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Bow to Repair Briggs
5;~: Paul Sub1 ished

h Stratton

Encti

Dempsey

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A step-by-stepguide to understanding, tuning, adjusting, repairing, and overhauling.

By Paul Dempsey

Now you can maintain and repair any Briggs & Stratton small gasoline engine! Everything you need to know is here in do-iiyourselfer’s language, from simple tune-up and carburetor reg.airs to the serious business of replacing main bearings and resizing cylinder bores. You’ll quickly see how an engine works, how each systemignition, fuel, lubrication, and cooling-contrib&e to the proper operation of an engine. And where possib!e. adjustment and repair procedures appear in step-by-step order. Special emphasis is given to unique Briggs & Stratton features: the Pulsa- and Vacu-Jet carburetors, the starter clutch, and the vertical-pull starter. And, while Briggs & Stratton engines are workhorses, intended to perform with maximum reliability, they can be made into screamers. Indeed, Briggs & Stratton dominates four-cycle go-cart racing, and given the right preparation, run with the better two cycles. For readers who are interested, material is included on hop-up techniques. Paul Dempsey is a master mechanic and veteran engine/ automotive journalist. He is the author of manjl of the related titles appearing below.

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966 How to Convert Your Car. 651 Tke CompleteMini&ke Handbook No. 917Htno to Repair Small Gasoline Engines-2nd Edition No. 705 Tke Co.apleteSntn+mobileRepair Handbook No. 967Hour to Repair Li# Tnccks No. 727 Compbte G&e to Outboard Motor Sepvice& Repair No. 769 Motor&? Repair Handbook No. 849 Vega No. 817 How to Repair Diesel Engines No. 846 Tke Biqycle#s Bible No. 767Complete Handbook of LawnmowevRepair No. 668 Modem Guide to Auto Tuneup & Emission Cont~uiSe&tirs No. IX Pickup to Diesel No.Other TAB books by tbe author: No. 946 Step-3y-Step Guide to Ford/Mercu~/Lincoln Engine Maintenance Repair No. Van. 976 Moped Repair Handbook .

PA. 17214 .A By Paul Dempsey I BLUE RIDGE SUMMIT.

1. Library of Congnss Cataloging in Publication Data (Revised) Dempsey. 78-10470 TJK789D43 621. No liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information herein. lntemat combustion engines. Spark ignition-Maintanance and repair. How to repair Bnggs & Stratton engines. Cover courtesy of Srfggs & Stratton. without express permission of the publisher. Tale. is prohibited.434’028 ISBN o-8306-9873-6 ISBN 0-8306-1087-l pbk. Paul. includes index. I.FIRST EDITION FIRST PRINTING-OCTOBER 1978 Copyright 0 1970 by TAB WOKS Printed in the United States of America Reproduction or publication of the content in any manner. .

For readers who are interested. that is.This book describesrepair and maintenanceprocedures for all current and many obsolete Briggs & Stratton engines. Special emphasis is given to the unique characteristics of Briggs & Stratton technology. Briggs & Stratton engines dominate four cycle go-cart racing. With this in mind. Indeed. lubrication. they can be made into screamers. An old mechaniconce remarked that he could repair only what he understood. and cooling-is described in functional terms. and as muchas possible. While Briggs & Stratton engines are workhorses intended to perform their humble tasks with maximum reliability and decades between overhauls. The material is organizedby subjectand by enginemodel. These procedures extend to all phases of the work. run with the better two cycle engines. and given the right preparation. fuel. Paul Dempsey . some material is incbded on hop-up techniques. the P&a-Jet and Vacu-Jot carburetors. and the vertical pull Starter. the starter clutch. from simple tune-up and carburetor repairs to the serious businessof replacingmainbeatings andresising cylinder bores. the engine and each of its support systems-ignition. divided into steps that are easy to follow.

L .

....... .........................t1 ...............................S ...................................................................................74 Centrifugal Governors ...19 Sdggs & Stratton Magneto Types ............................. ..........................................................16 Engine fdentfffcation.............SES Nomenclature................................... .66 Automatic Chokes ..................................57 ......................... ..............76 73 ..........................................................................47 Troubleshooting the Carburetor .........26 19 lYzE::s 45 The Throttle Velue and Idle Port....................... ...... .. 49 QOVERNORS Pneumatic Governors .....51 Srfggs 8 Stratton Carburetors ..................................................................9 Th&T.. ...... ..........................................i ........................................... .... 9 IGNITION The Magneto ......... ............................ Engine Protection ............................................................. 14 ............... ...$dze Engine .......................... ......... ..........................

.......................155 Piston ” 159 clan~~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~~:::::::::::::::::....... .146 Flange or Sase .. ..109 k?emators ......._...................... .....139 Cylinder Head. ....113 The Nicad System...................... .....................................65 Elect& Starters............................ 125 Symptoms ot Engine Trouble.........................................___.... ......__..........:l72 125 INDM 177 .......... ......... .................................................____....._............................................................................. ........ ........................... Connecttna Rod .‘ ............ ...................125 Overhauling vs Rebuilding.............122 ENGINE WORK Engine Modifcation...................13t ...............................................95 CHARGING SYSTEMS 139 Storage Batteries.......................................... ................ ......................... .....................................151 Camshaft..STARTERS 05 Mechanical Starters .._........................... .... ..........129 Engine Teardown................ .... ......................... ... ........................ ....135 Valves ....... ..........-....... ............... ..................

The piston slides up and down in the cylinder bore and is linked to the crankshaftby meansof a connectingrod. is detachedfrom the piston by retracting the piston pin. The c~nneCt. The piston.CHAPTE During its lengthy histciry. end for accessibility. and crankpin produce the engine power. Timing gears synchronize valve action to piston movement. The smallend. The rod is madeof ahuninumandhas no bushingsor bearings.ug rod is split at the lower. sometimescalled the rod eye. fuel and air rush past the open intake valve to till the 9 . has a single cylinder and is cooled by air moving over tins cast into the cylinder barrel and head. Figure l-2A depicts the first. This example. NOMENCLATURE Figure l-l ilhrstrates a very simple single-cylinder engine. THEFOUR-CYCLE ENGINE Four-stroke-cycle enginesrequire four up-and-downstrokes of the piston (or two crankshaft revolutions) to complete one cycle of operation. As the piston falls. or intake stroke. four-stroke-cycle engines. Briggs & Stratton has confined itself to single-cylinder. air-cooled. rod. similar to Briggs engines. Displae ments have ranged from five to thirty-two cubic inches. or big.

and impeked by the inertia stored in the flywheel and crankshaft. This is the compressionstroke and the prelude to combustion. Just before the piston reaches TDC.XYWHEEL Jj/ MAIN6EiRINGS lg. CRANKCASE cylinder. Engine nomenciarure. the spark plug fires. continues past BDC and up to top dead center (TDC). the intake valve closes. As the piston climbs in the bore. trapping the fuel and air above the piston (Fig. The piston reaches bottom dead center (BDC). igniting the com10 . or the lower limit of its stroke. l-2B). l-1.

26 cubic centimeters. but do not include the clearancevolume abovethe piston at top deadcenter. purging the cylinder for the next cycle that begins with the intake stroke. . l-2C). The piston is driven down by the explosion in the power stroke (Fig. it must be cranked fast enough to create a vacuum on the intake stroke. Near BDC the exhaust valve opens and the cylinder blows down (Fig. and the ignition spark must occur at the right time. l-2D).or swept volume.7854 x Number of Cylinders = Displacement. are the basicenginedimensions(Fig. This power stroke converts chemical energy into mechanicalmotion by burning the gasoline’s hydrogen andcarbon. It is useful to remember that one cubic inch equals 16. Those exhaust gases that are at higher than atmospheric pressure escapepast the open valve. volumetric efficiencies and compression ratios tend to be relatively constant among small engines. some competitors have not. displacementis expressedin cubic inches. As the piston rounds BDC. of the cylinder. Thus a ten-cubic-inchBriggs & 11 . or the diameter of the cylinder. For the engine to run properly. l-3).387 cubic centimeters. This conversionof chemical energy to mechanicalmotion is the purpose of the engine. Thus an 11-cubic inch engine displaces 180. it forces the heavier residues out m front of it.pressed mixture. the displacementis expressed in cubic centimeters. the valves and piston must operate in phase and be reasonably gastight to hold compression. These dimensionsdetermine the displacement. the more powerful andfuel-hungry the engine. The greater the displacement.mixed with the air’s oxygen. and if in millimeters. is calculatedby the following formula: Bore x Bore x Stroke x 0. within the limits of r-pm. While Briggs & Stratton continues to use the inch system. Ifthe bore and stroke dimensionsare in inches. All things being equal. andthe stroke. Displacement is important because it is an index to engine power. ENGINE POWER ‘Zhebore. represenfing the volume of air the engine should“inhale” during the intake stroke. or the distancethe piston travels from bottom to top deadcenters. The swept volume of the cylinder.

or expansion.) 12 . l-2. 5-compression.Fig. D-exhaust. (Courtesy Tecumseh ‘Products Co. The four-stroke cycle: A-intake. C-power.

or swept volume. volumetric efficiency. andcompressionratio. Besides engine displacement. 13 . but do not include the clearance volume above the Diston at top dead center.Stratton engine (equivalent to 10 x 16. These dimensions determinethe displacement. engine power is related to horsepower.387 = 163. smallindustrial and utility enginesare governed very conservatively Fig. Piston bore and stroke. However. of the cylinder.87 cc) should outwork a 144 cubic centimeter Tecumseh engine. Horsepower dependspartiaEyupon crankshaftrevolutions per minute. l-3.

The compressionratio is a measure of how much“squeeze” is put on the air-fuel mixture before ignition. to prevent the blade tips from exceeding the speed of sound The volumetric efficiency is a theoretical measure of how well the cyhnder fills during the intake stroke. to increase durability and. l-4). l-4. This ratio is the volume of the cylinder with the piston at bottom dead center divided by the volume at top dead center (Fig. the greater the energy released’against the face of the pi&l ENGINE PROlECflON cooling Brings13 Stratton enginesare fan cooled The ftywheel doubles as a centrifugal fan: air is sucked into the flywheel hub area through the inlet screenand expeIled into the sheet metal shroud by impeller 14 . Comprsssion ratio. in the case of rotary lawnmowers. Within limits set by the shape of the combustion chamber and the propert sity of gasolineto explode spontaneously.Fg. the higher the compression ratio.

The shroud conductsthe air stream over the cylinder head cooling fins. Qnk Hydroseal works on both aluminum and iron. l-5. dilute 1OWor low-30 10% with kerosene. Below 0 degrees Fahrenheit. 3-6). Dust accmntiations on the screen can be washed off with detergent and water. lubrication oil is stored in the crankcaseand distributed about by meansof a dipper hung below the connectingrod. The s!inger is driven by the camshaft. a tilter is impracticaland the oil must be changedat frequent intervals. where engine power is increasedby a factor of five. Carbon deposits on the tins respond best to wire brushing. While splashlubrication is considered primitive. although you can use oven cleaner on iron parts. In winter use lOW-300r lOW-40.low-30 or lOW-40). or on aluminumengines. I-5). (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.bladescast in the flywheel rim (Fig.Use grade SE30 for summer operation (or if the straight weight is not available. Inlet screen and cooling fins. Since no pump is fitted. With the engine on a level surface. Under normal conditions Briggs recommend 25 hours between oil changes. It is important that the inlet screen and fins be clean. and is available at airports. by meansof a slinger (Fig.) 15 . rhe Briggs system has proved adequate in go-cart racing. the oil should reach the top thread of the filler plug boss or. But splash systems are sensitive. on engines with a INLET SCREEN KEEP AREAS WITHIN HEAVY LINE CLEAN OF ALL DEBRIS CYLINDER-HEAD COOLING FINS FQ.

but was cast in iron. If the crankcase is at atmospheric pressure. late production slingers ride on a shwt-steel bracket (8). the crankcasemust be kept under a slight vacuum. The breather (a kind of check valve) must be functional and the crankcase should be airtight. dipstick.but little or no air should enter. the fill mark. With early models. 16 . ENGINE iDENTlFBCATlON All engines carry a number plate on the flywheel shroud or have the number stamped indelibly on the shroud. Some ahnninumengines were identified with the letter B.and can blow a seal.~M be able to escape.Fii. smokes the exhaust. Overfilling costs power. it was sufficient to identify the engine by number alone.Oil vapor I. N vas used to distinguish iron. even when new) will ruin the crankshaft and connecting rod. The number represented engine displacementin cubicinches. l-6. Early Briggs slingers are supported on afuminum die castings (A). oil will be driven past the piston rings and into the combustion chamber. Thus a 6B engine was cast aluminumanddisplacedsix cubic inches: a 6N engine had an identical bore and stroke. or a number andletter. Because a splash system does not control the amount of oil thrownabout. UnderMing (and these engines use oil.

. Numbers 1. but has expanded the code to encompassdesign variations unheard of twenty years ago. however.Briggs & Stratton continues the practice of reserving the first slot in the identification number for displacement. Zero. intended perhaps for the long rumored twin cylinder. and 4 meana horizontal crank engine with carburetor and governor variants.” This will at ’ least give your parts supplier a clue to identifying your engine.2.3. ignition hardware. impulse. As sometimeshappens. You can determine the displacement by measuring the bore and stroke and plugging these values into the equation given under “Engi ?e Power. The first digit after the displacement is the design series and refers to the over-ahconfiguration.the original number plate is lost. numbers 5. rewind. Be sure. The third digit after the displacement identifies the type of main bearings and whether reduction gears or auxiliary power takeoffs are fitted. to comparethe parts he selectsagainstthe originals. 6. and 8 are open at present. and 9 refer to carburetor options on vertical crank blocks. and cylinder construction. or the shroud has been replaced by another. 7. AC or DC. The final digit represents the type of starter-rope.

Since most engine failure involves the magneto. a part that turns with the flywheel. some understanding of the mechanismis necessary for the mechanic. 19 . three adjustments. THEMAGNETO Briggs & Stratton engines are sparked by magnetos. Figure 2-1 illustrates the magneto assembly used on most Briggs & Stratton engines. but is distinct from it. In this case the breaker. all of which are Critical. or contact points. are housed under the flywheel and cammed open by the crankshaft. The magnets are cast into the outer rim of the flywheel. accounting for more than 80% of an engine’s malfunctions. The movable contact in this and most other Briggs & Stratton designsis driven by a plunger to isolate it from side forces developedby the crankshat?cam. on the more sophisticated designs. but Briggs & Stratton engines have two and. Other designs have the points mounted outside the flywheel where they are triggered by the camshaft. Magnets are sometimes mouhtedin a rotor. devices that combinethe function of a high voltage generator and an ignition coil. Competitive engiies do not have this feature. The timing is fixed.CHAPTER 2 IGNITIQ The ignition system is the most troubiesome part of an engine.

the condenser discharges through the primary windings to grotmdt 20 . When the points are closed. 2-l. or capacitor. When the points open. Current tlows from the coii windings through ground (the enginecastings) and back through ground to the points and coil windings. Competitive enginesdo not have this feature. or primary. Current that would arc across the points is momentarily stored in the condenser. the primary circuit is complete. the circxuit is broken and no ptihnary current flows. The condenser. side of the magneto. Figure 2-2 pictures the wiring of the low voltage. When the points close. is a kind of ho!ding tank. Magneto nomenclature.Fig. The movable contact in this and most other Briggs 8 Stratton designs is driven by a plunger to isolate it from side forces developed by the crankshaft cam.

and upon the distancebetween the coi! and nx2gnets. primary current is insufficient to light the spark plug. is impressed over the coil’s primary winding (Fig. consisting of several thousand turns of hair-fine wire. (Courtesy Fichtel & Sachs. When these fields pass through the primary windings. the less ef6cient the magneto. 2-3). 2-2. The intensity of the current dependsuponhow rapidly the fields move (which is why the crankshaft must be turned 90 rpm or so to start the engine). primary current is on the order of 2A with an electrical pressure of about 17OV. The greater the distance.) 21 . For that we need at least 6. a transformation takes place and electric current is generated. Current flow is accompaniedby a magnetic field at right angles to the conductor. At running speed. One end of the secondary is grounded and the other connects to the spark plug by way of the higintension lead. The task of boosting primary voltage and delivering it to the spark plug is accomplishedby the secondary circuit. Each of the flywheel magnets is surrounded by a swarming force field. However. The secondary winding.Current is generated by the interaction between magneticforce and the primary windings.OOOV. The field can be concentrated by looping the conductor over a soft iron core. SHADED AREAS = MAGNETS & + + = GROUNDS = CONTACT POINTS = CONDENSER = EDGE DISTANCE = POINT GAP a b Fig. Primary circuit schematic. or armature.OOOV and preferably 10. Iron acts as a kind of lens for the magnetic lines of force.

malfunctioningpoints. or a malfunctioning flyviheel Spark Plug Replacement The 6rst step in troubleshooting any single-cylinder engineis to replacethe spark plug with one known to be geod. For the magneto to function properly. How much voltage is generated in the secondary winding depends uponthe ratio of turns between the secondaryandprimary windings. or dimension “a” in Pig. this ratio gives 10. the contact points should break at the moment of peak primary current. As far as mechanicsare concerned. the greater the voltage. The field faIts in upon itself. Magnetosfor the large engineshave edge distanceswhich can be varied. The secondary winding is therefore subjected to the classicvoltage generating situation. then crank the engine.OOOV at the spark plug from a primary input of 170V. Subtractingfor coil inefficiency. On small engines with self-contained magnetos. the spark occurs once for every flywheel revolution. The quality of the spark can be tested by disconnectingthe high tension lead from the spark plug terminal. Hold the metal end of the lead % to 3116of an inch from the block.Since the secondary winding is impressed over the primary winding.this position is usually described as a function of edge distance. The three most common causes of magneto trouble are a malfunctioningsparkplug. Current is prcportionaky decreased because some energy is lost in the operation of converting one form of energy to another. a moving magneticfield. and upon the efficiency of the magnetic coupling. Smaller Briggs engines are sparked by magnetos with fixed edge distances that can only be disturbed by warped flywheel keys or battered keyways. Briggs & Stratton coils are wound with a sixty to one ratio. cutting through the secondarywindings. 2-2. The greater the number of secondary windings relative to the primary.?r. current is interrupted and the field around the primary windingscollapses. large engines with remote point chambers fire each second revolution. Primary current peakswhen the flywheel magnetis centered over the coil armature. 22 . You shouid see a spark leap between the lead and the block each time the contact points bre.

While some forms of plug failure are obvious-carbon fouling. spindly sparks. Even new spark plugs may not function in a single-cylinder engine. for aI Briggs & Stratton engines in production. it would appear that +hns-y&es would be immune to tirmng changes in the field. Even if you are satisfied with the appearance of the spark. 2-3. A healthy magneto delvers a thick blue spark that soundslike a miniature thunderclap. Increasing the spark plug gapcauses the points to break ear!y. or those that are tinted red. cracked insulators.SECONDARY GROUNDLEAD TERMINAL FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY Fig. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co. White.) The spark shouid be as regular as a pulse beat and should be strong. advancingthe timing. decreasingthe gap retards timing. A typical ignition coil in cutaway. replacethe spark plug with one that you know is good. Since the timing-the moment the spark occurs relative to piston position-is fixed during manufacture. U. worn electrodes-other malfunctions escape the eye. do not have the intensity needed for reliable ignition. this is not true.b c a. The gap-the distance between the side and center electrode-is 0. but the familiar.“ Unfortunately. Many mechanicsprefer to use a wire gauge.030 in. 23 .

the point-plunger oil seal has failed. Used point sets. particularly under the stationary contact.020 in. Dirt will cause‘he plug to overheat and may unseat it enough to firecut a channel through the threads. should have no more than a few pinholes. An oily mist is more or less inevitable. F’ttt the spark p&g in by hand to prevent crossthreading.” All Briggs & Stratton engineshavea point gap speciticationof 0. the center electrode. filing points is an rexzdient to get the engine running. Wipe any dirt accumulationfrom the gasket surface around the spark plug port. and torque to specification: Cylinder Head Material Thread Size Aluminum Cast-Iron 14mm 15 to 22 R-lbs 26 to 30 ft-lbs 18mrtl Yeinch _____-____ 32 to 38 ft-lbs 35 to 43 ft-lbs Points Replacement The contact points are preternaturally sensitive-point sets that appearnormal may refuse to fire or miss at speed. ruining the &inder head. can be salvaged by filing the oxidation from the contacts. and should meet square. or farther away from.flat bladedgaugecan bejust as accurate if held deadparallel between the electrodes. Here it is enough to say that the point chamber shouldbe relatively free of oil. the contacts should be bright. Replace these parts before you install new points. Gap adjustments are made by bending the side electrode closer to. Any oil that is present should be wiped up. However. but puddlesof oil mean that the upper main bearing seal or. at least those which are only superficially pitted. Specificinstallation procedures are describedunder the various magneto types. When you are finished. depending upon the magneto. Set the points with a clean feeler gauge-wiping the gauge leaf with your fingers is 24 . The point gap is measuredat the widest extension of the points when the movable arm is “on the cam. not a substitute for new points and a new condenser. Oil is an insulator and will break the ground circuit.

almostguaranteedto make starting difticult. As a further precaution, buff the points with a business card after installation. On nine cubic inch and larger engines, it is sometimes necessary to register the moment of point separation. This is not as easy asit sounds,particularly if the contacts are worn. The quickest way to determine:the moment of separationis to close the point contacts aver 2 s*Jii of cel!o$xe Turn tl?efIywhee1in the normal direction of rotation. When the cellophane flutters free, the points have opened. The error involved, the thickness of the cellophane, is doubled at the piston since the camshaft and the point contacts operate at half crankshaft speed. A more accurate method of determining the instant of point separationisto use anohmmeter, or one of the “buzz boxes” soldfor this purposeby motorcycle and snowmobiledealers. Clip one leadto the movablepoint arm, the other to a good ground. Dependingupon the sensitivity of the instrument, it may be necessary to disconnect the coil primary lead at the point set. The points open when the ohmmeter deflects toward infinity or the buzzer goes silent. flywheel Repair Remove the cooling shro+rdby taking out the bolts passing through the crankcaseand cylinder head. It is neither necessarynor desirable to undo all of the cylinder head bolts. The flywheel is mountedon the crankshaft stub by meansof a nut or lockwasher, or on engineswiih rewind or impulse starters, by meansof a threaded starter clutch and spring washer. Large cast-iron flywheels have enough tin strength to tolerate wedging with wooden blocks. Smaller cast-aluminumflywheels are fragile and should be held with a strap wrench availablefrom plumbing supply houses or with the appropriate Briggs & Stratton holding fixture. Figure 2-4.ikustrates these tools. Flywheel nuts can be removed with a deep-well socket. With the exception of the % inch nuts used on rope-start engines, all crankshafts have right hand threads. Turn overhand and left to loosen. Starter clutch assembkes respond best to the Briggs & Stratton tool number 19114 (Fig. 2-4). While this tool is a necessity for a seriousmechanic,it is possible to remove andinstall the starter clutch with a hardwood block and hammer. Remove the four self25

HOLDER

Fii. 24. Abroruesta~Ier-clutch wrench is a necessity for fhl) ~~TIOUS mechanic, s&$iy tlywheel hofder can be improvided. is? %%+y of Briggs 8

tapping screws and the screen. Using the scret’tv lugs for purchase, tap the clutch assembly counterclockwise to loosen. The &wheel mates to the crankshaft by meansof a taper and key. Someforce is required to separate tbe parts, particularly if the flywheel is aluminum. Briggs & Strarton insists that one of five factory pullers be used to remove The various flywheels. These pullers thread into holes cast into the flywheel hub. To savetime, most mechanics, prefer to use a flywheel knocker ,fFii. 2-5). The knocker is a heavy steel bar, threaded like the flywheel nut, or smooth bor ta match the starter clutch. It is held againstthe flywheel andgiven a sharp hammer blow. Sometimesit is belpfd to pry against the inner edge of the flywheel with a screwdriver as the knocker is struck. While effective, flywheel knockers are brutal tools and can seriousiy damage the crankshaft. Excessive force will buckle the erankpin,anda glancingblow on the knocker can snapthe crankshaft end Repeatedpounding can even scramble the flywheel magnets. Once the flywheel is off, inspect the hub for cracks and for evidenceof keyway wallow. Do the samefor the crankshaft. If either is damaged,replace the part, since no repair is practical or safe. By the same token, replace a deformed key with an identical key from Briggs & Stratton (Fig. 2-6). Do not substitute a steel key for the 26

Fg. 2-5. A flywheel knocker in use.

originaJaknninumone. The key is a kind of safety valve protecting the crankshaft and the flywheel from driveline shock, and to serve this purpose. must be soit and malleable. Upon installation, torque the flywheel nut to specification. Starter clutches are tightened by “elbow torqometer” since the special tool cannotbe adaptedto a torque wrench. Tighten the clutch until it binds solid with the flywheel, signalingthat the spring washer

SHEAREDKEY

Fg.2-6. Keydamageafffxtstheedgedistanceand impossibia

canmakestartingdifficultor

27

neither one of which is magnetically compatible with the other. When servicing the early type. 2-7B). Briggs & Stratton engines are fitted with any of three magnetotypes. The primary lead. The magneto in Fig. Turn the crankshaftto fully open the points. Each replacement point set is packagedwith an assemblytool. 2-7& later models feature the integral point-and-condenser set in Fig. the contact point assembly is the most vulnerable part of the system. Points and Condenser After the spark plug. is secured to the condenserstationary contact with a coil spring. you insert the lead into the condenserstud and thread the spring over it until the last coil of the spring passesthrough the wire.under it.has fully collapsed. represented by the heavy black line in the upper center of Fig. making certain it is centered over the flywheel. Assembling the current type is a little tricky. Point gap is 0. Turn the spring with a smallpair of pliers. At least two flywheels have been used on the small (under nine cubic inch) engines. many are not. Without this tool. as one might suppose. Sincepoint closure is signaled 28 . __ Internal Point Set Magneto The magneto shown in Fig. While many parts of a given magneto type are interchangeable. a plastic thimble usedto compressthe spring. Only the coil and optional kill switch are outside of the Bywheel.020 of an inch regardless of the point style. Install the cooling shroud. BRIGGS & STRATTON MAGNETO TYPES Aside from an under-the-crankcasedesign seen on a few vertical shaft models. Two point sets have been used: early production engines employ a remotely mounted condenser (Fig. The ground strap on the movable breaker arm routes over the post and not. tuck the condenser lead well clear of the flywheel. an arrangement that doubles point wear sincethere is one sparkper revolution (larger magnetossparkat half engine speed). 2-7B. 2-l has crankshaft-driven points. 2-l is the most popular of all Briggs &Stratton types.

