000
..
444,672
-23,975
..
143,203
49,872
..
2,406,713 -360,000
..
7,447
20,000
..
16,484
55,000
..
547,984 -300,000
345.2
284,127
5,000
..
290,104
-13,742
107.3
1,851,814
-51,258
135.9
394,557 -300,000
44.8
19,244
-10,000
..
817,747
-189,330
683.7
6,328
-19,998
7.4
96,310
300,000
0.2
37,762
-5,000
..
275,851
-20,000
..
162,677
-100,823
..
99,229
9,900
..
42,917
0
..
450,020
-20,000
33.4
138,870
-1,494
6.0
202,163
-28,497
..
1,127,668 -300,000 19,650.7
465,480
15,109
98.2
5,253
-6,496
2.0
210,061
-132,842
..
10,838
..
16.5
106,776
60,000
41.6
22,843 -300,000
..
1,862,889
700,001
..
753,447
135,000 1,290.9
40,418
-6,000
1.9
659,202 -300,000
10.9
185,402
-5,430
..
646,548
-135,000
768.0
233,140
-85,000
43.7
372,258 -900,000
..
1,366,356 -1,202,222 20,673.0
242,324
-140,000
66.0
114,147
0
6.6
244,714
-346,922 12,453.1
682,482
-20,300
..
49,098
-675,000 6,422.5
33,591
-20,000 1,724.8

..
0.0
..
0.1
..
1.7
0.4
7.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.2
..
10.2
0.4
1.0
..
2.1
0.3
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
0.1
..
10.0
1.8
1.0
..
1.7
2.2
..
..
1.9
0.1
0.1
..
4.5
0.3
..
4.0
0.0
..
5.7
..
7.1
3.9

20,501.5
18.0
149.9
62.6
110.6
34.5
114.9
132.5
..
..
..
..
..
185.5
..
..
345.2
..
115.7
135.9
60.4
48.9
1,777.0
745.9
31.4
..
16.7
453.7
..
226.4
131.9
15.9
101.7
10,045.0
103.1
2.0
1,350.4
17.4
57.5
..
1,119.3
1,419.6
54.7
24.8
334.5
914.5
43.7
..
23,016.0
2,044.4
32.6
12,453.1
..
6,422.5
2,063.3

1.8
0.0
2.3
0.4
1.3
1.7
0.5
8.0
..
..
..
..
..
0.8
..
..
1.2
..
11.0
0.4
1.3
5.9
5.5
34.2
3.2
..
0.3
4.8
..
2.3
1.4
0.1
1.9
5.1
1.8
1.0
10.5
1.8
3.0
..
0.3
2.1
1.5
0.1
10.5
5.3
0.3
..
3.9
1.3
..
5.7
..
7.1
4.7

Population
Population dynamics
Annual Fertility rate
Total
Male
Female growth rate (births per
woman)
(%)
(millions) (% of total) (% of total)
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010

844.0
19.1
8.8
2.0
16.5
8.4
19.6
0.5
4.4
11.2
0.7
66.0
4.0
19.7
0.7
5.3
82.9
1.5
1.7
24.4
10.0
1.5
40.5
2.2
4.0
20.7
14.9
15.4
3.5
1.3
23.4
2.3
15.5
158.4
10.6
0.2
12.4
0.1
5.9
9.3
50.0
33.6
1.1
44.8
6.0
33.4
12.9
12.6
166.3
35.5
0.9
81.1
6.4
32.0
10.5

50.0
49.5
49.3
50.4
49.6
49.1
49.9
49.5
49.3
49.7
50.4
49.7
50.1
51.0
51.3
49.3
49.8
50.2
49.4
50.9
50.5
49.6
49.9
49.2
50.2
49.9
50.0
50.0
50.3
49.4
48.7
49.7
50.3
50.6
49.1
49.5
49.6
..
48.9
49.6
49.5
50.4
49.2
50.0
49.5
50.0
50.1
49.3
50.1
50.5
50.0
50.2
50.7
49.0
50.0

50.0
50.5
50.7
49.6
50.4
50.9
50.1
50.5
50.7
50.3
49.7
50.3
50.0
49.0
48.7
50.8
50.2
49.9
50.6
49.1
49.5
50.4
50.1
50.9
49.8
50.2
50.0
50.0
49.8
50.6
51.4
50.3
49.7
49.4
50.9
50.5
50.4
..
51.2
50.4
50.5
49.6
50.9
50.1
50.5
50.0
49.9
50.7
50.0
49.5
50.0
49.8
49.3
51.0
50.0

2.5
2.8
2.8
1.3
3.0
2.6
2.2
0.9
1.9
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.5
2.0
2.8
3.0
2.2
1.9
2.7
2.4
2.2
2.1
2.6
1.0
4.0
2.9
3.1
3.0
2.4
0.5
2.3
1.8
3.5
2.5
3.0
1.8
2.7
-0.9
2.2
2.3
1.4
1.9
1.1
3.0
2.1
3.2
1.6
0.8
1.5
1.5
1.9
1.8
1.5
1.0
1.0

4.9
5.4
5.3
2.8
5.9
4.3
4.5
2.4
4.6
6.0
4.9
5.8
4.5
4.4
5.2
4.5
4.2
3.3
4.9
4.2
5.3
5.1
4.7
3.2
5.2
4.7
6.0
6.3
4.5
1.5
4.9
3.2
7.1
5.5
5.4
3.7
4.8
2.5
5.0
6.3
2.5
4.4
3.4
5.5
4.1
6.2
6.3
3.3
2.5
2.3
3.8
2.7
2.6
2.3
2.0

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Population
Age composition (% of total)
Ages 0–14

Ages 15–64

Ages 65 and older

Total
2010

Male
2010

Female
2010

Total
2010

Male
2010

Female
2010

Total
2010

Male
2010

Female
2010

42.5
46.6
43.7
32.6
45.3
37.9
40.6
31.8
40.4
45.4
42.6
46.3
40.6
40.9
39.3
41.6
41.5
35.5
44.0
38.6
42.9
41.3
42.5
37.4
43.5
43.1
45.8
47.2
39.9
21.9
44.1
36.4
49.0
42.8
42.7
40.3
43.7
..
43.0
44.9
30.1
40.1
38.4
44.7
39.7
48.4
46.4
38.9
29.4
27.1
35.8
31.5
30.4
28.0
23.5

42.9
47.2
44.5
32.6
46.5
38.7
40.9
32.2
40.8
45.9
43.1
46.7
40.9
40.3
38.5
42.7
41.9
35.7
44.9
38.9
43.3
41.8
42.8
38.3
44.1
43.5
46.3
48.2
40.4
22.6
45.5
37.0
49.9
43.2
43.3
41.1
44.5
..
43.6
45.5
30.6
40.6
39.4
45.1
40.0
48.8
46.5
39.5
30.0
27.4
36.1
32.1
30.8
29.2
24.0

42.0
46.0
42.9
32.6
44.2
37.1
40.2
31.4
40.0
45.0
42.1
45.9
40.3
41.6
40.1
40.6
41.0
35.2
43.1
38.3
42.5
40.9
42.2
36.5
42.9
42.8
45.4
46.2
39.4
21.2
42.8
35.9
48.0
42.4
42.0
39.5
42.8
..
42.5
44.4
29.7
39.6
37.5
44.3
39.3
48.1
46.2
38.2
28.7
26.7
35.5
31.0
30.0
26.9
23.0

54.4
51.0
53.3
63.5
52.5
59.3
55.9
62.3
55.6
51.7
54.7
51.1
55.7
55.3
57.9
55.9
55.2
60.2
53.9
57.6
53.8
55.4
54.9
58.3
53.7
53.8
51.1
50.6
57.4
71.2
52.6
59.9
48.8
53.8
54.7
55.8
53.9
..
55.1
52.4
65.2
56.4
58.2
52.2
57.0
49.1
50.6
56.9
65.5
68.4
60.9
63.4
65.3
66.5
69.6

54.2
50.6
53.0
64.1
51.8
59.1
55.9
63.1
55.6
51.6
54.5
51.0
55.8
55.7
58.7
55.4
55.0
60.3
52.9
57.6
53.8
55.2
54.8
58.1
53.5
53.6
50.9
50.0
57.4
71.7
51.6
59.8
48.1
53.7
54.3
55.5
53.2
..
54.4
52.1
65.8
56.2
57.8
52.1
56.9
49.0
50.8
56.7
65.4
68.5
60.9
63.4
65.1
65.8
69.5

54.5
51.3
53.5
62.8
53.1
59.5
55.9
61.5
55.7
51.8
54.8
51.1
55.7
54.8
56.9
56.4
55.4
60.1
54.8
57.7
53.8
55.5
55.0
58.5
54.0
53.9
51.3
51.3
57.5
70.8
53.5
60.0
49.6
53.9
55.1
56.2
54.6
..
55.8
52.6
64.6
56.5
58.7
52.2
57.0
49.2
50.4
57.1
65.7
68.2
60.9
63.5
65.5
67.2
69.7

3.2
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.2
2.9
3.5
5.9
4.0
2.9
2.7
2.7
3.7
3.8
2.9
2.5
3.3
4.3
2.2
3.8
3.3
3.3
2.7
4.3
2.8
3.1
3.1
2.2
2.7
6.9
3.3
3.7
2.2
3.4
2.7
3.9
2.4
..
1.9
2.7
4.6
3.6
3.4
3.1
3.4
2.5
3.1
4.2
5.1
4.6
3.3
5.0
4.3
5.5
7.0

2.9
2.2
2.5
3.3
1.8
2.3
3.2
4.7
3.6
2.6
2.4
2.3
3.4
4.0
2.8
1.9
3.1
4.0
2.3
3.6
3.0
3.0
2.4
3.6
2.5
3.0
2.8
1.8
2.2
5.7
2.9
3.2
2.0
3.1
2.4
3.4
2.3
..
2.0
2.5
3.6
3.3
2.9
2.8
3.1
2.3
2.7
3.8
4.6
4.1
3.0
4.5
4.1
5.1
6.6

3.5
2.7
3.6
4.7
2.7
3.4
3.8
7.1
4.4
3.2
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.6
3.0
3.0
3.6
4.7
2.1
4.0
3.7
3.6
2.9
5.0
3.1
3.3
3.3
2.6
3.2
8.0
3.7
4.2
2.4
3.7
2.9
4.3
2.5
..
1.8
3.0
5.7
3.9
3.8
3.5
3.7
2.8
3.4
4.7
5.6
5.1
3.7
5.6
4.5
5.9
7.3

L ABOR, MIGRATION, AND POPULATION

Geographic distribution (%)
Dependency
ratio
Share
of
total
population
Annual growth
(% of
working-age
Rural
Urban
Rural
Urban
population) population population population population
2010
2010
2010
2010
2010

84.8
96.3
87.7
57.6
90.7
68.7
78.9
60.5
79.7
93.5
82.9
95.9
79.4
80.9
72.9
78.8
81.2
66.1
85.7
73.6
86.0
80.6
82.2
71.5
86.2
86.0
95.7
97.5
74.2
40.4
90.1
66.9
104.8
85.9
82.8
79.2
85.5
..
81.4
91.0
53.3
77.5
71.7
91.8
75.6
103.8
97.7
75.7
52.8
46.3
64.2
57.6
53.2
50.4
43.7

62.7
41.5
58.0
38.9
79.6
89.0
41.6
38.9
61.1
72.4
71.8
64.8
37.9
49.9
60.3
78.4
82.4
14.0
41.9
48.5
64.6
70.0
77.8
73.1
38.5
69.8
80.2
66.7
58.6
57.4
61.6
62.0
83.3
50.2
81.1
37.8
57.1
44.7
61.6
62.6
38.3
54.8
74.5
73.6
56.6
86.7
64.3
61.7
46.3
33.5
11.9
57.2
22.1
43.3
32.7

37.3
58.5
42.0
61.1
20.4
11.0
58.4
61.1
38.9
27.6
28.2
35.2
62.1
50.1
39.7
21.6
17.6
86.0
58.1
51.5
35.4
30.0
22.2
26.9
61.5
30.2
19.8
33.3
41.4
42.6
38.4
38.0
16.7
49.8
18.9
62.2
42.9
55.3
38.4
37.4
61.7
45.2
25.5
26.4
43.4
13.3
35.7
38.3
53.7
66.5
88.1
42.8
77.9
56.7
67.3

1.7
0.7
2.2
-0.7
2.5
2.2
0.2
-1.0
1.6
2.0
2.5
1.8
1.5
0.7
2.5
2.5
1.8
-1.5
0.8
0.8
1.5
2.0
2.2
0.0
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.2
2.1
0.4
1.0
0.9
3.5
1.1
2.6
-0.4
2.2
-2.0
1.7
1.6
0.1
0.3
0.8
2.4
0.9
3.0
1.4
0.0
1.0
-0.4
-1.4
1.7
0.7
0.2
-0.2

3.8
4.4
3.8
2.5
5.1
5.3
3.6
2.1
2.3
4.3
2.8
4.5
3.2
3.3
3.2
5.1
3.9
2.4
4.2
3.8
3.6
2.3
4.0
3.7
5.2
4.0
5.7
4.7
2.9
0.6
4.4
3.4
4.0
4.0
4.5
3.1
3.3
0.0
3.1
3.5
2.1
3.9
2.3
4.7
3.7
4.4
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.3
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.6

Part III. Development outcomes

111

Participating in growth

Table

10.1

HIV/AIDS
Estimated prevalence rate (%)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

112

Estimated number of people
living with HIV/AIDS
(thousands)
1990
2000
2009

Point estimate
1990
2000
2009

Adults (ages 15–49)
Low estimate
1990
2000
2009

1990

28
6
23
160
93
33
..
44
31
<1.0
..
63
140
<0.5
5
..
4
<1.0
22
34
1
400
6
3
12
310
15
2
<0.5
76
11
4
590
160
..
6
..
<0.5
2
140
12
9
600
11
870
500
510

140
49
260
150
170
460
..
190
130
<0.1
..
68
640
4
25
..
34
4
250
78
13
1,500
240
52
17
850
91
8
3
750
150
51
2,600
170
..
30
..
21
9
4,200
61
120
1,400
99
980
810
1,700

200
60
320
110
180
610
..
130
210
<0.5
..
77
450
20
25
..
46
18
260
79
22
1,500
290
37
24
920
76
14
9
1,400
180
61
3,300
170
..
59
..
49
34
5,600
..
180
1,400
120
1,200
980
1,200

0.5
0.2
3.5
3.9
3.9
0.6
..
3.1
1.1
<0.1
..
5.2
2.4
0.1
0.3
..
0.9
0.1
0.3
1.1
0.3
3.9
0.8
0.3
0.2
7.2
0.4
0.2
<0.1
1.2
1.6
0.1
1.3
5.2
..
0.2
..
<0.1
0.1
0.7
0.1
2.3
4.8
0.6
10.2
12.7
10.1

