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SECTION CONTENTS

SPUR GEARS NOMENCLATURE .................................................................................................................134 – 135 INVOLUTE........................................................................................................................................136 DIAMETRAL PITCH / PRESSURE ANGLE / TOOTH DIMENSIONS ............................................137 BACKLASH / UNDERCUT / FORMULAS.......................................................................................138 LEWIS FORMULA............................................................................................................................139 HELICAL GEARS NOMENCLATURE / HELIX ANGLE................................................................................................140 FORMULAS .....................................................................................................................................141 THRUST LOADS .............................................................................................................................142 MITER & BEVEL GEARS NOMENCLATURE ...........................................................................................................................143 MOUNTING DISTANCE...................................................................................................................144 TOOTH STRENGTH / THRUST.......................................................................................................145 WORMS & WORM GEARS HAND / EFFICIENCY / THRUST LOADS........................................................................................146 FORMULAS / SELF-LOCKING .......................................................................................................147 COUPLING / UNIVERSAL JOINTS..........................................................................................................148 GENERAL INFORMATION MOUNTINGS / ALTERATIONS / LUBRICATION ...........................................................................149 MATERIALS / STYLES / KEYWAYS & SETSCREWS...................................................................150 HOW TO FIGURE HORSEPOWER & TORQUE.............................................................................151 APPLICATION CLASSIFICATIONS......................................................................................152 – 153 TERMS AND CONDITIONS ...........................................................................................................154 – 155 INDEX TO CATALOG NUMBERS .................................................................................................156 – 158

Gear Catalog

133

ENGINEERING INFORMATION

SPUR GEARS GEAR NOMENCLATURE

ADDENDUM (a) is the height by which a tooth projects beyond the pitch circle or pitch line. BASE DIAMETER (Db) is the diameter of the base cylinder from which the involute portion of a tooth profile is generated. BACKLASH (B) is the amount by which the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of the engaging tooth on the pitch circles. As actually indicated by measuring devices, backlash may be determined variously in the transverse, normal, or axial-planes, and either in the direction of the pitch circles or on the line of action. Such measurements should be corrected to corresponding values on transverse pitch circles for general comparisons. BORE LENGTH is the total length through a gear, sprocket, or coupling bore. CIRCULAR PITCH (p) is the distance along the pitch circle or pitch line between corresponding profiles of adjacent teeth. CIRCULAR THICKNESS (t) is the length of arc between the two sides of a gear tooth on the pitch circle, unless otherwise specified. CLEARANCE-OPERATING (c) is the amount by which the dedendum in a given gear exceeds the addendum of its mating gear. CONTACT RATIO (mc) in general, the number of angular pitches through which a tooth surface rotates from the beginning to the end of contact. DEDENDUM (b) is the depth of a tooth space below the pitch line. It is normally greater than the addendum of the mating gear to provide clearance. DIAMETRAL PITCH (P) is the ratio of the number of teeth to the pitch diameter. FACE WIDTH (F) is the length of the teeth in an axial plane. FILLET RADIUS (rf) is the radius of the fillet curve at the base of the gear tooth. FULL DEPTH TEETH are those in which the working depth equals 2.000 divided by the normal diametral pitch.

GEAR is a machine part with gear teeth. When two gears run together, the one with the larger number of teeth is called the gear. HUB DIAMETER is outside diameter of a gear, sprocket or coupling hub. HUB PROJECTION is the distance the hub extends beyond the gear face. INVOLUTE TEETH of spur gears, helical gears and worms are those in which the active portion of the profile in the transverse plane is the involute of a circle. LONG- AND SHORT-ADDENDUM TEETH are those of engaging gears (on a standard designed center distance) one of which has a long addendum and the other has a short addendum. KEYWAY is the machined groove running the length of the bore. A similar groove is machined in the shaft and a key fits into this opening. NORMAL DIAMETRAL PITCH (P n ) is the value of the diametral pitch as calculated in the normal plane of a helical gear or worm. NORMAL PLANE is the plane normal to the tooth surface at a pitch point and perpendicular to the pitch plane. For a helical gear this plane can be normal to one tooth at a point laying in the plane surface. At such point, the normal plane contains the line normal to the tooth surface and this is normal to the pitch circle. NORMAL PRESSURE ANGLE (øn) in a normal plane of helical tooth. OUTSIDE DIAMETER (Do) is the diameter of the addendum (outside) circle.

134

Gear Catalog

the pitch diameters can be determined directly from the center distance and the number of teeth. ROOT (TOOTH) FILLET CIRCULAR PITCH GEAR GEAR Gear Catalog 135 . UNDERCUT is a condition in generated gear teeth when any part of the fillet curve lies inside a line drawn tangent to the working profile at its point of juncture with the fillet. TIP RELIEF is an arbitrary modification of a tooth profile whereby a small amount of material is removed near the tip of the gear tooth. It is the pressure angle at the operating pitch diameter. and the plane tangent to the pitch surface. pressure angle is often described also as the angle between the line of action and the line tangent to the pitch circle.ENGINEERING INFORMATION SPUR GEARS GEAR NOMENCLATURE (Continued) PITCH CIRCLE is the circle derived from a number of teeth and a specified diametral or circular pitch. the sum of their addendums. WORKING DEPTH (hk) is the depth of engagement of two gears. that is. PITCH DIAMETER (D) is the diameter of the pitch circle. TOOTH PARTS PINION PINION LINE OF ACTION TOOTH PROFILE (INVOLUTE) PITCH CIRCLE OUTSIDE DIA. PITCH CYLINDER is the cylinder of diameter equal to the pitch circle. equal to the working depth plus variance. In involute teeth. ROOT DIAMETER (Dr) is the diameter at the base of the tooth space. When two gears run together. PRESSURE ANGLE BASE CIRCLE PITCH CIRCLE WORKING DEPTH CLEARANCE WHOLE DEPTH CENTER DISTANCE ADDENDUM DEDENDUM CIRCULAR TOOTH THICKNESS ROOT DIA. equal to addendum plus dedendum. the one with the smaller number of teeth is called the pinion. In parallel shaft gears. Standard pressure angles are established in connection with standard gear-tooth proportions. WHOLE DEPTH (ht) is the total depth of a tooth space. PINION is a machine part with gear teeth. PRESSURE ANGLE (ø) is the angle at a pitch point between the line of pressure which is normal to the tooth surface. PRESSURE ANGLE—OPERATING (ør) is determined by the center distance at which the gears operate. Circle on which spacing or tooth profiles is established and from which the tooth proportions are constructed.

The involute is a form of spiral.ENGINEERING INFORMATION SPUR GEARS INVOLUTE FORM Gear teeth could be manufactured with a wide variety of shapes and profiles. and is straight on a rack. and all Boston spur and helical gears are of involute form. which is called a BASE CIRCLE. on larger gears is less curved (straighter). N – TE LU VO EA CIRCL I INVOLUT E– CI R E CL A C C IR LE B C IR CLE B Involute gear tooth forms and standard tooth proportions are specified in terms of a basic rack which has straight-sided teeth. which is essentially an infinitely large gear. the involute tooth profile of smaller gears is considerably curved. An involute drawn from a larger base circle will be less curved (straighter) than one drawn from a smaller base circle. An involute is a curve that is traced by a point on a taut cord unwinding from a circle. for involute systems. The involute profile is the most commonly used system for gearing today. 20 TEETH 48 TEETH RACK 136 Gear Catalog . the curvature of which becomes straighter as it is drawn from a base circle and eventually would become a straight line if drawn far enough. Similarly.