020 inch feeler gauge between the contacts.) by a flat ground on the crankshaft. The early point set. Insert a clean 0. Point sets are secured by a single screw: the older version used a condenser (A). the one with the separate 29 .Pig. If the adjustment is correct. the full-open position is not difficult to tind. you will be consciousof a slight drag as you withdraw the gauge. resting the gauge flat on the contact surfaces. 2-7. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. current production combines the condenser and the detachable stationary contact point (6).

l Turn the flywheel by hand to detect possible rubbing. l Loosen the armature holddown screws. Lightly grease the crankshaft cam surface with bigb temperature lubricant. clean the points again. clean the points with tighter fluid. Each flywheel revolution shouldproduce a healthy spark. The specificationis 0. If not. Although mechanicssometimes set the air gap with a postcard. dabbing a bit of gasket sealant over the exit notch for the coil and kill switch leads. connect the high tensionlead. coil The coil may be removed from the engine and checked on a Mere-0-Tronic machineor the equivalent. this method is only approximate.014 of an inch for the three-legged variety. and trace out the kill switch circuit. l Insert the shim stock between the armature ends and the flywheel. 2-8A). The air gap-the running clearance between the flywheel rim and the ends of the coil armature-is critical. Even a tingerprint can prevent ignition. spin the flywheel by hand. or by passinga strip of cardboardbetween the contacts. Do not cut yourself on the governor vane. Too wide a gap compromisesmagneto efficiency. 2-8B). If these measuresfail to uncover the problem. Tighten the clamp and check. check the ftywheei wiring for shorts. Assemble the dust cover. too narrow a gap may allow the flywheel to rub the armature. The armature shouldbe in place during this test. andwith the spark plug resting on the cylinder. Unscrew the sparkplug. 30 . adjusts by loosening the bracket screw and moving the bracket (Fig. After adjustment. The current design adjusts by loosening the condenserclampscrew a half turn and levering the condenserwith a screwdriver (Fig. l Bring the armature into tight contact with the shim. Use shim stock of the appropriate thickness (availableat auto parts stores) and follow this procedure: l Turn the flywheel magnets away from the coil. l Tighten the holddown screws and extract the shim. assumethat the coil is defective.008 of an inchfor coils with two legs and 0.condenser. Install the key in the tmhhaft and lower the flywheel into place.

Point gap adjustment: the early point set is held by a screw (A). Make the necessary repairs and recheck. the later WI&II by a screw and clamp (6). (Courtesy Brtggs 8 Stratton Corp.) You may find that it is impossible to maintain the specified air gap because of shall distortion or main-bearing wear. 2-8. 31 .SCREW DRIVER SCREIlDRIVER FQ.

Fii. 300400. used on the 193000. 2-9). coil.300400. 2WtY.Models 19D and 23D are distik guished by detail differences in the flywheel. 2-10).follow this procedure: l Turn flywheel until the points open. Models 19D and 23D are distinguishedby detail differences in the flywheel. (Courtesy Riggs 8 Stratton Corp. l Remove the upper mounting screw (Fig. To disassemble.Kl.) External Point Set Magneto This magneto. l Lii off the condenser. flywheel magneto with external points found on Models 193000. combines flywheel ma&nets with an external point-and-condenserset (Fig. 200000.233000. leaving it dangling from the breaker krminal screw. 32 .243000. 2-9. 243000. and point plunger. coil. and 320400 engines. 233000. and 320400. andpoint plunger.

Disconnect the coil lead at the breaker assembly. 233000. reverse the above operation. and 320400consists of aligningarrows on the coil bracket andflywheel at the instant of point break. and contact point cover and folIow this procedure: Turn the crankshaft until the points are fully open.300400. Set the point gap at 0. The breaker-point screw determines the point gap. l l l l l NUP Stratton Corp.) Fig. Late model engines incorporate the oil sealpictured in Fig. Removethe cooling shroud. 243000. Sincethe flywheel is keyed internally to the crankshaft. filling the primary wire exit notch with sealant to ke-p dust and moisture out.020 of an inch. the coil bracket must be moved to match the arrows. Oil Seal. allowing no independentmotion between the parts. gapping the points at 0. canbe retrofitted to earlier engines to guard from oil contamination.020 of an inch. (Courtesy Briggs 8 33 . ignition coil. flywheel. This seal. c Position the @wheel over the crankshaft stub. To replace the coil. The timing drill for models 193000. The seal is fragile and must be carefully worked over the plunger. Install the breaker assemblycover.Remove the lower mounting screw. 2-11. together with the retainer plate and eyelet.200000. Remove the breaker assembly. 2-10. Timing. 0 Slack off the locknut and breaker point screw.

2-13).) Align tbe flywheel and crankshaft keyways. l Gently tap the armature until the arrows match. then proceed to torque the flywheel nut as describedbelow. you must remove the flywheel without disturbing the crankshaft in the process. l Lightly tighten the flywheel. l Install the flywheel and key one more time. you may proceed: l Torque the nut 115 ft-lb on model 193000 and 200000 engines. l Mount the flywheel and key. l Lightly tighten the coil holddown screws. For accuracy. 2-11. l Turn the flywheel to bring the magnets away from the armature bracket. and match the arrows as follows: l Loosen the armature bracket screws a few turns. and 145 ft-lb on the others. If the arrows match. If the arrows do not match. The oil-seal assembly. again exercising care not to turn the crankshaft.” l Check the arrow alignment (Fig.use a timing indicator as described under “Points Replacement.Fig. Assurrhg that the arrows now match. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. l 34 . Insert the key. Remove the flywheel and tighten the armature bracket screws in the X-pattern. 0 Turn the flywheel clockwise until the points break. .

Timing models 19D and 23D. FLYWHEEL NUT MAY BE PUT ON LOOSELY.. ~~~ ~~~ ~~ Fq. & Stratton Corp. FLYWHEEL KEY SCREW SHOULD BE FINGER TIGHT. (Courtesy EGG.rPOSITION FLYWHEEL ON CRANKSHAFT TAPER. 2-12.) .

With the key removed. the flywheel can be turned independentlyof the crankshaft. tightening the holddown screw with your lingers (Fig. 2-12B). To tune the magneto. See “Points Replacement” for further information. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. l Set the point gap at 0. and contact point cover and proceed as follows: . l Tighten the coil holddown screws. l Lightly tighten the flywheel nut.0. 2-12A). models 19D and 23D employ an externally mountedflywheel key held againstthe flywheel hub with a capscrew. l Withdraw the shi. l Install the key. MOUNTING SCREWS Fig. 2-13. As noted previously. 2-14). These differences in design require a different timing procedure from the other external point set magnetos. remove the shroud. Aligning the armature bracket arrow to the flywheel arro’w.) Insert a 0. the flywh 3ei can be rocked a few degrees without turning the crankshaft. l 36 . l Replacethe cooling shroud and contact point cover.020 of an inch. Press the armature down tightly on the shim. l Turn the crankshah until the points just break (Fig.n andpull the flywheel through a iew turns to see that it clears the armature legs.010.ALIGNMENT AkROWS 1 UC. With the attaching hardware loose. The tuning drill establishes the edge distance by ‘ynchronizing the flywheel magnets with the coil armature at the moment of point separation. the flywheel. Turn the crankshaf! to open the points to their widest extension. l Position the flywheel over the crankshaft stub.014 inch shim between the armature legs and flywheel rim (Fig.

the Magna-Maticis uniquein the complexity of its point set andin its use of a magnetbearing rotor in place of the usualflywheel magnets(Fig. The crankshaft does not move during this operation. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. 2-16 before proceeding as follows: Remove the terminal screw. 14. rock the flywheel counterclockwise to align the inner edge of the leadingcoil armature with the flywheel insert (Fig. Torque the flywheel nut: model 19D to 115 h-lb. Adjusting the armature air gap. together with the breaker plate. Remove the dust cover and rotate the crankshaft tc openthe points to their maximum extension (this step will savetime uponreassembly). Becomefamiliar with the disassemblyprocedure illustrated in Fig. Remove the breaker shaft nut and lockwasher. Lightly tap the nut to free the point set from the tapered breaker shaft. Undo the breaker shah nut. is matched with the coil armature. l Magna-Matic Used on models 9. 2-15). for tuning purposes. 191000. 2-14. 2-1X). 23. l l l l l l Fig. * Tighten the key holddown screw. Once you have determined point opening. turning it counterclockwise until it is flush with the end of the breaker shaft. 19. The rotor is mounted concentrically with the flywheel and.) 37 . Lii out the movable point arm. Points. model 23D to 145 f&lb. releasing tension on the movable-point arm.. and 231000. Remove the spring screw.

HIDH TEMSIOH LEAD,

b

CAY GEAR--+

E
Fig. 2-15. The Magna-Matic, Briggs B Stratton’s most complex, powerful mag neto.

1

If the point chamber is oily, or if there is a telltale splatter of burnt oil under the contacts, remove the oil seal Pry the seal out with an icepick. To reassemble the Magna-Matic with new contact points, proceed as follows: l Press in a new oil seal, metal side out. Careful mechanics wipe the seal bore with laquer thinner and coat the seal’s outside diameter with liquid silicone (a thin coat is sticient). l Position the breaker plate over the insulating plate with the detent on the underside of the breaker plate alignedwith the

matching hole in the insulaung plate (Fig. 2-17). Improper assembly will warp the breaker plate, causing point misalignment. l Snug the breaker plate screw down firmly enough to hold the plate in position, but not so tightly that the plate cannot be moved. l Turn the eccentric screw (Fig. 2-16) to bring the left hand edge of the breaker plate pai I!4 with the left side of the breaker box (Fig. 2-18). l Turn the breaker shaft clockwise to the limit of its travel. . Holding the shaft againstits stop, slip the movablepoint arm over the shaft. Place the lockwasher over the end of the shaft and tighten the shaft nut. l lirstali the terminal and spring screws. l Unless the crankshaft has been moved, the breaker points should be on the cam, in their full open position. l Turn the eccentric screw to obtain 0.020 of an inch gap between the contacts. Check the point gap with a clean feeler gauge.

SULATING PLATE

LEADWIRE CDNDENSER LEACWIRE

STEELWASHER PLATESCREW CONDENSER

Fg. 2-16. Disassembly procedure for the Magna-Matic. (Courtesy Briggs & stratton Corp.)

39

MUST FIT TOGETffER Ft. Z-17. Alignment of detent in breaker plate and hole in insulating plate. (Courlesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.)

= Tighten the breaker plate screw and recheck the point gap. l Turn the flywheel to close the points, and draw a business card between them to wipe off any contamination. l Check for ignition spark. Rotor. The rotor is mounted under the flywheel where it is secured to the crankshaft by either of two locking arrangements.

Fig. 2-18. Insulating plate shwkf be parallel with the left-hand edge of breaker box. ~cowtesv Btfggs % Stratton Corp.)

All the mechanicneed be concerned with is the timing. Separating the clamp and rotor on the bench weakens the rotor magnets. I cumnt prcduction rotors employ a pinch clamp (B). (Courtesy Briggs 8 atton Gorp. To remove the rotor.249. gently pry it from behind. Older rotors are located by a setscrew and hole in the crankshaft (A). Timing. current production rotors are held by a pinch clamp and crankshaft key (Fig. Fiie 2-20 makes these operations clear. its jaws ground andshapedto slip past L. disengagethe locking devicesand slip the rotor off the crankshaft taper if the rotor refuses to move. 2-19B). must be installed with 0. lockscrew. the early production rotor alignsitself automaticallyupon reassembly. 2-19A). a condition that causes hard starting and early spark plug failure. Rotor tim5ngis relatively fixed.a smal!gear puller. however. The initial factory timing can be trusted so long as the armature has not been removed 1. turning the crankshaftfor new purchase. The clamp forms part of the magnetic circuit.1 41 . the clamp must remain on the rotor.025 of an inch clearance between it and the mainbearing supportto allow the crankshaft to “float.” The break in the clamp shouldbe centeredbetweenthe rotor slots. In extreme cases. when the rotor is detachedfrom the crankshaft. The current rotor. and crankshaftkey was used (Fig. is useful.Formerly a setscrew. Thanksto the setscrew.~ armature.

point arm. With all the precision that you can muster. Turn the crankshaft until the lamp indicates that the points have just separated. 2-21). You may have to rock the crankshafta few degreesineither direction to pinpoint the moment when the points are no longer electrically conductive. adjust the point gap to 0. 2-20.025 inch from main bearing case. Replacing these parts. proceed as follows: Turn the fiywheel to open the points to their maximum extension. may change the timing. Current production rotor positioned 0.and so long as the original cam and crankshaft are used.or hot. The arrow stamped in the IetI side of the coil armature should be matched to the number corresponding to the engine model number (Fig. If you must time either rotor style. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. however.) 42 .020 of an inch. l l l Connecta timing lamp between ground and the movable. Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation l l l through point closing. At this Fg. Refer to ‘*Points Replacement” for instructions.

(Courtesy Sriggs & Stratton Qm. the small insulated wire connects to the point set. On model 9 engines. the coil can be slipped off the segment for replacement purposes. However. Aligning arrow with engine model number. 43 .) l Retighten the screws and turn the engine through to check the timing. about half an inch from the coil. The coil has three electrical connections: the paired and twisted uninsulated wires go to ground. (This operation will not upset the air gap between the rotor and armature.Fig. 2-21. The usual test apparatusrequires that the coil remain mounted on the armature segment. loosen the three armature holddown screws and turn the armature as necessary.) position. once the clips are disengaged. the appropriate mark on the rotor should match with the arrow on the armature. The coil is secured to the main armature assemblywith spring clips and. and the high tension lead goes to the spark plug. Coil. toward the flywheel. lifts off with the upper armature element. l If the rotor and armature are out of sync. the high tension lead is knotted on the coil side of the backing plate. The rounded side of the coil facesoutward.

The carburetor is the most mechanicallycomplex part of the engine. You will need some knowledge of carburetor theory to perform needed rep&s. Secondly. A carburetor has three functions. Thirdly. The pressure differential between the partial vacuumleft by the descendingpiston and the weight of the atmosphere pressing in on the air filter is the source of power for the carburetor. and the part least susceptible to “common sense” fixes. the en&e acts as a vacuum pump. it limits the total amountof fuel and air passingto the engine so that the operator can control engine speed. it atomizes the fuel. First. a figure derived from the weight of a column of tir one square inch in area extending vertically from the earth’s surface to the limits of the atmosphere. Lhuing the intake stroke. A carburetor is a pressure-differential device. Normally the venturi is streamlined to reduce turbulence 45 . exhaustingmost of the ah-in the intake pipe. the relative amount of fuel to air. to suit engine demandsat Merent speeds and loads. THEVENTURI A restriction in the bore known as the venturi creates the vacuum.7pounds per square inch at sealevel. operating upon the well known principle that nature abhors a vacuum. Air pressure is nominally14. the carburetor automatically adjusts the strength of the fuel mixhue. breaking the liquid gasolineinto droplets so that it can burn readily.

The loss of pressure causes the fuel to pass through the main jet and into the venturi where it is swept into the engine. Pressure fails well below sealevel values. its velocity increasesThe pinchedin walls of the carburetor bore lengthen the air’s path. air pressure drops. (Courtesy International Harvester Co.) and fluid friction losses (Fig. 46 . An increasein velocity would appear to cause an increase in the energy of the air stream. 3-l). it undergoes a further reduction in pressure and becomesa highly combustible vapor. Some Briggs & Stratton carburetors deliver fuel to the venturi by way of a nozzle as shown in Fig. but this is not the case. less the losses generated by fluid friction. as engineers say. As air passesthrough the venturi. Instead. As the air speedincreases. 3-l. but any restriction in the bore serves. Carburetor nomenclature. the air stream must move more quickly through the venturi.1 IDLE VALVE N0nx. atomizes it. Once the fuel mist enters a warm engine. 3-l. Others have a jet-a threaded brass plug with an orifice in the centerpositioned in the high-vacuum zone of the venturi. a transformation occursin the venturi analogousto what happens in an ignition coil. and since the same amount of air enters the bore as leaves it. The increasein air velocity is useful in that it whips the fuel into a froth or. and thus the energy level of the air stream remains constant.E 4 GASKET NEEDLL VALVE Fig.

In Fig. tle. functionsat part throttle. delivering too much fuel for the availableair. airandfuelare restricted andthe venturi works at less than optimum efficiency. The mixture richens to a fourteen or fifteen to one ratio. This additional ’ fuel allows the engine to develop full power and plays a small. With cold starting. a given venturi is efficient only over a narrow rangeof air velocities. THETHROTTLE VALVEAND IDLEPORT The fhroti!e cabe determines the amount of air and fuel gaingto the engine. only the lightest hydrocarbcns vaporize. but important. role in piston cooling. to some small degree. At lowgr velocities. 3-l it is pictured as wide open. and a leaner mixture. As the throttle closes. sometimescalled the low speedport. generating a high vacuum in the venturi. at higher velocities it becomes restrictive. Cold starting requires a very rich mixture of two or three parts &fair to one part fuel. At Iesser angles. are interdependent. the vacuummixtures at midthrottle are in the neighborhoodof seventeenparts air to one part fueL At full throttle.the amountof fuel passingthrough it determined by the position of the throttle valve (Fig. 3-l). For this reason. This dual fuel source is important since the engine requires a gasoline rich mixture at idle (on the order of one part of air to eight parts of gasolinevapor).. although there is some overlap between it and the main jet. and because the vacuum increases as a function of air speed. the venturi stumbles and looses its vacuum. .at cruise. It no longer can assure consistent fuel delivery. At wide open throt. Briggs & Stratton (and all other carburetor makers) provides a secondsource of fuel independent of tbe main venturi. There is enough separation between the two systems to allow different mixture strengths at different throttie settings. it obstructs more and more of the bore.” Theidleport. Needle valve and idle valve adjustments are interrelated and. most of the fuel condenses u:Tn contact with the engine castings. becominga kind of crude venturi.Unfortunately. Hence surplus fuel is necessary to generate enough vaimr to start the engine. The idle port is locatedin the low pressure zone created by this throttle-valve “venturi. robbig the engine of power. the air stream moves very quickly. This sourceis known as the idleport and is adjustable. The engine gets “indigestion” from the gasoline-rich mixture.

46 .3-2. The one piece variant is built around a single mllng (A). The internal fuel level of the carburetor-the level of fuel in the passageways-is critical. When the valve is closed. the greater the distance the fuel must move before delivery.) Briggs & Stratton carburetors employ the familiar choke valve upstream of the ven&mi. the two-piece version has the throttle body cast separately (B). the carburetor is subject to intake pipe vacuum. the choke must be opened. Wlesy International Harvester Co. and the leaner the mixture. the lower the level. Once the engine warms. the greater the amount of fuel that will be delivered through the main jet and idle por& By the same token.8. The higher the level. Both the main andidle circuits deliver fuel that mixes with the scant air supply to give an extremely rich mixture. either manually or automatically. The Fb-Jet carburetor.

No more fuel can enter until the engine consumesenough to lower the level in the chamber. the float closesthe needleagainst the seat. 3-Z). This operation takes place as often as two hundred times a minute and. The Vacu-Jet carburetor. Flo-Jet carburetors are not the ideal choice for power lawnmowers that are expected to work in hilly terrain. 3-l. Briggs & Stratton FQ. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. Fuel enters the float chamber through the float needle and seat (more often known as the inlet needleand seat). Carburetors that Briggs & Stratton calls the Flo-Jet series employ a float like the one shown in Fig. Briggs & Stratton Vacu-Jet carburetors employ a pickup tube which extends into the gasoline tank (Fig. The carburetors under discussionemploy either of two mechanisms to control the internal fuel level. As the float drops. and a large and small two piece design (Fig.The internal fuel level must be independent of the level of the fuel in the tank. 3-3. At apreset level. However. becauseof its short reaction time. There are three versions of these carburetors: a one piece design. it releases pressure on the needle and more fuel enters. the engine must be kept relatively level.) . does a good job of keeping the internal fuel level constant. or of the pressure exerted upon it by the fuel pump. 3-3).