1.9
1.4
26.0
2.3
5.2
5.5

2.0
1.2
24.8
1.2
3.3
5.3
..
4.7
3.4
0.1
..
3.4
3.4
5.0
0.8
..
5.2
2.0
1.8
1.3
2.5
6.3
23.6
1.5
0.2
11.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
11.5
13.1
0.8
3.6
2.9
..
0.9
..
1.6
0.7
17.8
1.1
25.9
5.6
3.2
6.5
13.5
14.3

0.2
<0.1
2.9
2.6
3.7
0.3
..
2.0
0.5
<0.1
1.2
3.6
1.3
<0.1
0.1
..
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.1
3.0
0.6
0.1
0.2
3.3
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.9
0.9
0.1
0.2
4.3
..
0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1
0.6
<0.1
1.8
4.3
0.1
8.6
3.4
8.7

1.4
1.2
25.1
1.9
5.1
5.0
..
8.4
2.0
<0.1
1.1
3.5
6.2
1.0
0.9
..
4.1
0.3
2.0
1.1
1.5
8.6
23.0
2.2
0.2
13.0
1.3
0.5
0.2
7.8
12.9
1.0
3.3
3.5
..
0.5
..
0.4
<0.1
15.7
0.1
21.0
6.9
2.8
6.7
13.8
23.8

1.6
1.0
23.8
1.0
2.9
4.9
..
4.2
2.8
0.1
1.2
3.1
3.1
3.5
0.6
..
4.2
1.3
1.6
1.1
2.0
5.8
22.3
1.3
0.2
10.0
0.8
0.6
0.7
10.6
11.1
0.8
3.3
2.5
..
0.7
..
1.4
0.5
17.2
0.9
24.9
5.3
2.5
5.9
12.8
13.4

1.4
3.7
4.2
4.8
4.0
2.4
..
6.2
2.0
<0.1
1.6
6.4
7.2
0.2
0.9
..
1.5
1.7
1.5
7.6
0.4
6.6
1.2
0.6
0.2
10.8
2.0
0.2
0.2
1.5
2.3
0.1
2.1
8.4
..
0.2
..
<0.1
0.3
0.9
0.4
2.7
5.3
1.2
11.5
26.4
11.7

2.4
1.7
27.1
2.7
5.4
6.0
..
11.4
4.0
<0.1
1.5
4.5
7.6
2.5
1.6
..
6.6
1.1
2.6
2.7
2.2
9.6
26.1
4.5
0.2
15.5
2.0
0.7
0.4
9.4
18.1
1.0
4.3
4.6
..
0.7
..
1.6
0.3
16.6
0.5
23.6
8.0
4.3
7.7
15.2
26.1

2.4
1.3
25.8
1.5
3.5
5.8
..
5.2
5.1
0.1
1.6
3.8
3.9
6.6
1.0
..
6.2
2.9
2.0
1.6
3.0
6.5
25.2
1.8
0.3
12.1
1.3
0.9
1.3
12.2
15.5
0.9
4.0
3.3
..
1.0
..
2.1
1.0
18.3
1.4
27.0
6.1
3.8
6.9
14.1
15.4

..
3
<0.5
..
3
<0.2

6
12
3
..
13
<1.0

18
14
11
..
3
2

<0.1
0.9
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
2.9
<0.1

0.1
2.5
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
2.0
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

0.1
..
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
3.5
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
4.1
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

0.1
3.2
<0.1
..
0.2
0.1

Part III. Development outcomes

9.4
3.0
<0.1
...
3.9
6.9
1.5
1.2
...
5.2
0.5
2.3
1.7
1.8
9.0
24.5
3.3
0.2
14.2
1.7
0.6
0.3
8.6
15.3
1.0
3.9
3.8
0.6
0.9
0.2
16.1
0.3
22.3
7.3
3.6
7.3
14.4
24.8

0.1
<0.1

High estimate
2000
2009

HIV/AIDS

Estimated HIV prevalence rate (%)

Point estimate
2009

Young men
(ages 15–24)
Low estimate
2009

High estimate
2009

Point estimate
2009

Young women
(ages 15–24)
Low estimate
2009

High estimate
2009

0.6
0.3
5.2
0.5
1.0
1.6
..
1.0
1.0
0.1
..
1.2
0.7
1.9
0.2
..
1.4
0.9
0.5
0.4
0.8
1.8
5.4
0.3
0.1
3.1
0.2
0.4
0.3
3.1
2.3
0.2
1.2
1.3
..
0.3
..
0.6
0.4
4.5
0.5
6.5
1.7
0.9
2.3
4.2
3.3

0.4
0.2
3.7
0.3
0.8
1.2
..
0.6
0.7
0.1
0.4
0.9
0.5
1.0
0.1
..
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.5
1.3
4.1
0.1
0.1
2.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
2.4
1.3
0.2
0.9
0.9
..
0.2
..
0.3
..
4.1
..
4.8
1.3
0.6
1.8
3.2
2.5

0.9
0.4
7.3
0.6
1.2
2.1
..
1.4
2.0
0.1
0.6
1.6
1.1
3.2
0.3
..
2.0
1.6
0.7
0.6
1.1
2.4
7.4
0.5
0.4
4.2
0.4
1.4
0.4
4.4
3.6
0.3
1.6
1.6
..
0.4
..
1.0
..
5.0
..
8.8
2.3
1.2
2.8
5.5
4.4

1.6
0.7
11.8
0.8
2.1
3.9
..
2.2
2.5
<0.1
..
2.6
1.5
5.0
0.4
..
3.5
2.4
1.3
0.9
2.0
4.1
14.2
0.7
0.1
6.8
0.5
0.3
0.2
8.6
5.8
0.5
2.9
1.9
..
0.7
..
1.5
0.6
13.6
1.3
15.6
3.9
2.2
4.8
8.9
6.9

1.1
0.5
9.0
0.6
1.6
3.1
..
1.4
1.7
<0.1
0.9
2.1
1.1
2.7
0.2
..
2.1
1.4
0.9
0.6
1.5
3.0
11.2
0.2
<0.1
5.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
7.0
3.7
0.4
2.3
1.3
..
0.5
..
0.9
..
12.3
..
12.6
3.1
1.5
4.0
7.3
5.3

2.2
1.1
15.9
1.2
2.7
5.4
..
3.1
5.2
<0.1
1.5
3.6
2.3
7.9
0.7
..
5.2
4.0
1.8
1.3
2.9
5.4
19.2
1.2
0.1
9.2
0.9
0.5
0.3
12.1
8.6
0.6
3.9
2.3
..
1.0
..
2.5
..
15.0
..
21.3
5.3
3.1
6.4
12.0
9.3

0.1
0.8
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
..
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

0.2
..
<0.1
..
0.3
0.1

<0.1
1.9
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1

<0.1
..
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

0.1
..
<0.1
..
0.1
<0.1
(continued)

HIV/AIDS

Part III. Development outcomes

113

Participating in growth

Table

10.1

HIV/AIDS (continued)

Deaths of adults and children due to HIV/AIDS
(thousands)
Point estimate
Low estimate
High estimate
1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

<1.0
<0.2
<1.0
6.7
3.9
<1.0
..
1.0
1.4
<0.1
..
3.0
3.9
<0.1
<0.2
..
<0.2
<0.1
<1.0
1.1
<0.1
10.0
..
<0.1
<1.0
11.0
<0.5
<0.1
<0.1
2.2
<0.5
<0.2
10.0
8.4
..
<0.5
..
<0.1
<0.2
2.9
<1.0
<0.5
21.0
<0.5
37.0
23.0
14.0
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.2
<0.1

9.2 11.0
3.0
2.7
13.0
5.8
15.0
7.1
14.0 15.0
27.0 37.0
..
..
14.0 11.0
7.9 11.0
<0.1 <0.1
..
..
5.7
5.1
48.0 36.0
<0.2 <1.0
1.6
1.7
..
..
1.8
2.4
<0.2 <1.0
15.0 18.0
6.1
4.7
<1.0
1.2
120.0 80.0
12.0 14.0
3.5
3.6
1.3
1.7
64.0 51.0
6.9
4.4
<0.5 <1.0
<0.1 <0.5
36.0 74.0
6.7
6.7
2.9
4.3
200.0 220.0
15.0
4.1
..
1.6
2.6
..
<1.0
2.8
<0.5
..
170.0 310.0
3.0
..
5.7
7.0
110.0 86.0
5.6
7.7
89.0 64.0
66.0 45.0
130.0 83.0
<0.2
<1.0
<0.2
..
<1.0
<0.1

<1.0
1.0
<0.5
..
1.2
<0.1

<0.5
5.6
7.7
<0.1
1.7
1.8
<0.5 11.0
2.3
4.1 11.0
4.8
3.1 11.0 12.0
<0.5 22.0 29.0
..
..
..
<1.0 11.0
8.8
<1.0
4.7
8.1
<0.1 <0.1 <0.1
12.0 23.0 26.0
<1.0
4.8
4.1
2.1 34.0 29.0
<0.1 <0.2 <1.0
<0.1 <1.0
1.0
..
..
..
<0.1
1.4
1.6
<0.1 <0.1 <0.5
<0.5 11.0 14.0
<0.5
2.5
3.1
<0.1 <0.5 <1.0
6.7 98.0 61.0
<0.1 10.0 10.0
<0.1
2.0
2.8
<1.0
1.0
1.4
4.1 53.0 38.0
<0.1
3.8
3.0
<0.1 <0.5 <1.0
<0.1 <0.1 <0.5
1.5 28.0 57.0
<0.2
5.1
2.5
<0.1
2.3
3.3
<0.5 110.0 170.0
5.6 12.0 <1.0
..
..
<0.2
1.3
1.9
..
..
<0.1 <0.5
2.1
<0.1 <0.1
..
2.0 140.0 260.0
<0.1 <0.5
..
<0.2
4.7
4.6
16.0 90.0 69.0
<0.1
3.8
5.3
22.0 76.0 49.0
<1.0 55.0 30.0
9.7 110.0 70.0

3.2
18.0
<1.0
11.0
4.7
9.3
..
5.8
2.9
<0.1
26.0
6.2
12.0
<0.1
<1.0
..
<0.5
<1.0
6.9
15.0
<0.1
22.0
<0.2
<0.2
1.4
22.0
4.3
<0.2
<0.2
3.3
<1.0
<0.2
21.0
13.0
..
<0.5
..
<0.1
<1.0
4.3
3.5
<0.5
27.0
2.0
83.0
46.0
19.0

<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1

<0.1
<1.0
<1.0
..
0.5
<0.1

<0.1
<0.5
<0.1
..
<0.5
<0.1

<1.0
<1.0
<0.5
..
<1.0
<0.1

Point estimate
1990 2000 2009

13.0 16.0
2.1
54.0 140.0
5.4
3.7 <0.5
11.0
30.0
16.0 14.0
1.0
45.0
93.0
19.0
9.7
13.0 130.0 140.0
16.0 17.0
10.0 120.0 200.0
33.0 46.0
1.3 100.0 330.0
..
..
..
..
..
20.0 13.0
2.0
69.0 140.0
12.0 15.0
5.1
43.0 120.0
<0.1 <0.1
..
..
<0.1
34.0 40.0
..
..
..
7.1
6.4
6.9
48.0
51.0
65.0 44.0
7.3 230.0 440.0
<0.5
1.4
<0.1
<0.5
4.1
2.5
2.5 <0.5
7.0
19.0
..
..
..
..
..
2.5
3.4 <0.2
6.0
18.0
<1.0
1.2
<0.1
<1.0
2.8
20.0 22.0
1.3
47.0 160.0
14.0
6.9
2.5
36.0
59.0
<1.0
1.6 <0.2
2.2
9.7
140.0 99.0
17.0 710.0 1,200.0
15.0 18.0
<0.1
38.0 130.0
5.7
4.6
<0.1
15.0
52.0
1.5
2.0
6.6
9.4
11.0
77.0 67.0 25.0 380.0 650.0
11.0
6.1 <0.5
29.0
59.0
<1.0
1.0 <0.5
1.3
3.6
<0.2 <1.0
<0.1
<0.2
1.0
45.0 92.0
6.6 180.0 670.0
8.8 11.0 <1.0
23.0
70.0
3.5
5.6 <0.5
13.0
57.0
250.0 260.0 12.0 1,100.0 2,500.0
21.0 97.0 32.0 160.0 130.0
..
..
..
..
2.0
3.5 <1.0
7.3
19.0
..
..
..
..
1.9
3.7
<0.1
1.5
15.0
<1.0
..
..
..
..
210.0 390.0
4.4 430.0 1,900.0
6.5
..
..
..
..
7.1 10.0 <1.0
23.0
69.0
130.0 110.0 53.0 750.0 1,300.0
7.4 10.0 <0.5
19.0
66.0
100.0 80.0 280.0 1,000.0 1,200.0
76.0 60.0
74.0 540.0 690.0
150.0 97.0 29.0 670.0 1,000.0
<0.5
1.3
<0.5
<1.0
<0.1

1.1
1.4
<1.0
..
1.6
<0.2

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

AIDS orphans
(ages 0–17, thousands)
Low estimate
1990
2000 2009

High estimate
1990
2000
2009

<1.0
<0.1
<1.0
5.2
7.7
<1.0
..
1.2
2.1
..
46.0
<0.2
4.0
<0.1
<0.1
..
<0.1
<0.1
<1.0
1.1
<0.1
10.0
<0.1
<0.1
4.0
7.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
2.1
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
19.0
..
<0.5
..
<0.1
..
2.3
..
<0.5
37.0
<0.1
180.0
<0.1
18.0

23.0
3.7
36.0
96.0
98.0
67.0
..
43.0
22.0
..
270.0
31.0
140.0
<0.2
3.2
..
4.1
<0.5
33.0
9.9
1.3
550.0
29.0
7.3
7.3
280.0
11.0
<1.0
<0.1
84.0
17.0
11.0
300.0
130.0
..
5.4
..
<1.0
..
340.0
..
18.0
610.0
8.5
800.0
340.0
550.0

95.0
18.0
71.0
100.0
170.0
270.0
..
110.0
79.0
<0.1
350.0
41.0
330.0
2.5
12.0
..
12.0
1.4
120.0
34.0
7.7
980.0
110.0
34.0
9.3
540.0
36.0
2.7
<0.5
..
50.0
44.0
1,800.0
98.0
..
15.0
..
9.2
..
1,600.0
..
55.0
1,100.0
47.0
1,000.0
570.0
910.0

9.9
95.0 200.0
470.0 110.0
53.0
1.7
59.0 120.0
71.0 180.0 170.0
14.0 150.0 230.0
36.0 210.0 420.0
..
..
..
49.0 100.0 180.0
11.0
79.0 170.0
..
..
<0.1
210.0 430.0 510.0
31.0
72.0
66.0
16.0 410.0 550.0
<0.1
<1.0
6.4
2.6
16.0
28.0
..
..
..
<0.5
9.2
25.0
6.6
6.5
6.5
58.0 110.0 210.0
110.0
97.0 120.0
<0.5
3.1
12.0
40.0 960.0 1,400.0
<0.2
51.0 160.0
<0.5
25.0
76.0
12.0
12.0
14.0
68.0 500.0 780.0
15.0
82.0
93.0
<0.5
1.9
4.8
<0.5
<0.5
<1.0
5.6 150.0
..
1.4
33.0
96.0
<0.5
16.0
73.0
94.0 1,700.0 3,100.0
92.0 240.0 180.0
..
..
..
1.4
9.4
25.0
..
..
..
<0.1
5.1
26.0
..
..
..
7.4 550.0 2,400.0
..
..
..
<1.0
29.0
86.0
75.0 940.0 1,500.0
23.0
39.0
89.0
770.0 1,400.0 1,400.0
210.0 740.0 810.0
53.0 840.0 1,200.0

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

Note: 0 refers to a negligible value that rounds to 0.