1000 .6283 .0491 Gear Catalog 137 .7854 .1348 .0500 .2500 . Thickness of Tooth Depth to be on Pitch Cut in Gear Line (Inches) Addendum (Inches) (Hobbed Gears) (Inches) . PRESSURE ANGLE Pressure angle is the angle at a pitch point between the line of pressure which is normal to the tooth surface.0472 . full depth system gears.1309 .0654 .0708 .0833 .1963 .3142 .1963 . 14-1/2°PA gears have extensive use.1571 .7190 . quieter operation provided that undercut of teeth is not present.1667 .0625 .1309 . The diametral pitch of a gear is the number of teeth in the gear for each inch of pitch diameter.2696 . Therefore.0982 .3333 . Tooth Proportions of various standard diametral pitches of Spur Gears are given below. The lower pressure angle results in less change in backlash due to center distance variation and concentricity errors.0491 .3927 . refers to the angle when the gears are mounted on their standard center distances.1571 . Boston Gear manufactures both 14-1/2° and 20° PA.1120 . While 20°PA is generally recognized as having higher load carrying capacity.0245 .0208 .2618 .0937 .5236 .4314 .2157 .0312 .0654 .1250 . The pressure angle.0364 .5236 .0785 .5393 . involute.3927 . as defined in this catalog.0417 .0156 Circular Diametral Pitch Pitch (Inches) 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 32 48 64 1.0478 .2618 . It also provides a higher contact ratio and consequent smoother.ENGINEERING INFORMATION SPUR GEARS DIAMETRAL PITCH SYSTEM All stock gears are made in accordance with the diametral pitch system.0327 .0982 . the diametral pitch determines the size of the gear tooth. TOOTH DIMENSIONS For convenience.3565 .2000 .3142 . and the plane tangent to the pitch surface.1798 .

5708 P Diametral Pitch (P) a=1 P Pitch Diameter (D) & Do = D + 2a Addendum (a) Diametral Pitch (P) ht = 2.157 Diametral Pitch (P) ht = P Addendum (a) hk = 2(a) Whole Depth (ht) c = ht – 2a Addendum (a) Whole Depth (ht) & b = ht – a Addendum (a) Outside Radii. Base Radii. On 14-1/2°PA gears undercutting occurs where a number of teeth is less than 32 and for 20°PA less than 18.005 .008 . Center Distance and Pressure Angle+C. The standard center distance being defined by: Standard Center Distance = Pinion PD + Gear PD 2 When mounted at this center distance. it would be acceptable to limit the deviation to an increase over the nominal center distance of one half the average backlash. it is apparent that a given change in center distance. p φ Contact Ratio (Mc) P = 3.003 . 14-1/2° gears will have a smaller change in backlash than 20° gears. Pinion Rb = Base Circle Radius. the generating process removes material at this point.933 x Change in Backlash For 20° –Change in Center Distance = 1. UNDERCUT When the number of teeth in a gear is small. For most applications. some deviation from the theoretical standard center distance is inevitable and will alter the backlash. The approximate relationship between center distance and backlash change of 14-1/2° and 20° pressure angle gears is shown below: For 14-1/2°–Change in Center Distance = 1.013 . the difference in tooth numbers between the gear and pinion should not be less than 15. in practice. To prevent this.0025 SPUR GEAR FORMULAS FOR FULL DEPTH INVOLUTE TEETH To Obtain Having Circular Pitch (p) Formula Diametral Pitch (P) Circular Pitch (p) Pitch Diameter (D) An increase or decrease in center distance will cause an increase or decrease in backlash. This fact should be considered in cases where backlash is critical. In a similar manner INTERNAL Spur Gear teeth may interfere when the pinion gear is too near the size of its mating internal gear.006 Diametral Pitch 8-9 10-13 14-32 33-64 Backlash (Inches) .010 .004 . Pinion PITCH LINE t a hk h t c rf b a b c hk ht p rf t φ = ADDENDUM = DEDENDUM = CLEARANCE = WORKING DEPTH = WHOLE DEPTH = CIRCULAR PITCH = FILLET RADIUS = CIRCULAR TOOTH THICKNESS = PRESSURE ANGLE 138 Gear Catalog . Gear rb = Base Circle Radius. For 20°PA the difference in tooth numbers should not be less than 12. stock spur gears will have the following average backlash: Diametral Pitch 3 4 5 6 7 Backlash (Inches) .007 . Gear ro = Outside Radius. it is recommended that the minimum number of teeth be 16 for 14-1/2°PA and 13 for 20°PA.1416 P Number of Teeth (N) & D = N Diametral Pitch (P) P Outside Diameter (Do) & D = D – 2 o Diametral Pitch (P) P Pitch Diameter (D) and Db = Dcosø Pressure Angle (ø) Diametral Pitch (P) & N=PxD Pitch Diameter (D) Diametral Pitch (P) t = 1. of Teeth and Pitch Root Diameter (Dr) Dr = D – 2b C = D1 + D2 2 or N1 + N2 2P *Ro = Outside Radius. Ro2 – Rb2 + r o2 – r b2 – Csinø* MM c= c= P pccosø Pitch Diameter (D) and Dedendum (b) Center Distance (C) Pitch Diameter (D) or No. The following may be used as a guide to assure proper operation of the gear set. This results in loss of a portion of the involute adjacent to the tooth base. Since this condition becomes more severe as tooth numbers decrease.ENGINEERING INFORMATION SPUR GEARS BACKLASH Stock spur gears are cut to operate at standard center distances.2 + . For 14-1/2°PA.002 P 2.1416 p Number of Teeth (N) & P = N Pitch Diameter (D) D Number of Teeth (N) & P = N + 2 (Approx. reducing tooth contact and tooth strength. Since.374 x Change in Backlash Base Diameter (Db) Number of Teeth (N) Tooth Thickness (t) @Pitch Diameter (D) Addendum (a) Outside Diameter (Do) Whole Depth (ht) (20P & Finer) Whole Depth (ht) (Courser than 20P) Working Depth (h k) Clearance (c) Dedendum (b) From this. Varying the center distance may afford a practical means of varying the backlash to a limited extent. such deviation should be as small as possible. the tip of the mating gear tooth may interfere with the lower portion of the tooth profile.P.) Outside Diameter (Do) Do Diametral Pitch (P) p = 3.

..389 0.......375 0..... 40000 { Max....382 0....40 C.....262 x D x RPM For NON-METALLIC GEARS..........308 0.... 150 + ......... 25000 Steel ...255 0.........320 0....292 0.........245 0. per Min. 25000 ..........277 0.226 0........436 0.25 W = SFY P 200 + V TABLE II–VALUES OF SAFE STATIC STRESS (s) Material (s) Lb. per Sq..390 20° Full Depth Involute 0.. In.337 0.344 0........ which considers beam strength but not wear...201 0...223 0..377 0...361 0....... allowable torque (T) that should be imposed on a gear will be the safe tooth load (W) multiplied by D or T = W x D 2 2 The safe horsepower capacity of the gear (at a given RPM) can be calculated from HP = T x RPM or directly from (W) and (V)........ = .383 0... 30000 .364 0.......433 0..20 Carbon (Case-hardened) . Satisfactory results may be obtained by the use of Barth’s Revision to the Lewis Formula.340 0...363 0...458 0............ Ft.....332 0...... Strength is determined in terms of tooth-beam stresses for static and dynamic conditions... Alloy (Heat-treated) .....245 0.........370 0... (along the Pitch Line) S = Safe Material Stress (static) Lbs.........236 0..346 0.. (Table II) F = Face Width..378 0.. Plastic ....415 0.. 10000 Cast Iron ............322 0.210 0..360 0.......314 0.....314 0.. It is this formula that is the basis for all Boston Spur Gear ratings...ENGINEERING INFORMATION SPUR GEARS LEWIS FORMULA (Barth Revision) Gear failure can occur due to tooth breakage (tooth stress) or surface failure (surface durability) as a result of fatigue and wear..325 0.........463 0..025 WV HP = 33....000 For a known HP.......176 0. following well established formula and procedures... In..264 0.330 0...308 0................ Y = Tooth Form Factor (Table I) P = Diametral Pitch D = Pitch Diameter V = Pitch Line Velocity......471 0....... 5000 Bronze ..40 Carbon (Untreated) .355 0.. The formula is satisfactory for commercial gears at Pitch Circle velocities of up to 1500 FPM..366 0... Lbs.....283 0...264 0...446 0.............276 0..421 0....20 Carbon (Untreated) ...399 0........ T = 63025 x HP RPM TABLE I TOOTH FORM FACTOR (Y) Number of Teeth 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 150 200 300 Rack 14-1/2° Full Depth Involute 0...336 0.425 0..... 63.329 0.408 0.......302 0...358 0... In..... the modified Lewis Formula shown below may be used with (S) values of 6000 PSI for Phenolic Laminated material......318 0........ METALLIC SPUR GEARS 600 W = SFY P 600 + V W = Tooth Load..270 0.289 0..........442 0...295 0..352 0.484 Gear Catalog 139 ... 12000 ... per Sq..368 0. 20000 ..352 0.192 0....40 Carbon (Heat-treated).........429 0.........302 0....358 0....