The principle is not unlike the pickup tube in a flit gun. It reachesalmost to the bottom of the fuel tank. Sincethe pump delivers more fuel than the enginecan use. Rriggs & Stratton offers three versions. The pickup . 3-4). The cup is built into the top of the fuel tank and its upper edge is notchedto form a spillway. The Pulsa-Jet carburetor. The mixture becomes progressively leaner as the tank empties. involving only a single moving part (a check ball in the tube). (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. 34.FQ. The pump delivers fuel to a cup from which the pickup tube feeds. the cup is always fug to the spillway. Vacu-Jet carburetors are sensitive to the amount of fuel in the tank. P&a-Jet carburetors are a variation of the pickup-tube principle of the Vacu-Jetcarburetors (Fig. The longer of the two tubes is the inlet pipe for a self-containedfuel pump. While this device is admirably simple.) offers three versions of this carburetor. and some of the parts are interchangeable.

after that it turns into a gummy soup of varnish. The only drawback to these carburetors is that the cup must be full before the engine will start. and heavy hydrocarbons. a carburetor shouldgive little trouble. Other than the Flo-Jet needle and seat. the spark plug must be capableof firing. TROUBLESHOOTINGTHE CARBURETOR The basis of troubleshooting is to examine the firing tip of the spark plug. If the engine refuses to start. For this to be valid.If the tip is soakingwet. 51 . there are few parts that can spontaneously fail. the combustionchamber must be dried before further troubleshooting. it must be an electrically soundplug and one that is not alreadysoddenwith raw fuel. but if compressed air is not available. erratic idle. Thequickest way to do this is with compressed air. fresh fuel is used and that the air filter is in working order. The firing tip shouldbe dampandsmellof gasoline. Ignition system failures give the same symptoms-hard starting. Crank the engine several times andremove the spark plug. you can remove the spark plug and simply wait until the surplus fuel evaporates. Carburetors do not in any real sense wear out. and the mixture remains consistent. fuel in the cup evaporates. If the enginehas severely floodedfrom a carburetor malfunction.tube operates at a constant fuel level. But if the engine hasbeenout of service for several weeks. the chamber is flooded. Stale gasolineis difficult to ignite andhighly corrosive. The cup can be replenished by topping off the tank-sending fuel back through the spillway-or simply by cranking the engine until the pump delivers sufficient fuel to the cup. Before assumingthe carburetor is guilty. Gasolinehas a shelf life of &out six months. or as the result of persistent cranking. check the fuel. A dry firing tip meansthat no fuel is entering the chamber. That is. Normally it is full. high sped mistiring-as carburetor problems. Assuming clean. and they do so more frequently. clear it as describedin the previous paragraph. rusting the tank and attacking gaskets. changethe sparkplug andpoint set as describedin Chapter 2. Onceyou havedecidedthat the carburetor is at fault. water. the spark plug can tell you whether or not it is receiving fuel.

white deposits mean a dangerousty lean mixture.FQ.) 52 . The firing tip of a spark plug should be light brown or tan (A): fluffy b!ack G&WI deposits indicate an overrich mixture(B). 3-5. (Courtesy Champion Spark Plug Co.

mixture adjustments. check the fuel level in tank. In extreme cases. Power will be weak. and the engine may be hard to start when hot. If the lean condifionoxiginatesti. Runs Rich: Check choke opening. The carburetor is maladjustedor malfunctioning. White tip depositspoint to an overly lean mixture (Fig. 3-5C). Black carbon. usually dry and fluffy but sometimes wet andreeking with gasoline. main jet adjustment. Blow out the mainjet. Hard to Start Cold. Combustion temperatures. or Refuses to Run at a Steady.Once the engine starts and reaches operating temperature. andinspect the mounting fiange for air leaks. improper adjustment.h the mainjet. where applicable. and for air leaks between the carburetor and engine. Blow out the main jet and allied circuitry. in the float chamber. and cost power. No Load Speed: Check adjustments and for wasted motion at the governor spring. The engine may backfire through the carburetor. Look for large air leaks at the carburetor mounting flange. choke functioning. and. float adjustment. 53 . But Runs Normally Once Started: Determine that the choke closes completely. Symptomsof Malfunctioning Refuses to Start: If flooded. sometimes to an obvious degree. Hunts. are too hot. 3-5B). andwith Flo-Jet models. and the exhaust may be flecked with red. Vacu-Jetmodels will hunt when adjusted for best wide openthro:tle power. If starved. almost as if it were running under water. the color of the spark plug tip gives valuableclues about the air to fuel ratio. means that the mixture is too rich @ig. Check for carburetor stoppage. Vacu-Jet carburetors will run rich if the pickup-tube check ball is stuck open. the side electrode will show blue temper marks and may actuallymelt. Determine that “Jlechoke valve closes completely. check the float level. Lean mixtures increase engine temperature. Rich fuel to air mixtures blacken the exhaust and give the enginea kind of liquid sound. fannedby the excess oxygen. Runs Lean: Check mixture and float adjustments. The correct ratio will leave tan or light brown deposits on the tip (Fig. the engine will stumble under suddenacceleration. 3-5A).

The engine shouldbe running at normal operating temperature.Carburetor Dribbles Fuel: During cranking. fresh gasoline.orhigh SpeSdneedle. if the condition continues after the engine catches. Most mechanicsknow these parts as the high speed or main jet screw. two piece Flo Jets dribble fuel. idle speed screw. Both adjustment IDLE SPEED ADJUSTING SCREW NEEDLEVALVE CHOKE 3-6. Adjustments Carburetor adjustments should be made to the engine under normal working conditions. and idle valve. or three adjustments: needle valve. that is: l The fuel tank should be half full of clean. Carburetor adjustments: the idle speed adjusting screw.) . or idle tpm ScrW. l The air filter should be oiled (see below). Only if these conditions are fulfiIlecl will the carburetor adjustmentbe correct. l The choke should be fully open. . and the low speed or idle mixture screw. Briggs Sr Stratton engines have two (with the Vacu-Jet). (Courtesy International Harvester co. P&a-Jets may leak because of a ruptured pump diaphragm or gasket. replacethe float needle and seat on this and the one piece model. determines throttle plate angle: the idle valve or low speed needle regu!SbStheamountoffuelpassingthelowspeedport. The terms needle valve and idle valve are peculiar to the company. theneedlevaive. regulates fuel through the main jet.

The low speed screw is alwaysnear the throttle valve. After the engine reaches operating temperature. open the high speed mixture screw a fraction of a turn. first leaning. Tightening either one reduces the flow of fuel. Back the screw out to induce rich roll. between 1750t-pmand 1800rpm. allow the engine to idle and open the throttle quickly. Suddenaccelerationafter a few minutes at low idle speedssometimes throws the rod through the side of the block. or starting. and the high speed screw is closer to the air filter. The idle speed screw is easy to distinguish. be aware that low i4le speeds are extremely dangerous. If it hesitates or sputters. Vacu-Jets and P&a-Jets have two adjustments: low speed mixture and idle rpm. or an electronic tachometer calibrated for single cylinder magnetos.screws terminate in a needle.The cooling fan ceasesto deliver muchair to the fins. adjustment is 1% turns out from lightly seatedon both mixture screws. and at this stage. Tightening the idle speed screw opens the throttle and increases idle t-pm. However. The midpoint between these two extremes is the approximate adjustment. use a vibrating reed tachometer. For accurate adjustment. Finally. the exact idle x-pmis less important that full-throttle rpm (see the next chapter for governor adjustments). and finally splitting the difference. The initial. Check the adjustment on the high speed screw again. Do the same for the low speed mixture screw. and lubrication becomesfaulty. since it bears againstthe idle stop. Initial adjustment of the low speed mixture screw is lY2 turns out from lightly seated.a condition known as lean roll. then richening the mixture. These tools are availablethrough engine jobbers. While these engines will “Cadillac. leaning the mixture. and idle rpm. The Vacu-Jet and P&a-Jet Carburetor. Allow the engine to reach operating temperature and tighten the high speed mixture screw until the engine misses. 3-6). one can usually guess at idle rpm. flip the throttle. The engine shouldacceleratesmoothly. Flo-Jets have all three: low and bigb speed mixture. sincethe low speed screw will have had some effect upon it. 55 . Keep idle speed high. The Flo-Jet Carburetor (both one and two piece).” or tick over so slowly that you can almost count the revolutions. The idle speed screw threads into the throttle valve and acts as the low speed stop (Fig.

3-7). 3-S). greater pressures can penetrate humanskin and form bubblesin the blood stream. Replacethe needle. A wire or other metallic probe can deform the jet. By the same token. Do not pressurize that chambers. If compressedair is not available. it is good practice to replace any gasket that has been disassembled. seat.Fig. A blunted or grooved needle passes fuel erratically. grind the screwdriver for a close fit with the slot. If the jet is removed. Chemicalimmersion cleaningis sometimesnecessary. Tighten firmly. sizing the screwdriver blade to fit the seat slots. you can clear the jet with a broomstraw. Needle profiles are critical. Cleaning Obstructions in the jet orifices and feed circuits can usuallybe clearedby removing the adjustment screw and applyingcompressed air to the jet. makingadjustmentdifficult or impossible. Idle speed is 1750 rpm. Finger-tightis enough. and gasket. Sloppy screwdriver fits batter the slots and disturb fuel flow through the o&e. particularly if the carburetor has been contaminated with stale or water- . Hesitation meansthat the mixture should be richened a fraction of a turn. While plastic gasket rings can be reused. air pressure must be no higher than thirty poundsper square inch. since thirty pounds per square inch can collapsethe float. Wear on the inlet needle and seat showsas an annulargroove on the needle tip (Fig.This is particularly true of P&a-Jet diaphragmsand mounting flange gaskets. 3-7. seatingthe adjustment needles hard againstthe jets deforms both parts (Fig. By OSK4 regulation.

Flo-Jet. Tht one piece variant was pictured in Fig. parts are often interchangeable. Despite shapeand size varia tion within each modei type. 3-2 through 3-4).take variousforms (Figs.and Pulsa-Jet. in the case of Delco X-55. includingplastic choks valves and pickup tubes. carburetor cleaners are powerful chemicals. Disassemblyprocedure: are for the most part obvious. Worn inlet needles and seats should be replaced as an assembly. Vacu-Jet. Wash off the cleaner witi kerosene or. 3-l. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co. Allow tb carburetor to~dry before reassembly. Completely disassemblethe carburetor with the put poseof removing all rubber andplastic parts.) SEAT INLET/ SEAT GASKET pq . with hot water. rust. Avoid breathing the fumes ant protect your hands with rubber gloves. with these exceptions: DAMAGED I Fig. BRIGGS 81STRATTON CARBURETORS The three basic models. and human skin. Soakthe metal parts for a half hour or so in carburetor cleaner Most mechanics seem to prefer Bendix cleaner. scale. Delco-Remy markets a water-soluble cleanex Gunk packagestheirs in small tins which are ideal for this work.logged fuel. 3-8. Flo-Jet(One and Two Piece) The two piece Flo-Jet is shown in cross sectionin Fig. dissolvin: paint. 3-9. I any event. although othe brands work as well.

3-10). carefully unseat the Welchplug (Fig. 3-11). Once free. remove the screws holding the throttle valve to the shalt. in many cases outlasting the engines to which they are affixed. 3-9. l To remove the nylon choke shaft. the upper. seal the Welch plug with liquid silicone. The two-piece Flo-Jet.) l The throttle lever is pinned to the throttle shaft. guide the carburetor body down and away from the air tilter to disengage the fuel noazle. Insert a sharp tool between the shaft andchokevalve to break the grip of the nylon. or throttle body. To separate these parts. drive the pin out with a punch. The replaceablethrottle shaft bushingsattest to the longev- . and extract the shaft (Fig. Withdraw the choke valve with a pair of long nosed pliers and remove the shaft. or carburetor body. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. l The two piece designconsists of two castings. cross section view. remove the screws at each comer of the float housing.FQ. Flo-Jet carburetors are intended for !ong service. If you wish to remove these parts (not necessary for cleaning). Upon installation. Throttle Bushings. Gently tap the throttle body to break the hold of the gasket. and the lower.

including those built by Clinton. Replacethe seat and needle if the carburetor Fig.Fg. Withdraw the bu&ings with the help of a 4/r inch x 20 tap. Lesser carburetors. When the throttle shaft wears its pivots. The flo-Jet throttle shaft. ream the bushingsby hand with a 7/32 inch drill bit. remove the throttle valve and shaft. and Walbro. Tiiotson. 3-10. secured by a roll pin. the whole carburetor must be replaced To replace the bushings.) ity of FloJet carburetors. Onepiece and older two piece Flo-Jetshave brassinlet valve seats. 3-11. Replacethe throttle shaft and lever. (Courtesy Intemational Harvester Co. or equivalent sized thread extractor (Fig. Met Valve Seat. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. Tecumseh. Install a new throttle shaft and test for free operation: should the shaft bind. 3-12). The Welch plug at the aircleaner end of the carburetor musl be removed for access to the choke shaft.) . do not have this feature.

extract the old seat with a self-tapping sheet metal screw <Fig. While these carburetors will tolerate resoldered floats. The float level-measured between the upper edge of the tloat and float cover gasket-is 3/16 of an inch on the large two piece &-Jet. 3-12. (Courtesy International Harvester 60.) * Float. the float on these and one piece Rio-Jetsshouldbe parallel with the gasket when inverted (Fii.) floods.Thebestwaytodothisistoplacethefloatinacontainerofhot water. 60 . 3-14) . Using the old seat as a buffer. t&p or screw eximctof. and 5/16 of an inch on the smaller versions of the same carburetor. Late model one piece Fro-Jets employ a Viton seat that should outlast several needles. Replace a damaged float rather than attempt to repsir it. pump fed carburetors require seat ’ number 23019. press in a replacement flush with the carburetor casting. pinholes will expand and the float will take on water. (NOTE: Gravity fed carburetors require inlet seat number 23109. this practice is not recommended.I Fig. As a practical matter. If floodinghas been a comn%nt.If the seat appears damaged (any visible wear is grounds for rejection). 3-13). check the float for leaks. orifthe needle is grooved around its contact face. Throttle *aIt bu+ings can be rer~~oyedwith a j/4 in.

SELF -THREADING\ SCREW fl p / PRESS FLUSH \ Fig. Viion seats are extracted with the help of a self-tapping screw . 3-13.

But even in the best run shop. all of which operate on the same pickup tube principle (Fig. Later models benefit from an improved flange and tank brackets. a mechanicdoes not alwayshave parts and must make do with what he has-in this casea stuck check valve. These screws can become loose in service (gakuldy if the crankshaft is bent. if at all possible. This jet is accessible for cleaningby removing the adjustment screw and gasket. 3-3). but in practice this rarely works. for should the valve stick open. Do not force it to the upper stop. Very early Vacu-Jetsemployed a small brass pickup tube without a check valve. A secondmethod is to judiciously bend the choke trip link. Fuel passes through an adjustablejet before dischargingthrough ports in the carburetor body. Vacu-Jet The Vacu-Jetis availabiein three variants.These carburetors are less sensitive to float level variations than competitive designs are. When adjusting the float. Metering. Pickup Tube. If the engine has been stored with fuel in the tank. Do not apply force to the needle. The earliest of these variants. or if the load is unbalanced)and cause an air leak at the flange. Remote Controlled Choke. replace the pickup tube assembly. The filter screen (at the baseof the pickup tube) may be cloggedand the lower half of the tank will be covered with foul smelling gum and varnish. Adjust the linkage to close the choke valve completely wi*out denying full throttle. This can be accomplishedon cable operated systems by moving the cable in its anchorscrew. mounts to the engine with capscrews. Later variants have a check valve in a brass or nylon tube. bend the tangthe part that . Clean the tank as described under “Fuel Tanks” and. the carburetor will run excessively rich. Introduce a fine wire through the filter screen and gently unseatthe ball. particularily a plastic needle. expect the ball check valve to be stuck closed. In theory brass tubes can be cleaned by knmersion. 62 L . the type shown at the bottom of the drawing.bears against the needle-with a pair of long nosed pliers. The high and low speed discharge ports are sized to match drill numbers 56 and 68 respectively.

but will. Make the initial adjustmentat the tie point for the control cable. Most of these carburetors are controlled remotely with a linkage that regulates choke action. Remove the screw and. effectively shortening it. Throttle Plate.) 63 . If this does not help. Working from the engine end of the carburetor.Choke. speed. As noted earlier. 3-14. The “bob-tailed” types give very little trouble in this regard. bend the choke link. (Courtesy lntemational Harvester Co. particularly if the crankshaft is bent. Two piece throttles of the pattern shownin Fig. of course. the elongated model can work loose in service. Moving thecable to the rear should cause the lever movement to engage the choke sooner.are secured by a Phillips screw. P&a-Jet The P&a-Jet etists in three varieties: one with the traditional Rriggs & Stratton carburetor along with an ‘mtake pipe. The plug choke must close completely (that is. Early Pulsa-Jets used throttles cast in the form of a cylinder with flats milled on the sides. extract the throttle plate from the carburetor bore. you have to align the hole in the Fig. and engine shutdown. using long nosedpliers. Lii out the throttle shaft. 3-1. and two short coupled designs for use with separate intake pipes (Fig. 3-4). or if it prevents shutdown. leak air if the intake pipe is distorted. The float should be level with the carburetor body. Installing the throttle plate is a bit tricky on the elongated P&a-Jet becauseof space limitations. be fully extended out of the carburetor body) during cold starts. These throttles can be litted up andout of the carburetor body once the idle speedscrew is backedoff.

3-16). The spiral can be extracted with long nosed phers. 3-15B) and is sealedby an O-ring (Pig.) throttle plate with the threaded hole in the throttle shaft. and pump gasket. Spiral. A few of these carburetors have a sheet metal spiralin the bore. 3-15. 64 . (Courtesy h:ematiinal Harvester Co. Bob-tailed P&a-Jets have the pump vacuumchamberbu& into the top of the fuel tank. distortion.B CD E Fig. Pump Elements.a quality that is difficult to judge by feel. The pump diaphragm is a masteM (exam ple of engineering economy (Fig. The mixture adjustment screw limits fuel flow through the jet (Fig. and install the parts in one rapid motion. This single part combines the functions of pump diaphragm. 3-150 Washers (Fig. The cup. parficularly along the shadedareas in Fig. if still in use. suction and exhaust valves. Upon installation the spiral should be flush with the flange gasket surface.) Position the screw in the holder. Mixture adjustment screw and related hardware. These functions depend upon the elasticity of the diaphragm. It is vital that the machinedsurfaces on the tat& be true. the pencil can‘be withdrawn and the screw instalied. Metering. situated between the inner edge~of the diaphragmand the coil spring. to the rear of the throttle plate. 3-15A). balance the throttle plate over the end of the screw. (Phillips screw starters are fairly rare tools. Briggs & Stratton engineerssuggest mounting the plate on the sharpenedend of a wooden pencil. 3-15D) protect the O-ring from shearing damage as the screw is turned. but are stocked by somelarge hardware dealers. Wise mechanics replace the diaphragm whenever the pump cover is removed. Once the parts are in position. should be replaced with the new hoiicw type. ‘&y of these solid cups. was soIid in the original version. Another technique is to hold the parts with a screw starter. and so determines the air fuei ratio. This screw threads into a packinggland (Fig.

To separatethe pipes from the casting. !ix the pipein a vise and carefully pry and twist the casting off.002 inch feeler gauge between the straightedge and the critical tank surfaces.3-17. 3-18). fuel can leak past the diaphragmfrom the carburetor side of the pump and collect in the vacuumchamber. Fuel screensare difficult to clean. Lay a precision ground. straightedge across the tank as shown in the drawing. a convenience since these pipes lllllSi not be aho-wedin carburetor solvent. may short circuit the main jet. force the replacement pipe to the depth of the origin&. 3-16. Hatvester 65 . particularly when attachedto a nylon pipe. SPRING _ CUP OLD NEW CARBURETOR LGNG PUMP PIPE BOTiOM HOUSING FQ. or machinists. or attempt a repair with kit No. and can be ordered by part number (Fig. Using the vise as a press. Brass pipe screens are pressed on. P~lsa-Jet pump assembly. Brass pipes are press fitted into the casting. In other words. 391413 if you can insert a 0. Nylon pipes are threaded into the carburetor caskg and are easily removable. Sincethe chamber is evacuatedby meansof a port on the side of the carburetor body. Replacethe tank. Fuel Pipes. Replace the whole assembly. fuel in the chamber is eventually pulled into the engine.

a iaminate of iron and copper.f. or a combiition ofcoolingair pressure anda thermostatic spring. The choke valve must be closed for cold starting. 3-17.) imoMAllc CHOKES An automaticchoke is anexampleof a closedloop servosystem.002 in. and should progresively open as the engine warms and reachesoperating speed The choke valve is suspendedbetween opposingforces: a coil spring attempts to close the valve while Venturi vacuum. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. try to force it open. #W-JetChokes Big bodied Flo-Jets employ a very sophisticated choke that responds to engine speed and cylinder block temperature. Engine speed is sensed by a vane positioned in the . at the shaded areas can disable the mp or automatic choke. increases tension as the block warms and provides a progressively greater opening force on the choke valve. The spring. Disloriion of more than 0.

the thermostatic spring overrides the vane and holds the choke valve fully open. As speed increases.sensedby a spring loadeddiaphragm. Once the engine reaches operating temperature. the air vane moves to open the choke. There should be a 4/sinch dearance between the valve’s lower edge and the bottom of the carburetor bore. (Courtesy International Harvester Co. If this dimensionis off.) 67 . the vane reduces pressure of the valve and allows it to partially close. as speeddrops. To service. Tighten the set screw. Turn the spring shaf: clockwise while holding the valve */sof an inch open. 3-19A). Conversely. or clean the shaft pivots as necessary tc restore freedom of movement.coolingair stream. 3-19). 3-18. with the thermostatic spring horizontal and pegged against its near side stop (Fig. 3-19B). turning the spring shaft counterclockwise until its stop rests againstthe opposite side of the tube (Fig. In the Pulsa-Jetapplication. Vacu-Jetand P&a-Jet Chokes These chokesopen in response to venturi vacuum. loosen the set screw at the thermostatic spring iever. Cycle the choke valve by hand to detect possible bids in the mechanism. Reverse the procedure. disengagingthe spring from the choke valve (Fig. Center the valve on its shaft. checkthe initial adjustment. allowing more air to enter the carburetor.the diaphragm Fig. close the choke valve by hand. The position of the valve should remain the samewith the thermostatic spring at the opposite extreme of travel. Brass tube screen housings are replaceable. Without releasingthe shaft.

richening the mixture. The Briggs 8t Stratton choke mimics accelerator pump action. Without this boost. When the throttle valve pivots open. While the choke does not respond to changesin engine temperature. l Interference between the air cleaner stud and the choke valve. Troubleshooting With the engine stopped. Failure of the choke to close can be traced to any of the following causes: l Carbon or varnish deposits on the choke shaft pivots. when opened by hand. Air is. It should be closed and. 60 . (COUttesY doublesas the fuel pump element. the pump delivers a stream of raw fuel &to the carburetor bore. the engine would momentarily go lean and falter. A few seconds is required for the fuel to “catchup” and restore the mixture balance. of course. Automotive carburetors generally have a pump linked to the ‘hottle lever.grgfi% o$ye Flo-Jet automatic choke adjustment. Upon suddenacceleration. returned to the closed position. it acts as an accelerator pump. venturi vacuum momentarily decreases and the choke valve closes. lighter thangasoline andrespondsmuch more quickly to throttle opening. remove the air cleaner and observe the position of the choke valve.