114

Part III. Development outcomes

HIV/AIDS

HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretrovirals to
reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission
Share of total
(WHO/UNAIDS methodology, %)
Total
Point estimate
Low estimate
High estimate
2009
2009
2009
2009

3,053
1,703
12,406
2,084
1,837
9,092
61
2,157
989
1
2,232
441
11,064
365
464
6,721
577
885
3,643
783
383
58,591
8,846
377
17
33,156
1,710
68
41
68,248
6,744
1,737
44,723
7,030
11
917
12
637
188,200
245
8,182
58,833
1,451
46,948
47,175
28,208

19
46
>95
32
12
27
..
34
6
..
..
12
54
26
34
..
30
..
27
17
24
73
64
16
..
58
..
..
..
70
88
..
22
65
..
..
..
19
..
88
2
88
70
26
53
69
56

12
29
74
19
9
18
..
23
3
10
4
8
36
16
21
13
20
43
18
11
16
50
48
10
1
40
26
12
33
51
61
25
15
43
..
16
..
12
0
66
1
68
48
15
37
50
41

36
92
>95
60
22
50
..
67
12
33
11
23
95
50
71
40
60
95
53
34
49
95
95
33
5
95
82
37
95
95
95
74
42
95
..
45
..
36
0
95
3
95
95
67
95
95
95

65
63
11
..
90
3

..
10
..
..
..
..

14
6
3
..
13
6

59
21
10
..
49
25

HIV/AIDS

ODA gross disbursements
($ millions)
For social mitigation of HIV/AIDS
For STD control, including HIV/AIDS
2009
2010
2009
2010

96.5
0.5
0.0
1.5
0.3
2.6
0.2
..
0.0
0.0
..
0.3
0.0
0.3
..
0.0
3.7
..
..
0.1
0.0
..
6.1
5.3
0.0
0.0
3.1
0.1
..
..
8.4
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
..
0.2
..
11.4
0.1
0.6
7.1
0.0
7.2
3.4
9.4
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
..
..

77.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.8
3.3
0.0
..
0.5
1.0
..
0.1
..
1.0
..
..
3.5
..
..
0.2
0.1
0.0
5.5
8.6
..
..
2.9
0.1
0.0
..
7.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.1
..
0.2
..
7.2
0.0
0.3
4.4
0.0
2.8
2.0
3.1
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
..
..
..

3,791.1
12.2
22.9
211.8
41.2
30.0
28.4
0.5
4.5
9.2
0.1
27.6
6.9
67.5
0.9
15.7
211.0
3.9
6.2
58.6
6.9
5.9
377.3
29.6
5.1
9.4
150.1
25.4
0.8
0.9
192.1
119.7
13.0
369.1
135.1
0.1
19.0
0.0
13.2
1.3
564.7
12.0
27.2
257.1
17.2
259.0
223.8
71.2
15.4
1.2
0.7
4.2
0.0
5.7
3.0

4,372.8
24.8
30.2
73.9
40.8
16.1
18.2
2.0
10.4
13.3
0.5
71.5
12.7
90.8
1.6
19.5
464.2
2.2
6.5
33.5
7.2
6.8
399.4
47.7
15.3
11.1
123.0
18.9
0.2
2.1
244.8
123.2
6.4
418.8
202.8
0.1
24.8
0.0
21.5
12.5
567.1
45.0
57.9
361.8
11.3
282.6
218.3
106.4
18.4
1.1
1.9
3.8
..
7.2
4.1

Part III. Development outcomes

115

Participating in growth

Table

11.1

Malaria

Population
(millions)
2009 2010

Clinical cases of
malaria reporteda
2009
2010

Reported deaths
due to malaria
2009
2010

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 823.6 844.0 72,099,998 71,412,328 115,380 132,524
Angola
18.6
19.1
2,221,076 2,783,619 10,530
8,114
Benin
8.6
8.8
1,256,708 1,432,095
1,375
964
Botswana
2.0
2.0
14,878
12,196
6
8
Burkina Faso
16.0 16.5 4,399,837 5,409,156
7,982
9,024
Burundi
8.2
8.4
1,764,343 2,919,866
1,183
2,677
Cameroon
19.2
19.6
1,883,199 1,845,691
4,943
4,536
Cape Verde
0.5
0.5
65
47
2
1
Central African Republic
4.3
4.4
175,210
66,484
667
526
Chad
10.9
11.2
182,415
466,034
221
..
Comoros
0.7
0.7
49,679
47,364
..
53
Congo, Dem. Rep.
64.2 66.0
6,749,112 7,439,440 21,168 23,476
Congo, Rep.
3.9
4.0
92,855
0
116
..
Côte d'Ivoire
19.4
19.7
1,847,367
.. 18,156
1,023
Equatorial Guinea
0.7
0.7
78,983
0
23
..
Eritrea
5.1
5.3
21,298
53,750
23
27
Ethiopia
81.2 82.9 3,043,203 4,068,764
1,121
1,581
Gabon
1.5
1.5
112,840
159,313
197
182
Gambia, The
1.7
1.7
479,409
116,353
240
151
Ghana
23.8 24.4 1,899,544 2,642,221
3,378
3,859
Guinea
9.8 10.0
812,471 1,092,554
586
735
Guinea-Bissau
1.5
1.5
143,011
0
369
..
Kenya
39.5 40.5
8,123,689 4,585,712
.. 26,017
Lesotho
2.1
2.2
..
..
..
..
Liberia
3.8
4.0
871,560 2,263,973
1,706
1,422
Madagascar
20.1 20.7
215,110
202,450
348
122
Malawi
14.4
14.9
6,183,816 6,851,108
8,915
8,206
Mali
14.9
15.4 1,633,423 1,018,846
2,331
3,006
Mauritania
3.4
3.5
167,705
238,565
91
211
Mauritius
1.3
1.3
..
..
..
..
Mozambique
22.9 23.4 4,310,086 1,522,577
3,747
3,354
Namibia
2.2
2.3
87,402
25,889
68
63
Niger
15.0 15.5
309,675
620,058
2,159
3,929
Nigeria
154.5 158.4 4,295,686 3,873,463
7,522
4,238
Rwanda
10.3
10.6
1,247,583
638,669
809
670
São Tomé and Príncipe
0.2
0.2
3,922
2,262
23
14
Senegal
12.1
12.4
222,232
0
574
..
Seychelles
0.1
0.1
..
..
..
..
Sierra Leone
5.7
5.9
646,808
934,028
1,734
8,188
Somalia
9.1
9.3
72,362
24,553
45
6
South Africa
49.3 50.0
6,117
8,060
45
83
Sudan
33.0 33.6
2,361,188 1,465,496
1,142
1,023
Swaziland
1.0
1.1
6,639
1,722
13
8
Tanzania
43.5 44.8
40
0
..
..
Togo
5.9
6.0
618,842
617,101
1,556
1,507
Uganda
32.4 33.4
9,775,318 11,084,045
6,296
8,431
Zambia
12.7
12.9 2,976,395 4,229,839
3,862
4,834
Zimbabwe
12.5
12.6
736,897
648,965
108
255
NORTH AFRICA
163.9 166.3
3,019
4,673
3
4
Algeria
35.0 35.5
94
408
..
..
Djibouti
0.9
0.9
2,686
3,962
0
0
Egypt, Arab Rep.
79.7
81.1
94
85
2
2
Libya
6.3
6.4
..
..
..
..
Morocco
31.6 32.0
145
218
1
2
Tunisia
10.4 10.5
..
..
..
..

Children
sleeping under
insecticideUnder-five
treated nets
mortality
(% of children
rate
under age 5)
(per 1,000)
2009 2010
2000–10 b

125
164
118
49
178
143
138
37
161
175
87
172
94
125
125
63
109
75
101
77
134
152
87
92
109
65
98
182
112
15
140
44
150
147
98
81
79
14
180
180
61
104
82
80
106
103
116
83
29
37
93
24
18
37
17

122
161
115
48
176
142
136
36
159
173
86
170
93
123
121
61
106
74
98
74
130
150
85
85
103
62
92
178
111
15
135
40
143
143
91
80
75
14
174
180
57
103
78
92
103
99
111
80
27
36
91
22
17
36
16

Children with
Pregnant
fever receiving women receiving
ODA
any antimalarial two doses of
disbursements
treatment (% of
intermittent
for malaria
children under
preventive
control
age 5 with fever) treatment (%)
($ millions)
b
b
2000–10
2000–09
2009
2010

17.7
20.1
..
9.6
45.2
13.1
..
15.1
9.8
9.3
35.7
6.1
3.0
0.7
48.9
33.1
55.1
49.0
28.2
4.5
35.5
46.7
..
26.4
45.8
56.5
70.2
2.1
..
22.8
34.0
63.7
29.1
69.8
56.2
29.2
..
25.8
11.4
..
25.3
0.6
63.6
56.9
32.8
49.9
17.3

29.3
54.0
..
48.0
17.2
57.8
..
57.0
35.7
62.7
39.1
48.0
36.0
48.6
13.1
9.5
..
63.0
43.0
73.9
51.2
23.2
..
67.2
19.7
30.9
31.7
20.7
..
36.7
20.3
33.0
49.1
10.8
8.4
9.1
..
30.1
7.9
..
35.8
0.6
59.1
33.8
59.6
34.0
23.6

2.5
3.0
..
1.3
..
5.8
..
8.7
..
..
5.1
..
8.3
..
..
..
..
32.5
43.7
2.9
7.4
15.0
..
45.1
6.4
44.5
4.0
..
..
43.1
10.0
0.3
4.9
17.0
59.8
52.2
..
10.3
0.9
..
..
0.5
30.2
18.1
16.2
60.3
6.3

..
19.9
..
..
..
..

..
0.9
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

1,204.4 1,155.1
28.6
30.3
15.1
31.5
..
0.0
21.8
51.3
7.6
22.0
9.6
2.1
..
..
0.0
1.5
0.3
22.7
0.2
4.3
87.5
70.2
0.0
12.1
16.2
58.4
3.4
5.4
0.6
21.6
137.3
56.1
3.9
0.9
6.0
9.0
43.5
71.1
0.0
12.5
1.6
7.0
73.5
71.8
0.0
..
13.0
21.1
26.7
86.3
20.4
29.4
14.7
17.6
0.0
0.5
..
..
26.6
47.3
3.8
1.2
19.5
9.9
318.3
59.3
62.6
33.2
0.0
1.1
27.1
17.5
..
..
4.9
8.5
1.2
5.2
0.0
..
13.3
33.1
2.6
1.4
96.4
96.0
0.3
8.5
54.4
54.9
24.9
20.5
1.8
21.0
0.2
0.1
..
..
0.2
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

a. Malaria cases reported before 2000 can be probable and confirmed or only confirmed, depending on the country.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

116

Part III. Development outcomes

MALARIA

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.1

Aid and debt relief

From all donors
2009
2010

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

44,070
239
682
279
1,083
561
648
196
242
561
50
2,357
283
2,402
31
144
3,819
77
127
1,582
214
147
1,776
122
513
444
771
984
373
155
2,012
326
469
1,657
934
31
1,016
23
448
662
1,075
2,351
56
2,933
499
1,785
1,267
736
3,159
319
167
999
41
930
503

44,589
238
689
156
1,062
630
541
328
261
486
67
3,543
1,312
845
85
161
3,525
104
120
1,693
218
139
1,629
256
1,419
470
1,023
1,089
374
125
1,952
256
745
2,062
1,032
49
928
56
467
498
1,031
2,076
91
2,958
419
1,723
914
732
2,730
198
132
592
9
993
550

Net official development assistance and official aid
($ millions)
From DAC donors
From non-DAC donors
2009
2010
2009
2010

22,564
131
326
223
453
264
268
162
99
356
28
1,099
226
1,721
25
43
1,817
53
22
821
171
51
1,224
71
341
242
435
575
122
64
1,288
247
255
688
520
20
514
12
196
500
861
1,911
19
1,409
362
1,013
701
620
1,965
200
98
580
32
705
350

23,912
150
339
106
456
283
266
248
113
285
22
2,387
1,215
438
79
34
1,927
84
33
900
92
54
1,159
94
703
214
517
684
106
58
1,357
211
381
849
548
33
534
29
200
308
822
1,509
31
1,655
253
1,033
593
521
1,579
143
99
366
17
599
355

191
10
3
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
1
3
0
2
0
15
20
0
1
6
-4
1
5
5
1
2
4
2
21
-2
2
1
2
2
3
0
5
0
0
10
3
61
-1
-1
1
4
2
0
42
12
11
122
1
-98
-6

248
3
1
0
5
0
0
-1
1
-1
16
8
1
2
0
20
35
0
1
4
-2
1
5
3
2
9
2
0
18
-2
4
1
3
3
2
..
14
17
1
8
2
50
1
5
1
4
0
-2
100
-2
8
79
1
11
3

From multilateral donors
2009
2010

16,387
98
353
56
628
297
380
34
143
205
21
1,255
57
678
6
86
1,983
25
105
755
47
95
547
47
171
201
332
408
231
93
723
78
212
967
411
11
497
11
252
152
211
379
38
1,526
136
768
564
115
951
107
58
296
8
323
159

16,376
85
349
51
598
347
274
81
148
202
28
1,147
96
406
6
105
1,562
20
85
789
128
85
464
159
715
246
504
404
250
69
590
44
361
1,210
482
16
379
10
266
181
207
487
60
1,298
165
686
321
209
795
57
25
148
-10
382
192
(continued)

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Part III. Development outcomes

117

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.1

Aid and debt relief (continued)
Net ODA private aid ($ millions)

From all donors

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

From DAC donors

Net ODA aid

From non-DAC donors

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

10,992
3,957
-35
96
2
-27
41
17
6
20
-6
-29
160
-1,889
404
4
241
-294
11
345
-11
-12
595
-3
915
270
39
-26
50
1,628
43
307
17
2,299
81
3
292
39
12
6
1,247
16
-3
204
-86
98
-13
-95
10,730
2,917
50
5,601
1,157
792
54

19,305
289
24
84
9
64
-340
-28
-10
-21
1
-760
-32
-74
42
-1
108
457
-2
720
-10
7
-12
-4
890
104
42
-42
-48
4,029
847
-398
-64
-366
-35
-4
1
124
-13
-16
2,237
29
-6
94
-24
66
45
30
6,727
530
-49
4,896
-437
2,167
-533

10,980
3,957
-35
96
2
-27
41
17
6
20
-6
-29
160
-1,889
404
4
240
-294
11
345
-11
-12
595
-3
915
270
39
-27
50
1,628
43
307
17
2,299
81
3
292
39
12
6
1,247
5
-3
204
-86
98
-13
-95
10,653
2,915
50
5,566
1,119
790
53