the Helical Gear must be viewed as three-dimensional to show change in axial features. see Fig. Figure 1 Figure 2 LEFT HAND HELICAL GEAR RIGHT HAND HELICAL GEAR 140 Gear Catalog . 2 HELIX ANGLE— NORMAL PLANE AXIAL PLANE HELIX ANGLE Ψ pn p p = AXIAL CIRCULAR PITCH pn = NORMAL CIRCULAR PITCH TWO RIGHT-HAND HELICAL GEARS TWO LEFT-HAND HELICAL GEARS LEFT-HAND AND RIGHT-HAND HELICAL GEARS All Boston Helicals are cut to the Diametral Pitch system. The teeth of a RIGHT HAND Helical Gear lean to the right when the gear is placed flat on a horizontal surface. NORMAL DIAMETRAL PITCH (Pn) is the Diametral Pitch as calculated in the normal plane. LEAD (L) is the axial advance of a helix for one complete turn. • Due to the above. • Increased contact ratio due to the axial tooth overlap. In helical gears.ENGINEERING INFORMATION HELICAL GEARS GEAR NOMENCLATURE The information contained in the Spur Gear section is also pertinent to Helical Gears with the addition of the following: HELIX ANGLE (ψ) is the angle between any helix and an element of its cylinder. Fig. The teeth of a LEFT HAND Helical Gear lean to the left when the gear is placed flat on a horizontal surface. HAND – Helical Gears of the same hand operate at right angles. 1 Helical Gears of opposite hands run on parallel shafts. Helical gears offer additional benefits relative to Spur Gears. INVOLUTE—The Helical tooth form is involute in the plane of rotation and can be developed in a manner similar to that of the Spur Gear. it is at the pitch diameter unless otherwise specified. as in the threads of cylindrical worms and teeth of helical gears. those being: • Improved tooth strength due to the elongated helical wraparound. which may be viewed as two-dimensional. smoother operating characteristics are apparent. However. • Helical Gears thus tend to have greater load carrying capacity than Spur Gears of similar size. unlike the Spur Gear. resulting in a Normal Pitch which is lower in number than the Diametral Pitch.

262 x D x RPM TABLE III–VALUES OF SAFE STATIC STRESS (S) Material (s) Lb. . . Ft. .000 For a known HP. . . . .345 50 . . . (Table III) F = Face Width. . . .94 28. .358 72 Factor Y . . . . Lbs. . . . 30000 . . . .373 . . .40 Carbon (Untreated) .31 8. = . .40 Carbon (Heat-treated) . . . 25000 . . . . 25000 Steel . . . . .ENGINEERING INFORMATION HELICAL GEARS HELICAL GEAR FORMULAS To Obtain Transverse Diametral Pitch (P) Having Formula P=N D P = PNCosψ D=N P P Cosψ τ = 1. . . . . In. .361 . . . . T = 63025 x HP RPM Gear Catalog 141 . . .370 . . .5708 PN p =π t P PN = pn= ptCosψ L = πD Tanψ Number of Teeth (N) & Pitch Diameter (D) Normal Diametral Pitch (Pn) Helix Angle (ψ) Pitch Diameter (D) Number of Teeth (N) & Transverse Diametral Pitch (P) Normal Transverse Diametral Pitch (P) Diametral Pitch (PN) & Helix Angle (ψ) Normal Circular Normal Diametral Pitch (PN) Tooth Thickness (τ) Transverse Diametral Pitch (P) Circular Pitch (pt) (Transverse) Normal Transverse Circular Pitch (pn) Circular Pitch (p) Pitch Diameter and Lead (L) Pitch Helix Angle HELICAL GEAR LEWIS FORMULA The beam strength of Helical Gears operating on parallel shafts can be calculated with the Lewis Formula revised to compensate for the difference between Spur and Helical Gears. . . .377 HORSEPOWER AND TORQUE Max. .14 11. . .365 .48 { TABLE IV—VALUES OF TOOTH FORM FACTOR (Y) No. . . . . . . .63 16. . . per Sq. . with modified Tooth Form Factors Y. . Bronze . .327 36 . . 10000 Cast Iron .20 Carbon (Case-hardened) . . . . NORMAL DIAMETRAL PITCH FOR BOSTON 45° HELICAL GEARS P Transverse Diametral Pitch 24 20 16 12 10 8 6 PN Normal Diametral Pitch 33. . . .339 40 . . of Y Teeth . . . . .305 30 .40 C. . . . . 63. . allowable torque (T) that should be imposed on a gear will be the safe tooth load (W) multiplied by D or T = W x D 2 2 The safe horsepower capacity of the gear (at a given RPM) can be calculated from HP = T x RPM or directly from (W) and (V). . In.367 . . . . 600 W = SFY PN 600 + V W = Tooth Load. . . Alloy (Heat-treated) . . . . . . . . . .374 . . . . (along the Pitch Line) S = Safe Material Stress (static) Lbs. . . . 40000 TRANSVERSE VS.20 Carbon (Untreated) .295 25 . . . . Per Min. . of Teeth 8 9 10 12 15 16 18 20 24 FOR 14-1/2°PA—45° HELIX ANGLE GEAR Factor No. . . . . Inches Y =Tooth Form Factor (Table IV) PN = Normal Diametral Pitch (Refer to Conversion Chart) D = Pitch Diameter V = Pitch Line Velocity. . . .314 32 . . . . . 12000 . . . . . . .28 22.352 60 .364 . 20000 .97 14.025 WV HP = 33. . .342 48 . . per Sq. . . . .372 . .

the contact area and thereby the load carrying capacity. THRUST LOADS As a result of the design of the Helical Gear tooth. especially if the teeth are not well lubricated. Bearings must be adequate to absorb this load. under loads which gradually increase to the maximum expected.ENGINEERING INFORMATION HELICAL GEARS When Helical gears are operated on other than Parallel shafts. combined with the concentrated pressure. The thrust load direction is indicated below. and is perhaps best determined by trial under actual operating conditions. Separating Load = Axial Thrust Load x . 142 Gear Catalog . the tooth load is concentrated at a point. A separating force is also imposed on the gear set based on calculated Horsepower. may cause galling or excessive wear.050 x HP Axial Thrust Load = RPM x Pitch Diameter Boston Helicals are all 45° Helix Angle. the tooth load which may be applied to such drives is very limited and of uncertain value. 126. may be increased. producing a tangential force equal in magnitude to the axial thrust load. an axial or thrust load is developed. RIGHT HAND DRIVER THRUST BEARING DRIVER LEFTHAND DRIVER THRUST BEARING DRIVER LEFT-HAND DRIVER DRIVER THRUST BEARING RIGHT-HAND See page 114 for hardened and ground Thrust Washers. For these reasons. If one of the gears is made of bronze. with the result that very small loads produce very high pressures. by allowing the gears to “runin” in their operating position.386 Above formulae based on Boston 45° Helix Angle and 14-1/2° Normal Pressure Angle. The sliding velocity is usually quite high and. The magnitude of the thrust load is based on calculated Horsepower.