“AC”. Once the engine starts.002 of an inch. l Interference between the air cleaner stud and the choke valve. The choke valve should gutter with each intake stroke. (Courtesy Btiggs & Stratton Corp. 3-17.jr these defects: l Carbon or varnish deposits on the choke shaft pivots. * Loss of diaphragm spriig tension. Vacu-Jet tank distortion is critical between the two wells and between the smaller well and vacuum slot. although some pulsation under acceleration is normal.Insufficient diaphragm preload (see below). the procedure for P&a-Jet tanks has been shown previously in Fig. The shaded areas in the drawings are critical. Check f. Removethe air tiiter and crank the engine. The more frequent complaint is failure of the choke to open. l The tank top shou!d be Cat to within 0. l Tank top distortion. Figure 3-20 illustrates the gaugingprocedure for Vacu-Jettanks. S-20. JET CARBURETOR FQ. 0 Punctured diaphragm. l Fuel or oil in the diaphragm chamber. it should open.) 69 i . l Excessive diaphragm spring tension.

The choke spring fits under the diaphragm with the choke link positioned as shown.The choke Iii is secured to the diaphragmby a clip and spring (Fig. 3-21. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.) . 3-21). 15/16 of an inch Maximum 1 7/32 inches 1 inch 1 5/16 inches 1% in. The free standing length of the spring should fall between these limits: Model P&a-Jet (all) Vacu-Jet (except engine model 110900) Vacu-Jet (engine model 110900) Mirlimum 1% in. P&a-Jet diaphragms have a second spring for the fuel pump function (Fig. The spring is located by a well in the carburetor body and its free end bears on the diaphragm through a cup. While the otiginal diaphragm may be used as long as it is not Fig. 3-21).

Without releasing the choke valve. or work hardened. The choke should be closed and when you tlip it with your finger.(Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. return to the closed position. located by a recess in the carburetor body. Holding the choke valve closed with your finger. being careful not to distort the spring in the process. connect the link to the choke shaft. most mechanicsreplacethe part eachtime a carburetor is disassembled. Tighten the screws evenly in a crisscrosspattern to equalize stresses on the tank.) punctured. the choke spring.Mount the choke spring and link. draw down the carburetor mounting screws. The diaphragmor. The link passes through a hole in the body.. creased. 3-22.1ly. Position the pump spring and cup on the P&a-Jet and thread the mounting screws a turn or so into the fuel tank. more e*:.DlAPHRAGii --%\- ’ -\ Fig. The cap and spring ride on the diaphragm. is preloaded 71 .

the operator would have to make continuous throttle corrections.666feet per minute. Few loadsare constant.but are expensiveand must be connected in parallelwith the points. Most mechanics use a vibrating reed tach. and to hold rpm constant under changing loads. driven directly from the cranksha& will reach this critical speed at a leisurely 2791 tpm. pneumatic and centrifugal 73 . For these reasons.CHAPT Governors have two functions: to limit no load rpm. without a governor. This limiting of speed is important becausethe weakest link in a small engine is the connecting rod. InerthI forces on the rod increase as the square of rpm. Electronic tachometersare available. electronic tachometer hookup involves puGingthe flywheel. at 6CHMrpm the rod is subject to nine times the stress it is subject to at 2699rpm. that is. On small engines without magneto hill switches. the blade tips of rotary lawnmowers must not exceed 19. it is strongly suggested that you set the maximumspeedof the governor with the help of a tachometer. one whose reeds go into hatmonicvibration with exhaust pulses. The abiity of the governor to hold a predetermined engine speedunder varying loadsis also important. In addition. Bfiggs & Stratton engines employ two types of governor. A 26-inch blade.

While details of this drawing differ from specific Briggs & Stratton models. oncetheenginestarts. engine speed returns to its otigiia! !eve!. increasing the speedof the engine and the velocity of the cooling airstream. Clean the pivot and install the vane dry. the functional relationships are the same. regardless of engine speed. tbe throttle valve is sometimes fouled 74 . The faster the engine ruus. Theair vane is mounted in the cooling air stream under the shroud and is free to pivot under the effects of air velocity. This action causesthe carburetor throttle valve to open wider. The governor has a manualoverride: the operator can increase spring tension by opening the throttle lever. or air vane. picking up a few hundred t-pm. and the vane. On rare occasions. the engine momentarily bogs down. if the load relaxes. The throttle valve is suspendedbetween a spring that will open it andanairvanethat. Conversely. subsequently closes the throttle. there is insuffxient dampeningand the engine hunts. Do not expect muchfrom a pneumaticgovernor. 8y the san~eiuken. or a link in&&d backwards and rubbing against the carburetor or cooling fins. without lubrication. engine speed increases. and the vane allows the spring to openthe throttle. lmubleshooting Erratic Response. governor. biasingthe throttle position in favor of the air vane. Once this compensationis made. Remove the shroud and work the mechanismby hand. These devices have only one recommendation-they can be manufacturedfor pennies. response is lethargic. Smding is usually the fault of a bent link. acts tocloseit. closing the throttle lever relaxes spring tension. (This is another good reason for fixing the lowest idle limit at 1700 rpm or so. Throttle plate equilibrium is established at a higher point on the rpm scale. airstxeamvelocity drops. generating a greater force by the vane to close the throttle. On new engines. and picking it up again. losing it. Should the load increase.the vane may bind on its pivots as the result of rust or &I%.) And.PNEUMATIC GOVERNOR3 Figure 4-l is a representative drawing of a pneumatic. It should move freely. the bigher the velocity. At low speeds.

AssunSnga liueral idle speed. Hunting. (courtesy Tecumsen rrooucls w.j by paint overspray. You can usually clear up this problem without disassemblingthe carburetor by using an eye dropper to soak the throttle valve pivots with lacquer thinner. Typical pneumatic gownor. hunting results from an improperly adjusted carburetor (usually too lean) or excessive 75 . 4-l.DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW AIR VANE Fig.

If at aW possible. look for uneven coil separation. effectively increasmc. Figures 4-2 and 4-3 illustrate the technique. Many springs are double looped for security.whiledisengaging it. gently stretching the spring. Examine the spring ends for deformation.lNlS1 SPRINGTWARDS ENDINE UNTIL END OF LOOP CAN SE PUWED UNDER LEVER Ff. There are scores of governor springs. 76 .) free play in the governor linkage.and the causeof most failures. each with slightly dEerent characteristics. Removing (A) and mounting (a) double coiled governor springs on here. Adjust the carburetor to give instant response as the throttle is tripped open. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. 4-2. The trick is to twist the spring . ascertain that the spring is the correct one for the application. This last symptom means that the coils have fatigued. and. The spring is the most delicate part of the mechanism. Forcing these springs open with long nosed pliers will deform the ends and upset governor tibration.the length of the spring. as if you were coiling a length of hose.

ORASP SPRING AS wow USEKELE END OP LOOP INTO LINK LVELET NC TDWIOS YOU ~~.Removing(A)andmounting(B)doublecoiledspringsongovemorlinks.e3. e2owtesy Bliggs 8 straml Cop) .

This complaintis commonin older engines and is. Attempting to repair one by substituting a nonstock spring. In tbis situation. The motion of thelever tends to close thethrottle.While no great gains can be had from replacing the wire link. centripedal) force flings the weigbts outward. The weights are driven by a gear and revolve with the engine. CautionaryComment Air vane governors are delicate devices. controlling engine speedwith forces of only a few grams. with only the pivots restraining them. more precisely. Most throttle valves have more than one mounting hole for the spring and link. or reforming the old one. Inextreme cases. benign. Other possible cattses are bids at the link or vane.thelink can saw its ends off. CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNORS The heart of the mechanism is a pair of revolving weights known asflyweights (Fig. Engine Overspeeds. Centrifugal (or. or it will self-destruct. or directly to the throttle valve. they slide the cup to the left. or connect the vane link at a leverage disadvantage. in a way. releasingthe enginefrom governor control. In either event. In most cases. this lack of speedcan be cured by replacingthe weakenedspring with the correct one for that mode!e@e. Speed kills aging connectingrods. the engine must be shutdown immediately.This force is counteractedby a spring that holds the throttle open. the other end to a bellcrank as shown. wear on the link ends will slow governor response and promote hunting. 76 . This outward motion is proportional to the square of engine speed. camming the follower and its attached lever. One end of the spring is attached to the manualthrottle or control cable. by stretching. opening the manual throttle control increases spring tension and causes the engine to run faster. increasing dramatically at high rpm.A deformed link or improper throttle spring can also cause this problem. A mechanicmay inadvertently reverse these mounting points. Engine Will Not Reach Full Governered Speed. 4-4). clipping. or by changingthe shapeof the link will probably fail and consequently destroy the engine. As the weights move.

Large flyweight movements have smalleffects on the angleof the throttle valve. Check for binds at the levers. and the spring opens the throttle to compensate for the increased load. Most complaints involve minor problemscentering around the throttle spring andlever adjustment. Small changesin engine t-pmare sensed and compensatedfor and no load and full load speeds are closely matched. the engine momentarily slows. or intermittent ignition failure. the engine should hold that speed independently of load. Centrifugal governors are quite reliable and are more durable than the engine that drives them. mounting the springs and links far outside of the lever pivots makes the mechanism more sensitive. Smallchangesin engine speed ge unnoticed by the governor and there is a marked variation between no load and full load rpm. the &eights tling outward. Models h!. Assuming the linkage moves freely. No Governor Response. Should the load decreasesthe tram of events is reversed: the engine speeds. the problem can usually be cured by slight changesin the linkage. But this matching can be carried too far. If the governor is involved. On most applications. 6. Other engine models can be adjusted to compensate for weak springs. and in the centrifugal mechanism&elf. The governor lever must be secured to the governor shaft. Mounting the hardware too close to the lever pivots makes the governor overly sensitive. This malady-a metronomic gain and loss of rpm under steady or no load conditions-can be causedby a maladjusted carburetor. and the throttle valve closes. and 8 have no adjustment provision. the flyweights relax. links. Throttle valve angleschange before the engine canreact andthe result is hunting. inability to attain full govemored speed canbe corrected by replacing the spring with another of the same number. 79 I . Conversely. bellcranks and levers are drilled with rows of numberedholes. Failure to Reach Govemored Speed.Once the throttle control level is set. Troubleshooting Hunting. giving alternate positions for spring andLink attachment. throttle valve.Securingthe links and springs near the end of the levers reducesthe sensitivity of the governor. If load increases.

Teardown andadjustmentprocedures differ between models and. 60000. To disassemble. Evenly thread the holddown screws to prevent distortion.loosen the pinch bolt on the governor lever and disengagethe lever from the governor shaft. The crank and bushing come out together. Supportingthe governor lever on a wood block. The gear and cup will slide out with it. drive out the pin that securesit to the shaft. 140000. is serviced from outside the engine. Pin the lever. as Briggs & Stratton calls it. 4-4. Displace it as far to the right as it will go. Models SB. 6. As the case is 60 . the crank. differences in performance requirements. Gtiggs&SiraGon Governors Although Briggs & Stratton governors are mechanicallyalike.Runaway Governor. Other than the provision for increasingor decreasingsensitivity which has beendescribed under “Hunting. replaceable thread-in bushing. changes in manufacturing techniques. Install the crank with the inner tip at the twelve o‘clock position. ModeIs N. Once the shaft is off. Cleanthe parts andlightly grease all friction surfaces. or.” there is no provision for governor adjustment. 8. in some cases. Shut the engine down immediately and open the governor case for inspection. and factory set maximum speed. This governor. Remove the two capscrewsholding the governor case to the engine. and using a new gasket.80000. and the upper end of the link in the second hole out from the throttle lever pivot. and variations in engine layout result in variety. The factory has the lever spring in the fourth hole. You may have to rock the flywheel to mate the governor gear with the camshaft. usually triggered by loss of lubrication. This governor cn these early models has features that mechanics would like to see continued in current models:’ access from outside of the engine.remove the two housing screws and gently pry the housing off the side of the block. and run in the bushing. there is room to unthread the bushing. shown in exploded view in Fig. To disassemble. position the assembly against the side of the engine block. Expect to find serious mechanicaldamage. 8B.between vertical crank and horizontal crank enginesof the same model.

Placethe thrust washer over the inboard end of the shaft and mount the gear and cup assembly. should be installed with one end extending out of the shaft. with the follower down. Position the governor lever on the shaft. the governor gear will slip off its shaft. 6B. and 140000 is typkal of all centrifugal types. together with the cup. Allow the shaft to hangfree. The shat?pin. at the six 0’d0ck position. 230000. 20000. The governor used on models 6B. 190000. Centering the pin causesrapid wear on the bushingface. The shaft and follower can be unthreaded for replacement To reassemble. The end of the governor shaft is slotted for a screwdriver. (Courtesy Brtggs 8 Stratton Corp.300000. Turn the shaft counterclockwise until the cup is solid against the flyweights.60000.) withdrawn. The throttle valve should be hard against its fully open stop. turn the lever counterclockwise as far as it will go.FQ. To adjust the reassembledgovernor. 14. Holding the shaft. bellcrank. and 320000.mount the shaft in its bushingand thread on the follower. 4-4. 60000. Models 9. The spring mounts between the short end of the bellcrank and the third hole in the governor lever. Draw up the cover screwsevenly over a new gasket. 19. the part that locates the shaft on the outer side of the bushing. end down. about 30 degrees off the vertical. gently bow the wire links to make connection at the throttle lever. 23. 240000. this series is disassembledfrom 61 . While employing the samelinkageas the governor just described. Do not overlook the steel thrust washer between the gear and case. Qhten the pinch screw at the lever. and governor lever.

170000. vertical crankshaft governors are mounted under the flange. Reassembling the horizontal shaft governor. and 251000.9. Adjustment is same as for the series described above. The engine must be opened to service either type. Remove the shaft pulley or drive coupling and polish out any rust or burrs that could score the main bearing. Horizontal crankshaft governors are mounted under the crankcase cover and are driven by the cam. models 100000.45. or baseplate. 170000. depending upontheir application. Remove the cover bolts and. replace the whole assembly.199000. Inspect the 82 . UlOfJO. The crank is a one piece affair. and then mount the flyweight assembly and thrust washer using a new cotter pm. andare incorporated into the oil slinger. Horizontal Crankshaft. jar the plate away from the crankcase. anU251000. The flyweight mechanism is secured by a cotter pin and thrust washer. 140000. using a rubber hammer. Thesealuminum block governors differ. (Courtesy International HarvesterCorp. Models 100000. To reassemble. If the centrifugal mechanismis bad. as component parts are not available separately. 190000. easy to extract oncethe flyweights are out of the way. 130000.allow the crank to hang loosely. ) inside the crankcase.13000t 1.

Secure the flyweight assembly to the shaft with a little heavy grease and.governor crank for wear on its rubbing and bearing surfaces. as this tactic will separate the parts. It is important to install this washer as shown in the drawing. This entails removing whatever hardware is on the end of the crankshaft. mount the side cover. Vertical Crankshaft. Replace the shaft and bushing as required. and separate the flange. as a further precaution againstbearing and seal damage.190000. place the engine upright in its normal position (Fig. break the gasket sealwith the help of a rubber hammer. Polish the crankshaft and. Tighten down the cover capscrews in a crisscross pattern. using a new gasket. Some engines. If it is stubborn. have a wave washer outside of the slinger bracket (Fig.generate an oil leak. The engine is secured by bolts through the rim of the flange. Gnirtesy international Harvester Corp. To reassemble. Do not pry againstthe flangeparting surface. such as models 100900 and130900.130000. The centrifugal mechanismis built into the oil slinger and should be changedas an assembly. Pg.170000. andin the process. I ne spnng wasner mounts oetween me slinger DracKeran0 riange oil vehal shaft models 100000. 4-5). 46). and 251000.) 83 . Remove the engine from the device it powers. remove the capscrewsholding the flange to the block. along with control cables and external wiring.dull the sharp edges of the keyway with a file. 4-o. With the engineon its side.140000.

) These horizontal and vertical crank&&I engines can be damaged if run out of adjustment. Using a scx-ewdriver.mod~s10000.and251000. . 4-ir. With the throttle full open. The governor is new set.‘Adjustingthe governor on horizontal shaft (A)and vertical shaft (B) ~ines. tighten the pinch bolt. since the govemor spring tension keepsthe assemblytogether.130000. loosenthe pinch bolt on the governor lever ‘(Fig. 4-7).(~ tesyBrtggs&StrattonCorp.Fg.170000.190000. turn the governor crank counterclockwise until you feel the crank seat against the nylon cup. With the throttle still open.140000.

Below are listed some of the problems which arise with rewind starters. The 115V AC starters limit an engine’s portability. Most failures are the fault of the user. MECRARICALSTARTERS 'RewindStartm Rewind. Rewind starters require too much effort for manyelderly people. SYMPTOM Rattles as the engine runs Shrieks as the engine runs PROBABLE CAUSES Misaligned shroud Dry clutch bearing 85 . Lead acid battery systems are impractical for enties that are stored and not used part of the year. starters have a short operating life. nouniversal starter systemexists. each tailored to a particular segment of the market.Becauseof the many different cx&ions under which small engines operate. or spring wound. The cord should be pulled out smoothly and held while it retracts. and the probable causes of these dif6culties. Consequently. or recoil. The best impulse. Briggs & Stratton offers a large selection of starting systems. starters were introduced on small engines Rfty years ago by Jacobsenand remain the most popular type.

weak or broken mainspring. insufficient mainspring Broken sprag clutch Refuses to rewind Refuses to disengage sprag Clutch ecoil and impulse starters drive through a sprag clutch that doub!es as the flywheel nut.SEAL RATCHET CLUTCti HOUSING Fg. and its lower. locking the starter to the crankshaft. the sprag traps a ball bearing between it and the clutch housing. mounted to the clutch housing by four self-threading 86 . Thecurrent production sprag clutch. (Courtesy International Harvester -P-h SYMPTOM Starter slips PROBABLE CAUSES Wear or dirt in the sprag clutch. bent or worn friction link assembly (vertical pull only) Misaligned shroud. remove the engine shroud and the screen. To service the clutch. 51) threads over the cranksahft. The clutch housing (Fig. Its outside end mates with the starter pulley. Once the engine catches. The sprag (r&et in the drawing) is supported by a bushing on the crankshaft stub. the ball bearing releases. rides against four on six ball bearings in the starter housing. When rotated by the starter pulley. oil on starter cord. and the sprag idles on the bushing. or inside end. S-1.

The purpose is to bind the spring so that it will not -“‘explode”when the pulley is detached. 1wooo loOOOO. Secure the flywheel with a strap wrench or a Briggs & Stratton holding fixture. For further protection.261000. 68. Clean the metal parts in solvent and inspect for damage.190000*2OOOOO 115 Torque(ft-lb) 55 60 65 87 . and iightly oil the bushing. but is less than fatal if distributed evenly to all four lugs. If this tool is not available. Install the spring washer and torque to specificationsin Table 5-l. A spring washer fits under the clutch assembly. and ball bearingsin solvent. Somedeformation of the clutch housing is normal. can cause the clutch to slip. Withdraw the pulley. To dismantle the starter. wear safety glasses. clutch housing. 5-2). remove the shroud and place the assembly upside down on a bench (Fig. Reassemblethese parts dry. Clean the sprag. Horizontal Pull Starter.screws. 62ooo‘ 92ooo. the part that makes contact with the bearings. On early models.Clutch HousingTorque limits Cast-IronSeries 6B. the assemblycan be !oosenedwith a hammer and a block of soft wood.191700. Carefully straighten the pulley tangs. Disconnect and ground the spark plug lead to prevent accidental starting. pull the main spring out of the housing as far as it will come (Fig. the retainer cover was secured with a spring wire: on late models the cover must be pryed off. Cut the rope at the pulley knot and extract it. without lubricant. Wear on the tip of the sprag. Table S-l. 6ooo. Unthread the clutch assembly using factory tool number 19114.60000. Somedamageto the screen lugs is inevitable. twisting it slightly to disengagethe spring. AluminumSeries 19. 5-3. 190000.1717000.l~%OOO 140000.170000. Using a pair of pliers.

) 88 . Wind the pulley tight.) (Courtesy Securethe shroud to the workbench with several large nails. 5-Z. Thread the three end out through the shroud. Disarm the spring befora disassembly. 54. Early model pulleys have a guide lug which must be outside of the rope FQ. past the spring anchor. Newstylespringendsimprovethereliabilityofthesestarten. or hold the shroudin a large vise. Cut a short length of one by one to fit the pulley socket. Back the spring off one turn to align the rope knot hole in the pulley with the rope guide in the shroud. Lightly grease the sprirg and attachit to the pulley. (Couttesy Brtggs & Stratton Corp. Briggs & Stratton Corp. Without releasing the puUey.Fig. Bend the tangs to make light contact with the pulley. thread the rope into it. guiding the spring up and into the anchor slot.

Rush the knot down into the hole for clearance. Bend the Lugsso that the nylon bumpers are one sixteenth of an in& below the pulley (the bumpers were againstthe pulley during winding for better control). @ii. leaving some three quarters of an inch of rope beyond the knot. 54. Secure the handle with a figure eight knot. loosen the shroud and reposition it. tie it. A Lengthof piano wire is helpful to force the’rope past the lug. Fish the end of the rope through the knot hole. andsealthe fmyed edges with a match. Install the shroud assembly on the engine. Seal the end with heat and slip the handle pin through one of the knot loops.) therope must pass insideofthe lug. the gear retmts back down the thread The main spring is under some tension and you should wear 89 . Once the engine fires. S-4). If it is slow to retract or bids. Puiiing on the rope sends a nylon gear into engagement with the ring gear on the underside of the flywheeL The nylon gear moves on a thread by virtue of a friction spring and link (an arrangement reminiscent of that usedon bicycle coaster brakes). except that there is no lug to frustrate your work.The process is the same with new style pulleys. This starter is conzkiered a safety feature on rotary iawnmowers. The vertical pull starter is a convenience on vertical crankshaft engines which prevents the operator from havingto crouch alongsidethe engine to start it. centering it over the flywheeL Test the starter. Vertical Pull Starter. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp.FQ. Whensbingingtheoldstylestarter. Releasethe spring in a controked manner and allow the rope to wind.

together with the freed section of rope. See that the link and spring assembly move the drive 98 . Disarm the spring by Wing the rope out of the pulley groove and winding the pulley.5-S. noting how the spring mates with it (Fig. Disarm the Briggs vetical pull starter by lifting a foot or so of rope out of the pulley groove. there should be no tension on the pulley and approximately one foot of rope should be free. Clean mechanicalparts in solvent. usinga screwdriver. S-5).FQ. 5-7) for assemblyreference. carefully work it out of the housing. When you are finished. gently pry the cover off. pull the rope far enough out of the pulley to cut the knot. The friction spring and link are the most vulnerable elements in this me&r&m. Using a piece of piano wire in conjunction with long nosed pliers. 5-6). observing the position of the link (Fig. Removethe rope guide. Do not pull on the rope with the cover disengaged. If the spring is to be replaced. Observe the warning stampedon the plastic starter cover and. safety g&es when servicing this starter. several turns counterclockwise (Fig. Remove the anchor bolt and anchor.

and tie a small. Begin reassemblyby installing the spring in its housing. wiping down the melted fibers with b.Fig. Observe the position of the friction link before disassembly. Spaceis critical. Using a length of piano wire or a jeweler’s screwdriver. Melt the ends with a flame. hard knot.56. 5-7. replace these parts. Slip one end into the retainer slot and wind the spring counterclockwise (Fig. S-8). gear to its extremes (Courtesygriggs&StrattonCorp. snake one end of the rope into the pulley. andno more than a sixteenth of an inch of rope should extend beyond the knot. Extract the end of the rope from behindthe pulley.) of traveL If there is any hesitation.Removatheanchorbolandspring. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Gory) 91 .