19,275
289
24
84
9
64
-340
-28
-10
-21
1
-760
-32
-74
42
-1
108
457
-2
719
-10
7
-12
-4
890
104
42
-42
-48
4,029
847
-398
-64
-366
-35
-4
-19
124
-13
-16
2,229
29
-6
94
-24
66
45
30
6,685
529
-49
4,880
-447
2,160
-540

12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
0
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
78
2
..
35
38
2
1

Share of GDP (%)

Per capita ($)

Share of gross capital
formation (%)

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

30
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
0
..
..
..
1
..
20
..
..
..
8
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
42
1
..
16
10
7
8

4.6
0.3
10.4
2.4
13.0
30.9
2.9
12.2
12.2
7.9
9.4
21.0
3.0
10.4
0.3
7.7
12.0
0.7
13.0
6.1
5.2
17.6
5.8
7.2
58.3
5.2
16.3
11.0
12.3
1.8
20.8
3.7
8.9
1.0
17.8
15.5
8.0
2.7
24.2
..
0.4
4.3
1.9
13.7
15.8
11.3
9.9
12.6
0.6
0.2
15.9
0.5
0.1
1.0
1.2

4.0
0.3
10.5
1.1
12.0
31.1
2.4
19.8
13.2
5.7
12.4
27.0
10.9
3.7
0.6
7.6
11.9
0.8
11.5
5.3
4.6
16.7
5.1
11.8
143.7
5.4
20.2
11.6
10.4
1.3
21.2
2.3
13.8
1.1
18.4
24.5
7.2
5.8
24.5
..
0.3
3.1
2.5
12.9
13.2
10.0
5.7
9.8
0.5
0.1
..
0.3
..
1.1
1.2

53.51
12.86
79.29
140.88
67.74
68.7
33.81
397.87
56.05
51.27
70.48
36.71
71.87
124.11
46.23
28.19
47.04
52.26
75.8
66.39
21.96
98.75
45.01
56.95
133.62
22.06
53.41
66.02
110.57
121.54
88.04
145.19
31.34
10.73
90.54
187.74
83.94
260.72
78.1
72.55
21.79
71.3
53.69
67.39
84.47
55.14
99.58
59.02
19.28
9.12
191.16
12.53
6.56
29.39
48.16

52.8
12.48
77.87
77.8
64.51
75.15
27.58
661.07
59.31
43.29
91.49
53.71
324.58
42.81
120.95
30.56
42.5
69.08
69.54
69.39
21.81
91.95
40.2
118.01
355.34
22.69
68.64
70.83
108.22
97.8
83.43
112.31
48
13.02
97.16
298.07
74.61
647.67
79.56
53.32
20.61
61.77
86.64
65.97
69.49
51.56
70.74
58.26
16.41
5.59
148.8
7.3
1.34
31.06
52.17

23.6
2.1
41.0
7.6
..
164.3
..
31.3
113.6
24.2
76.0
73.3
13.1
91.8
0.6
..
53.2
2.6
72.1
26.6
24.2
..
29.9
25.5
237.0
15.9
65.6
..
40.3
8.3
100.4
13.0
..
..
82.3
..
28.5
12.3
156.8
..
2.0
17.1
17.2
47.4
87.6
46.8
44.7
581.5
1.8
0.5
..
2.8
..
2.9
4.7

20.8
2.3
40.3
3.6
..
172.6
..
42.2
..
17.4
..
..
53.3
26.8
2.1
..
55.2
3.0
59.0
19.6
23.0
..
26.2
42.0
416.4
..
81.7
..
37.9
5.4
85.9
9.0
..
..
87.4
..
24.9
..
155.1
..
1.5
13.3
22.3
44.7
69.9
42.7
25.2
329.9
1.5
0.3
..
1.4
..
3.1
4.7

a. As of end-July 2011.

118

Part III. Development outcomes

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Net ODA aid

Share of imports of
goods and services (%)

Food aid shipments (thousands of tonnes)

Share of central
government
expenditures (%)

Cereal

Non-cereal

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

11.6
0.5
29.5
5.2
53.2
104.3
9.3
16.9
..
..
..
..
..
24.2
..
..
42.0
..
35.2
13.8
13.6
47.9
15.4
5.4
27.7
..
34.8
29.6
..
2.8
40.9
5.9
17.7
2.6
61.0
29.1
18.1
1.9
65.8
..
1.2
18.5
2.0
37.1
28.1
31.0
27.9
..
1.7
0.6
28.1
1.8
0.1
2.3
2.2

9.8
0.5
..
2.5
..
101.8
8.0
27.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.3
..
36.4
11.7
11.5
..
11.8
9.0
78.6
..
..
..
..
2.0
39.7
4.0
..
2.2
60.8
36.3
..
4.5
49.8
..
0.9
15.1
3.0
31.6
..
25.6
13.0
..
1.3
0.4
26.5
0.9
0.0
2.4
2.1

..
..
68.1
..
102.5
..
..
44.8
..
..
..
111.8
..
58.5
..
..
..
..
..
33.8
..
..
27.8
..
..
..
..
74.9
..
8.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.1
104.5
..
1.2
..
..
..
100.5
86.8
56.5
..
..
0.9
..
1.8
..
3.7
4.3

..
..
69.5
..
99.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
196.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
91.6
..
32.9
..
..
..
..
1.0
..
3.6
4.6

3,305
0
17
0
22
48
9
18
17
100
8
151
4
30
0
0
1,036
0
2
38
11
2
217
6
22
21
91
23
28
0
166
0
41
0
22
5
14
0
15
318
0
433
2
24
25
121
12
185
33
12
21
1
..
0
0

3,262
4
18
0
40
31
14
16
8
108
0
165
7
21
0
0
1,364
0
18
7
4
4
240
6
25
21
35
19
37
0
78
1
154
0
7
3
23
0
22
71
0
473
17
37
2
77
6
79
30
19
8
3
..
0
0

469
0
2
0
6
15
1
1
5
10
0
39
3
4
0
0
85
0
2
1
4
0
53
1
4
2
6
7
2
0
3
0
7
0
7
0
5
0
2
44
0
79
0
5
0
16
4
44
12
9
2
1
..
0
0

103
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
41
0
5
0
0
3
1
0
3
5
3
6
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
18
0
1
1
0
3
0
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
0
0
..
0
0

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Debt Initiative

Decision
pointa

In nominal terms
Debt service Assistance Total HIPC
delivered
and MDRI
relief
Completion committed under MDRI assistance
($ millions)a ($ millions)a ($ millions)a
pointa

..
Jul. 2000
..
Jul. 2000
Aug. 2005
Oct. 2000
..
Sep. 2007
May 2001
Jun. 2010
Jul. 2003
Mar. 2006
Mar. 2009
..
..
Nov. 2001
..
Dec. 2000
Feb. 2002
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
..
..
Mar. 2008
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Sep. 2000
Feb. 2000
..
Apr. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
..
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Jun. 2000
..
Mar. 2002
..
..
..
..
Apr. 2000
Nov. 2008
Feb. 2000
Dec. 2000
..

..
Mar. 2003
..
Apr. 2002
Jan. 2009
Apr. 2006
..
Jun. 2009
..
..
Jul. 2010
Jan. 2010
..
..
..
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2007
Jul. 2004
..
Dec. 2010
..
..
Jun. 2010
Oct. 2004
Aug. 2006
Mar. 2003
Jun. 2002
..
Sep. 2001
..
Apr. 2004
..
Apr. 2005
Mar. 2007
Apr. 2004
..
Dec. 2006
..
..
..
..
Nov. 2001
Dec. 2010
May. 2000
Apr. 2005
..

..
460
..
930
1,366
4,917
..
804
260
136
15,222
1,738
3,415
..
..
3,275
..
112
3,500
800
790
..
..
4,600
1,900
1,628
895
1,100
..
4,300
..
1,190
..
1,316
263
850
..
994
..
..
..
..
3,000
360
1,950
3,900
..

..
1,136
..
1,217
102
1,285
..
301
..
..
1,051
204
..
..
..
3,280
..
383
3,868
..
146
..
..
266
2,393
1,577
1,992
883
..
2,032
..
1,062
..
512
69
2,470
..
665
..
..
..
..
3,810
713
3,493
2,747
..

..
1,596
..
2,147
1,468
6,202
..
1,105
260
136
16,273
1,941
3,415
..
..
6,555
..
495
7,368
800
790
..
..
4,866
4,293
3,205
2,887
1,983
..
6,332
..
2,252
..
1,827
333
3,320
..
1,659
..
..
..
..
6,810
360
5,443
6,647
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

119

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.2

Status of Paris Declaration indicators
PDI-1

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angolad
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.d
Côte d'Ivoired
Equatorial Guinead
Eritread
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinead
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritiusd
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychellesd
Sierra Leone
Somaliad
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwed
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriad
Djiboutid
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libyad
Morocco
Tunisiad

PDI-2

PDI-3

Operational
national
development
strategiesa
2010

Reliable public
financial
managementb
2010

..
B
B
C
D
C
D
D
D
D
D
..
..
..
..
B
D
C
B
..
D
B
C
D
D
B
C
C
..
B
C
C
B
A
D
C
..
C
..
B
B
D
A
B
B
B
..

..
3.5
..
4.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
..
..
..
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
..
2.5
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
C
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
43
63
84
52
84
51
0
43
97
53
..
..
..
..
48
92
33
93
..
39
72
66
5
46
90
66
..
..
90
43
85
..
71
91
67
..
52
..
0
35
..
92
89
96
52
..

..
82
65
49
53
34
40
83
90
54
34
..
..
..
..
86
50
68
59
..
82
42
96
77
82
66
62
72
..
28
48
55
80
92
73
80
..
86
..
88
78
83
26
37
76
79
..

..
29
65
53
23
11
29
29
7
15
13
..
..
..
..
69
32
12
60
..
15
58
38
42
12
66
32
31
..
47
9
29
33
50
7
29
..
37
..
25
14
4
79
54
66
52
..

..
40
53
60
31
23
79
29
5
30
9
..
..
..
..
55
30
33
56
..
8
38
42
32
13
62
36
34
..
56
14
23
36
64
43
38
..
21
..
30
8
12
72
47
43
54
..

..
..
B
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
24
..
98
..

..
..
78
..
81
..

..
..
49
..
86
..

..
..
56
..
71
..

Reliable country
procurement
systemsc
2007

Government
budget estimates
comprehensive
and realistic (%)
2010

PDI-4
PDI-5
Technical
Aid for government Aid for government
assistance aligned sectors uses country
sectors uses
and coordinated
public financial
of country
with country
management
procurement
programs (%)
systems (%)
systems (%)
2010
2010
2010

Note: See technical notes for further details. PDI is a Paris Declaration Indicator.
a. Ratings range from A to E, where A means the development strategy substantially achieves good practices; B means it is largely developed toward achieving good practices; C means it
reflects action taken toward achieving good practices; D means it incorporates some elements of good practice; and E means it reflects little action toward achieving good practices.
b. Ratings range from 1 (low) to 6 (high).
c. Ratings range from A (high) to D (low). Indicator was not collected in 2005.
d. Did not take part in the Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration.

120

Part III. Development outcomes

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

PDI-6
Project
implementation
units parallel to
country structures
(number)
2010

PDI-8

PDI-9

Aid disbursements
on schedule
and recorded by
government (%)
2010

Bilateral aid that
is untied (%)
2010

Aid provided in
the framework of
program-based
approaches (%)
2010

Donor missions
coordinated (%)
2010

Country analysis
coordinated (%)
2010

..
40
53
60
31
23
79
29
5
30
9
..
..
..
..
55
30
33
56
..
8
38
42
32
13
62
36
34
..
56
14
23
36
64
43
38
..
21
..
30
8
12
72
47
43
54
..

..
18
0
75
48
36
55
0
84
11
59
..
..
..
..
86
28
8
67
..
22
45
25
2
59
96
34
..
..
84
0
72
92
74
71
62
..
58
..
93
36
94
97
46
74
0
..

..
97
95
98
90
95
41
91
80
100
93
..
..
..
..
86
100
55
92
..
86
90
96
92
92
88
88
55
..
90
99
84
100
97
90
95
..
94
..
99
88
92
96
98
95
98
..

..
50
12
50
49
28
33
0
11
19
37
..
..
..
..
61
18
12
57
..
31
36
43
12
9
51
44
27
..
51
14
41
47
67
17
42
..
34
..
61
1
25
60
35
49
45
..

..
19
5
18
14
12
21
26
12
9
22
..
..
..
..
25
12
8
15
..
17
28
12
12
7
22
17
23
..
15
17
3
11
44
13
25
..
14
..
52
12
18
26
12
24
27
..

..
61
62
48
33
40
48
26
41
20
36
..
..
..
..
52
46
54
42
..
44
56
54
43
29
51
40
50
..
35
60
34
26
82
33
54
..
34
..
39
38
23
48
43
56
50
..

..
D
C
C
D
B
C
C
D
D
C
..
..
..
..
B
D
D
C
..
D
B
C
C
D
C
C
C
..
C
C
C
C
C
D
C
..
C
..
B
C
D
B
C
C
C
..

..
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
..
..
..
..
Yes
No
No
Yes
..
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
..
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
..
No
..
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
..

..
..
56
..
71

..
..
69
..
79

..
..
82
..
57

..
..
49
..
59

..
..
20
..
19

..
..
38
..
44

..
..
B
..
..