d) Whole Depth (hT) Addendum (a) Dedendum (b) FACE ANGLE Having No.002 hT = + . CO NE DI ST ROOT ANGLE PITCH APEX Straight Tooth Miter and Bevel Gear Formulas Formula To Obtain Pitch Diameter (D.ENGINEERING INFORMATION MITER AND BEVEL GEARS Gear geometry for both straight and spiral tooth Miter and Bevel gears is of a complex nature and this text will not attempt to cover the topic in depth. Spiral Miters and Bevels must be run with a mating pinion or gear of opposite hand.M. do) Number of Teeth In Lp = tan -1 Np LG = 90 – Lp Pinion (Np) and NG Gear (NG) Pinion & Gear Pitch Diameter (Dp + DG) do=Dp+2a(cos Lp) Do=DG+2a(cos LG) Addendum (a) & Pitch Angle (Lp + LG) BA CK ( ) Stock gears are cut to operate on an exact Mounting Distance with the following average backlash: Diametral Pitch 4 5 6 8 10 12-20 24-48 Backlash (Inches) . The teeth of a Right Hand gear lean to the right when the gear is placed flat on a horizontal surface.D. MOUNTING DISTANCE PITCH APEX TO CROWN CROWN TO BACK All Boston Spiral Miter and Bevel gears are made with 35° spiral angles with all pinions cut left hand.5708 P PITCH DIA.004 .002 hT = P P 1 1 a= a= P P b = hT – a c = hT – 2a τ= 1.A.003 . Similar in nature to Helical gearing.006 .5708 P b = hT – a c = hT – 2a τ= 1.008 .G. of Teeth and Diametral Pitch (P) Diametral Pitch (P) Diametral Pitch (P) Whole Depth (hT) & Addendum (a) Whole Depth (nT) & Addendum (a) Diametral Pitch (P) Pinion Gear CE FA PITCH ANGLE ADDENDUM DEDENDUM WHOLE DEPTH D=n d=n P P 2.188 2.007 . All Boston standard stock Miter and Bevel gears are manufactured with a 20° Pressure Angle.005 . Bevel gears are made in accordance with A. NOMENCLATURE Nomenclature may best be understood by means of graphic representation depicted below: The teeth of a Left Hand gear lean to the left when the gear is placed on a horizontal surface.188 + . The basic tooth form is a modification to the involute form and is the common form used in production today.002 . Clearance NE DI O. specifications for long and short Addendum system for gears and pinions (pinion is cut long Addendum) which serves to reduce the amount of pinion tooth undercut and to nearly equalize the strength and durability of the gear set. CO ST Circular Tooth Thickness (τ) Pitch Angle Outside Diameter (Do.

the gears will not be in full mesh on a common pitch line and may have excessive backlash. if great enough. 2. Patent Office. 144 Gear Catalog . lies in the control of tooth contact. Excessive wear or breakage can result. ILLUSTRATION OF LOCALIZED TOOTH BEARING IN STRAIGHT BEVEL CONIFLEX® GEARS Boston Gear Bevel and Miter Gears will provide smooth. MOUNTING DISTANCE TOO GREAT MOUNTING DISTANCE MOUNTING DISTANCE MOUNTING DISTANCE MOUNTING DISTANCE ®Registered in the U.S. PINION APEX ON CENTER PINION APEX DEFLECTED OR ASSEMBLED OFF CENTER MOUNTING DISTANCE TOO SMALL TOOTH BEARING CENTRAL TOOTH BEARING SHIFTED OFF CENTER BUT STILL SAFE (A) (B) Incorrect If Mounting Distance of either gear is made longer than dimension specified. When mounted at the MD specified. 3. as shown in drawing below. This results in increased life and quieter operation. Drawing below shows gears mounted incorrectly with the Mounting Distance too short for one gear. the teeth may bind. quiet operation and long life when properly mounted and lubricated.ENGINEERING INFORMATION MITER AND BEVEL GEARS Straight tooth bevel (and miter) gears are cut with generated tooth form having a localized lengthwise tooth bearing known as the “Coniflex”® tooth form. The superiority of these gears over straight bevels with full length tooth bearing. the gears will have a proper backlash and the ends of the gear teeth will be flush with each other (see drawings). The localization of contact permits minor adjustment of the gears in assembly and allows for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads. See page 145. All standard stock bevel and miter gears must be mounted at right angles (90°) for proper tooth bearing. 1. without concentration of the load on the end of the tooth. Mounting Distance (MD) is the distance from the end of the hub of one gear to the center line of its mating gear. All bevel and miter gears develop radial and axial thrust loads when transmitting power. Incorrect If Mounting Distance of one or both gears is made less than dimension specified. These loads must be accommodated by the use of bearings. There are several important considerations in mounting these gears. Excessive backlash or play. can cause a sudden impulse or shock load in starting or reversing which might cause serious tooth damage.