1 92 . secure the spring anchor with 80-90 in-lb of torque. To install the spring. anchor it in the retainer slot and wind cow tefclockwise. Install the rope guide with the link positioned as it was originally found (Fig. and check that the knot clears the threads. 5-9). Wind the spring counterclockwise with your thumbsto retract the rope (Fig. Install the friction link behind the rope guide. Lightly lubricate the spring with motor oil. 5-10). Once the handlebutts against the starter case. 5-8.Fig. PuUthe rope tight. Fig.) a shop rag to reduce their diameter. 5-S. Give the rope andpulley two or three dockwise turns to preload the main spring. Snapthe starter cover into place and disengageapproximately one foot of rope from the pulley (Fig. (Courtesy ariggs8 Stratton Corp. (Courtesy Eiriggs8 Stratton cocp. 5-11). and to assure that the rope will be rewound smartly.

starter is to reduce peak cranking effort. 5-10. 5-11.1 93 .Fig. Wind the spring counterclockwise to retract the rope. I. Preload the spring two or three rotations. But the average effort is increasedsince one must store enough energy in the spring to spin the engine and to overcome the inefficiency of the crank. (Courtesy Sriggs 8 Stratton rp. And this it does. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp.) Impulse Starter The purpose of the impulse. ratchet. or ratchet.

and the other with a ratchet release. turn the knob or lever to the crank position. replacing those that show evidence of severe wear. are more reliable than the impulse starters fitted to other engines. 512. both the flywheel and starter clutch ratchet will turn. 5-12).Fig. or broken main springs. The two models that Briggs & Stratton builds. If the spring is whole. To prevent serious injury. Considerableenergy is stored in the spring. attempting to start a baulky engine with one of these devices is exhausting. Releasespring tension by placing the control knob or remote control lever in the start position. enough to break an arm. Do not attempt to service a starter with a broken spring retainer. hold the crank handle in one hand and remove the Phillips screw at the top of the assembly (Fig. broken 5ywheels (on the direct release model). If the engine is locked and the starter fails to unwind. But do not be surprised to find worn sears. but stand clear and hold the crank with your free hand. Clean the parts in solvent. the model with a sear 94 . (Thedratingismisleading-doNOTplaceyourforearm inthepalhofthe wank.) and spring. Disarm the Briggs ratchet starter by loosening the central Phillips screw. damagedsprag clutches. The direct release starter. As any men mechanic knows. A quick way to check for a broken spring is to place the control onstart and wind the crank. The spring must be disarmed before the starter is disassembled and the spring must remain in its retainer at all times.’ one with a trigger that bears against the flywheel fins.

that engagesthe flywheel fins. Except for the spragclutch. Bend the shroud tabs down securely over the retaining plate. Grease the parts indicated.) . 5-13). Three of these systems operate from a 12V lead Fig. four ball clutch. The lever release model uses the six ball clutch.retainer. greasealI parts that are subject to severe wear (Fig. Note the spring washerbetween the retaining plate and main spring. 5-13. ELECTRIC STARTERS Dependingupon the model and the date of manufacture. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.Briggs & Stratton engines may be fitted with any of five distinct electric starting systems. uses the old style.

The current readings in Table 5-2 are steady draw readings-disregard initial surges. To perform these tests. Below are listed some of the problems which arise with electric starters. an ammeter. Briggs & Stratton suggests two test parameters. Starter motor failure can be traced to: 96 . Mark the end cap and motor frame for assemblyreference and remove the two through bolts that secure the cap to the frame. you will need a hand held tachometer. and the probable causes of these difticulties. these motors are typical of all gear driven types. Delco-Remy and Prestolite belt drive motors are distinguished by field coils. no load rpm and no load current draw. and a power supply. and 190000 series engines.acid or Nicad battery. 170000. In so far as basic constructionaifeatures are concerned. Take off the brush cover and cap. or a 1lOV AC source. Dependingupon the starter motor. The armature can be withdrawn from the drive side with the pulley still attached. SYMPTOM Does not crank PROBABLE CAUSES Low battery Low tine voltage (llOV model) High resistance connection Open starter switch Hay load Defective motor or rectifier (1lOV model) Low battery Low line voltage (1lOV model) High resistance connection Worn motor bearings Worn or sticking brushes Heavy load crsnks slowly Stafter Motors-All Models Figure 5-14 illustrates the three starter motors availablefor the 140000. the power supply is a tidly charged6V or 12V leadacidbattery or 12V Nicad battery. two from 1lOV line voltage. for the motors that dealer mechanics service (excluding Delco and Prestolite motors).

or grounded armature l Shorted. 5-14. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. Typical starter motors. opened. or grounded field l Brushes worn to half or less of their original length l Brushes sticking in their holders l .) Biding (scored or dry) armature shaft bearings 9 Worn armature shaft bearings l Shorted.Optional 12 V Motor 110 v Motor Fig. opened.

1go000 11OV AC geared 12V DC geared 110V AC geared 12V AC geared 12V DC geared 3oo4oo.190000 1lOVAC . 170000.Table!L2.32o4oo 14oooo. 14oooo. *2V DC geared (American Bosch No. Steady DrawCurnnl Ratings.170000.

A small chisel can be used to split the bushing.5. 5-1. Drive out the old bushings. or with a narrow. then bind. deep pits. being careful not to score the bearingbosses and drive in new ones to the depth of the originals. Bearings are the next most likely area of failure.Severe out-of-round.Reddishbrown discolorationson the commutator bars are normal and mean that the brushes have seated. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co. AtIer any of these operations. Glaze and minor imperfectionscanbe removed with number 00 sandpaperas shown in Fig. Cleaning the commutator. Bushings in motor end covers can be removed by any of several methods. 5-16). American Bosch end cover bushings have a flange to accept thrust loads that can he used as a purchasepoint to collapsethe bushing inward. The neatest technique is to pack the boss with heavy grease. 5-15. and clear the 6lings with compressed air. then ram the bushingout with a punch that matches the diameter of the motor shaft. The starter may turn freely by hand. but when engaged against the flywheel. B-urnedcommutator bars signala shorted winding. groan through a revolution or so. flat edged jeweler’s 6le (Fig. cut down the micawith a tool designed for this purpose.) . Polish the commutator to remove burrs. or scores should be corrected with a lathe. A sharp hammer blow will lift the bushing by hydraulic pres- Fig.

Check for shorts between the shaft and armature with a 12OVtest lamp. Handle the EOV probes with extreme caution-holding one in each hand means that an electric current could pass through the vulnerablethOl.SX. Checkadjacentcommutator bars by the samemethod. Underarttingthe mica. (Courtesy Kohler of Kohler. 100 .START UNDERCUT 34ORNERED FILE COMMUTAT SEGMENTS MICA FINISH WITH EDGES MUST BE FREE OF MICA Fg.) The armature can develop shorts. All iron and steel parts must be electrically isolated from nonferrous (brass or copper) parts. 6-16.

An openwindingwill generatesparksbetweenthe bladeandadjacent commutatorsegments. but a few autoparts houseskeep one for customeruse.Rewinding costsmore than a replacement. thereis nopractical wayto repairanarmature. however. If oneof the armaturetidings is shorted. 5-17). Otherwise.Thesetooisarefairlyexpensive to buy. Arc welding on adjacentparts.Sincefew shopshavethe necessaryequipmentto “recharge”them. 555.a broken connection betweenthe armatureand a commutatorbar.) 101 .Unless the damage is visible.Internal winding-to-windingshorts can be detected with a growier. Delco-Remy starter generatorsemployconventionally wound fields.If the insulationis not visibly burned. 5-17. AmericanBosch motors use permanentmagnetfields that require no service under normal circumstances. Test for shorts to the tiame with an ohmmeteror 12QV probes. Smail Appliance Repair Guide.shorts betweenthe windings cansometimes berectifiedby warmingthe starter framein anovenat 275degreesFahrenheit for a few hours. You canbuild one aroundthe coreof a television powersupplytransformerasdetailed in TAB No. as for example.the Fig. or extreme vibration can. Checking for internal (winding-to-winding) shorts with a growlor and hacksaw blade. the field must be replaced. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co. weakenthe magnets.a hacksaw bladewill vibratewhenplaced overthe affected armaturesegment (Fig.

Removethe frame screwswith an impact driver and. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Carp. 518).andtheassembly mustbefree of carbon dust andoil deposits.Fig.Onebrushor brush set shouldbe grounded to the frame.In mostcases. 5-18. Starter Drives The 12V Delco-Remy starter generatorcombination is driven by a singleor ‘andemV-belt andremainsin constantengagement . maintain pressureagainst the commutator bars.the brushesmustbe “shoe-homed” over the commutator with a homemadetool (Fig. A homemade tool used to owrcome brush spring tension during reassembly. while the remaining brushor brushset connects to the armature. stake the screws. once the new parts are installed.The brushesshould be free to movein their holders.) fieldswill haveto be replaced. The brushesmust haveat least half of their originallengthto.

5-20. connect the powercord to a 1lOVoutlet.The depthof the belt in the sheave shxdd fall between3/32 and% of an inch.If the dimensionis Fig. 5-2OC). The 12V starter generator combination used on some Briggs 8 Stratton engines. 5-20B). Tandem belts shouldbe replacedas matchedsets.(Fig. Belt tensionis correct if there is % of an inch free play betweenpulley centers. Replace thebelt with a heatandoil resistantBriggs& Strattonpart if worn.in the high position. The llOV Presto&estarter drivesthrougha pulleyclutch.The belt should trackinsideof the restrictor barsanddimension A (Fig. as shownin the drawing.or crackedalongits inner circumference. If the dimension is 11:s~ thaIi this during cranking. 519). the motor is pivoted and securedby a pinch bolt. rotate the flywheel by hand to the thresholdof the compression stroke. 103 .movethe starter away from the engine (Fig. 5-19.The belt shouldengage with the motor andshoulddisengage as soonas the enginestarts. gouged. andcrankthe enginewith the startermotor.In either configuration. Turn the ignition switch off. The motor may be mountedlow on the block or. Note the dimensions in Fig. To test.

repairscanbe madewith a file. @wtesy Briggs sbatfon Corp. Remove the starter motorfrom the engineandvisuallyinspect the pinionandring gearsfor burrs andchippedteeth. Other starter motors drive by meansof an inertialclutchnot unlikethe Bendixunit familiarto automotivemechanics (Fig. either directly or throughthe intermediaryof a reductiongear.In mostcases. Somesmall damage canbeexpected. movethe starter towardthe engine(Fig. If it sticks. 52OD).disassemble theunit by removing the springclipandcleanthepartsin solvent. S-20.1 greaterthan?41 of an inch.sinceengagement is brutal.No 104 . Be!!slack iscritical for the 120V Prestolife system. DO NOT break the line cord connection while the starter motor is engaged.Fii. 514). The pinionshouldthreadout on the motor shaftwhenturnedcounterclockwise. The sparkmight ignite gasolinevapors. The pinionengages a ring gearon the inboardsideof the flywheel.

The Delco-Rmy 12 volt stsmr~snerator. (Courtesy Bdggs 8 Stratton Corp.) .12v Fg. Wtring varies somawhet with application. S-21.

and eachcell shouldgive a hydrometerreadingof at least 1. Combination starter generatorsets were oncefoundon a few smallimportedmotorcycles andsmall-bore Chrysleroutboards. 106 .240with no more than 0.andanammeter rather thananidiot light.If cleaning doesnot curethe problem. with the exceptionof the ring gear. 5-22. Starter solenoid cutaway. Most problemswith this systeminvolvethe battery. and the terminals should be routinely disconnected. (Courtesy OMC. The Briggs & Stratton version is built by Delco-Remy.the assembly mustbereplaced because. scrapedbright. and tightenedsecurely. although other examples featurea solenoid ratherthana mechanical switch. The battery must havea capacityof 40-45 ampere-hours. The battery top shouldbe wiped down to prevent leakagebetweenthe terminals. A low chargeca? result kom battery inactivity-a lead acid batteryself-discharges at the rate of onepercenta day-or failureof the battery or chargingsystem.Battery failure canbe detectedby the tests described in the foJlowing chapter.Fii 5-21 illustrates typicalwiring.05 points variationbetweencells. spareparts are unavailable.PLUNGER WlNDlNGS MOTOR TERMINAL BATTERY TERMINAL SPRINGS ‘-&& CONiACT DISC / DUST CAP Fig.) lubxkation (otherthansilicone in coldweather)is allowed.

Test by connecting a heavygauge jumper betweenthe battery and motorterminals. How muchamperage is delivered depends uponthe stateof chargeof the battery. disconnect the F (field) terminal at the regulator.the mostvulnerable part of this systemis the starter switch. the fault is elsewhere. 5-22).the problemis in the switch or solenoid. If the meter shows10amps or more. (Courtesy Kohler of Kohler.Otherthanthe battery andterminals. A 15ampammeteris requiredto checkthe chargingsystem.The ammetershouldshowa charge at approximately 2000rpm.) . That is.or optionalsolenoid (Fig.If the starter works on the jumper. Remove the B (battery) terminalat the voltageregulatorandconnect the ammeterin serieswith it. the generatorfield coils are gounded andmust CURRENT-VOLTAGE GENERATOR ARMATURE (A) TERMINAL (NOTSHOWNON UNOERSIOE) Fig.Should outputremainhigh. Typical voltage and current regulator. Start the engine. the black. or positiveleadto the B wire.if the starter fails to spin.andthered. or negative instrument leadgoesto theregulator. 5-23.

No chargewith the F leadgrounded meansthat the generatorbrushesor armaturehave opened or shorted.If outputceases. 14wire from a good.berepairedor replaced. 5-23). But the most frequent causeof cookedpoints is a poor regulator ground.paintandrust free engineground to oneof the regulatorholddownbolts. Burnedpointsmay meanreversedpolarity. Burnedcurrent coils (distinguished from voltage coils by the heavy windings)usually meana short in the externalwiring or battery.the regulatoris defective. If thereis nocharge with theF leaddisconnected. The regulator usually goes out in response to trouble elsewhere in the chargingcircuit (Fig.A healthygeneratorwill put out 10amps or more. or high resistancein the chargingcircuit.run a lengthof No.signaling that the regulatorhasfailed. momentarily short theleadto the engine block. .If the regulatoris not electricallyonewith the engine.

Electrical failure is usually associatedwith chronicallylow states of charge.or i.The battery straps-the internalbusses that connectthe cells-are castaspart of the terminals.cn a temperature-corrected hydrometer. STBRAGE BATTERIES Storagebatteries can fail either mechanically or electrically. Theleading causes of mechanical failureare loosebatteryhold-down hardware.and the state of chargeshouldbe held above75%.The Nicadsystemis recharged from house current by way of a step-downtransformer andrectifier.Twisting the cablesor over-tightening the terminal bolts canfracture the straps. Deepcharge-discharge cyclesencourage sulphation and.CHAPTER The va.canoverheatthe battery. Distilledwater shouldbe addedas neededto coverthe plateswith electrolyte.A partial cure is to trickle chargethe batteryfor a weekor more.tious enginemodelsemployfive distinct alternatorsfor use with leadacidbatteries. melting holesin the plates.Howeverthe best cure is prevention.The extentandrate of discharge canbereduced 109 . andowner abuse. At least someof the sulphate dissolves andgoesbackinto solution.The plates becomeimpregnatedwith sulphate crystalsandare no longerableto take part in the ion exchange that generates electricalpotential.poor vibrationhrsulation.i22C.if the systemis not properlyregulated.

Self-discharge can be controlledby frequent transfusionsand by keepingthe battery top andterminalsclean.88.The battery 110 . practicallyspeaking+ beyondowner control.Ultimately. anda preciselyweighted float (Fig. the hydrometer is the instrumentto be tried first. The first evidence of chargingsystemfailure is a low battery.A smallalternatorthat is adequate for one start a day may not deliverthe current for twenty starts a QY. andthat depends uponthe outputof the alternatorand uponthe way the engineis used. particularlyif thebattery showssignsof fatigue.The more acidin the electrolyte. although more sophisticated yardsticksare available.eventhe largebattery must be recharged.a larger battery will outlive onethat delivers its last erg of energy each time the engine is cranked.880 times heavierthan an equal amountof water. Beforeturning to specifictest procedures. But the capacity of thebattery. Eachcell in a fully charged battery shouldhavea specificgravity of 1. sulphuricacid is 1.In other words. Draw enoughelectrolyteinto the hydrometerto set the float adrift. the greater the chargeandthe heavierthe electrolyte. disregarding the menicus that clings to the sides of the chamber.Sight aaosSthe mainlevel of the instrument. the other ingredientof electrolyte.000.it shouldbe noted that the capacity of the battery hassomebearinguponits longevity. 6-1A. A completely discharged batterywill havea specific gravity ontheorder of 1.240-1.j.Whilehydrometer resultsdonot takethe placeof a performance test.The rate of chargeis. cannotcompensate for longterm withdrawals.The float is calibrated in unitsof speciftc gravity.!lasa specificgravity of 1. Repeattheoperationonthe others.100. AUthingsbeingequal.Waterhasa specific graivty of 1. The less cranking thebetter. afloatchamber. usuallymeasured in ampere-hours.280. The float must not touchthe sidesof the instrument. ‘The state of charge-how must potential is available in the battery-is mosteasilymeasured with a hydrometer.by keepingthe battery chargedand the enginein tune.Sulphuricacid. A hydrometer consistsof a squeeze bulb. althoughit is wise to invest in an ammeterto keep an eye on the system. The amountof acidin the electrolytereflectsthe state of charge. and record the specific gravityfor that cell.

VOLTAGE SHOULD NOT DROP BELOW 0. it shouldbe remembered that acidand water expandwhen heated. The higherthe temperature of the electrolyte. uncorrectedreadingsare generallyadequate.005)below the averageof the others.Any accuratethermometerwilt work. 6-1B)or a rheostatanda voltmeter.the lower the apparent specificgravity.+a HYDROMETER TEST EYE ON LEVEL WITb LIQUID SURFACE MAKE CORRECTION FOR TEMPERATURE LOAD TEST DISCHARGE BATTERY AT RATE OF 200 AMPERES FOR 15 SECONDS . While raw. Expensive hydrometerssometimes incotporazea thermometerin the barrel anda temperature-compensating scale. .220to preventbattery damage. The temperature-compensated specific gravityshould beat least1.1 Fig. 6-l. Connect 1’11 . The mostreliablefield test requiresa carbonpile (Fig. (Courtesy OMC. A battery hydrometer and rhacstat.004)to the reading subtract four points for each ten degrees below 80 degrees Fahrenheit. For eachten degrees above 80 degrees Fahrenheit addfour points(0.0 VOLTS (-12 VOLT BAT.----.) shouldhe suspectedof malfunctioning if any of the cells fall five points (0. .

the carbonpile shouldbe adjusted to discharge a 30 ampere-hour battery at the rate of 90 amps. there is no regulator. Optional featuresincludean ammeterandan isolationdiode. Undernocircumstances Fig. The rectifier convertsalternatingcurrent into pulsating directcurrent. ALTERNATORS The usualBriggs & Stratton approach is to provide battery chargingcurrent with an enginedriven alternator and solid state rectifier.6V.connecta number4001headlamp betweenthe rectitier output and a paint free engineground(Fig.All systemsemploya leadacid storagebattery.Continue to discharge for fifteen seconds. 6-Z).intended to replenish a 12ampere-hour battery.Testingoutputofthe 15Aalternator.the voltmeteracrossthe terminals andadjusttheloadto three times the ampere-hour rating. At no time during the test shouldthe voltmeterregister lessthan9.) 112 . To test the alternatoroutput. If it does.the battery shouldbe suspected of malfunctioning.Thebatterymustbeout of the circuit.5ampalternatoris the peeweeof the series.5Amp Alternator The 1. The 1. (CourtesyBriggs&StrattonCorp. Other thanthe resistance of the battery and the enginespeedgovernor.The moresophisticated systemsinclude a solidstate voltageregulatorto protect the battery from overcharging andto extendheadlamp life. For example.62.

Oamp alternatoris a variationof the onejust described.) should the outputof this or anyother alternatorbe grounded. If not. but not impossible.the fault is in the rectilier or the alternator. Seethat the outputleadsare snugagainst the block. sinceit is the more likely failure point.andhighresistance in the other.FaCure is exceedingly rare.Fig. Thelampshouldbum. Test the stator with a 4001 headlamp connectedacrossthe outputleads(Fig. Install a replacementstator. (CourtesyBriggs8StrattonCorp. replacethe rectifier box. With the enginestopped. 6-3.Before decidingthat the stator is defective. Youshould get continuityin onedirection. checkthe leads to the stator for possiblefouling.PestingsJatorofthe 15AaRernator. To do so is to invite burnedcoils andfried diodes.Test the rectifier first. Connecta 12V test lamp between the rectifier output and the 113 . If not.0 Amp Alternator The4. If the lamprefusesto Light. It has eight chargingcoils (insteadof three) andis protectedby an in-linefuse. comparethe magneticstrength of the flywheel ring against oneknownto be good. torquing the capscrews18-24 in-lb. Troubleshooting proceduresbegin with a short-circuit test.andweIf clear of the flywheeL The 4.as shownin Fig. 6-3).touch the probesof a low voltage ohmmeter to the outputterminalandground.63.

6-4. If the lamplights.Fii. This alternatorhasfour distinct windings. If the lampgoesout. Unplugthe rectifier connection underthe blowerhousing. the rectifier is at fault andmust be replaced. 7.A breakin oneof the windingsdropsoutputby a third. (Cow tesy mgga a smtoll Corp. Should a diodeblow.eachinvolvingtwo coils. 6-4). Checkeachof the four rectitierterminals with anohmmeter. 6-5. Make necessaryrepairs with electrician’stape and silicone cement.OA. battery current is beingfed back to groundthrough the charging circuit. If the lampcontinues to burn. Inspectthe output leadsfrom the alternatorfor frayed insufation or other evidence of shortsbefore replacingthe stator assembly. Check eachof the four pins with the fuse holderleadasshownin Fig.) positiveterminalof a charged battery (Fig.Oneprobeshould beonagood (paintlessand rustless) ground on the undersideof the blower bowing. the rectifier is okay andthe problemlies in the alternatorandassociated wiring. the other probe shouldbe on one of the diodeconnection 114 . a quarter of the output is lost.OA and dual drcuit alternators. Testing for shorts in the 4. Eachpair of pinssupplies currentto a diodein the rectifier.

If the diodein question is functionaI.) points. Repeat the test for the remaining three connection points. resting the rtator on the 4. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp. The 7. Some installations employan isolationdiodein a tubularjacket FUSE .Observethe meter andreversethe test connections. 6-6). it will havecontimuity in onedirection and very high resistancein the other.OA alternator configuration.0 ampalternatoris usedon series 140000. STATOR / ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY RE’kJLATOR ASSEMBLY Fig.Fr. ! flanked by a regulatorononesideandthe rectifier on the other(Fig.170000.0 Amp Alternator The 7.) 115 .OA alternator. The 7. 6-5. 6-6. (Courtesy Briggs (L Stratton Corp. and 1 190000 enginescan easily be recognizedby the connectorplug.0 and 7.