..
..
No
..
Yes

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

PDI-7

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

PDI-10

PDI-11
Existence of
a monitorable
performance
assessment
frameworka
2010

PDI-12
Existence
of a mutual
accountability
review
2010

Part III. Development outcomes

121

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.3

Capable states
Firms that believe
the court system is
fair, impartial, and
uncorrupt (%)
2009–11b

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Investment climate
Viewed by firms as major or very
severe constraints (% of firms)
Crime, theft,
Corruption
and disorder
b
2009–11
2009–11b

23.6
..
6.4
..
..
..
..
8.9
..
..
33.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

75.6
..
27.4
..
..
..
..
41.4
..
..
72.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1.5
..
1.5
..
..
..
..
25.6
..
..
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

Number of
procedures
2011

655
1,011
795
625
446
832
800
425
660
743
506
610
560
770
553
405
620
1,070
434
487
276
1,715
465
785
1,280
871
312
620
370
645
730
270
545
457
230
1,185
780
915
515
..
600
810
972
462
588
490
471
410
788
630
1,225
1,010
..
510
565

Enforcing contracts
Time required
(days)
2011

50
44
65
28
82
39
47
20
82
46
89
152
53
42
19
23
15
34
38
23
45
25
47
20
35
42
94
52
23
17
143
36
60
32
79
51
27
15
150
..
33
20
56
14
48
45
39
113
26
22
34
26
..
25
22

Cost
(% of claim)
2011

39.0
46.0
42.0
28.0
37.0
44.0
43.0
37.0
43.0
41.0
43.0
43.0
44.0
33.0
40.0
39.0
37.0
38.0
33.0
36.0
49.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
41.0
38.0
42.0
36.0
46.0
36.0
30.0
33.0
39.0
40.0
24.0
43.0
43.0
37.0
39.0
..
29.0
53.0
40.0
38.0
41.0
38.0
35.0
38.0
41.0
45.0
40.0
41.0
..
40.0
39.0

a. Average of the disclosure, director liability, and shareholder suits indexes.
b. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

122

Part III. Development outcomes

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Regulation and tax administration

Disclosure
index
2011

5
5
6
7
6
8
6
1
6
6
6
3
6
6
6
4
4
6
2
7
6
6
3
2
4
5
4
6
5
6
5
5
6
5
7
3
6
4
6
..
8
0
2
3
6
2
3
8
6
6
5
8
..
7
5

Protecting investors
(0 least desirable to 10 most desirable)
Director liability
Shareholder
Investor protection
index
suits index
indexa
2011
2011
2011

4
6
1
8
1
6
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
5
4
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
6
7
1
3
8
4
5
1
7
9
1
1
8
7
..
8
6
5
4
1
5
6
1
4
6
2
3
..
2
7

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

5
6
3
3
4
4
6
6
5
3
5
4
3
3
4
5
5
3
5
6
1
5
10
8
6
6
5
4
3
9
9
6
3
5
3
6
2
5
6
..
8
4
6
8
4
5
7
4
4
4
0
5
..
6
6

4.5
5.7
3.3
6.0
3.7
6.0
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.7
4.7
4.3
3.3
2.7
6.0
2.7
4.0
5.0
3.7
3.7
5.7
5.3
3.7
3.7
7.7
6.0
5.3
3.3
5.7
6.3
3.3
3.0
5.7
6.3
..
8.0
3.3
4.3
5.0
3.7
4.0
5.3
4.3
4.8
5.3
2.3
5.3
..
5.0
6.0

Number of tax
payments
2011

Time required
to prepare, file,
and pay taxes
(hours)
2011

37
31
55
19
46
24
44
41
54
54
20
32
61
62
46
18
19
26
50
33
56
46
41
21
33
23
19
59
37
7
37
37
41
35
18
42
59
21
29
..
9
42
33
48
53
32
37
49
24
29
35
29
..
17
8

318
282
270
152
270
274
654
186
504
732
100
336
606
270
492
216
198
488
376
224
416
208
393
324
158
201
157
270
696
161
230
375
270
938
148
424
666
76
357
..
200
180
104
172
270
213
132
242
270
451
82
433
..
238
144

Total tax rate
(% of profit)
2011

57.09
53.2
66.0
19.4
43.6
46.2
49.1
37.8
54.6
65.4
217.9
339.7
65.9
44.3
46.0
84.5
31.1
43.5
283.5
33.6
54.3
45.9
49.6
16.0
43.7
36.6
28.2
51.8
68.3
25.0
34.3
9.8
43.8
32.7
31.3
32.5
46.0
32.2
32.1
..
33.1
36.1
36.8
45.5
49.5
35.7
14.5
35.6
53.4
72.0
38.7
43.6
..
49.6
62.9

Extractive Industries
Transparency
Initiative status
2011

Candidate
Candidate
Compliant
Candidate
Candidate
Candidate
Candidate

Candidate
Compliant
Candidate

Compliant
Suspended
Compliant
Compliant
Candidate
Compliant
Compliant

Candidate

Candidate
Candidate
Candidate

Part III. Development outcomes

123

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.4

Governance and anticorruption indicators
Governance indicatorsa

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

Voice and
accountability
1996
2010

Political stability
and absence
of violence
1996
2010

Government
effectiveness
1996
2010

Regulatory
quality
1996
2010

Rule of law
1996
2010

Control of
corruption
1996
2010

-1.6
0.1
0.9
-0.8
-1.6
-1.0
0.7
-0.9
-1.0
-0.7
-1.7
-1.0
-0.6
-1.5
-1.5
-1.1
-0.3
-1.3
-0.4
-1.4
-1.1
-0.6
-0.7
-1.5
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
-0.5
0.8
-0.3
0.4
-1.7
-1.7
-1.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.7
-2.1
0.8
-1.9
-1.3
-0.7
-1.0
-0.9
-0.4
-0.7

-1.1
0.3
0.4
-0.2
-0.9
-1.1
0.9
-1.1
-1.4
-0.4
-1.4
-1.0
-1.1
-1.9
-2.2
-1.3
-0.9
-1.1
0.5
-0.9
-0.9
-0.2
-0.2
-0.2
-0.8
-0.2
0.2
-0.9
0.7
-0.1
0.3
-0.6
-0.8
-1.3
0.1
-0.3
0.1
-0.2
-2.0
0.5
-1.7
-1.3
-0.1
-1.0
-0.5
-0.3
-1.5

-2.1
1.0
0.9
-0.4
-2.3
-1.1
1.0
-1.2
-1.0
0.4
-2.8
-1.3
-0.1
-0.3
-0.9
-1.0
0.0
0.4
-0.3
-1.2
-1.6
-0.8
0.2
-2.6
0.1
-0.5
0.3
0.3
0.9
-0.2
0.7
-0.2
-1.2
-2.1
1.0
-0.7
1.0
-2.0
-2.7
-0.5
-2.5
-0.1
-0.7
-0.5
-1.6
-0.2
-0.5

-0.2
0.3
0.9
-0.1
-1.5
-0.6
0.8
-2.1
-1.5
-0.4
-2.2
-0.2
-1.6
0.2
-0.9
-1.7
0.2
0.1
0.0
-1.8
-0.8
-1.2
0.5
-0.5
-1.1
0.1
-0.3
-1.3
0.5
0.3
0.8
-1.1
-2.0
-0.1
0.1
-0.4
0.8
-0.2
-3.1
0.0
-2.7
-0.1
0.0
-0.2
-1.1
0.5
-1.2

-0.8
-0.4
0.5
-1.0
-1.7
-1.0
..
-1.5
-0.7
-1.7
-1.7
-1.2
-0.1
-1.1
-1.2
-1.3
-0.3
-0.6
-0.1
-1.2
-1.5
-0.3
-0.1
-1.9
-0.6
-0.5
-1.2
-0.1
0.3
-0.1
0.5
-1.2
-1.0
-1.2
-0.4
0.0
0.6
-1.5
-2.1
0.9
-1.1
-0.7
-0.7
-0.8
-0.7
-1.1
-0.2

-1.1
-0.5
0.5
-0.6
-1.1
-0.9
-0.1
-1.4
-1.5
-1.7
-1.7
-1.2
-1.3
-1.7
-1.4
-0.3
-0.9
-0.7
0.0
-1.1
-1.0
-0.5
-0.4
-1.2
-0.8
-0.4
-0.9
-0.9
0.8
-0.5
0.1
-0.7
-1.2
-0.1
-0.7
-0.5
0.2
-1.2
-2.2
0.3
-1.4
-0.5
-0.5
-1.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.6

-1.5
-0.2
0.7
-0.3
-1.7
-1.1
-0.6
-0.9
-1.3
-1.2
-1.8
-1.3
-0.5
-1.6
-1.2
-1.3
0.1
-0.9
-0.4
-0.7
-0.8
-0.4
-0.4
-2.0
-1.0
-0.3
-0.5
-0.5
0.0
-0.5
0.4
-1.1
-0.8
-1.5
-0.7
-0.2
0.3
-1.6
-2.5
0.4
-1.4
-0.2
-0.4
-0.4
0.2
-0.4
-1.0

-1.0
-0.3
0.5
-0.1
-1.1
-0.7
-0.1
-1.1
-1.1
-1.5
-1.6
-1.3
-0.9
-1.4
-2.2
-0.9
-0.6
-0.4
0.1
-1.1
-1.1
-0.1
-0.6
-1.1
-0.6
-0.6
-0.5
-0.8
0.8
-0.4
0.1
-0.5
-0.8
-0.2
-0.8
-0.3
-0.6
-0.7
-2.4
0.4
-1.4
-0.6
-0.4
-0.9
-0.1
-0.5
-2.0

-1.6
-0.1
0.5
-0.9
-1.5
-1.4
0.5
-1.5
-0.9
-1.1
-1.9
-1.5
-0.8
-1.0
-0.3
-0.8
-0.5
0.1
-0.3
-1.5
-2.1
-1.0
0.1
-2.2
-0.6
-0.4
-0.5
-0.3
0.9
-0.8
0.3
-1.0
-1.2
-1.5
0.2
-0.2
1.0
-1.5
-2.3
0.0
-1.6
-0.6
-0.2
-0.7
-0.6
-0.6
-0.7

-1.2
-0.7
0.7
-0.2
-1.2
-1.0
0.4
-1.3
-1.5
-1.1
-1.6
-1.1
-1.2
-1.3
-1.3
-0.8
-0.5
-0.5
-0.1
-1.5
-1.4
-1.0
-0.3
-1.0
-0.8
-0.1
-0.5
-0.9
0.8
-0.5
0.2
-0.6
-1.2
-0.3
-0.7
-0.4
0.0
-0.9
-2.4
0.1
-1.3
-0.5
-0.5
-0.9
-0.4
-0.5
-1.8

-1.2
-0.9
0.6
0.2
-1.4
-1.2
..
-1.4
-0.9
-0.9
-2.1
-1.1
0.2
-1.3
0.4
-1.2
-1.0
-0.4
-0.2
-0.5
-1.1
-1.0
-0.5
-1.7
0.2
-0.2
-0.4
0.0
0.5
-0.4
0.7
-1.1
-1.2
-0.9
0.0
-0.2
0.9
-0.8
-1.7
0.8
-1.3
0.0
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-1.0
-0.3

-1.3
-0.8
1.0
-0.4
-1.1
-1.0
0.8
-0.8
-1.3
-0.7
-1.4
-1.1
-1.1
-1.5
-0.5
-0.7
-0.8
-0.6
0.1
-1.2
-1.1
-0.9
0.2
-0.5
-0.3
-0.4
-0.7
-0.7
0.7
-0.4
0.3
-0.7
-1.0
0.5
-0.4
-0.7
0.3
-0.8
-1.7
0.1
-1.3
-0.2
-0.5
-1.0
-0.9
-0.6
-1.4

-1.3
-1.0
-0.7
-1.4
-0.4
-0.5

-1.0
-1.1
-1.2
-1.9
-0.8
-1.3

-2.0
-0.4
-0.6
-1.0
-0.3
0.1

-1.3
0.3
-0.9
-0.1
-0.5
0.1

-0.9
-0.9
-0.1
-0.9
0.0
0.4

-0.6
-1.0
-0.4
-1.2
-0.2
0.2

-0.8
-1.0
0.0
-1.8
-0.2
0.0

-1.1
-0.7
-0.2
-1.2
-0.1
0.0

-1.2
-0.8
0.1
-0.9
0.3
-0.1

-0.8
-0.7
-0.1
-1.0
-0.2
0.1

-0.5
-0.5
-0.1
-0.8
0.3
-0.2

-0.5
-0.3
-0.6
-1.3
-0.2
-0.1

a. The rating scale for each criterion varies from -2.5 (weak performance) to 2.5 (very high performance).
b. A score of 81-100 indicates that a given country provides extensive information in its budget documents, a score of 61-80 indicates significant information, 41-60 indicates some
information, 21-40 indicates minimal information, and zero-20 indicates scant or no information. In 2008, based on inputs received, the International Budget Partnership (IBP) made three
changes in the methodology applied to its Open Budget Survey, which is the basis for the Open Budget Index (OBI).
c. Data are for the most recent year available during the period specified.

124

Part III. Development outcomes

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Share of firms
(%)
Expected to pay
informal payment
to public officials
to get things done
2010–11c

Expected to give
gifts to obtain an
operating license
2010–11c

Expected to give
gifts in meetings
with tax officials
2010–11c

Expected to give
gifts to secure a
government contract
2010–11c

Identifying
corruption as a
major constraint
2010–11c

48.9
..
7.3
..
..
..
..
41.8
..
..
65.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

39.0
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
5.8
..
..
53.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

34.2
..
8.4
..
..
..
..
16.8
..
..
54.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

58.5
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
40.8
..
..
75.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

75.6
..
27.4
..
..
..
..
41.4
..
..
72.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1.9
2.8
5.8
3.1
1.8
2.2
5.1
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
1.9
2.6
2.7
2.8
3.2
4.1
2.0
2.1
2.1
3.5
3.3
2.6
3.4
2.7
2.3
5.4
2.7
4.4
2.6
2.4
4.0
3.0
2.9
4.8
2.4
1.1
4.5
1.6
3.2
2.7
2.4
2.5
3.0
2.4

2.0
3.0
6.1
3.0
1.9
2.5
5.5
2.2
2.0
2.4
2.0
2.2
2.2
1.9
2.5
2.7
3.0
3.5
3.9
2.1
2.2
2.2
3.5
3.2
3.0
3.0
2.8
2.4
5.1
2.7
4.4
2.5
2.4
5.0
3.0
2.9
4.8
2.5
1.0
4.1
1.6
3.1
3.0
2.4
2.4
3.2
2.2

3.0
..
62.0
14.0
..
5.0
..
..
7.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
49.0
..
..
57.0
..
2.0
..
28.0
..
..
..
..
47.0
26.0
19.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
..
..
..
87.0
0.0
..
35.0
..
51.0
47.0

26.0
..
51.0
5.0
..
2.0
..
..
0.4
..
6.0
..
..
0.0
..
..
..
..
54.0
..
..
49.0
..
40.0
..
47.0
35.0
..
..
28.0
53.0
3.0
18.0
11.0
0.0
3.0
..
..
..
92.0
8.0
..
45.0
..
55.0
36.0
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

2.9
3.2
3.1
2.2
3.4
4.3

2.9
3.0
2.9
2.0
3.4
3.8

..
1.0
43.0
..
27.0
..

1.0
..
49.0
..
28.0
..