352 .443 .342 . . . . SPIRAL SPIRAL L.324 . . . . . .368 .506 . . .396 .399 .40 Carbon (Heat-treated) . . . .050 × × HP HP x HP 126. . . Gear Pin.412 . .345 . . . . .050 126. . . .050 126.569 . . .262 x D x RPM TABLE I VALUES OF SAFE STATIC STRESS (s) Material (s) Lb. . . SPIRAL SPIRAL T = T = p Tp = pP CLOCKWISE CLOCKWISE CLOCKWISE L. CLOCKWISE L. .292 . { TABLE II TOOTH FORM FACTOR (Y) 20°P. SPIRAL T = Tp == T p T P= p CLOCKWISE CLOCKWISE CLOCKWISE R.415 . .518 .405 .H. .301 . the direction of axial thrust loads developed by the driven gears will depend upon the hand and direction of rotation.050 × HP tan 126.462 . . SPIRAL R.386 . . . .333 . . . (along the Pitch Line) Safe Material Stress (static) Lbs. per Min. (Table 1) Face Width. . . .H. . .317 .050 126. C.—LONG ADDENDUM PINIONS SHORT ADDENDUM GEARS The magnitude of the thrust may be calculated from the formulae below. SPIRAL SPIRAL L. . C. .424 . . . .H. . . . T = 63025 x HP RPM 126.386 .367 .377 . R. . No. . . .408 — . . . .323 . . .A. Gear Pin.050 × × HP HP 126.364 . . . . . . .20 Carbon (Untreated) .443 .396 . . . In. .402 . . . .H. . . . 30000 . SPIRAL = TG = T G = G T G= C.339 .500 — — — — — .000 For a known HP. . .402 . . . .311 .050 tan α sin β tanα α sinß sinß 126. . . . . . . Gear Pin.336 . .050 × × HP HP x HP tan α sinß + + tan tanγ γ cosß cosß + tanγ cosβ + tan γ RPM cos RPM × ×D D cos cos γcosß RPM × D γ RPM x D cosγγ 126.050 × × HP HP 126. . L. .40 C.H. allowable torque (T) that should be imposed on a gear will be the safe tooth load (W) multiplied by D or T = W x D 2 2 The safe horsepower capacity of the gear (at a given RPM) can be calculated from HP = T x RPM or directly from (W) and (V). . . . . . .386 . . . 5000 Bronze . Ratio Teeth 1 1. . . Gear 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 32 36 40 — — . . Stock Spiral Bevel pinions cut Left Hand only. .361 .025 HP = WV 33.383 . Plastic . . . . R. . . . .402 . .408 .050 × HP 126.396 .477 — — . . . . .349 . Alloy (Heat-treated) .050 tanα α cosß cosß 126. . . . .40 Carbon (Untreated) .418 . . .418 — .346 .427 . .427 . . . . . .20 Carbon (Case-hardened) . CLOCKWISE C. . .H. . . . SPIRAL T = T = TG GG = G C.386 . based on calculated HP.434 . . per Sq.H.380 . . . . . . . Tooth Form Factor (Table I) Diametral Pitch Pitch Diameter Pitch Line Velocity. 25000 Steel . 40000 THRUST The axial thrust loads developed by straight tooth miter and bevel gears always tend to separate the gears.H.328 . .349 .415 . . In.302 . . . Gears Right Hand only. . Several factors are often combined to make allowance for the tooth taper and the normal overhung mounting of Bevel gears.75 P 600 + V W= S = F = Y = P = D = V = Tooth Load. . .367 . 25000 . .424 .050 × HP 126. per Sq. . . . . CLOCKWISE CLOCKWISE T T = T = 126. .424 .509 . SPIRAL SPIRAL R. . . 600 W = SFY .050 x tan HP tanα cos β α cosß tan tanα α cosß cosß + tan + tanγ γ sinß sinß + tanγ sinβ + tan sinß RPM RPM × ×D D cosγγ cosγ γ RPM × D cos γ RPM x D cos HORSEPOWER AND TORQUE Max. Gear Pin. . . .540 .421 — — — .421 — — — — — Straight Bevels and Miters Gear Thrust = 126.050 × HP tan 126. . .462 . . . . .383 . . .050 tanαtan cos β tan α cosß tanγ γ sinß sinß tan γ sinß + tanγ sinβ RPM cos γ RPM × ×D D cos RPM × D γ cos γ RPM x D cosγ α = Tooth Pressure Angle β = 1/2 Pitch Angle NP Pitch Angle = tan-1 N G γ = Spiral Angle = 35° ( ) .594 .405 .283 . 63. R.446 .456 . .377 .H. . and an appropriate Thrust Bearing selected.305 . .402 . . .ENGINEERING INFORMATION MITER AND BEVEL GEARS TOOTH STRENGTH (Straight Tooth) The beam strength of Miter and Bevel gears (straight tooth) may be calculated using the Lewis Formula revised to compensate for the differences between Spur and Bevel gears.471 . . .H. .377 . .355 . L.050 x HP tanα sinβ tan α sinß tan tanα α sinß sinß tan γ cosß – tanγ cosβ tan tan γ γ cosß RPM × D RPM × cos γcosß cosγ γ RPM ×D D x D cos RPM cos γ 126.543 — — — . . . .H. .050 x HP x tan α sin β RPM x Pitch Diameter Pinion Thrust = Spiral Bevels and Miters Thrust values for Pinions and Gears are given for four possible combinations. . .364 . Gear Pin. . . . . . .352 . . . .355 . . . . Lbs.487 . . . .5 2 3 4 6 Pinion Pin. For Spiral Bevel and Miter Gears. . . . . 20000 . .050 x HP x tan α cos β RPM x Pitch Diameter 126. . In. 10000 Cast Iron . . = . .543 . .339 . . . CLOCKWISE CLOCKWISE C. . . 12000 . .358 . .333 . .320 . . . . .474 . . Ft.399 .371 . . .H. . . .

To absorb this thrust loading. RIGHT-HAND DRIVEN DRIVEN DRIVER THRUST BEARING DRIVER HOW TO TELL A LEFT-HAND OR RIGHT-HAND WORM OR WORM GEAR DRIVEN DRIVEN LEFT-HAND DRIVEN DRIVEN DRIVER THRUST BEARING DRIVER DRIVEN DRIVEN Threads of LEFT-HAND lean to the Left when standing on either end: EFFICIENCY The efficiency of a worm gear drive depends on the lead angle of the worm.05 may be assumed for estimated value only. Worm Gear drives are considered the smoothest and quietest form of gearing when properly applied and maintained. Due to the sliding action which occurs at the mesh of the Worm and Gear. Number of Threads (starts) and Worm Gear Throat diameter. Worm gearing. the efficiency is dependent on the Lead Angle and the Coefficient of the contacting surface.ENGINEERING INFORMATION WORMS AND WORM GEARS Boston standard stock Worms and Worm Gears are used for the transmission of motion and/or power between non-intersecting shafts at right angles (90°). They should be considered for the following requirements: HIGH RATIO SPEED REDUCTION LIMITED SPACE RIGHT ANGLE (NON-INTERSECTING) SHAFTS GOOD RESISTANCE TO BACK DRIVING General nomenclature having been applied to Spur and Helical gear types. 146 Gear Catalog . For maximum efficiency the ratio should be kept low. bearings should be located as indicated. when operating. THRUST LOADS As is true with Helical and Bevel gearing. a Coefficient of Friction in the range of .03/. The angle decreases with increasing ratio and worm pitch diameter. A common formula for estimating efficiency of a given Worm Gear reduction is: EFFICIENCY = E = Tanγ (1 – f tanγ) f + tanγ Threads of RIGHT-HAND lean to the Right when standing on either end: where γ = Worm Lead Angle f = Coefficient of Friction For a Bronze Worm Gear and hardened Steel Worm. produces Thrust loading. The Chart below indicates the direction of thrust of Worms and Worm Gears when they are rotated as shown. may also be applied to Worm Gearing with the addition of Worm Lead and Lead Angle.

1416 P= p L = p(No.6866 p hT = 2. of Threads ( ) DO = DT + . under no condition should be considered to hold a load when at rest. the actual surface finish and lubrication may reduce this significantly. If safety is involved. friction factors and velocity factors must all be considered and applied to reflect a realistic durability rating.1416 P 3. More important. Gear Catalog 147 . The statement is made to cover the broad spectrum of variables effecting self-locking characteristics of a particular gear set in a specific application. Theoretically. CD = dw + DG 2 hT = . a worm gear will not back drive if the friction angle is greater than the worm lead angle. no guarantee is made and the customer should be so advised. However. RATING The high rate of sliding friction that takes place at the mesh of the Worm and Gear results in a more complex method of rating these Gears as opposed to the other Gear types. of Teeth on Gear (NG) and Number of Threads on Worm Throat Dia. (DT) and Addendum (a) Formula p = 3. Again. making it difficult to predict. Material factors. if the worm lead angle is less than 5°. The same variables exist.6a SELF-LOCKING ABILITY There is often some confusion as to the self-locking ability of a worm and gear set. (DO) Having Diametral Pitch (P) Circular Pitch (p) Number of Threads in Worm & Circular Pitch (p) Diametral Pitch (P) Outside Diameter (d o) & Addendum (a) Circular Pitch (p) & Number of Teeth (N) Pitch Diameter of Worm (d w) & Worm Gear (DG) Circular Pitch (p) Diametral Pitch (P) Whole Depth (h T) & Outside Diameter (d w) Pitch Diameter of Worm Gear (D) & Addendum (a) Pitch Diameter of Worm(D) & The Lead (L) No. mounted and lubricated. if the lead angle is greater than 11°.ENGINEERING INFORMATION WORMS AND WORM GEARS WORM AND WORM GEAR FORMULAS To Obtain Circular Pitch (p) Diametral Pitch (P) Lead (of Worm) (L) Addendum (a) Pitch Diameter (D) of Worm (DW) Pitch Diameter of Worm Gear (DG) Center Distance Between Worm & Worm Gear (CD) Whole Depth of Teeth (hT) Bottom Diameter of Worm (Dr) Throat Diameter of Worm Gear (DT) Lead Angle of Worm (γ) Ratio Gear O. However. there is reasonable expectation of self-locking. of Threads) a=1 P DW = do – 2a DG = NGp 3. vibration may cause motion at the point of mesh with further reduction in the friction angle.157 P dr = do – 2hT DT = DG + 2a L γ = tan-1 3. our experience indicates that for a hardened worm and bronze gear properly manufactured.D. Boston worm gear sets. no guarantee should be made and customer should be advised.1416d NG Ratio = No. back-driving capability may be expected.1416 WORM GEAR BACK-DRIVING This is the converse of self-locking and refers to the ability of the worm gear to drive the worm. a positive brake should be used. Generally speaking. Again.