If it does.Disconnect the rectifier regulatorplug underthe blower housing.or rectifier. The meter shouldshow zero resistancein one direction andhigh resistance when the leadsare reversed. Do not start the engine. oneof the three is shorted. joinedby aconnector. 6-7. connect a test lampas shownbackin Fig. The lampshouldnot light. 6-7). To test the stator. regulator.Thepurpose is to blockcurrentleakage from the battery to ground by way of the alternator windings.the diode is shortedand must be replaced.If the lamplights.Test thesetwo components individuaiiy to determinewhichis at fa-ult. Testing the isolation diode on the 7. Eachleadservices two pins onthe rectiiier sideof the connector. Test the isolation diodeby connecting a 12Vlampin serieswith the output(Fig.FROM EQUIPMENT TEST Fig.Check diodecontinuity with an ohmmeterconnectedbetween the two diode leads. theregulatoror rectifier is shorted.OA alternator. 6-4. Two blackleads. go to therectifier. Test the rectifier as describedpreviously. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp.Withoutremoving the rectifier 116 . Applications that do not havethis diode isolate the battery at the ignitionswitch.) onthe outsideof the shroud.removingthe stator from the circuit. If thelampcontinues to burn.

If it is necessary to replace the regulator.Two stator windings are providied. If it does. although goodpractice demands that both be grounded at the sameenginemounting bolt.No charge indicatesa blown fuse. the assembly must be replaced.or almost none.The white leadpin must show someconductivity in onedirection andnone. 6-4. check the visiblewiring for defectsbefore investingin a new stator. Eachcircuit is treated separately here. Eachof the four pinsmustbecontiguous with theleadat thefuseholder.instructionsare suppliedwith the replacement part. disconnectthe plug .8 ampsat 12Vat wide openthrottle. or a failure of the rectifier or alternator. the rectifier is shorted. the rectifier is good. the alternatoror rectifier is defective.onefor the headlights andthe other for the battery. shortedor open wiring. Charging Circuit.To isolatethe problem.Instructionsare packaged with the new part.andthe difficultyis in the alternatoror its external 117 . The meter should show someoutput at mediumand high enginespeeds.In either event. The regulatoris distinguished by one red andonewhite lead. 6-8).If not. Dual Circuit Alternator The dualcircuit alternatoris technicallythe most interesting alternatorusedon Briggs& Strattonengines. Checkstator continuityas shownin Fig. Thered leadpm should givenoreadingin either direction. if no currentpasses.underthe shroud. The lamp shouldnot light.Observethe meter readingat each pin and reverse the leads.connectohmmeterleadsbetweeneach of the four pins and a paint free ground on the undersideof the shroud.5amps typeAGCor 3AG automotivefuse and may be suppliedwith an ammeter. Battery outputis rectified andrated at 3 amps. Connect a 12Vtest lampbetweenthe battery andthe charging sectionas illustrated in Fig.The pinsshouldconductin onedirectionandnot in the other. If the tight goes out.in the other. If current flows in both directions. the rectifier is open. Checkoutput with an ammeterin series with the positive battery terminal (Fig.The AC circuitis independent of the charging circuit. The batteryciicuit is protectedby a 7.assembly from the shroud. 6-5. Test asabove.Headlight outputis alternating andcandeliver5.

the stator must be replaced. the stator is good. If the light continues to burn.Observethe meter andreverse the test leads.Openthe plugandconnect onetest lead from an ohmmeterto the red lead pin.The meter shouldshow continuity. If the circuit is open.g.If not. and the other to the underside of the shroud(Fig. the rectifier is shortedto groundandmust be replaced. To test the stator. If the meter showscontinuity. the stator is openandmust be replaced. remove the starter motor.being carefulto route the lead away from moving parts. 6-10). Test the stator by connectingan ohmmeter betweenthe terminalat the fuseholderandthe red lead pin in the connector. Test for shorts by connecting the ohmmeterbetweena good groundandeachof the three blackleadpinsin sequence (Fig. The meter should report high resistancein one 118 . (Courtesy Briggs 8 :ratton Corp. g-10). shroud. 6-9). Testing DC output on the dual circuit alternator. 6-8. and flywheel.Inspectthe red outputleadfor frayedor brokeninsulation. Test for continuityby holdingthe probesagainstthe two blackpins (Fig. The rectifier mountsunderthe fan shroudwhereit is serviced by a three-prong connector plug. Repairwith electricaltape andsilicone.) circuitry.

SHOULD READ ZERO FQ. 6-g. Testing for shorted charging coils in the dual circuit atrernaror. t-rtesy Eriggs 8 Stratton Corp.)

Fig.6-lg. Testing charging wilcontinunyon weaua~ ~~~II~~I~IvI. f3Ifggs&S&~OllCOrp.) 119

Fig. 6-l 1. Testing AC circuit continuity on the dual circuit alternator. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.)

directionandnoresistance in the other. Do the samefor eachblack leadpin. The lightingcircuit shouldbe tested with a number4001headlampconnected betweenthe output terminal anda reliableengine ground.Thelampshould bumbrightlyat medium engine speeds. If it doesburn brightly, the problemis in the externalcircuit, between the engineandthe vehiclelights. If the lampdoesnot light or burns feebly,the problemis in the alternator.Checkcoil continuitywith a ohmmeter asshownin Fig. 6-11.Highor intlniteresistance means a defectivestator.
The 10 Amp Regulator

Usedon the series200406 and320400engines, this alternator is aheavydutydevice,delivering better than4 amps at 2000rmpand lull rating at 3600t-pm.The regulatoris more flexible than those used on the smallerengines,and can handlelarge loadswithout overcharging the battery. Checkvoltage acrossthe battery terminals with the engine turning at full govemoredrpm. Less than 14V on a fully charged battery meansstator or regulator-rectifierproblems. Disconnect the plug at the regulator-rectifierand connectan AC voltmeterto eachof thetwo outsideplugterminals(Fig. 6-12).A readingof less than 20V per terminal meansa defective stator. Checkthe regulator-rectifier by default:that is, if the systemfailsto deliver sufficientchargingvoltage and the stator appearsokay, replacethe regulator-rectifier.
120

THEWAD SYSTEM

An option on 92000and 110900engines,the Nicad system consistsof a gear driven starter motor, starter-ignitionswitch, plug-inbattery charger, anda 12V nickel-cadmium battery. Since this system is intended for rotary lawnmowerapplications, the starter-ignitionswitch is mountedon the handlebar where it is by electically isolatedfrom the eng+ The switchstopsthe engine grounding the magneto primarycircuit throughthe connector clippedonthe engineshroud.If theconnector comes free of its clip,the magneto will be deniedground,andthe enginewill continueto mu regardless of the switch setting. The tist placeto check, shouldtrouble arise, is the battery. Nickel-cadmium cells are by no meansimmortal.Load the battery with two G.E. number4001sealedbeamheadlamps connected in parallel(Fig. 6-13). Monitor the voltage.The meter shouldshowat least13.6Vafter oneminuteof draw. Readings of 13Vandlessmean that oneor more of the cells are defective.The lights shouldbum brightly for at least five minutes. The half wave rectifier suppliedwith this system shouldbe capable of recharging a fully depleted battery overa periodof sixteen holus

Fig. 6-12. Testing the statoron the alternator. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.)

121

(Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.wg.) An inexpensive tester canbe constructedfrom the following materials: 1 IN4005 diode 1 red lamp socketDialco number0931-102) l l 122 . Testing the Nicad battery. 6-13.

Fg. A homemade rectifier tester. 6-14. A properly working i chargerwiII Iight only the green bulb. number3-48 Wirethesecomponents shownin Fig.the transformer or chargerdiodeis open.If neitherbulblights. 6-14. the charger diodeis openand passing alternatingcurrent.if bothbulbslight. number53 1 % inch machinescrew. 123 .) l l l l 1 green lamp socket(Dialconumber0932-102) 1 neonbulb. number6-32 1 % inch machine screw. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp.

carefulinspection of the parts. The modifications discussed in this chapterare not radicaland will increase output by no more than half a horsepower. A looseconnectingrod bearingmakesa Iif& rapping soundthat growslouderandmoreinsistentwith time.thoroughlubrication beforereassembly. andstrict adherence to torque sequences andtorque limits. it is usually possible to savethecrankshaft.But these conservative modifications will not adverselyaffect enginelife or tractability. or somethree times the stockoutput.In most cases. these enginescan be modified to produceone horsepower per cubicinch. mainbearings wearat abouta third of the rate of corm 125 .CHAPTER 7 ENGI Engine workrequiresantiseptic cleanliness. Asa general rule. andfuel economy may be unaffected or slightly improved. Parts and expertise !s:e been developed fcr four cycle go-cart racing. SYMPTOMS OFENG:NE TROUBLE Unusual noisesare the most obvious indication that something is seriouslywrong.starting is easierthan before.If the repairis made early. ENBINE MODIFICATION While a Briggs & Stratton engine is an unlikely exampleof racing material.

usually meansthat the flywheel vanesare touchingthe air inlet screen. it seemsalmost sacrilegious to bleed compression pastanopenvalve. Main bearingsmake a distress signalin the form of a dull. 7-l).Howeverthe “Easy Spin” systemcuts starting effort by hatfandhasno effectuponthe rated output. A rampon the camlobe holdsthe inlet valveopenduringmost of the compression stroke.ofa dry starter clutch bushing. Engineswithout a compression bleed can be tested in the normalfashion(Fig. the engineshouldwearout three COM rods to oneset of mains. Another checkis to graspthe crankshaft andattempt to moveit sideto side. rhythmicknock. Reposition the shroudcover. vaives.But mainbearingwear is accelerated by contaminatedoil andby failure to keepthe crankcase toppedoff. Onesuspc&s Briggs& Strattonengineers compensated for the losswith carburetion or ignitiontimingchanges. The problemis to determinehow much compression is normal.follow these steps Removethe sparkplug and ground the ignition. Withthe sparkplugin place. l l l 126 .the flywheel mustbe spunbackwardsagainstthe normaldirectionof rotation at around100rpm. “EasySpin”startingmakes a conventional compression checkmeaningless.spinthe flywheelbackwards.A few drops of oil shouldclear up the problem. Mount a compression gaugein the sparkplug port.rods. as if it hadencountered a spring. soundinglike marblesrolling down a washboard.or headgasket. = Openthe throttle andchokevalves.To get anhonestreading. Ratherthanrig somesort of backturning starter. It is not ‘unusual to find the lower main(onverticalshaftengines) sludge-cut SOthat the crankshaft appears as if it were threaded. Crankthe engineat starting speed. The pistonshouldreboundoff compression.A furious rattle. A high-pitched whineis usuallythe result. For consistentreadings. the bestapproach is to checkcompression by feel. Lossof compression involves the rings.Perceptible playmeans mainbearing trouble. hr other words. Sincepower dependsto a great extent upon compression. Most Briggs & Stratton enginesfeature “Easy Spin” starting. As far asthe mechanic is concerned.

The tubber stopperreplaces the oil filler plug. The manometer shownin Fig.Expect about80pounds per square inch. In any event.ambientair temperature.An engine thathasbeendormantfor severalmonthswill givelow readings until the cylinder walls are lubricated.) As the crankshaftturns. 7-1. Using a compression gauge. Briggs& Strattonandothersmall l 127 . count the compression strokes. The U-shapedglass tube is markedoff in quarter-inch incrementsandpartially filled with water.andother variables. althoughthe exactfiguredepends uponhow muchcarbonis in the chamber.Fig. taking the readingon the fourth one. Briggs& Strattonengineshavelow (5 or 6 to 1) compression ratios and give correspondingly low pressure readings.how fast the engineis cranked. 7-2 is a comparative instrument usedto gaugethe slow declinein engineperformance that accompanieswear and age. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. an enginethat generates less than60 poundsper squareinchof compression will not start.

S. (Courtesy Kohler of Kohler. The sampleis flashedby an electric arc. Navy. No movementmeansa blownflange gasket..But as the cost of theseengines escalates. Oncetheenginestarts. A_. is virtually unknownin the world of smallengines.or apinholein oneof the castings. The most sophisticated enginetest. All spectroscopiclabs have an emergencyphoneservice.andall things being equal. Spectrographic oil analysis is basedon the fact that eachelementgivesoff a characteristic light frequencywhenvaporized. spectroscopic analysis. the healthier engine.faultycrankcase breather. 7-2. this technique canpredict when an enginewill fail.) four-cycle engines operatewith negativepressure in the crankcase. Pioneered by the railroadsandperfectedby the U. More than one pilothasshutdown on the runwayuponreceivinga message from the tower that his engineis on the edge of self-destruction. .andthen 128 ..a--. the light collected. A U-tube manometer.-- - Ut MEASURE DIFFERENCE --..the more vacuum.I e I WttN bULUMIY5 1 Fig.. the column of water should movetowardthe crankcase. The greater the movement. spectroscopic analysis of oil should become commonplace..

. . the reports are mailed.. . . . . . ... .. . .bearings Lead Silver.. . . If failureis imminent.. .. . ... .Whileheavyconcentrations of aluminum or iron spellobvious trouble.These impulsescan be metered and read directly. . . . ..valves Siiconandaluminum oxideparticlesmean that dusthasentered the crankcase. . . . . .. . . . . . .Cakium. .passed througha prism that sorts out the frequencies.. .. . . . . .. . . . ElizabethAve. . . . ..... . . (820E. . . .piston coatings AluminMl... . . . . Inc.. . . .. .cylinder walls.. NJ 07036)will do the work for less than$15. . contaminated oil.. . . oil seals... . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. or afailedair cleaner.... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .As a rule. . . . . . . . pistons Copper.. . . .. .. boron. . . .. . A test maylog as manyas sixteenelements andbe run several times.. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . ... .. a I 129 . ... . . . . .. . . . .. ... . .. . . .. . . ..basedon the experience of the technician andwhathe knowsof the engine’s history.. .. gaskets. . Theseparticlesareresponsible for mostlower cylinder wearandmeandeathto cormrod bearings. then are fed into a computerfor a printout. .. . . . . Typically. . .... . .used motor oil containsthese materials: . . . but high concentrations are considered harmful. . . . . . .... . .. ..bushings Iron . . .. . . . . . .. . . oversizedpistonand.. .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . the shopwill rebuildthe carburetor and replace the points and condenseras part of the overhaulpackage. . . . The wholeprocesssounds frightfully expensive. most of the interpretationis subjective. . . . . . . . . . .bearings. but Analysts.cylinder walls..bearings.involving all of the above aswell asa new. . . . . . piston rings Chromium Nickel.. piston rings . . .. . . . . Otherwise. . . . . .andremachined valves.. . .bearings. . .block metal.andzincare additives foundin highgrademotor oil. . . . . . . . *. .whenneeded. .the lab will call. Linder. . . Rebuilding anengineis a moreseriousproposition.. ... . . . . . ... . . . . . bearings Tim. . OVERHAULING VS REBUILDING An engineoverhaul involvesnew piston rings. A battery of photocells-each sensitive to a particular fraction of the spectrum-converts light intensity to electrical impulses. . . ..Their presence can usuallybe tracedto sloppymaintenance-opening the enginewithout cleaning it first.

Tapea square of medium grit. evidenced by uniformbrightness.mainbearingset.wipe the oil off and inspect thegasketsurface. Stock aluminumheads will accept some additionalheat without 130 -. Scrubthe engine with a mixture of concentrated Gunk andkerosene. Castiron headswith the heat conductivityof thermal underwear shouldnot be moditied. scrubit over the abrasive.holdingthe beadwith both handsto equalize force.The . The easiest way to raise the compression ratio is to mill the head. The quick(andwiidy inaccurate)wayis to placetheheadonthe block. In theory. But few enginemoditications are as fraughtwith dangeraathe compression ratio increases.Ordinarywindowglasswill not do.Hoseit down andallow the surfacesto dry before proceding.new crankshaft. gather somecansand pasteboard boxesfor the large parts. disconnect anyelectricalleads. 7-3. ENGINE TEAROOWN To preparethe enginefor teardown.additional power must be transmitted by the connectingrod and crankshaft. Raising the compression ratio liberatesalmostas muchadditional heat as power. wet-or-dry abrasive paperto the glass.parts that have a limitedlife in stockapplications.<and removecontrollinkages. andconnectingrod. Checkthe gasketsurfacefor warp. Soakthe abrasivewith motor oil and.raising the compression ratio is the highroad to performance.33113 gasket. Since each pound per square inchof compression translates into threeof fourpounds per square inchof combustion pressure.it is surely warped.If thehead wobbles. Vertical shaft enginesare easier to serviceif supportedin a standlike the one shownin Fig.After a few passes. Drain all liquids. rebuilt enginesshouldbe equivalent to a new one.It is relatively safeto assume at this point that the block itself is not warped. Heat must be dissipatedby the coolingfurs&Tdthe engineoil.Chances are that it will bebright nearthe head-bolt holesand dull in the unsupported areasbetweenthem. . Continueto scrub awayat the gasket surfaceuntil it is true.Number 340 paper is about right. The correct(andtedious)wayto checkgasketsurface for warp is to scrounge a pieceof plateglass.

observing the lengtt of the ahead bolts. A homemade engine stand. makingnotes as necessary Stratton electric3have one way connectors.-. and spark plug.Disconnect the control linkagesand uncouple the crankshaftfrom the loadby removingthe pulley.and lawnmowerblade. (Ccurtesy Tecumseh Prcducts Cc. WllNOERHEAD Removethe shroud. but aftermarketheads are the bestbet for seriousmoditication.FRONT . Aluminum 131 . (Briggs & Disconnect the wiring. )--‘I Fii 7-3.but this sanitaryarrangement is not alwaysfollowedby their customers). sprocket. fuel tank. Removethe cylinderhead.) complaint.

or give insufficientsupportand causethe gasket to blow (Fig. confusing these bolts on assembly can break a cooiingfin. 74). Cylinder head torque sequence. Sting the pistonto top dead centerandbrushthe carbonfromit andthe valves. 7-5).) block exhaustvalves are flanked on three sides by long bolts. 74. 132 . particularlyif the enginehas been running at a constant speed. The best way to remove carbon is with anendcuttingwire brushsoldfor thispurpose (Fig.a few taps with a hammerhandlewill break the gasket seal. cannotget into the cranniesaroundthe valve pockets. but shotid it be stubborn.b b Fg.the kindmounted ona mandrel.Sidecuttingwire wheels. The cylinderheadusuallyfallsoff oncethe bolts are out. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton CW’p. The combustion chapterwill be car-boned.

Achieving figuretook yearsof patientresearchandthousands of racingmiles.aircooled engines is about9. Inspect the head carefully. aratio achieved by Harley-Davidson this engineers underthe old 45 cubicinchracingformula. Removing carbon with a cupped wire brush.5 to 1. between5 and6 to 1. Look for “hang-nail” spark plug threadsthat couldincandesce and ignite the mixture early.Carbonmay also be removedwith a dull knife. (Courtesy Clinton Engines cw. Prudence dictatesthatthe ratio beraisedto no morethan8 to 1. Check the truenessof the head. Scratches and gougesmakedtioking more difficult the next time around. The ultimatecompressionratio for sidevalve. StockBriggs& Strattonengines havepunycompression ratios. 7-5. Fig.andare positively harmfulif the damage extendsinto the gasketsurface.) . althoughyou should be careful not to gouge the aluminumin the process.

However.65cubicinches. Usinga beakergraduated in cubicinches. Althoughthe first digit3 in the model numberdescribedisplacement.z by the formula: 3. as explainedearlier.015 of an inch has been removed. this figure is onlyanapproximation.‘I-l The compression ratio is the ratio of the swept volumeof the engine (thevolumethe cylinderdisplaces asit mcvesfrom bottomto top deadcenter) to the clearance volume. but easy to determine empirically. 134 .model14draws14. the clearance volumeis the volumeof the cylinder head cavity.Withthe sparkplugin place.Casting flashcanbe removedwith a grindingwheelor a riftle (spoon-shaped) file. But a light duty hobbyist’3grinder will sufficefor the occasional mechanic andcost3a third asmuchas the professional tool.But.Polishing requiressomesort of powerassist. the effort is worthwhile.carefullylevel the headwith the cavity up.fill the combusion cavitywith light oil.Comrnercialshop3 generally useanair poweredgrindingtool not unlikethose usedto refaceva!veseats. Altemate:y. Onceyou havecut meta!.SinceBriggs& Stratton pistonsrise flushwith the fire deck(or top of the block)at top dead center.31cubicinches. cakulating ‘the swept volum. Atter 0. Turn the crankshaftso that both valves ?re closed. For readerswho do not relish beakersand arithmetic. Beginwith the block. Mill the heada3 described previously.1416 ‘( bore x bore x stroke 4 Thevolume of the cylinderheadis *cult to calculate.polishingthe combustion chamber seemsalmostanticlimatic.usingnumber220 grit abrasive paperfor the initial cut. Applya dabof coursepolishing compound to the buffingwheelandholdthetool lightly soit canmaintain speed.0. you can bolt or clampa piece of PlexigIasto it.determinethe chambervolumeand compression ratio. Model69000draws 6.Measure the cylinderbore andthe distance the piston travels betweencenters.015of an inchis a safefigure to use for all engines. The amount of oil requiredto top off the cavityis the clearance volume. using grease as a sealanton the gasket surface. you should purchasea professional qualit: buftingwheeland an assortmentof polishingpastes. Divide this figure into the displacement to determinethe originalcompression ratio.

I Model I Toroue tin-lbs) 6B.a carbonblackened throttle plateis circumstantial evidence of intake valveproblems. Remove all tracesof the compound with a rag dipped in solventand. 62000.200000.For the sealto beeffective. Whenyou are finishedpolishingthe combustion chamber and the headcavity. Intake valvefailureis often accompanied by “pop-back”throughthe carburetorbore. follow the torque sequence shownin Fig.60000.6B.240000.130000 19. VALVES The primarysymptom of valvefailureis lossof compression.the valvespringmust Table7-l.190000.according to Table 7-l.Move progressively to the finer compounds.110900.300000. If the engineruns at all. Thewholepurpose of thevalveis to form a gastight sealagainst the seat(Fig. if the blockis case-iron. power cnrill be drasticallycurtailed. 100000. -When reassembling.92000. 230000. 320000 .protect the finish with a tight coat of oil. Repeatthe processfor the headcavity. concluding the work with jeweler’sruage.23. the surfacesshouldbe burnishedlike a mirror. tightenthe headbolts in three increments. 60000.Head BoltTorque limits.although enginespeedwill be unaffected. 7-4. In this regard. 7-6).

andseatandfacemust mate without the interferenceof impacted carbonor displaced metal. 7-8A).the valvestemmust be straightandat right anglesto the head. It alsooccurswhen the engineis repeatedly 136 .onethat hasbeen allowedto run chronically rich. Gumdeposits(Fig. 7-7A). 7-6.or tan.the headmust be round.) exert sufficienttensionto compensate for the smallirregularities betweenthe seatandface. Leadbuildup(Fig. in whichcasethey are normalbyproductsof combusion (Fig. 7-7C)are the markof a poorlymaintained engine. although Briggs & Strattondoesnot recommend leadfree fuel. 78B) is not normal.Fig. yellowish. 7-7B)cansometimesbecontrolled by switchingbrandsof gasoline. Underheaddepositsmaybe brown.and by habituallyshutting the enginedown beforeit hasreachedoperatingtemperature. the valveguideandstemmustbe within tolerance to holdthe faceconcentric to the seat. (hutesy Clinton Engines Corp. Valve nomenciature. Intakevalvesare susceptible to all of thesefailuresandhavean unfortunate affinity to attract depositsundertheir bead. Stemcorrosion(Fig.or carbonaccumulation. is usuallypresent in a lightly loadedengine with a thirst for oil (Fig.Coking. Gumdepositscanalsobe caused by using stale gasoline.andis caused by moisturein the fuel. The exhaustvalveis most susceptible to these maiadies and usually failsfirst.

and gum deposits (C). 7-7. 7-X). 7-8D)is the result of depositson the edgeof the valve seatandcanusuallybe tracedto haphazard maintenance practices. Carbon cutting(Fig.Fig. lead deposits (6).) stoppedbefore it attains operating temperature. Intake valve maladies: caking (A). polishedappearance andthe relative freedom from deposits(Fig. 137 . Overheating is signaled by a black. Suspectthat the stem is bent. (Courtesy Kahler of Kohler.