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Mean corruption
perceptions index score
(0 low to 10 high)
2010
2011

Open Budget Index
overall scoreb
2008
2011

Part III. Development outcomes

125

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.5

Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings

CPIA overall rating (IDA
resource allocation index)a
2009
2011

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswanac
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guineac
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiac
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somaliad
South Africac
Sudan
Swazilandc
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriac
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.c
Libyac
Moroccoc
Tunisiac

126

Averageb
2009

2011

Economic management
Macroeconomic
management
Fiscal policy
2009
2011
2009
2011

Debt policy
2009
2011

3.2
2.8
3.5
..
3.8
3.1
3.2
4.2
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.7
2.8
2.8
..
2.2
3.4
..
3.3
3.8
2.8
2.6
3.7
3.5
2.8
3.5
3.4
3.7
3.2
..
3.7
..
3.3
3.5
3.8
2.9
3.7
..
3.2
..
..
2.5
..
3.8
2.8
3.9
3.4
1.9

3.2
2.7
3.5
..
3.8
3.1
3.2
4.0
2.8
2.4
2.7
2.7
3.0
2.9
..
2.2
3.5
..
3.5
3.9
2.9
2.8
3.8
3.4
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.6
3.2
..
3.7
..
3.4
3.4
3.8
3.1
3.8
..
3.3
..
..
2.4
..
3.7
3.0
3.8
3.5
2.2

3.4
3.0
3.7
..
4.3
3.3
3.7
4.5
3.0
2.5
2.3
3.2
3.0
2.8
..
1.8
3.7
..
3.5
3.7
2.3
2.2
4.2
4.0
3.2
3.7
3.2
4.3
3.2
..
4.5
..
3.8
4.3
3.8
2.8
4.0
..
3.7
..
..
2.7
..
4.3
2.8
4.5
3.5
1.7

3.4
3.0
3.5
..
4.2
3.2
3.7
3.8
3.3
2.5
2.5
3.2
3.5
2.8
..
1.8
3.7
..
3.5
3.8
2.8
3.0
4.2
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.2
4.2
3.3
..
4.5
..
3.8
4.0
3.8
2.8
4.0
..
3.7
..
..
2.3
..
4.2
3.2
4.2
3.7
1.8

3.6
3.0
4.0
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
2.0
3.5
..
4.0
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.5
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
3.5
..
4.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
4.0
..
..
3.5
..
4.5
3.0
4.5
4.0
2.0

3.6
3.0
4.0
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
2.0
3.0
..
4.0
4.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
4.5
3.5
..
4.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
4.0
..
..
3.0
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
2.0

3.4
3.0
3.5
..
4.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
..
2.0
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
2.5
..
4.5
..
3.5
4.5
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
3.0
..
4.5
3.0
4.5
3.0
2.0

3.4
3.0
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
2.0
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
..
4.5
..
3.5
4.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
2.0

3.2
3.0
3.5
..
4.0
3.0
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
..
1.5
3.5
..
3.0
4.0
2.0
1.5
4.0
4.0
2.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
3.5
..
4.5
..
4.0
4.5
3.5
2.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
1.5
..
4.0
2.5
4.5
3.5
1.0

3.3
3.0
3.5
..
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.5
2.0
..
1.5
4.0
..
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.5
4.5
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.0
..
4.5
..
4.0
4.0
3.5
2.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
1.5
..
4.0
3.0
4.5
3.5
1.5

..
3.2
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.0
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.0
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
2.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

Part III. Development outcomes

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Structural policies
Averageb

Trade

Financial sector
2009
2011

Business regulatory environment
2009
2011

2009

2011

2009

2011

3.2
2.8
3.7
..
3.5
3.0
3.2
3.8
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.5
3.0
3.3
..
1.5
3.2
..
3.3
4.0
3.3
3.2
4.0
3.3
2.8
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.3
..
3.7
..
3.3
3.5
3.8
3.0
3.8
..
3.2
..
..
2.7
..
3.8
3.2
3.8
3.5
2.2

3.2
2.7
3.7
..
3.5
3.2
3.2
4.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.3
..
1.5
3.2
..
3.7
4.2
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.2
2.8
3.3
3.0
3.5
3.2
..
3.5
..
3.2
3.5
3.8
3.2
4.0
..
3.2
..
..
2.5
..
3.8
3.0
4.0
3.7
2.3

3.7
4.0
4.0
..
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
1.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
..
4.5
..
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0

3.6
3.5
4.0
..
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
..
1.5
3.0
..
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
4.0
4.5
4.0
3.0

3.0
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
3.0
3.0
..
1.0
3.0
..
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
1.5

3.0
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
..
1.0
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
2.5
2.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
2.0

3.1
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
..
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
4.0
2.5
4.0
..
3.0
..
..
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
2.0

3.0
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
..
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
4.5
2.5
2.5
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.0
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
2.0

..
3.7
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
4.0
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Part III. Development outcomes

127

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.5

Country Policy and Institutional Assessment ratings
(continued)

Policies for social inclusion/equity

Averageb
2009
2011

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswanac
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guineac
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibiac
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somaliad
South Africac
Sudan
Swazilandc
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeriac
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.c
Libyac
Moroccoc
Tunisiac

Gender equality
2009
2011

Equity of public
resource use
2009
2011

Building human
resources
2009
2011

Social protection
and labor
2009
2011

Policies and
institutions for
environmental
sustainability
2009
2011

3.1
2.9
3.3
..
3.6
3.3
3.1
4.3
2.5
2.4
2.6
2.8
2.7
2.4
..
2.8
3.6
..
3.3
3.9
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.3
2.5
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.4
..
3.3
..
3.1
3.2
3.9
2.8
3.4
..
3.1
..
..
2.3
..
3.7
2.7
3.8
3.5
1.6

3.2
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
3.5
4.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
2.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.0

3.2
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5

3.2
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
3.5
4.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
2.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.0

3.2
2.5
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
..
2.5
4.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
2.0
4.0
3.5
1.5

3.3
2.5
3.5
..
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
..
2.5
4.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
2.0

3.3
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
..
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
4.5
3.0
2.0
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
4.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
4.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
1.0

3.4
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
3.0
4.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.5
4.5
..
4.0
4.5
3.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.5
3.5
4.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
2.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
..
2.5
3.5
..
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
1.0

3.0
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
4.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
..
2.0
3.5
..
2.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
2.5
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.0

2.9
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
..
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
2.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
2.0

3.1
2.5
3.5
..
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.5
..
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.0
..
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.0

..
3.2
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.0
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.0
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.0
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

Note: The rating scale for each indicator ranges from 1 (low) to 6 (high).
a. Calculated as the average of the average ratings of each cluster.
b. All criteria are weighted equally.
c. Not an International Development Association (IDA) member.
d. Not rated in the IDA resource allocation index.

128

Part III. Development outcomes

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Public sector management and institutions

Averageb

Property rights and
rule-based governance
2009
2011

Quality of budgetary and
financial management
2009
2011

Efficiency of revenue
mobilization
2009
2011

Quality of public
administration
2009
2011

Transparency,
accountability, and
corruption in public sector
2009
2011

2009

2011

3.0
2.4
3.3
..
3.7
2.6
2.9
4.0
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.2
2.6
2.6
..
2.7
3.2
..
2.9
3.8
2.6
2.6
3.3
3.4
2.8
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.0
..
3.4
..
3.1
2.9
3.5
3.1
3.4
..
2.9
..
..
2.2
..
3.5
2.4
3.3
3.2
2.0

3.0
2.3
3.3
..
3.7
2.7
2.9
4.0
2.6
2.2
2.4
2.2
2.6
2.7
..
2.6
3.3
..
3.2
3.7
2.6
2.6
3.3
3.5
2.8
2.8
3.3
3.3
3.0
..
3.4
..
3.2
2.9
3.6
3.1
3.6
..
3.1
..
..
2.2
..
3.3
2.8
3.2
3.1
2.2

2.8
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
..
2.5
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.5
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
..
2.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
3.5
3.0
1.5

2.8
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
2.5
4.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
..
2.5
3.0
..
3.0
3.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
2.5
3.5
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
1.5

3.0
2.5
3.5
..
4.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
..
2.5
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
..
3.5
..
..
2.0
..
3.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
2.0

3.1
2.5
3.5
..
4.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
..
2.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
..
..
2.5
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5

3.4
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
..
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
2.5
..
..
3.0
..
4.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5

3.4
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
..
3.5
4.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.5
..
4.0
..
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
..
3.0
..
..
3.0
..
4.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5

2.9
2.5
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
..
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.5
..
3.5
2.0
3.0
3.0
1.5

2.9
2.0
3.0
..
3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
..
3.0
3.5
..
3.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
2.0
..
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
2.0

2.7
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
2.0
2.5
4.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
..
2.0
2.5
..
2.0
4.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
..
3.0
..
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
..
3.0
..
..
1.5
..
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
1.5

2.8
2.5
3.5
..
3.5
2.0
2.5
4.5
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
..
2.0
3.0
..
2.5
4.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
..
3.0
..
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
..
3.0
..
..
1.5
..
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
1.5

..
2.8
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
2.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.0
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
3.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
2.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

..
2.5
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Part III. Development outcomes

129

Capable states and partnership

Table

12.6

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
NORTH AFRICA
Algeria
Djibouti
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Libya
Morocco
Tunisia

130

Polity indicators

Revised combined polity score
(–10 strongly autocratic to
10 strongly democratic)
1995
2000
2005
2010

Institutionalized democracy
(0 low to 10 high)
1995
2000
2005
2010

-2.0
6.0
7.0
-5.0
0.0
-4.0
8.0
5.0
-4.0
0.0
0.0
5.0
-6.0
-5.0
-6.0
1.0
-4.0
-7.0
-1.0
-1.0
5.0
-5.0
8.0
0.0
9.0
6.0
7.0
-6.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
-6.0
-6.0
..
-1.0
..
-7.0
0.0
9.0
-7.0
-9.0
-1.0
-2.0
-4.0
6.0
-6.0

-3.0
6.0
8.0
-3.0
-1.0
-4.0
8.0
5.0
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
-6.0
4.0
-5.0
-6.0
1.0
-4.0
-5.0
2.0
-1.0
5.0
-2.0
4.0
0.0
7.0
6.0
6.0
-6.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
-4.0
..
8.0
..
0.0
0.0
9.0
-7.0
-9.0
-1.0
-2.0
-4.0
1.0
-3.0

-2.0
6.0
8.0
0.0
6.0
-4.0
10.0
-1.0
-2.0
6.0
4.0
-4.0
0.0
-5.0
-7.0
1.0
-4.0
-5.0
8.0
-1.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
5.0
7.0
6.0
7.0
-5.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
6.0
4.0
-3.0
..
8.0
..
5.0
0.0
9.0
-4.0
-9.0
-1.0
-4.0
-1.0
5.0
-4.0

-2.0
7.0
8.0
0.0
6.0
-4.0
10.0
-1.0
-2.0
9.0
5.0
-4.0
0.0
-5.0
-7.0
1.0
3.0
-5.0
8.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
0.0
6.0
7.0
-2.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
3.0
4.0
-4.0
..
7.0
..
7.0
0.0
9.0
-2.0
-9.0
-1.0
-2.0
-1.0
7.0
1.0

..
6.0
7.0
0.0
..
1.0
8.0
5.0
0.0
..
..
6.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
5.0
0.0
8.0
..
9.0
6.0
7.0
0.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
0.0
0.0
..
2.0
..
0.0
..
9.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
6.0
0.0

1.0
6.0
8.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
8.0
5.0
1.0
1.0
..
0.0
5.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
1.0
5.0
2.0
..
3.0
7.0
6.0
6.0
0.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
6.0
4.0
0.0
..
8.0
..
..
..
9.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
3.0
1.0

2.0
6.0
8.0
2.0
7.0
1.0
10.0
1.0
1.0
6.0
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
8.0
1.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
..
7.0
6.0
7.0
0.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
4.0
0.0
..
8.0
..
5.0
..
9.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
5.0
1.0

2.0
7.0
8.0
2.0
7.0
1.0
10.0
1.0
1.0
9.0
6.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
3.0
4.0
0.0
8.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
3.0
6.0
7.0
0.0
10.0
5.0
6.0
4.0
4.0
0.0
..
7.0
..
8.0
..
9.0
1.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
7.0
3.0

..
0.0
0.0
5.0
..
5.0
0.0
0.0
4.0
..
..
1.0
6.0
5.0
6.0
2.0
4.0
7.0
2.0
2.0
0.0
5.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0
6.0
..
3.0
..
7.0
..
0.0
7.0
9.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
0.0
6.0

4.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
2.0
5.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
2.0
..
6.0
1.0
5.0
6.0
2.0
4.0
5.0
1.0
2.0
0.0
4.0
..
3.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
4.0
..
0.0
..
..
..
0.0
7.0
9.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
2.0
4.0

4.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
5.0
0.0
2.0
3.0
0.0
..
4.0
..
5.0
7.0
2.0
4.0
5.0
0.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
3.0
..
0.0
..
0.0
..
0.0
4.0
9.0
3.0
5.0
2.0
0.0
5.0

4.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
5.0
0.0
2.0
3.0
0.0
1.0
4.0
..
5.0
7.0
2.0
1.0
5.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
4.0
..
0.0
..
1.0
..
0.0
3.0
9.0
3.0
3.0
2.0
0.0
2.0

-3.0
-7.0
-6.0
-7.0
-7.0
-3.0

-3.0
2.0
-6.0
-7.0
-6.0
-3.0

2.0
2.0
-3.0
-7.0
-6.0
-4.0

2.0
2.0
-3.0
-7.0
-6.0
-4.0

1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

1.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

3.0
3.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

3.0
3.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

4.0
7.0
6.0
7.0
7.0
4.0

4.0
1.0
6.0
7.0
6.0
4.0

1.0
1.0
4.0
7.0
6.0
5.0

1.0
1.0
4.0
7.0
6.0
5.0

Part III. Development outcomes

Institutionalized autocracy
(0 low to 10 high)
1995
2000
2005
2010

CAPABLE STATES AND PARTNERSHIP

Technical notes
1. Basic indicators
Table .. Basic indicators
Population is total population based on the de
facto definition of population, which counts
all residents regardless of legal status or
citizenship—except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who
are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values
shown are midyear estimates.
Population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population
from year t–1 to t, expressed as a percentage.
Population is based on the de facto definition
of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship—except
for refugees not permanently settled in the
country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of
origin.
Land area is the land surface area of a
country, excluding area under inland waters,
national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones.
Population density is midyear population
divided by land area in square kilometers.
Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents
regardless of legal status or citizenship—
except for refugees not permanently settled
in the country of asylum, who are generally
considered part of the population of their
country of origin. Land area is a country’s total area, excluding area under inland waters,
national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the
definition of inland waters includes major
rivers and lakes.
Gross national income (GNI) per capita,
World Bank Atlas method, is GNI, calculated
using the World Bank Atlas method (see box

1), divided by midyear population. It is similar in concept to GNI per capita in current
prices, except that the use of three-year averages of exchange rates smooths out sharp
fluctuations from year to year.
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita
is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross
value added by all resident producers in the
economy plus any product taxes and minus
any subsidies not included in the value of
the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated
assets or for depletion and degradation of
natural resources. Dollar figures for GDP are
converted from domestic currencies using
single-year official exchange rates. For a few
countries where the official exchange rate
does not reflect the rate effectively applied
to actual foreign exchange transactions, an
alternative conversion factor is used. Growth
rates are in real terms and have been calculated by the least-squares method using constant 2000 exchange rates (box 2).
Life expectancy at birth is the number of
years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its
birth were to remain the same throughout
its life.
Under-five mortality rate is the probability
that a newborn baby will die before reaching
age 5, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. The probability is expressed as a
rate per 1,000.
Gini index is the most commonly used measure of inequality. The coefficient ranges from
0, which reflects complete equality, to 100,
which indicates complete inequality (one person has all the income or consumption, all
others have none). Graphically, the Gini index
can be easily represented by the area between
the Lorenz curve and the line of equality.
Technical notes

131

Box 2

Growth rates

Growth rates are calculated as annual averages and represented as
percentages. Except where noted, growth rates of values are computed from constant price series. Rates of change from one period
to the next are calculated as proportional changes from the earlier
period. Least squares growth rates are used wherever there is a sufficiently long time series to permit a reliable calculation. No growth
rate is calculated if more than half the observations in a period are
missing. The least squares growth rate, r, is estimated by fitting a linear regression trend line to the logarithmic annual values of the variable in the relevant period. The regression equation takes the form
ln Xt = a + bt

which is equivalent to the logarithmic transformation of the compound growth equation,
X t = Xo(1 + r) 2
In this equation X is the variable, t is time, and a = lnXo and b = ln(1 + r)
are parameters to be estimated. If b* is the least squares estimate of
b, then the average annual growth rate, r, is obtained as [exp(b*) – 1]
and is multiplied by 100 for expression as a percentage. The calculated growth rate is an average rate that is representative of the
available observations over the entire period. It does not necessarily
match the actual growth rate between any two periods.