4.018 .065 .066 .032 .026 . low-angle operation may require only occasional lubrication.033 . 148 Gear Catalog . 1° for urethane and 1/2° for bronze.0 15.035 . high-speed operation or in extreme dirt or moist conditions.5 7.4 . 3.) This should be within specifications below. Align shafts and supports to give minimum lateral and angular misalignment. The detrimental effects of these rotational deviations can be reduced. Slide couplings together and check lateral misalignment using straight edge and feeler gauge over coupling outside diameter (On BF Series couplings. Light-duty. and uniform speed restored by using two joints (and an intermediate shaft) to connect shafts at an angle or misaligned in a parallel direction. The difference between any two readings should be within specifications below. LUBRICATION MISALIGNMENT TOLERANCES Coupling Series FC—Bronze Insert FC—Urethane Insert FC—Rubber Insert BF BG (Shear Type) FA FCP (Plastic) Lateral .013 .001 .011 .039 . Assemble coupling halves to shaft. These cyclic speed fluctuations (two per revolution) cause vibration.022 .002 .ENGINEERING INFORMATION COUPLINGS ALIGNMENT Alignment of Boston couplings should be performed by the following steps to meet lateral and angular misalignment specifications below.002 1/32 . Many applications are considered severe when in harsh environments and when a combination of speed. 1.) . Lock couplings on shaft and check distance using feeler gauges between drive lug on one half and space between on other coupling half. For high-angle. VOLUME OF LUBRICATION FOR BOOTED JOINTS Size 37 50 62 75 87 Volume (Ozs.0 3. dirt contamination and inaccessible locations make it impractical to maintain proper lubrication.053 .052 .078 .0 50. UNIVERSAL JOINTS MOUNTING A single universal joint (rotating at uniform speed) operating at an angle will introduce periodic variations of angular velocity to the driven shaft. Rotate coupling and check gap at a minimum of 3 other coupling positions. The center cross of these joints holds a generous supply of lubricant which is fed to the bearings by centrifugal action.026 .0 Size 250 300 400 Volume (Ozs.078 Bronze .5 Size 100 125 150 175 200 Volume (Ozs. FEELER GAUGE FEELER GAUGE LATERAL MISALIGNMENT ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT For connecting shafts in the same plane the joints should be arranged to operate at equal angles and with the bearing pins of the yokes on the intermediate shaft in line with each other. spider must be removed. 2.002 .0 30. higher shaft stresses and bearing loads which will be more severe with larger angles of operation.117 Insert Urethane .5 4.002 . all booted joints should be used with a LITH-EP-000 grease for an ambient temperature range of 40° to 225°F.044 . FORGED AND CAST TYPE Universal Joints are not lubricated when shipped.003 Angular See Chart below 1-1/2° 2° 2° 3° PIN and BLOCK TYPE These universal joints are not lubricated when shipped.) 2. It is in these instances when the Boot Kits become a desirable alternative. daily regreasing may be required.039 Note: Joints should be initially lubricated with a 90 weight oil before being packed with grease.097 . MAXIMUM READING DIFFERENTIAL Size FC12 FC15 FC20 FC25 FC30 FC38 FC45 Rubber .75 1. For satisfactory performance.0 1.5 .) 25. Lubricate these joints with a Lith EP-2 grease or equivalent.1 FC SERIES ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT Chart reflects maximum angular misalignment of 1-1/2° for rubber.022 .

The tolerance on Center Distance normally should be positive to avoid possibility of gear teeth binding. it can cold-work and wear-in to accommodate slight errors in misalignment. After several hours or running under load. lubricants normally should be selected of the same viscosity as straight mineral oil. Alterations to hardened gears should not be made without consultation with factory. This can be accomplished by adjusting the Worm Gear axially. Many specialty lubricants have been recently developed to meet the application demands of today’s markets. As a basic rule of thumb.). Customers wishing to do the hardening operation should refer to “Materials” below for information. E. E. setscrew. Oil temperature of 150°F should not be exceeded for continuous duty applications.001 inch at the tooth mesh for general applications. Evolution of Contact in a Worm Gear Worm rotation Entering side Leaving side Initially. This added treatment can provide increased horsepower capacity with resultant longer life and/or reduction in size and weight.P. the guidelines listed below should be beneficial. (Extreme Pressure) lubricants may be used with Iron and Steel Gears.P. Therefore. SAE80 or 90 gear oil should be satisfactory for splash lubricated gears. After many hours of operation. remove from arbor and chuck on the hub diameter.ENGINEERING INFORMATION GENERAL MOUNTING SPUR & HELICAL For proper functioning gears. for low speed applications. Tolerance value is dependent on acceptable system backlash. One procedure is: mount the part on an arbor. In those instances where Bath or Drip Feed is not practical. gear has cold-worked to spread area of contact. Mild E. this tolerance might vary from . machine hub diameter to provide a true running surface. For customers. Boston Worm Gears are cut to close tolerancing of the Center Line of the Gear tooth to the flush side of the Gear. the maximum bore should not exceed 60% of the Hub Diameter and depending on Key size should be checked for minimum wall thickness. LUBRICATION The use of a straight mineral oil is recommended for most worm gear applications. ALTERATIONS Boston Gear Service Centers are equipped to alter catalog sprockets (rebore.002 for Boston Gear’s fine pitch gears to .005 for the coarsest pitch. including non-metallic materials. contact has spread to cover the entire working area of the tooth. consult a lubricant manufacturer. A minimum of one setscrew diameter over a keyway is considered adequate. check face and bore runout prior to reboring. As a guide for average application. There are several methods for accomplishing this. When properly mounted Worm Gears will become more efficient after initial break-in period. Temperatures up to 200°F can be safely tolerated for short periods of time. HOW WORM GEARS “ADJUST” THEMSELVES The gear in a worm gear reducer is made of a soft bronze material. gears must be accurately aligned and supported by a shaft and bearing system which maintains alignment under load. etc. Deflection should not exceed . choosing to make their own alterations. a moly-Disulphide grease may be used successfully. including synthetics and both high and low temperature oils and greases. Boston Gear offers a service for hardening stock sprockets. lubricants are not recommended for use with brass or bronze gears. Where extremely high or low speed conditions are encountered.P. contact is concentrated on the leaving side of the worm. This type of oil is applicable to gears of all materials. WORMS AND WORM GEAR It is important that the mounting assures the central plane of the Worm gear passes essentially through the axis of the Worm. In setting up for reboring the most important consideration is to preserve the accuracy of concentricity and lateral runout provided in the original product. Gear Catalog 149 . keyway.