The pinpasses througha holein thevalvestemandbearsagainst a collar. (Coultesy Fig.Three typesof keeperhavebeenused. As the errgine ages.the hole elongatesand the pin bends. 7-10).the late andunlamented pin.andcarbon cut (D).) The valvesare securedby keepers. Kohler of Kohler. 7-9)or split collets (Fig. stem corrosion(B). overheating (C). 138 . 7-B. Split collets are preferedfor modifiedengines.which in turn are heldby valvespringtension.Useonepieceretainers(Fig. the onepieceretainer.If your budgetallows.or if events demand new valves. andthe split collet.purchase the type with slottedstems. Exhaust valve portraits: normal (A).

you canmakedo with a pair of screwdrivers. International Harvester Corp.) 139 . Installing one-piece retainers.Withoutthis tool.) Both illustrationsshow Briggs& Stratton tool number19063. but the work is awkward.Fig. (Courtesy International Harvester Corp.Apply pressureto both sidesof the Installing split collets. probablythe finest valvespringcompressoravailable for smallengines. 7-9.

Thefiber discshould clearthehousing by 0. Valve Guides Many Briggs & Stratton enginesare without valve guidesas such. without the horizontalforces generated by rocker armsandoverhead camshafts. 140 . CrankcaseBreather The crankcase breatherventscorrosivegases from the crankcaseand.at least throughthe first overhaul.collar(or to one of the lower coi!sif no collaris fitted) to raisethe spring without lifting the valve. an arrangement that explainswhy a well worn Briggs& Strattonwill sometimes run even whenthe fuel tank is empty.Replace as necessary.andone must fall backon the old mechanic’s ruie that the free standing heightof a usedspring shouldbe at least 90%of the heightof a new spring.let it drain.The springshouldstandperpendicular.Reversethe procedurewhen installingthe vaives. maintainsthe crankcaseat a slight negativepressure. Have a helper disengage the keeper.it shouldberemembered that the valvesoperatein a vertical plane.dissipate combustion heat.There is enough raw fuel in the oil to supportcombustion. and sea!the chamber againstair andoil. In defense of this practice. Bend the bracketas necessary. The breather assembiydoublesas the valve chamber cover and is securedby two fillister headscrews The breatherusuallyvents to the carburetor.045of aninch (Fig. Tilt means that the coilshaveweakened. The symptomsof breatherfailure arez * Oil leaksat the flangegasketandcrankshaftseals Zero vacuumon a manometer Oil discoloration and sludging Wash the assembly in solvent.that is. at the sametime. holesboredin the blockto center the valvesover the seats. Examinethe springfor pitting (the early symptomof fatigue) and for fretting (the sign of coil binding). l l Valve Springs Briggs& Strattondoesnot publishvalvespringtensionspecitications. ‘i-11). Whitemetaland castiron are adequate support. andcheckthe valve clearance.

The knurler raisesthe metal. drawingno more than 13 cubicinches(exceptthe model9 with its largevalvestems). Checking the crankcase breather with a feeler gauge. A wobbleof l/16 of aninch or moremeans the guidehasbell-mouthed andshouldbe knurledor replaced. Anothermethodis to usea factory guage. andnumber19151 for the others. nothingsubstitutesfor an honestbrassor bronzeguide. For smallerengines. (Courtesy tnternational Harvester Corp. Clintonsupplies valveguideknurlersthat canbeusedonBriggs engines.) But in so far as longevityis concerned.I -HOLES MUST BE OPEN BREATHER ~-ASSEMBLY Fig.If the guage canbe inserted5/16 of an inch or deeperinto the guide.number19122 for engines displacing 13cubicinchesandless (excepting model9). 7-11. The traditional(andfairly accurate)test is to raisethe valveto its full extension andmoveit side-to-side. it is worn.reducingthe intemaIdiameter of the guide and providingoil reservoirs that shouldgive the refurbished guidethe life of a new one. the necessary tools are: Part Number 19064 Name Reamer ReamerGuideBushing BushingDriver Finish Reamer i41 19191 191065 191068 . Briggs & Stratton engineerswould have the guide reamed oversizeand a bushingpressedinto place.

Deep pits require heavy lapping. lappingor grindingis a waste of time.Use a soft copperpunchto drive the bushingflush with the top of the guide.reamthe valve guide l/16 of an inch deeperthan the length of the replacement bushing. For lappingto be at all effective.Unlesstheseprior conditions are met. as well as the ubiquitous model9. Lapping is a short term fix.” 142 .A wide seating surface tendsto collectcarbon andto develop lessunit areapressure than a narrower seat. Usethe finishreamerto sidethe bushing flushwith the top of the valveguideusingthe factory tool or a copperpunch.Centeringthe reamerwith the guidebushing. Both reamers are turned clockwiseandlubricatedwith cutting oil or kerosene.Use the finishreamerto side the bushingto the valvestem. the valve faces and seatsmust be relativelyhealthy. Enginesdisplacing14 cubicinchesand more.the next operation is to refurbishthe vaivefacesandseats.intoserviceuntil the valvesandseatscanbe properlymachined. noreaming toolis supplied. The groovingeffect becomesseriouswhen the enginereachesoperatingtemperatureand the parts “grow. ream the valveguide l/16 of an inch deeperthan the replacement bushing. Valve and Seat Refinishing Onceyou are satisfiedthat the valvesare basically sound. Since bushings arefinishreamed beforeshipment.Do not ream the guidecompletelythrough. anexpedientto get the engine back .Drive the bushing flush with the top of the valve guideusing the factory tool or a copper punch. require these tools: Part Number 19183 19192 Name Reamer ReamerGuideBushing As described in the previousparagraph.wideningthe seating surface andpossibly groovingthe valveface.andthatthe guides holdthe valvesconcentric to the seats. for its lower diameter is neededto stabilizethe bushing.that thesprings generate enough tensionto closethe valves.

) . Onecompartment contains a courseabrasive for rapidcutting. The most popularlappingcompound is Clover Leaf brand. and leak when the engine warms and the valve “grows” (B). A valve can be lapped gas tight when cold (A). Fig. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. 7-12. the other a finefinishing comp@Jnd. Unlessyou are dealing with anantiquelike the modelN. 7-12)when what was a good sealat room temperaturesuddenlyevaporates. it is soldin dcJbleendedtins.The engine suffersa hardto diagnose lossof power(Fig.An oil based mixture.

rotate it backandforth (Fig. But suctioncups tendto slipon highlypolished valveheads.Holding the valveby the suctioncup.Fig.andit maybe necessary to moor the tool with a drop of contactcement. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.Every four or five seconds. Whilethis equipment is expensive for the amateuror occasional mechanic to purchase. the work canbe farmedout to an automotive machine shopfor a few dollars.The benefitsare consid144 . Valvegrindinginvolvesthe useof a valvelatheanda highspeed seatgrinder. and cleanthe parts with a rag dippedin solvent.) you will needsomeway to turn the valves.give the valve a half turn so that the whole surfacewill be lappedevenly. K-D marketsa small suctioncup tool designed for smallengines.beingcareful13t to overdoit. Renewthe compound at frequentintervals.andwheneveryou no longer hear the harsh grating noise that accompanies lapping. Finishthe job with fine compound. Lapping valves with a suction cup. 7-13.It is available through most auto supplyhousesas catalognumber501. 7-13). Running the valvedry scoresthe seat andface. Surpluscompound may findits wayto the valveguidewhereit wouldberuinous. Applyseveraldabsof coursecompound to the valvefacewith a screwdriver.

without the half a degree of “interference fit” favoredby someother manufacturers.) 145 . Early Briggs engineshad intakevalvesand seatsgroundat 30 degreesfor better flow. both parts are concentric.Placethe valves in their guides.rllll erable.the valveshould be replaced. 7-14).And finaIly. no lappingis necessary.heat expansion has little effect uponthe seal. if the work has been donecorrectly. The valvemarginshouldbeat leastl/64 of aninchthick to controlvalve temperatures andreducethe possibilityof preignition(Fig. Once the valvesare lappedor ground. since the lathe centers on the valve stem and the grind& on the valve guide.Turn the flywheeluntil one valve is &It open.but do not install the springsandkeepers. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.andhence.The seatsaregroundat the sameangle. Turn the flywheel one more complete revolutionandadjustthe clearance betweenthat valveand DIMENSIONS Fig. Thevalvefaceangle for current Briggs& Strattonproduction is 45degrees on both the intakeandexhaust. First.Recommended seatwidth is 3/64-l/16 of an inch.a slightly bent stem or a cantedvalve guide. Valve margin dimensions. the seatcanbenarrowedto factoryspecifications by u&g alternatestones. while it is possibleto widen the marginby judiciousgrinding. the valvefaceandseatare cut as uniformangles. are automatically compensated for. 7-14. the stems must be shortened to compensate for the metalremoved.Smallirregularities.Thirdly. Secondly. andnarrower on enginesthat are modifiedfor increased performance.

Valve Seats Theintakevalvesoncast-iionengines run directlyonthe block. 7-15.or work loosefrom the block. Exhaust valveson iron engines andboth valveson aluminum modelsrun on replaceable seats. Deiermining valve lash. cast-ironis a relatively good seat material. “kissing” the wheelto removea few thousandths of an inch of metal.Fig.ortunately. slightlybeveling the squareedges. I.In mostcases.018 inch i 0.the port geometryis suchthat the seatcan bedrivenout frombelowwith apunch. so checkandfinish the operation with afile. available from Briggs & Stratton in four varietiesto fit 146 .008 inch Models23 through320000 0.008 inch AluminumBlock All models 0.010 inch inch To adjustthe clearance.grind the stems flat.It is disconcertingly easyto removetoo muchmetal.015inch 0. 7-15)according to the following specifications: Intake Exhaust Cast-IronBlock Models 5 through20000000 0. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.Otherengines requirea valve seatpuller.006 0.Thenrepeat the processfor the other valve. wearthin with age. Valveseatsmaycrack.) the tappetwith a feelergauge(Fig.

A more civilizedmethodthaneither is to heat the blockfor severalhoursin the kitchen oven at about 275 degrees Fahrenheit. And somemechanics simply use an old valve as the driver. Most mechanics simplydrive the seat homeusingspecial tool number19136and pilot number19126on enginesdispiacing less than14eabic inches.A 5ubstitutecanbefabricated easily. 7-16.andpilot number19127 on largerengines. andwithout groovesor other imperfections that woulddeny a perfect fit betweenthe seat insert andblock. 7-16). Briggs 8 Stratton valve seat puller. althoughthe cost of the counterborereamer and pilot is prohibitive for anoccasional mechanic. Oncethe old seat is removed. flat.Supportthe Fig. Seethat it is true. It’s better to farmthisjob out to a Briggs & Stratton repair station. . Replacement intake valve seats xe inventoriedfor cast-ironengines.cleanall traces of oil l?omthe recessin the block.thevarious models(Fig.

andtapit in the other directionto gage the movement. The base is heldby four screwsandtheir removal andassembly involveno problem.the measurement can be madedirectly with a feeler gaugeinserted betweena crankshaftweb and either main bearing.omittingthe Rotocap.the seatson these enginesshouldbe peenedaround their full circumference (Fig. cast-ironor aluminurn. Sincethe thermalexpansion rate of ahnninum is four timesthat of cast-iron. After installinga new seat. Theseparts are available from the factory for most engines.once detached.it is worth theeffort to replace the standardexhaustvalve seat with one madeof Stekite.Chillthe seatinsertin the freezeror by packingit in crusheddry ice andalcohol.008 of an inch for all models. 7-17).and is presenton plain bearinghorizontalshaftand presenton ahvertical shaftengines. givesaccess to the connecting rod andpiston. On horizontalengines. 146 .The flangesupportsthe main lmring on the power takeoffside. Positivevalverotationis a nicefeature. is fixed by the distance between the mainbearingthrust shoulders and the thrust journalsgroundon the outward sides of the crankshaftwebs. but addsmassto the valve gearand requires a shortenedspring.’ casting onbricksto preventlocaloverheating. The top of the seat shou!d.Usinga rubber mallet.Inspectthe base“feet” for fatiguecracksand replacethe gasketas a matter of course.002-0. Completethe job with a Stellite exhaust valve. FlANGE5RGASE The baseis the oil sumpfor horizontalshaftengines and.the Range doublesas the oil sump. Crankshaft endplay.Working quicklybeforethe partsnormaiize. lap or machinegrind a valve as described earlier. almostimmuneto burningandacid attack.be approximately flushwith the firedeckoncast-ironengines anda few thousandths of an inch belowit on ahuninum blocks. On horizontalcrankmodels. This materialis an expensive fomr of stainlesssteel.tightly tap the shaftin onedirection to establish a zeroreference. When building a imodified engine. The speciticationis 0.The flange is the casting.I. drop the seatinto the recesswith the beveled edgeup. or float.

givethe flangea few sharprapsto breakthe gasket seal. If it binds. polishthe shaft again. With the cylinderpointedup. removethe flangebolts.) The processis not as convenientwith vertical shaftengines. 149 . sprocket. Polishthecrankshatt stubwith sandpaper asshownin Fig. Tap the shaftin the directionof the dial indicatorandadjustthe instrumentto showzero. to pry the castingsapart. (Courtesy Briggs 8 Stratton Corp.centrifugalclutch. Oneway to do this is to mounta dial indicatorwith the pointer restingon either endof the crank. in fact is usuallydisasterous. c)ncethe locatingpins havedisengaged.sometimes buttressedwith a spacer.and 5l out any marksleft by mountingscrews. the flangeshouldslip easilyover the crankshaftstub.The gapis suchthat you will haveto usethe whole packof blades.It should not benecessary.4S” BEVEL PEEN HERE TO FORCEMETAL AGAINST INSERT Fig. Remove the pulley. Floatmustbe measured from the outsidewith the enginebuttoned up. 7-17. Usinga rubberhammer. or whatever mechanism is attachedto the power takeoff end of the crankshaft. Tap the crankin the other directionandread the float. Another method is to insert a feeler guage between the flywheelrim andblock. Valve seat inserts should ba peened on aluminum angines. 7-18.

the crankshaft will showmatching groovesandboth parts must be remachined or replaced.If theflangeis grooved. Inspecttheflangebearing for damage.Thesegaskets are available in 0. Aluminum blockengines mustusea 0.005inch Other modelsare adjusted by flangeor. 0. The reasonthe cylindershouldbe pointingup duringthis operationis to keepthe partsin place. Wheninstallingthe flange.The wave washeron models100900and 130900mountsover the governor slingerassembly and not underit.Timingmarksare sometimes dElicultto see andshould be identifiedbeforethe camshaft is disturbed.005. andbetween the powertakeoffsidebearingandcrankonmx%!s with ball bearingmains.015inch 0. on engineswith antifriction powertakeoffbearings.looking for microscopicburrs that would lock the bearing. Adjustclearance by adding a thrust washerbetweenthe magneto sidemainbearingandthe crankshaft on plain-bearing models.If playis lessthan 0.bearingcover gaskets.Radial grooves-threadlikegroovesaroundthe inner circumference of the bearing-are caused by operating the enginewithoutsuflicientoil in the sump.002of an inch.015of aninchflangegasket for oil integrity.010inch 0.Sincethis washer is relatively thick. as one might suppose.If the crankshaft or flangehave to be replacedor machined. 0.015 of an inch thicknesses. compensate by adding oneor moreflangegaskets.009.Usea number220624 washerfor the % inchcranksanda number22070$ for the oneinch cranks. 150 . as sometimes happens when a new crankshaft is fit& addshimsto achievethe following thicknesses: Part Number 2705i3 270514 270515 Thickness 0.but arenot in themselves serious.use a new gasketandrun the bolts downevenlyin a crisscross fashion. checkthe end play. Adjustthe endplay on 300400 and320400engines with spacers betweenthe outsidemainbearing andcrankshaft. Someaxialscratches are the priceof flange removal.

the crankshaft referenceis urn . the timing marksconsistof a dimpleon the camshaftanda chisel markonthe crankshaft gear(Fig. if they are not. extract the cam and experimentuntil it drops into place withoutraisingthe lifters. The engineis now at top deadcenteron the compression stroke.Turn the crankshaft to top deadcenter.Install the crankshaft andcam. thecrankshaft webis dimpled to matchthe largerdimpleon the camshaft gear (Fig. 7-21).) CAMSHAFT Notethe location of the timingmarks.Onplainbearing engines.Anotherway is to forget aboutthe timingmarksentirelyand time by the rock position. Both valvesshould be closed. a characteristicof all original equipment camshafts. Polishing the crankshaft stub. This is the rock position. the other immediately after top dead center.Fig. 151 . The 30 and32 cubicinchenginesposea smallproblemduring assembly because the crankshaft gearmasks the markduringassembly. 7-18. Rockthe crankshafta few degreeseach direction.Onmostantifrictionbearing engines.onevalveshould crack openbeforetop deadcenter. 7-19).Whenthe engine is timedproperly.ri?e inner web (Fig. 7-20). One way aroundthis is to mark the relevent gear-tooth with chalk. On models300400and320400. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.

) Fig. (Courtesy Btiggs & Stratton Corp. f-19.Fig. Timing marks are stamped adjacent to gear teeth on plain bearing engines. 7-20. (Courtesy Sriggs 8 Stratton Corp.) I 152 . One timing mark is on the crankshaft counterweight on engines with &all bearing mains.

The big 300400and 320400 models employa similararrangement. Stratton models 300400 and 320400 have the crankshaft mark on the inner web. drivethe shaftout with a hammerandpunch.Cast-ironblockcamsare hollowandride on a shaft that spansthe block.The endplay specification is 0.This bearing is secured by two capscrews to the outsideof the blockandcanbe shimmed to adjustcamshaft endplay.workingfrom the powertakeoffside.005 inch 0.Tiig hascarriedus ahead of the story. To remove the cam on smaller engines. will be forced out the magnetoside.the timingmarksare aligned. These 30 and 32 cubic inch enginesare uniquein another respect-the camshaft ridesin a replaceable bearing onthe magneto side.008of an inch. The shaft. andit is necessary to backtrack. Part Number 270518 270517 270516 ShimThickness 0.At this position. Ahuninum blockcamshafts are mooredin the blockbearing andlift out whenthe valvesare both closed.002-0. togetherwith anexpansion plug. 153 . or the sameas for the universalcrankshaftspecification. Sriggs 8.009 inch Fig.007 inch 0. exceptthat the shaftis bolted into placeand manipulated from the power takeoff side. 7-21.

sincea failureof the casehardening quicklyleads to a “bald” camshaft Reground camshafts are indispensable for seriousattemptsat modification.but pose a problem becausethey open the valves sooner. giving the designercomplete freedom in selection of lobeprofiles. use bearingkit number 299706.may burble backthroughthe carburetorat idle.andallowingthe valvesto open wider. 154 . dependingupon how soon the intake valve opens.Fig.The operativeterm in the last sentence is “high speed.andkeepthem openlonger. thanthe factoryproduct.008 of an inch. 7-22.The best of them are madefrom billets. The purposeof the exerciseis to giveimprovedvolumetric efficiency sothat the enginedoesnot gaspfor air or suffocate on ih ownfumesat highspeed. If endplay is more than 0. Inspectthe camshaft for evidence of wear-the inspection can bequitecursory.”Racingcamshaft grinds producelittle torque at low throttle anglesand. Briggs 8 Stratton connecting rods.

The matchmarksare embossed on the rod andmust be alignedif the rod bearingis to be round To avoidconfusion. In eachcase.is indexedto the shankby means of a rabbetjoint. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp. the intakevalveis closed.particularlyduring starting.depending uponthe enginemodel. Plastic gauge wire placed for running clearance. sendthe dipper crashing againstthe camshaft.This superfluous sparkoccursnear top deadcenter on the exhauststroke.Anotherdifficulty. markwhichsideof the rod shank is nearthe camshaft. Reversed instakation canstarvethe rod bearing for oil and may.) 155 . duringthe periodof phantom spark.. Fig. andthe lower halfof the rod. or with matchmarks.andtheworst the phantom candois to add tireworksto the exhaust.As a result. With stockvalvetiming. 360 crankshaft degrees pastthe ignitionspark. a carburetor fire is possible. involves the “phantom”sparkgenerated by a &wheel magneto. or at leasta potentialdifficulty.But a regroundcamopensthe intakevalve early. the cap. CONNECTING ROD Figure 7-22 showsthe variousBriggs & Stratton connecting rods. 7-23.rod bolts are securedby a lock strap.

82gO0.WIRE Fig. 7-23).) Remove the rod nuts.60000.190000. 100000. 8 68. 230000.88..Inspectthe bearingsurfacefor scoresand discoloration. Modal 56.92ooo. 7-24. Without turning the crankshaft. straightening the lock-straptabswith a chisel.23.Plasticgauge wire placed fortaper. If the rod andcrankpinappearsound. N.190000 251000 9 14.300000.130000 140000.80000.19.ConnectingRbd BoRTorque LimRs.wipe the oil off theseparts and lay a pieceof plasticgaugewire (available from auto parts houses) alongthe length of the crankpin(Fig.110900. the torquethe rod capto the specification in Table7-2.200Q00.240000.320000 190 I 100 170 185 140 Torque (in-lbs) 156 . Table 7-2.170000. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.

The bearingclearance shouldfall between0.the less the wire flattens. 7-24). ore than0.But syn efic oils are more tolerant of heat than petroleumbasedlubric ts. Crankshaft taper is a touchy subject. The on@insurance a modifiedenginehas.to leaveroo for rodandcrankshaftexpansionatelevated temperatures. 7-26).015of an inch makeslubricationmarginal.015and0. .this timeusingtwo piecesof wire. Racingenginesare traditionally set uploose.03 of an inchpoundsthe life out of the rod andcranks atI. Whileconnecting rod twist cannotbe verified without an expensive jig.leaving a signature thatlookslike anhourglass(Fig.is anaftermarketconnect157 . 7-25). Scrape off the remnantsof the wire andrepeat the operation. An unusual wear pattern shouldalert you to the possibiity of COM rod or crankshaft distortion. it is possibleto detectbendsat right anglesto the rod hearings. Somemechanics would rejecta crankthat showedanymeasureable taper.wear limits are weft nigh useless. no as clearance data.The COM rod is passed or rejectedon the basisof these inspections. variationsin width of the same wire shows out-of-round.Remove the capandreadthe bearingclearance in thousandths by comparing the widthof thegaugewire to the scaleprintedon the package. A bent connecting rod tilts the piston.mdhenceallow racingmechauics to closedown the clearanc : s in their engineswithout dangerof seizure. The greater the clearance. p!ough the pistonpin pastthe retainerandinto the cylinder wall. positioned athwart the crankpin (Fig. particularly at high speed or under heavyload.if severe enough. Less than 0. concentrating wear above andbelow the piston pin bores (Fig. In practice. the only durability advantage of it over the factoryproduct.005 of an inch of taper if the retainerappearssoundand the piston shirt showsa normalwear pattern. Without inside and outside ‘crometers.03o an inch.one canlive with 0.in thethree tenthsrange. The objection to taperis thatit throws the pistonaskewin the boreandcan. No repairs are possible.A twistedconnecting rod rocks the piston. Briggs & Stratton suppliescrankpinand big end bearingspecsas wear limits. Differencesin width betweenthe two wires showcrankpin taper.Figure 7-27shows howthisis doneusinga bar with the samediameterasthe pistonpin andthe blockas references.