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of
adults ages 15 and older who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple
statement on their everyday life.
Net official development assistance per capita
is calculated by dividing net disbursements
of loans and grants from all official sources
on concessional financial terms by midyear
population. This indicator shows the importance of aid flows in sustaining per capita income and consumption levels, although exchange rate fluctuations, the actual rise of aid
flows, and other factors vary across countries
and over time.
Regional aggregates for GNI per capita, GDP
per capita, life expectancy at birth, and adult
literacy rates are weighted by population.
Source: Data on population and life expectancy are from the (1) United Nations
Population Division: World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division:
Population and Vital Statistics Report (various
years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics,
(5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6)
U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Data on land are from Food and Agriculture
Organization electronic files and website.
Data on GNI per capita and GDP per capita
are from World Bank national accounts data
and Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD) national accounts
data files. Data on under-five mortality are
from the Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation Level & Trends in Child
132

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

Mortality: Report 2010. Data on Gini index
for developing countries are from the World
Bank Development Research Group and are
based on primary household survey data
obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments
(http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/
index.htm) and for high-income economies
are from the Luxembourg Income Study
database. Data on literacy are from United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization Institute for Statistics. Data on
aid flows are from the OECD Geographic Distribution of Aid Flows to Developing Countries
(www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline).
2. National and fiscal accounts
Africa Development Indicators uses the 1993
System of National Accounts (1993 SNA) to
compile national accounts data since 2001
(see Primary Data Documentation for details). Although more countries are adopting
the 1993 SNA, many still follow the 1968
SNA, and some low-income countries use
concepts from the 1953 SNA.
Reporting periods: For most economies the
fiscal year is concurrent with the calendar
year. However, there are few countries whose
ending date reported is for the fiscal year of
the central government, though fiscal years
for other government levels and reporting
years for statistical surveys may differ. Reporting end dates are as follows for the following countries: Botswana (June 30), Egypt
(June 30), Ethiopia (July 7), The Gambia
(June 30), Kenya (June 30), Lesotho (March
31), Malawi (March 31), Namibia (March 31),
Sierra Leone (June 30), South Africa (March

31), Swaziland (March 31), Uganda (June
30), and Zimbabwe (June 30). The reporting
period for national accounts data is either
calendar year or fiscal year. Most economies
report national accounts and balance of payments data using calendar years, but some
report on fiscal years. Fiscal year data are assigned to calendar year that contains the larger share of the fiscal year. If a country’s fiscal
year ends before June 30, data are shown in
that first year of the fiscal year; if the fiscal
year ends on or after June 30, data are shown
in the second year if the period. Balance of
payments data are reported by calendar year.
Revisions to national accounts data: National
accounts data are revised by national statistical offices when methodologies change or
data sources improve. This in turn means
that Africa Development Indicators national
accounts data are also revised when data
sources change.
• Botswana: The Central Statistical Office has revised national accounts series for 2004 onward.
• Mauritania: Based on official government statistics, data have been revised
for 1991 onward; the new base year for
constant price series is 2004.
• Swaziland: The Central Statistical Office has revised national accounts series for 1990 onward.
• Tunisia: Based on data from the Central Bank and its Statistical Bulletin, national accounts have been revised from
1997 onward.
• Uganda: The Bureau of Statistics has
revised national accounts series for
1998 onward; the new base year for
constant price series is 2001/02.
National currencies: As of January 2009,
multiple hard currencies such as rand, pound
sterling, euro, and U.S. dollar are in use in
Zimbabwe; however, data are reported in U.S.
dollars, the most frequently used currency.
Table .. Gross domestic product,
nominal
Gross domestic product (GDP), nominal, is the
sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes
and minus any subsidies not included in the
value of the products. It is calculated without
making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation

of natural resources. GDP figures are shown
at market prices (also known as purchaser values) and converted from domestic currencies
using single-year official exchange rates. For
the few countries where the official exchange
rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions,
an alternative conversion factor is used.
The sum of the components of GDP by
industrial origin (presented here as value
added) will not normally equal total GDP for
several reasons. First, components of GDP
by expenditure are individually rescaled and
summed to provide a partially rebased series
for total GDP. Second, total GDP is shown
at purchaser value, while value-added components are conventionally reported at producer prices. As explained above, purchaser
values exclude net indirect taxes, while producer prices include indirect taxes. Third, certain items, such as imputed bank charges, are
added in total GDP.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product, real
Gross domestic product (GDP), real, is obtained
by converting national currency GDP series
to U.S. dollars using constant 2000 exchange
rates. For countries where the official exchange
rate does not effectively reflect the rate applied to actual foreign exchange transactions,
an alternative currency conversion factor has
been used. Growth rates are in real terms and
calculated by the least-squares method using
constant 2000 exchange rates (see box 2).
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product
growth
Gross domestic product (GDP) growth is the average annual growth rate of real GDP (table
2.2) at market prices based on constant local
currency. Aggregates are based on constant
2000 U.S. dollars.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Technical notes

133

Table .. Gross domestic product per
capita, real
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, real, is
calculated by dividing real GDP (table 2.2) by
corresponding midyear population.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product per
capita growth
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth
is the average annual growth rate of real GDP
per capita (table 2.4).
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross national income,
nominal
Gross national income (GNI), nominal, is the
sum of value added by all resident producers
plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not
included in the valuation of output plus net
receipts of primary income (compensation
of employees and property income) from
abroad. Data are converted from national
currency in current prices to U.S. dollars at
official annual exchange rates.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table 2.7. Gross national income,
World Bank Atlas method
Gross national income (GNI), World Bank Atlas
method, (formerly GNP) is the sum of value
added by all resident producers plus any
product taxes (less subsidies) not included in
the valuation of output plus net receipts of
primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI,
calculated in national currency, is usually
converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange
rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the
official exchange rate is judged to diverge by
an exceptionally large margin from the rate
actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and
exchange rates, the World Bank Atlas method
134

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

(see box 1) of conversion is used. This method applies a conversion factor that averages
the exchange rate for a given year and the
two preceding years, adjusted for the difference between the rate of inflation in the
country and that in Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the euro area.
Growth rates are calculated by the leastsquares method (see box 2).
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross national income per
capita, World Bank Atlas method
Gross national income (GNI) per capita, World
Bank Atlas method, is GNI, calculated using
the World Bank Atlas method (see box 1), divided by midyear population.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic product
deflator (U.S. dollar series)
Gross domestic product (GDP) deflator (U.S.
dollar series) is nominal GDP in current U.S.
dollars (table 2.1) divided by real GDP in constant 2000 U.S. dollars (table 2.2), expressed
as an index with base year 2000. The series
shows the effects of domestic price changes
and exchange rate variations.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Consumer price index
Consumer price index reflects changes in the
cost to the average consumer of acquiring a
basket of goods and services that may be fixed
or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database and
data files.
Table .. Inflation
Inflation as measured by the consumer
price index reflects the annual percentage
change in the cost to the average consumer

of acquiring a basket of goods and services
that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula
is generally used.
Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database and
data files.
Table .. Price indexes
Inflation, GDP deflator, is measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator and shows the rate of price change in the
economy as a whole.
Consumer price index is a change in the cost
to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or
changed at specified intervals, such as yearly.
The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
Exports of goods and services price index is
calculated by dividing the national accounts
exports of goods and services in current U.S.
dollars by exports of goods and services in
constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
Imports of goods and services price index is
calculated by dividing the national accounts
imports of goods and services in current U.S.
dollars by imports of goods and services in
constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross domestic savings
Gross domestic savings is calculated by deducting total consumption (table 2.17) from
nominal gross domestic product (table 2.1).
For 1994–2000, Nigeria’s values were distorted because the official exchange rate used
by the government for oil exports and oil
value added was significantly overvalued.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross national savings
Gross national savings is the sum of gross
domestic savings (table 2.13), net factor income from abroad, and net private transfers
from abroad. The estimate here also includes
net public transfers from abroad. For 1994–
2000, Nigeria’s values were distorted because

the official exchange rate used by the Government for oil exports and oil value added was
significantly overvalued.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. General government final
consumption expenditure
General government final consumption expenditure is all current expenditure for purchases
of goods and services by all levels of government, including capital expenditure on
national defense and security. Other capital
expenditure by government is included in
capital formation.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Household final
consumption expenditure
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value
of all goods and services, including durable
products (such as cars, washing machines,
and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but
includes imputed rent for owner-occupied
dwellings. It also includes payments and fees
to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit
institutions serving households, even when
reported separately by the country.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Final consumption
expenditure plus discrepancy
Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy
(formerly total consumption) is the sum of
household final consumption expenditure
(table 2.16) and general government final
consumption expenditure (table 2.15) shown
as a share of gross domestic product. This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in
the use of resources relative to the supply of
resources. Private consumption, not separately shown here, is the value of all goods
Technical notes

135

and services purchased or received as income
in kind by households and nonprofit institutions. It excludes purchases of dwellings, but
includes imputed rent for owner-occupied
dwellings. In practice, it includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources.

Table .. Private sector fixed capital
formation
Private sector fixed capital formation covers
gross outlays by the private sector (including
private nonprofit agencies) on additions to
its fixed domestic assets.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.

Table .. Final consumption
expenditure plus discrepancy per capita
Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy
per capita is final consumption expenditure
plus discrepancy in current U.S. dollars (table
2.17) divided by midyear population.

Table .. External trade balance
(exports minus imports)
External trade balance is the difference between
free on board exports (table 2.23) and cost,
insurance, and freight imports (table 2.24) of
goods and services (or the difference between
gross domestic savings and gross capital formation). The resource balance is shown as a
share of nominal gross domestic product (table 2.1). For 1994–2000, Nigeria’s values were
distorted because the official exchange rate
used by the government for oil exports and oil
value added was significantly overvalued.

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross fixed capital formation
Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on);
plant, machinery, and equipment purchases;
and the construction of roads, railways, and
the like, including schools, offices, hospitals,
private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the
1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are
also considered capital formation. It comprises
outlays by the public sector (table 2.20) and the
private sector (table 2.21). Examples include
improvements in land, dwellings, machinery,
and other equipment. For some countries the
sum of gross private investment and gross
public investment does not total gross domestic investment due to statistical discrepancies.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Gross general government
fixed capital formation
Gross general government fixed capital formation covers gross outlays by the public sector
on additions to its fixed domestic assets.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
136

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Exports of goods and
services, nominal
Exports of goods and services, nominal, represent the value of all goods and other market
services provided to the rest of the world.
They include the value of merchandise,
freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such
as communication, construction, financial,
information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and
property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments, and are
expressed in current U.S. dollars.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Imports of goods and
services, nominal
Imports of goods and services, nominal, represent the value of all goods and other market
services received from the rest of the world.
They include the value of merchandise,

freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such
as communication, construction, financial,
information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and
property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments, and are
expressed in current U.S. dollars.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Exports of goods and
services as a share of gdp
Exports of goods and services represent the value
of all goods and other market services provided
to the rest of the world. They include the value
of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport,
travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction,
financial, information, business, personal,
and government services. They exclude labor
and property income (formerly called factor
services) as well as transfer payments, and are
expressed as a proportion of real GDP.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Imports of goods and
services as a share of gdp
Imports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services
received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license
fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information,
business, personal, and government services.
They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments, and are expressed as a proportion of real GDP.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data.
Table .. Balance of payments and
current account
Exports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services

provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license
fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information,
business, personal, and government services.
They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments, and are expressed in current
U.S. dollars and as a proportion of real GDP.
Imports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services
received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license
fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information,
business, personal, and government services.
They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments, and are expressed in current
U.S. dollars and as a proportion of real GDP.
Total trade is the sum of exports and imports of goods and services.
Net income is the receipts and payments of
employee compensation paid to nonresident
workers and investment income (receipts
and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets).
Net current transfers are recorded in the
balance of payments whenever an economy
provides or receives goods, services, income,
or financial items without a quid pro quo.
Current account balance is the sum of net
exports of goods, services, net income, and
net current transfers. All transfers not considered to be capital are current.
Total reserves including gold are the holdings
of monetary gold, special drawing rights,
reserves of International Monetary Fund
(IMF) members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of
monetary authorities.
Source: Data on exports and imports of
goods and services are from World Bank and
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development national accounts data. Data
on net income, net current transfers, current
account balance, and total reserves are from
the International Monetary Fund, Balance of
Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files,
and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Technical notes

137

Table .. Exchange rates and
purchasing power parity
Official exchange rate is the exchange rate
determined by national authorities or the
rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion
factor is the number of units of a country’s
currency required to buy the same amount of
goods and services in the domestic market as
a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
Ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the national price level, making
it possible to compare the cost of the bundle
of goods that make up gross domestic product across countries.
Real effective exchange rate is the nominal
effective exchange rate (a measure of the
value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a
price deflator or index of costs.
Gross domestic product (GDP), PPP, is gross
domestic product converted to international
dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar
has in the United States. GDP is the sum of
gross value added by all resident producers in
the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value
of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated
assets or for depletion and degradation of
natural resources.
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita,
PPP, is GDP per capita based on purchasing
power parity. PPP GDP is gross domestic
product converted to international dollars
using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing
power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the
United States. GDP at purchaser’s prices is
the sum of gross value added by all resident
producers in the economy plus any product
taxes and minus any subsidies not included
in the value of the products. It is calculated
without making deductions for depreciation
of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Source: International Monetary Fund International Financial Statistics database.
Data on PPP are from the World Bank’s International Comparison Program database.
138

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

Table .. Agriculture value added
Agriculture value added is the gross output of
forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production (International Standard Industrial Classification
[ISIC] revision 3 divisions 1–5) less the value
of their intermediate inputs. It is calculated
without making deductions for depreciation
of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. For countries that
report national accounts data at producer
prices (Angola, Benin, Cape Verde, Comoros,
the Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon,
Liberia, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, and Togo), gross value added at
market prices is used as the denominator. For
countries that report national accounts data
at basic prices (all other countries), gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Value added at basic prices excludes net
taxes on products, while producer prices include net taxes on products paid by produces
but exclude sales or value added taxes.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.
Table .. Industry value added
Industry value added is the gross output of
mining, manufacturing, construction, electricity, water, and gas (ISIC revision 3 divisions 10–45) less the value of their intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making
deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural
resources. For countries that report national
accounts data at producer prices (Angola, Benin, Cape Verde, Comoros, the Republic of
Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Liberia, Niger,
Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles,
and Togo), gross value added at market prices is used as the denominator. For countries
that report national accounts data at basic
prices (all other countries), gross value added
at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Value added at basic prices excludes net taxes
on products, while producer prices include
net taxes on products paid by produces but
exclude sales or value added taxes.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.