000 = 1.20 or . STANDARD KEYWAYS AND SETSCREWS STYLES Boston Spur. This provides a fine-grained material with good wear-resistant properties. Selection of material is based on size and whether furnished as hardened or untreated. dependent on size.” Plastic Gears listed are molded from either Delrin®. PLAIN – A WEB – B 10-32 1/4-20 5/16-18 3/8-16 7/16-14 1/2-13 9/16-12 5/8-11 3/4-10 7/8-9 1-8 1-1/8-7 1-1/4-6 Standard Diameter of Hole 5/16 to 7/16” 1/2 to 9/16 5/8 to 7/8 15/16 to 1-1/4 1-5/16 to 1-3/8 1-7/16 to 1-3/4 1-13/16 to 2-1/4 2-5/16 to 2-3/4 2-13/16 to 3-1/4 3-5/16 to 3-3/4 3-13/16 to 4-1/2 4-9/16 to 5-1/2 5-9/16 to 6-1/2 W 3/32” 1/8 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 W d X DIA. For those applications requiring increased wearability. or Spoke styles. Stock cast iron gears are manufactured from ASTM-CLASS 30 cast iron to Boston Gear specifications.20 carbon steel with no subsequent treatment. Non-metallic spur Gears listed in this Catalog are made from cotton reinforced phenolic normally referred to as Grade “C. Boston stock worms are made of either a .109” X’ = 2. Acetal or Minlon®. X= (1/2)2 – (1/8)2 + 1/8 + 1/2 = 1. Web.45 carbon steel. as illustrated. Phosphor bronze is used for helicals and some worm gears (12P and coarser). Helical.218 – 1. Case-hardening produces a wear resistant. Keyway 1/4” wide by 1/8” deep. Several proprietary nitriding processes are available for producing an essentially distortion-free part with a relatively shallow but wear-resistant case. Finer pitch worm gears are made from several different grades of bronze.ENGINEERING INFORMATION GENERAL MATERIALS Boston Gear stock steel gears are made from a .218” 150 Gear Catalog . OF HOLE OR D d 3/64” 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 7/16 1/2 Recommended Setscrew WEB WITH LIGHTNING HOLES – C X' FORMULA: X= (D/2)2– (W/2) 2 + d + D/2 SPOKE – D X’ = 2X – D EXAMPLE: Hole 1”. Bronze worm and helical gears are produced from several alloys selected for bearing and strength properties. and Worm Gears are carried in Plain. durable surface and a higher strength core. Carburizing and hardening is the most common process used.109” 1.

THE AMOUNT OF WORK done (Foot Pounds) is the FORCE (Pounds) exerted multiplied by the DISTANCE (Feet) through which the FORCE acts. . . & Velocity (V) Ft. °C = (°F . & Rev.) x rpm Torque (lb.) = 0. Per Min. Lbs.3.) D = PD of Sprocket. DISTANCE = 33 FT. Lbs. Force (W) Lbs. DISTANCE = 1 FT. R = 1" R = 2" W300* W150* T=WR=300 x 1=300 In.262 x Dia. ONE FOOT POUND is a unit of WORK. ILLUSTRATION OF HORSEPOWER FORCE (W) = 33. 33.5 x daN•m Velocity (V) Ft. Lbs.-in) = Force (lb) x Radius (in. 2πR WORK (Ft.-in.8) + 32 Torque (lb-in.000 Velocity (ft/min.) K = Overhung Load Factor Overhung Load Factors: Sprocket or Timing Belt . POWER is the rate of doing work. = mm/25.025 Force (lb) x Velocity (ft/min.ENGINEERING INFORMATION HOW TO FIGURE HORSEPOWER AND TORQUE TO OBTAIN Velocity (V) Feet Per Minute HAVING FORMULA Cut on Dotted Lines and Keep for Quick Reference Pitch Diameter (D) of Gear or Sprocket – Inches V = . °F = (°C x 1.000 LBS.000 LBS. . — Inches (RPM) Torque (T) In. .) hp x 63. . Lbs.000 x 1 1000 x 33 HP = ———— = 1 HP 33. . 12 When this WORK is done in a specified TIME.000 x 1 TORQUE (T) is the product of a FORCE (W) in pounds. . 1000 LBS. of Shaft. of Rev. .00 Pinion & Gear Drive . per Minute) HORSEPOWER (HP) = ———————————— 33000 WORK (Ft.) x rpm hp = ————————— 63. Per Min. Per Min.1. . . V D = —————— . Pounds per Min. . .) FORCE (Lbs. (RPM) & Pitch Diameter (D) of RPM = ————— . .) POWER (Foot Pounds per Minute) = ———————— TIME (Minutes) POWER is usually expressed in terms of HORSEPOWER. Per of Gear or Sprocket Min.025 Gear Catalog 151 . Force (W) Lbs.556 Temp. (in. .025 Torque (lb. 2πR POWER (Ft.) 33. (RPM) Horsepower (HP) & Velocity (V) Ft.) = W x —— x RPM 12 Since (1) HORSEPOWER = 33. POWER is used.2618 x D x RPM & Rev. (RPM) Horsepower (HP) & Rev. .025 but TORQUE (Inch Pounds) = FORCE (W) X RADIUS (R) TORQUE (T) x RPM Therefore HORSEPOWER (HP) = ————————— 63. .6 x kg•m Torque (lb-in. the FORCE (W) is moved through a distance. . Pounds) = ————————— 33000 x TIME (Min. . .) = 88.) x DISTANCE (Feet) = ——————————————— 33000 x TIME (Min. @ 1750 rpm 1 hp = 3 lb-ft. .1. V Rev.2618 xD Gear or Sprocket—Inches Pitch Diameter (D) Velocity (V) Ft.32) x 0. times a RADIUS (R) in inches from the center of shaft (Lever Arm) and is expressed in Inch Pounds. .) FORCE (Lbs. .) hp = ———————————— 33. It is the WORK done in exerting a FORCE OF ONE POUND through a DISTANCE of ONE FOOT. Per Min. . Per Min.4 Temp. @ 1750 rpm Torque (lb.000 x 1 HP = ————— = 1 HP 33. & Rev. Per Min. . . WORK is the exerting of a FORCE through a DISTANCE. Lbs. . POWER (Ft.) = 8. & Radius (R) Inches Force (W) Lbs. T=WR=150 x 2=300 In. .000 Foot Pounds per Minute 2πR RPM WxRxRPM HORSEPOWER (HP) = W x —— x ——— = —————— 12 33. . . Lbs. . Lbs.025 OT = Input Torque x Ratio x Efficiency OT = Output Torque Input rpm Output rpm = ———— Ratio 2 TK OHL = ———— D OHL = Overhung Load (lb) T = Shaft Torque (lb-in. . .) x Output rpm Output hp = —————————— 63. and WORK is done.000 63. .50 Pulley & Flat Belt Drive . .25 Pulley & V-Belt Drive .1. Lbs. . Pinion or Pulley (in.50 Variable Pitch Pulley . Torque (T) In. Per Min. If the shaft is revolved.2. TIME = 1 MIN. THE AMOUNT OF POWER used (Foot Pounds per Minute) is the WORK (Foot Pounds) done divided by the TIME (Minutes) required. (RPM) APPLICATION FORMULAS 1 hp = 36 lb-in.) = —————— rpm Mechanical Output hp = ———— x 100% Efficiency Input hp OT (lb-in.85 x N•m Torque (lb-in. HORSEPOWER is POWER (Foot Pounds per Minute) divided by 33000.) x DISTANCE (Feet) = ——————————————— 33000 x TIME (Min. TIME = 1 MIN. . Per Min.) = 86. WORK (Ft. . Pounds) = W x —— x No. . Horsepower (HP) & Rev. .50 kW = hp x 0. FORCE (W) 1000 LBS.2618 x RPM T=WxR WxV HP = ———— 33000 x RPM ———— HP = T 63025 63025 x HP T = ————— RPM 33000 x HP W = ————— V 63025 x HP RPM = ————— T Horsepower (HP) Horsepower (HP) Torque (T) In. . Per Min.7457 in.-in. . (RPM) Torque (T) In. .