Table .. Services plus discrepancy
value added
Services plus discrepancy value added is the
gross output of all other branches of economic activity, including wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants),
transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as
education, health care, and real estate services (ISIC revision 3 divisions 50–99) less
the value of their intermediate inputs. Also
included are imputed bank service charges,
import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well
as discrepancies arising from rescaling. It is
calculated without making deductions for
depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources.
For countries that report national accounts
data at producer prices (Angola, Benin, Cape
Verde, Comoros, the Republic of Congo, Côte
d’Ivoire, Gabon, Liberia, Niger, Rwanda, São
Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, and Togo),
gross value added at market prices is used as
the denominator. For countries that report
national accounts data at basic prices (all
other countries), gross value added at factor
cost is used as the denominator. Value added
at basic prices exclude net taxes on products
while producer prices include net taxes on
products paid by produces but exclude sales
or value added taxes.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.
Table .. Central government
finances
Revenue, excluding grants, is cash receipts
from taxes, social contributions, and other
revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income
from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here.
Expense is cash payments for operating
activities of the government in providing
goods and services. It includes compensation
of employees (such as wages and salaries),
interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and
dividends.
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986

Government Finance Statistics Manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue
and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall
budget balance (still missing is lending minus
repayments, which are now a financing item
under net acquisition of financial assets).
Net incurrence of liabilities is domestic financing (obtained from residents) and foreign financing (obtained from nonresidents)
and/or the means by which a government
provides financial resources to cover a budget
deficit or allocates financial resources arising
from a budget surplus. The net incurrence of
liabilities should be offset by the net acquisition of financial assets (a third financing
item). The difference between the cash surplus or deficit and the three financing items
is the net change in the stock of cash.
Total debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations
to others outstanding on a particular date. It
includes domestic and foreign liabilities such
as currency and money deposits, securities
other than shares, and loans. It is the gross
amount of government liabilities reduced by
the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt
is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured
as of a given date, usually the last day of the
fiscal year.
Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data
files, and World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
GDP estimates.
Table .. Central government
expenses
Goods and services include all government
payments in exchange for goods and services
used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account
capital formation is excluded.
Compensation of employees consists of all
payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as
food and housing), to employees in return
for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such
as social security and pensions that provide
benefits to employees.
Interest payments (expense) include interest
payments on government debt—including
Technical notes

139

long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other
debt instruments—to domestic and foreign residents, expressed as a proportion of
expense.
Subsidies and other transfers include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current
account to private and public enterprises;
grants to foreign governments, international
organizations, and other government units;
and social security, social assistance benefits,
and employer social benefits in cash and in
kind.
Other expenses are spending on dividends,
rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed
capital.
Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data
files, and World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
GDP estimates.
Table .. Central government
revenues
Interest payments (revenue) include interest
payments on government debt—including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and
other debt instruments—to domestic and
foreign residents, expressed as a proportion
of revenue.
Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are
levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains,
whether realized or not, on land, securities,
and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
Taxes on goods and services include general
sales and turnover or value added taxes, selective excises on goods, selective taxes on
services, taxes on the use of goods or property, taxes on extraction and production of
minerals, and profits of fiscal monopolies.
Taxes on international trade include import
duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes.
Other taxes include employer payroll or labor taxes, taxes on property, and taxes not allocable to other categories, such as penalties
for late payment or nonpayment of taxes.
Social contributions include social security
contributions by employees, employers, and
140

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined.
They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated
by governments.
Grants and other revenue include grants
from other foreign governments, international organizations, and other government
units; interest; dividends; rent; requited,
nonrepayable receipts for public purposes
(such as fines, administrative fees, and entrepreneurial income from government ownership of property); and voluntary, unrequited,
nonrepayable receipts other than grants.
Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data
files, and World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
GDP estimates.
Table .. Structure of demand
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market
value of all goods and services, including
durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by
households.
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) is all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services.
Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross
domestic investment) consists of outlays on
additions to the fixed assets of the economy
plus net changes in the level of inventories.
Exports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services
provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license
fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information,
business, personal, and government services.
They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments, and are expressed as a proportion of real GDP.
Imports of goods and services represent the
value of all goods and other market services
received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees,
and other services, such as communication,

construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services.
They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments and are expressed as a proportion of real GDP.
Gross national savings is the gross national income less total consumption, plus net
transfers.
Source: World Bank and Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development
national accounts data files.
3. Millennium Development Goals
Table .. Millennium Development
Goal : eradicate extreme poverty
and hunger
Share of population below PPP $1.25 a day is
the percentage of the population living on
less than $1.25 a day at 2005 international
prices. As a result of revisions in purchasing
power parity (PPP) exchange rates, poverty
rates in this edition cannot be compared with
those in previous editions.
Poverty gap ratio at PPP $1.25 a day is the
mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line.
This measure reflects the depth of poverty as
well as its incidence.
Share of population below PPP $2 a day is the
percentage of the population living on less
than $2 a day at 2005 international prices.
As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates,
poverty rates in this edition cannot be compared with those in previous editions.
Poverty gap ratio at PPP $2 a day is the mean
shortfall from the poverty line (counting the
nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed
as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as
its incidence.
Share of population below national poverty
line (poverty headcount ratio) is the percentage
of the population living below the national
poverty line. National estimates are based
on population-weighted subgroup estimates
from household surveys.
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption or income is the share of consumption, or
in some cases income, that accrues to the
poorest 20 percent of the population.

Prevalence of child malnutrition, underweight, is the percentage of children under
age 5 whose weight for age is more than two
standard deviations below the median for the
international reference population ages 0–59
months. The reference population, adopted
by the World Health Organization in 1983,
is based on children from the United States,
who are assumed to be well nourished.
Population below minimum dietary energy
consumption (also referred to as prevalence of
undernourishment) is the population whose
dietary energy consumption is continuously
below a minimum dietary energy requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity with an acceptable minimum body weight for attained
height.
Source: Data on poverty are from the
World Bank Development Research Group.
Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country
departments (http://iresearch.worldbank.
org/PovcalNet/index.htm). Data on national
poverty are from the Global Poverty Working Group and are based on World Bank
country poverty assessments and country
poverty reduction strategies. Data on child
malnutrition are from the World Health Organization Global Database on Child Growth
and Malnutrition. Data on population below
minimum dietary energy consumption are
from the Food and Agriculture Organization
(http://www.fao.org/faostat/foodsecurity/
index_en.htm).
Table .. Millennium Development
Goal : achieve universal primary
education
Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills,
along with an elementary understanding of
such subjects as history, geography, natural
science, social science, art, and music.
Net primary enrollment ratio is the ratio of
children of official primary school age, based
on the International Standard Classification
of Education 1997, who are enrolled in primary school to the population of the corresponding official primary school age.
Primary completion rate is the percentage
of students completing the last year of
Technical notes

141

Africa New Dollar Per Day (PPP) Poverty Estimates ($1.25/day) in 2008
Why PPP poverty estimates? When it comes to poverty measurement, each country calculates its own (national) poverty line
and uses it to track progress in reducing poverty and setting social
policy. National poverty lines may be obtained through a combination of methods: social norms about a minimum level of welfare
each citizen is entitled to, some basic nutritional need, a multidimensional index, and so on.
But if we need to obtain comparisons between countries of
the world or countries in a region of the world (say, Africa), then
the national poverty lines cannot be used because each country
uses a different one. Therefore, the World Bank uses a common international poverty line to compare poverty across the
world or in a region by collecting comparative price data and
estimating purchasing power parities (PPPs) of the world economies. Using PPPs instead of country exchange rates to convert
currencies allows welfare and the output of economies to be
compared in real terms while controlling for differences in price
levels. Traditionally, the World Bank counts the global (and/or
regional) poor as the fraction of the population with incomes (or
consumption) below two international poverty lines: $1.25/day
and $2/day using PPP.
The 2005 PPP revisions: In 2005, the World Bank undertook
a major revision of the global poverty count by using a completely
new set of international prices that became available through the
worldwide effort of the International Comparison Program (ICP).
The 2005 ICP round is widely considered to be better than the
previous round of ICP in 1993, in that it covered more countries
and collected more (and better quality) price data. As a result, the
2005 estimates differed significantly from the estimates based on
the 1993 ICP round, which are then extrapolated forward. In particular, the 2005 revisions showed that the cost of living—and, by
consequence, poverty—was higher in the developing world than

Prepared by Andrew Dabalen and Rose Mungai

previously thought using the $1.25/day and $2/day international
poverty lines.
Why a 2008 PPP estimates? Every three years, the World
Bank updates the global poverty count. On February 29, 2012, the
World Bank released the 2008 global poverty estimates. These estimates have been revised for the period 1981–2008 and may differ
from previous estimates. To the extent possible, each global (or
regional) poverty update would normally be based on the household surveys carried out in the year of the update. In practice,
household surveys in many countries are not carried out every
year so that the year of the update and the survey year may differ,
sometimes by many years. When the survey year and the year of
the update do not coincide, the international poverty line in local
currency is projected backward or forward by adjusting the most
recently available survey figure by the change in the CPI in the
country.
Benchmarking the 1990 poverty and global poverty
trends: In addition to the three-year update, the latest release
also revises the 1990 poverty count. The 1990 poverty estimate for
the world and each country is an important benchmark to measure
progress toward Millennium Development Goal 1 (MDG-1): reducing extreme poverty by half between 1990 and 2015. The current
revision uses 2005 PPPs, projected backward or forward using
the CPI in the country.
Poverty in Africa is declining, but progress is slower than in
other regions
The new global estimates indicate a significant reduction in the
proportion of world population below the $1.25 per day per capita
poverty line, from 43.1 percent in 1990 to 22.4 percent in 2008
(table 1). Particularly, the East Asia and Pacific region made huge
progress where the percentage of the poor, measured at the $1.25

Table 1: Regional aggregation, $1.25/day and $2.00/day poverty line
The proportion of population below the international poverty lines (%)

Year
1990
1993
1996
1999
2002
2005
2008

All
43.1
41.0
34.8
34.1
30.8
25.1
22.4

1990
1993
1996
1999
2002
2005
2008

1908.5
1910.3
1703.8
1742.6
1639.2
1389.5
1289.0

East Asia
and
Pacific
56.2
50.7
35.9
35.6
27.6
17.1
14.3
926.4
870.8
639.7
655.6
523.1
332.1
284.4

$1.25 per day per capita
$2 per day per capita
Europe
Latin
Middle
Europe
Latin
Middle
and
America East and
SubEast Asia
and
America East and
Central
and the
South
North
Saharan
and
Central
and the
North
Asia
Caribbean Africa
Asia
Africa
All
Pacific
Asia
Caribbean Africa
1.9
12.2
5.8
53.8
56.5
64.6
81.0
6.9
22.4
23.4
2.9
11.4
4.8
51.7
59.4
63.0
75.7
9.2
21.7
22.1
3.9
11.1
4.8
48.6
58.1
58.6
64.0
11.2
21.0
22.2
3.8
11.9
5.0
45.1
57.9
57.4
61.7
12.1
22.0
21.9
2.3
11.9
4.2
44.3
55.7
53.4
51.9
7.9
22.2
19.7
1.3
8.7
3.5
39.4
52.3
46.9
39.0
4.6
16.7
17.3
0.5
6.5
2.7
36.0
47.5
43.0
33.2
2.2
12.4
13.9
Population below the international poverty lines (millions)
8.9
53.4
13.0
617.3
289.7
2863.3
1333.5
31.9
97.6
52.8
13.7
52.5
11.5
631.9
330.0
2940.5
1300.3
43.0
99.9
53.4
18.2
53.6
12.3
630.8
349.2
2863.8
1139.5
52.7
101.7
57.0
17.8
60.1
13.6
619.5
376.0
2936.4
1137.2
57.0
111.3
59.7
10.6
62.7
12.0
640.5
390.2
2847.3
983.5
37.2
117.5
56.7
6.3
47.6
10.5
598.3
394.8
2594.4
756.9
21.6
91.7
52.6
2.2
36.9
8.6
570.9
386.0
2470.1
658.6
10.4
70.5
44.4

South
Asia
83.6
82.6
80.7
77.8
77.4
73.3
70.9

SubSaharan
Africa
75.9
78.1
77.5
77.4
76.1
74.1
69.2

958.5
1010.0
1047.0
1068.5
1119.2
1112.6
1124.2

389.1
433.9
465.8
502.7
533.2
558.9
562.1

Source: PovcalNet.

(continued)

142

Africa Development Indicators 2012/13

Africa New Dollar Per Day (PPP) Poverty Estimates ($1.25/day) in 2008 (continued)

primary school. It is calculated as the total
number of students in the last grade of
primary school minus the number of repeaters in that grade divided by the total
number of children of official graduation
age.
Share of cohort reaching grade 5 is the percentage of children enrolled in grade 1 of
primary school who eventually reach grade
5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed
cohort method.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15–24 who can, with understanding,
both read and write a short, simple statement about their everyday life.
Source: Data are from the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. Efforts have
been made to harmonize these data series
with those published on the United Nations
Millennium Development Goals website
(http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/default.
aspx), but some differences in timing, sources, and definitions remain.
Table .. Millennium Development
Goal : promote gender equality and
empower women
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary
school is the ratio of female to male gross
enrollment rate in primary and secondary
school.

Poverty & Equity Data portal (http://povertydata.worldbank.org/
poverty/home/) uses the same data from Povcalnet and displays
it in maps and charts at the regional and country levels. Both websites are updated periodically.

70

450

60

400
350

50

300

40

250

30

200
150

20

100

10
0

Number of poor (millions)

Figure 1

Headcount (%)

poverty line, declined from 56.2 percent to 14.3 percent between
1990 and 2008, while the number of poor people also declined
from 926.4 million to 284.4 million for the same period.
For the first time since 1993, the proportion of the people living below the international poverty lines in Africa (Figure 1 at right)
is declining, based on existing data, although progress has been
slower than in other regions. In addition, about 9 million Africans
moved out of extreme poverty between 2005 and 2008. However, because of rapid population growth, the number of people
living below the international poverty lines is higher in 2008 than
in 1990.
Where to obtain new estimates: The new poverty statistics based on international poverty lines are on the World Bank’s
website Povcalnet (http://go.worldbank.org/WE8P1I8250), which
allows users to compute poverty rates and populations, setting
the poverty line at any level and following the same methodology
as the World Bank estimates at the $1.25 and $2 poverty lines. The

50
1981

1984

1987 1990 1993
Headcount (%)

1996 1999 2002 2005
Num of poor (millions)

2008

0

Ratio of literate young women to men is the
ratio of the female youth literacy rate to the
male youth literacy rate.
Women in national parliament are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or
lower chamber occupied by women.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is women wa