50 2. in Hrs.00 1.25 1.00 0.25 1.00 *Consult manufacturer.25 1.25 1.50 1.25 1.50 1.25 — — — — — — 1. 152 Gear Catalog .75 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.25 2. Stone Sugar Type of Machine To Be Driven ELEVATORS Bucket – Uniform Load Bucket – Heavy Load Centrifugal Discharge Freight Gravity Discharge FANS Centrifugal – Light (Small Diam.50 * — — 1.25 1.50 1.00 2.00 1.50 1.25 1.75 1.25 — 1.50 2.50 1.00 1.00 1.75 1.25 1.50 1.50 — — — — — — — — — — 2. per 10 Hrs.00 1.50 1.25 1.75 1.80 1.25 1.00 1.25 1.50 Type of Machine To Be Driven AGITATORS Pure Liquid Semi-Liquids. Day Per Day — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.25 1.25 1.00 1.) Large Industrial FEEDERS Apron – Belt – Screw Disc Reciprocating FOOD INDUSTRY Beet Slicer Cereal Cooker Dough Mixer – Meat Grinder GENERATORS (NOT WELDING) HAMMER MILLS HOISTS Heavy Duty Medium Duty and Skip Type LAUNDRY TUMBLERS LINE SHAFTS Uniform Load Heavy Load MACHINE TOOLS Auxiliary Drive Main Drive – Uniform Load Main Drive – Heavy Duty METAL MILLS Draw Bench Carriers & Main Drive SLITTERS TABLE CONVEYORS — NON REVERSING Group Drives Individual Drives Wiring Drawing.50 1.75 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.75 1.25 1.25 1.25 2. 2 Hrs.50 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.25 1. 2 Hrs.00 1.00 1.00 — — — 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.00 — — — 1.25 1. Pebble Dryers and Coolers Plain and Wedge Bar Tumbling Barrels — — — — 1.00 0.75 1.00 — — — 1.00 1.00 1.50 2.50 2.00 1.80 — — — — — — — — — — — 1. in Hrs.50 1. Day Per Day 0.50 — — — — 1.00 1.25 1.75 1.00 1.25 1.75 1.25 1.50 2. per 10 Hrs.25 1.00 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.25 1.50 — 1.25 2.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.ENGINEERING INFORMATION APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION FOR VARIOUS LOADS Chart I For All Drives Service Factor Loading Not More Not More More Than 15 Than 10 Than Mins.50 1.50 2.25 1.80 1.25 1. Variable Density BLOWERS Centrifugal and Vane Lobe BREWING AND DISTILLING Bottling Machinery Brew Kettles–Continuous Duty Cookers – Continuous Duty Mash Tubs – Continuous Duty Scale Hopper – Frequent Starts CAN FILLING MACHINES CANE KNIVES CAR DUMPERS CAR PULLERS CLARIFIERS CLASSIFIERS CLAY WORKING MACHINERY Brick Press & Briquette Machine Extruders and Mixers COMPRESSORS Centrifugal Lobe–Reciprocating.25 1. Flattening or Winding MILLS ROTARY TYPE BALL AND ROD Spur Ring Gear and Direct Connected Cement Kilns.50 1.50 1.00 1. Multi-Cycle Reciprocating – Single Cycle CONVEYORS— UNIFORMLY LOADED & FED Apron Assembly-Belt – Bucket or Pan Chain – Flight Oven – Live Roll – Screw CONVEYORS—HEAVY DUTY NOT UNIFORMLY FED Apron Assembly-Belt – Bucket or Pan Chain – Flight Live Roll Oven – Screw Reciprocating – Shaker CRANES AND HOISTS Main Hoists Bridge and Trolley Drive CRUSHER Ore.25 1.75 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.25 1.00 1.00 Chart I For All Drives Service Factor Loading Not More Not More More Than 15 Than 10 Than Mins.00 1.

Stone or Gravel Traveling Water Intake Skip Hoists Slab Pushers Stokers TEXTILE INDUSTRY Batchers or Calendars Cards Card Machines Dry Cans and Dryers Dyeing Machines Looms Mangles. Dryers .75 2.25 1.50 1.not more than 10 hours per day.25 1.2 Rolls Compounding MIlls Calendars Extruder .00 ------1.25 1.25 Rotary .50 1.25 1.00 1.75 2. 3 or More Cycles 1.00 2.25 1. Moderate Shock .50 1.Chip and Rotary Thickener (AC) Washer (AC) Winder . PER DAY 3 3 TO OVER TO OVER 10 10 10 10 --1.25 1.50 1.75 1.Log and Slab Cutter Cylinder Molds.50 1.25 --2. Washers.00 1.25 1.50 1.00 I 1.25 1.50 1.50 1.not more than 15 minutes in 2 hours.50 1.Intermittent Tire Building Machines Tire and Tube Press Operators SEWAGE DISPOSAL EQUIPMENT Bar Screens Chemical Feeders Collectors Dewatering Screws Scum Breakers Slow or Rapid MIxers Thickners Vacuum Filters 1.50 1.25 1.50 1.25 1.25 1. Gear Catalog 153 .25 1.00 1.50 1.not more than 10 hours per day.25 --1.50 2.50 1.25 1.Variable Speed Extruder .25 II 1. SERVICE FACTOR CHART AGMA CLASS OF SERVICE SERVICE FACTOR 1.00 Heavy Shock . Tenner Frames Spinners.Bark .more than 10 hours per day. OPERATING CONDITIONS Moderate Shock . ------- This list is not all-inclusive and each application should be checked to determine if any unusual operating conditions will be encountered.25 1.00 RUBBER INDUSTRY Batch Mixers Continuous Mixers Calendars *Consult Manufacturer.00 --1.ENGINEERING INFORMATION TYPE OF MACHINE TO BE DRIVEN NON-MOTOR MOTORIZED REDUCER REDUCER (SERVICE (CLASS OF FACTORS) SERVICE) HRS.50 1.00 1.25 1.75 --------II I ----II I PAPER MILLS (Cont.25 1.75 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.25 1.not more than 15 minutes in 2 hours.50 1.50 1. Uniform Load . PER DAY 3 3 TO OVER TO OVER 10 10 10 10 --------1. PER DAY HRS.50 1.more than 10 hours per day.25 1.25 1.50 1.00 1. Nappers and Pads Soapers.25 1.more than 10 hours per day.25 1.25 1.00 1.Fixed Speed ----------------1.Chemical Conveyors .) Chipper Chip Feeder Coating Rolls .00 1.50 2.50 1. 2 or More Cycles 1. Winders Tumbling Barrels Windlass PULLERS Barge Haul PUMPS Centrifugal --Proportioning --Reciprocating Single Acting.00 1.Chips .50 1. Uniform Load .50 ------------------* II II I ------------------------* III III II ------- SCREENS Air Washing Rotary . Heavy Shock . Moderate Shock .50 III 1.00 1.25 1.25 1.Anti-Friction Felt Stretcher Screens .75 1.) Extruders .Gear or Lube 1.25 2.Continuous Extruders .00 1.25 1.50 1.50 1. Heavy Shock .75 1.25 --1.25 ------------------------III ------------II ------II TYPE OF MACHINE TO BE DRIVEN NON-MOTOR MOTORIZED REDUCER REDUCER (SERVICE (CLASS OF FACTORS) SERVICE) HRS.50 1.25 1.Couch Rolls Conveyors .Surface Type RUBBER INDUSTRY (Cont.not more than 10 hours per day.50 1.50 I I I II II II II II I II I II ----II I III II II * II II II III II II II II II II II II II II II II ----II II II III II II * II II II III III PLASTICS INDUSTRY Intensive Internal Mixers Batch Type Continuous Type Batch Drop Mill .25 1.50 1.25 1. PER DAY HRS.25 Double Acting.

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