Fig. 7-25. A bent corm rod causes the piston to tilt in the cylinder and produces a wear pattern indicated bytheshaded areas. (CourtesySeabd Power Corp.)

Fig. 7-29. A twisted connecting rod causes the pi3on to rock in the cylinder, producing wear on the upper and lower edges of the skirt above and below the pin bore. (Courtesy Sealed Power Corp.)

ingrod. The bestof theserodsarelighter thanthe Briggs& Stratton product,andshift the burdenof fragility to the crankshaft. If yougo so far as to defeat the governor-something not recommended here-you must investin one of these connecting rods. Otherwise the enginewill self-destructin a matter of minutes.
PISTON

The piston hasfour functions: * To reactagainst combustion pressure,convertingchemical energyinto mechanical motion t To hold the rings sqtnx-e in ihe bore To passsurplusheatout of the chamber andinto the cooling
l

fitlS

To isolatethe crankcase from the violenceof combustion. The thrust faces-the contactareason eithersideof thepiston pin and roughly parallel with it-should be lightly burnished.A mattedfmisb,as if the pistonh.ad beenlapped,means that abrasive particleshaveaccelerated wear. Usually these abrasives are prel

Fig. 7-27.Assumingthefiredeckistrue, aconnecting rodgaugewill detectabent rod. (Court~sjj CZ.)

sent in the oil, althougha failedair cleanercan contribute to the problem.Deepscratches usuallymeanmeanlubrication ?ailure compounded by overheating. In the mostseverecases, the pistonmelds itself to the bore, depositing splashes of aluminum onthe cylinder.A pistonwith this sort of damage cannot, of course,be reused. Once the carbon is removed, the piston crown shouldbe smoothandregular,its surfacebrokenonly by a suggestion of tool marks. A wavy or flaked piston crown is prima facie evidenceof detonation, preignition,or a combination of both. Oncethe surface is compromised, the metalunderit no longerhasthe heatstrengthto withstandcombustion. It‘s rare, but not unknown,to tind a brokenBriggs & Stratton piston.The pistonmaycrackat the skirt, in whichcaseit hasbeen loosein the bore andpounded itself to death,or it maycrackon the undersideat the piston pin bosses.In either event, discardthe piston. The piston rings changedirection twice eachrevolution. Because the rate of deceleration is moreabruptat top deadcenter,the upper side of the ring groove suffers most. It may appearto be stepped,each step like growth rings on a tree testifying to the increased ageof the ring. For asthe ring wears,it movesfurther out in the groove.The uppergroovewearsfour or five times asfast as the second groove.For practicalpurposes,the third groove,the oil ring groove,doesnot wear at all. Removethe rings from the piston, handlingthem with great care.The edgesare razor sharp.Pry one of the upperrings apart, much like youwouldbreaka wishbone. The ring should snapcleanly. Secure oneof the brokenpiecesin a file holderanduseit asa scraper to removecarbonfrom the ring grooves.It maybenecessary to dull the brokenend with a few file strokes to prevent gouging. Position anewring in the uppergrooveandinsertafeelergauge under it as shownin Fig. 7-28. If a 0.006 of an inch leaf can be bottomed on the baseof the groove,the pistonshouldbe replaced. The new rings will flutter, fatigue, andbreak. Smallenginemechanics rarely measurepiston clearance, but dependuponthe “wobble test” instead.The piston shouldhavea barelyperceptible side-to-side playat top deadcenter(the regionof the borethat suffersmost). Consideration should be givento replac160

It has been shown that a loosepistonis muchmoreliableto seizethanonewith reasonable clearances.006 of an inch to allow for heat expansion. Iron bore pistons are available in oversizesof 0. Since chromed cylinders cannotbereplatedin the field.010. Checking piston ring groove width. noteany referencemarks on the piston. 0. andoversized postonsare not available.0025of an inch betweeneither thrust face andthe bore is a goodcompromise.andthose areasare likely to starve for oiL A clearance of 0.005of an inch callsfor a rebore to the next oversize. The oversizeis stampedon the crown./ NRWPISTONRING Fig. A word about replacement pistons. In the past. morethan 0. nor canthe chromeplatedpiston live in the iron bore. the high price of replacement parts. 7-28.pistonsfor modified engines havebeenfitted loose.004of aninch. Those used in chromed’ Kool-Borecylindersare themselves chromeplated. Better lubricatingoils. with clearances on the order of 0.020. and 0.onlysmallareasarein contact. If the pistonwanders in the bore. Somepistons have the letter F 161 .oversiaingthe boresis impractical. (Courtesy International Harvester -F4 ing the pistonif the playis estimatedat 0.thoseintended for iron boresare tin platedandare further identifiedby the expander bandbehindthe oil ring andthe letter L stamped on the crown. andthe impactof studiesgenerated in Japan havetendedto discourage this practice.030of an inch. The tin platedpiston cannottolerate a chromedbore. Beforeseparating the pistonfrom the connecting rod.

Usinglongnosedpliers. 162 . Figure7-29showsa tool of the type supplied by motorcycle and snowmobile manufacturers. A piston pin press. removeboth pistonpin retainer clips anddiscard them. these pistonsare expensive. a carefullyfitted andpolishedstock pistonis adequate. Otherwiseit is possible to reassemble the shank wrong. or by placingthe pistoncrown downon an electric hot plate.the piston will be ruined.Be sureto keepthe punch against the pm.Remove the pistonpin. Othershavenotchedcrowns. 7-29.Fig.) embossed on the skirt. Make note of the connecting rod matchmarks. Whilethere is no substitutefor an aftermarketpiston cast in high siliconalloyfor heat strengthanddomedto increasethe compressionratio.For moderatepower increases.Thesereference marks should be on the flywheel side. Solidpistonpinshavea recesson onesideand shouldbe assembled as foundoriginally.Retainers aretoo importantto betrusteda second timearound. Anothermethodis to heatthe piston by wrappingit in rags soaked with hot oil.Yet anothermethodis to supportthe pistonin a woodV-block anddrivethe pinout with a punch. because if it wandersinto the bearings.referencingthem to the camshaft or someotherprominent feature. (Courtesy CZ.

andthe more tightly the ring hugsthe bore. camsthe ring hardagainst the bore.the ring mustbe free to movein the bore. 163 . from the flanks.exertingonly a few ouncesof residualspring tension againstthe bore. The greater the pressure. Piston Rings Counting from the top. A pistonring is a pressurecompensating seal. andis sometimes calledthe scraperring to distinguish it from the uppermost. hubricatcs the cylinder.Whenthereis no pressurein the cylinder. or ringsthat havebeen overheatedcannotdevelopthe initial tension. Severelyworn rings.otherwisethe pressureescapes pastthe ring face. Carbonand COMPASSION SCRAPER OIL CORTROL Fig. beingcarefulnot to removeany material.or compression ring. 7-30. the stronger the camming action. Briggs 8 Stratton ring profiles. The ring musthavesomeresidualtension. someof this pressurebleedsover the upper edgeof thering and.in additionto its primaryfunction. or oil control ring. the purposeof the lirst andsecond ring is to sealcompression and combustion pressure. As pressure abovethe ring rises.evencarbonaccumulations.Confine the polishing to the crown.the second ring scrapessurplusoil from the bore.actingfrombehindit. the ring lies dormant. The bottom. By the same token.

within a few hours of startup.005of an inchof cylinderwear andseatthemselveswithout the needfor honing. This gap shouldbe considerably lessthanthe wearlimit.Establish the gapat the baseof the bore in the regionbelowring travel. No one is surprisedto find broken rings in a worn engine.in the case of the scraper. The more the ring faceshaveeroded.andcanbe installedeither sideup.” Briggs& Strattonalsosupplies “engineered”ring sets for use in severelyworniron or chromebores.the wider the gap. Eachincrease in gapabovethisnullpoint translates ascylinderwear.035of aninchonbothcompression rings and0. for rings to be mislabeled.the fact that one or more rings has shatteredjustifies the mechanic’s work.030of aninchfor the compression rings and0. increasesoil consumption. indeed. The upper side is identifiedby the words “t@ or up.use a pistonas a ram to keep the ring square.but by no meansspectacularly rare.If is unusual. The ring gap-the installeddistance betweenthe ring ends-is premarilya measureof ring wear (Fig. K ith ring wear limits of 0. Figure 7-30illustratesfour “factory” ring sets.045of aninchfor the oil control ring for aluminumKool-Bore applications. 7-31).the wearlimit is 0.Determinethe gap of eachnew ring. Note that the compression and scraper rings have a definite top and bottom. The variationin ring gapat different positionsin the bore is a poorman’smicrometer.Theseringstolerate0.Oil control rings and expanders (not shown)are symmetrical.035of aninchfor the oil control ring. andrarely acknowledged by mechanics. and/or eccentricity. certainlyno morethan0. installing theseringsupside downcostscompression and.varnish boundringshaveceased to function:whatevercompression the enginehasis developed by the piston.The changefrom the bottom to the zonejust underthe ridgeis the cylindertaper. In this context. Ringshavea tendencyto breakaPer overhaul. Whenmakingthesemeasurements.Iron sleeved enginesare set up a little tighter. King gapis alsoa way to detect manufacturer’s mistakes.0015! of an inch per inch of bore diameter. But replacementrings should be immune to 164 . This gaprepresentszero bore wear. Thebigproblemwith ringsis hardlymentioned in theliterature.

) breakage. 7-31.In some cases. andcompressing them 165 . He performs two operationsexpanding the rings to slideover the piston. (Courtesy Kohler of Kohler.particularly those involvingthe upper compression Cng.sincefactory new engines seemimmuneto early ring failure. Determining ring end gap. Breakin stressescanhardlybe blamed. But post-overhaul breakage occxs aboutas often whenrings are fitted on a new piston. The reasonmustbe in the way the mechanic handles the rings while they are in his charge. an overly wide ring groove is the culprit.Fig.a pistonthat shouldhavecorrectly sizedgrooves.

the rings are free to rotate.andfinallythe compression ring. the rings might “freeze” in that position. discouraging groovesticking. 7-32. Checkthat the uppertwo havetheir correct sides up androtate eachring 120 degreesfrom the others. Using a piston ring expander. in a bucketof oil.) to enter the cylinder bore. Staggered. Lubricatethe rings.leaking compression andexhaustgases on eachupwardstroke. aligning 166 .nowin disfavorbecause of the sparkplug foulingit caused. Whitney. either of these operations canweakenthe rings.andpistonskirt with highgrade motoroil. It is not necessaryto bear down hardon the compressor. exerting just enoughpressureto overcomeresidualring tension.andof course. The mechanic simplyimmersedthe piston. This tool pries the ring openwhile holdingthe endsin the same plane. andare extremelyunlikely to aligntheir gapsagain. (Courtesy Briggs & Stratton Corp. thenthe scraper.Mount the pistonassembly in a vise with blocksof hardwood betweenthe jaws to protect the connecting rod. Tighten the compressor over the rings. pistonpm. If the gaps were to be in line. crown down andpin deep. The oldmethod. 7-32.at least was thorough.from Briggs& Strattonand its competitors. If done incorrectly. Purchase or rent an expander like the one shownin Fig.Installthe oil controlringfirst.Fig. King compressors for small enginesare available from K-D Manufacturing. Placethe assembly over the bore.

Cylinder Bore Oneof the mechanic’s responsibilities is tc g:.Lge the cylinder boreat three placesalongits length: at the upperlimit..Withdrawthe assembly and start over. (Courtesy Kohler ot 167 .or the rod is jammed againstthe crankshaft.The piston shouldmovewithout protest. center. andpushthe pistonout of the tool andinto the cylinder (Fig.a ring has escaped the confinesof the compressor. wherepistonmovement is greaterper degreeof crankshaft rotation than at the deadcenters. Do not force the issue. 7-33). Oncethe piston is in the cylinder.anyindexmarkson the pistonor rod. If the piston hangs. torque up the rod andturn the crankshaft a few revolutions. and Fig. Thumb pressureshouldbe adequate.) a ring compressor. Installing the piston with Kohler. 7-33. slowinga bit as it transversesthe middleof the stroke.

. . and one at right anglesto it.. . .0015inchout of tound ahuninum blocks(iron sleevedor chromepiated). . . . . ..030. ...... 0. . . . ... .and0. .. .. .0035inch over&e cast-ironblocks. one in tine with the piston pin axis. . . .. . .The wear limits of the cylinderbore are: all models . .Cast-iron blockswill acceptlargeroverbores. . Figure 7-34showsa direct readingcylindergaugein use.. . . . . .. The best way to determine cylinder bore wear is with a direct reading gauge. . Most smallenginemechanics estimatebore wear with the wobble test andthe fortitude of their convictions. ..but requires practiceto master. . . . .0015inch cult-of-round Boring. . .Fg. .. .. .. . .. .010. . .An insidemicrometer is somewhat less expensive.. Very little skillis requiredto obtainconsistent results. . . (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.0..) towerlimit of x?ng travel. . .. . ... 0. . Maketwo measurements at eachstation. engines on 166 . Cast iron blocks and ahtminumblocks with iron sleeves canbe bored0.. .0.. .. . .030of an inchpast stock diameters. . At leastsome of thecostof this toolisjustifiedby its convenience. 7-34.. .

they must continueto be lubricated. There are three ways to bore the block.The next bestchoiceis to cut the borein a lathe. Assuming first rate toolingandreasonable competency on the part of the machinist. Selectthe stonefrom the honemanufacturer’s recommendation. remembering that grit size(the numberof abrasive particlesper squareinch)andhonecodenumbersare not alwaysidentical.An adjustable hone. (Courtesy Clinton Engines Corp.For example. 7-35.) 169 .codenumber a 500stoneis equiva Lentto 280 grit.givesbetter accuracy thanthe conventional. is the hardestpart of the job.The leastdesirable methodis to honethe cylinderoversize(Fig.springloadedtype. Somemechanics prefer to run the hone dry.Kerosene andother petroleumoils dissolve the adhesive that bindsthe parti- Fig. Cylinders should be machined oversize with a boring bar. 7-36). 7-35. Fiiding a s&able piston. Sincemachine tools are expensive andfew customers comein for majorenginework.recordhavingbeentakenout to O. mostshopsusea hone.Q90 of aninch. the bestmethod is to useaverticalboringmachine of the type illustrated in Fig. suchas the oneillustrated. however. but once the stonesare wetted.

Althoughcylindershavebeen bored with a quarter inch drill motor.010of an inch. Briggs&Stratton pistonoversizes arebased onthe diameter of the originalpiston. a pistonmarked0. and not on bore diameter.a pistonthat is marked0. In other words. If the cylinderbore is enlarged 0.) cles in the stone and causerapid wear without a corresponding increase in cuttingspeed.a drill pressis the betterchoice. Reciprocate the honeaboutseventystrokesa minute. Most cylinders are honedoversize. andgear the machinedown to 400 rpm.opening the stones until the cut is uniformfrom top to bottom. In this system.010is 170 . Sweepthe wholebore with an adjustable hone. (Courtesy Clintm Engines Corp. Adjust the spindlestops to limit hone travel to 3/i of an inch past either end of the bore.this pistonwill havethe correct runningclearance. A machinist might be confusedon this point since other manufacturers base pistonsizeon bore.010 is ten thousandths of an inch larger than the factory standard piston. animal fat.Usea commercial honingoil. 7-3~3.Looselybolt the blockto the work tableso that the blockwill tend to center itself on the how. or vegetable oil suchas Crisco.If you usea springloadinghone.concentrate on the lower part of the bore and slowlyincrease the lengthof the strokesto includethe wholebore.Fig.

The bore must be cut out further for piston clearance. and stainlesssteel rings require the almostpolishedfinish given by a 500 stone. The working surfaceflows and compresses into a smooth. Breakin is a mutualhoning process.Oncethe boreis completely free of abrasive. abrasiveis still presentandmorescrubbing is required.Otherwise the rings are slow to seatandmaynever g&e adequate oil control. 171 .anda sturdybrush. chromerings need a 300 stone.Petroleum based solvents merelyfloatthe abrasive deeperinto the poresof the metal. Cast-iron rings seatbest with a codenumber(not grit number)200 stone. if the towels discolor. mattedappearance. Ghue is beneficialto an older engine. detergent.the cylinderwalltakeson a dull.Its imperviousness to wear meansthat the rings do not breakin properly. Done correctly.The peaksare in rubbingcontactwith the pistonrings. Withoutthe formationof g&e. and iudeed makesit possible to run cast-ironrings. Abrasive particlesmustbe removedfrom the boreif thehoning processis not to continueover the life of the engine.” is no more than light honingfor then purposeof roughteningthe metal and giving it tooth.Scrubthe bore&roughly andwipeit down with paper towels. it wouldbe impossible to run cast-ironrings in iron bores. or “glazebusting.but it is a nuisance when the enginehas been overhauledand the rings are replaced.The Crystal Palace. Cast-iron is anamazing material.exactlyten thousandths of aninchlarger thanthe originalbore. Deglazing. while the valleysbecome oil channels to coolthe rings andto float away the debris. in iron bores.symbol of Victoria’s reign and British industrialism.hard skin that is almostimperviousto further wear.the last 0. The only way to clean a honed bore is with hot water.usedin its heyday for everythingfrom lamppoststo structural beams. Whetherthe bore is machined or honed. Oneof this metal’sunique propertiesis the wayit formsa glaze when subjectto rubbingfriction. the surfaceis characterized by diamond shaped peaksandvalleys. Upon microscopic examination.a periodof accelerated ring andborewearuntil thepartsaccomodate themselves to each other.oil it to preventrust.was framesin cast-iron. Deglaaing.0015of an inchor soshouldbe finishhonedwith a fairly light stone.

.er be overboiedto &kie or left alone.wJld nex< ske.. 7-37).. mechanics sometimes take the crankshaft for granted.DISCARD CRANKSHAFT IF SMALL OR OUT OF ROUND SEE CHART JOURNAL’ JDURNAL CRANKPIN MGNETO END I OISCARO CRANKINAPT IF PLUNGER FLAT DR KEYWAY IS 01 Use the appropriatefinishing stone for the ring materialas de&bed under“Boring.But flaws in the crankshaftmeanthat the enginewill not live.x& se”“l’p g-accent++-1.cylinder.or egg shaped. &&. The 172 .” andturn the honeno morethan400rpm. CRANKSHAFT The crankshaftis the fundamental part upon which all else depends.Takingout the ovalcostsmoremetalthanit is worth. The honewill skip in an eccentric. Reciprocate it at approximatelyseventy strokes a minute.although somediscretionshouldbe usedin the matter. The cylindermay be said to be deglazedwhen the surfaceis entirely honed. Because it is a passive element. The keyway must be squareand sized to fit the key. Begin the inspectionwith the flywheel threads (Fig. Pulledor crossedthreadsmeanthat the wheelcanbreakfree. Deglazing is inappropriate for chromedbores that do not develop a “skin” and for cast-iron bores fited with the Briggs & Strattonengineered ring set.havingnothingdirectlyto do with performance. otherwise the magneto will jump time and starting will becomeproblematic. Cylinders ~~Ja. andall of the polishingandfitting amountsto nought.

The pin is groundundersize. Ballbearing clearances cannotbe gauged.The cost of this work shouldbe no morethana third of the price of a new crankshaft.Without a micrometer.the inner racemakesa press fit with the crankshaft.Briggs& Strattonengines useplain or bail mainbearings.001of aninch.but economic considerations limit repairsto straightening and rebuildingthe crankpinbearing.sometimes it doesn’t. Once the crank is straightened. a determination that is madewith a dial indicatoranda set of precisionV-blocks. ‘Soakthe bearingin solventto removeall lubricantand allow it to air dry. and are integralon aluminumblocks. is boltedto the block. Almostany crankshaft repair. Bearingsurfaces shouldbereasonably close to specification. or almostnoplay.andthe patience to match or exceed factory tolerances.Some outer 173 . Grinding the crankpin off center increasesthe stroke. you can get someidea of main journal wear by movingthe crankshaftside-to-side in the bearings. the sourcemust be fitted with a water trap. Main Bearings Depending uponthemodel. If you use compressed air.the conditionof the bearingis judgedby how it looks and sounds.tandemdialindicators.Whenball bearingsare specified.built up with vaporized metal.The crankshaft should be straightto within 0. Plainbearings take the form of a bushingon cast-ironengines. a hydraulicpress. in turn. a techniquefavoredby go-cart racers.is technically feasible. since antifiiction bearingshave zero tolerance for moisure. Sometimes the repairholds.Crankpin bearing work is more expensive.andgroundto dimension. evenwelding. The crankpin canbechecked with a new connecting rod andplastic wire gauge. Straighteninginvolvesprecision V-blocks. and smooth(small imperfectionscan be polished out. but deep. Thereshould be no.and the outer race is pinnedto the hearingcarrier which. Turn the bearing by hand:it should roll withoutcatches andwithoutthe cracks andpopsassociated with Brineledracesandpittedballs. nail hangingridges meanthe crankshaftmust be replaced.indentation on crankshafts with flywheel magnetos must be square for the pointsto break. it must be inspected for cracksby the magnetic particlemethod.

The shielded sidesof the ballsare inside.andthe bearingsmust be heldclearof the bottomandsidesof the container. A more refined methodis to warm the replacement beatingsin a containerof oil.andthe newoil sumpsor bearingcoversmust be purchased.82599. the innerraceswill expand enoughto slip over the crankshaft. 731). 7-38. 7-38~. although it shottld be limited to a few thousandths of an inch.82990. Maximumailowableoil temperature is 325 degreesFahrenheit.Powertake off sidereamersare not available for theseengines. toward the crankpin. (Courtesy Tecumeeh Products co.81590. 8l790. Magnetoside plain bearingscan be renewedon all engines. and23in the cast-ironseries.80790. sizedto matchthe diameterof the inner race (Fig. 80590.8B-HA.20. Sumpsidebearings canberenewedexcepton models9.PULLER SPLllTER Fig.) race play is a!!*aable.Oncewarmed.19. removethem from the crankshaft wttt an arbor press or a bearingspiitter (Fig.14. If the bearingshavefailed. 174 . Ball bearings can be pulled with a bearing splitter.92590.&king new bearings homewith a lengthof pipe. and92990 in the aluminum series.

sincethe tools cost severaltimes more thana dealer wouldcharge to do the work. However. toward the tool. and tine reamedas before.the bushing is reamed.Replacing plainbearings requiresa set of factory reamersand guideblocks(Fig. Sealdrivers are available. toward the oil. The new bushing is installed.On ahnninum block engines. The processbeginswith the magneto sidebearing. with the iooi centeredon the flange bearing andmagneto sideoil sealgroove.the old bushing is knockedout. When bearings are driven home by force.Figure 7-40 illustratesthe technique.there is no bushingand the bearingweb mustbe roughreamedto acceptone. stakedinto placeto prevent rotation. 7-39. (Courtesy Rpckewell Mfg. The sealmustbepressedhomedeadflat andto the depthof the original.the sea1 canbe repositioned a fractionof an inch to compensate.) . if only for the insurance value. CQ. Oil Seals Oil sealsshouldbe replaced eachtime the engineis opened. Ifthe crankshaft is grooved. it is usedasa centerfor the sumpsidebushing. Installthe sealwith the steepside of the lip inward. Fig. the crankshaft webs must be supported with a wood btock. although mostmechanics usea iengthof two by four. the hackof the sealmust make goodcontactwith the recessand must not invadethe oil port. andthe numbered side outward. It is one of thosejobs that the amateur should avoid.On cast-ironblocks.and. 7-39). Oncethe magneto sidebushing is true. a new one pressedhome.

withdrawit with a pairof sidecuttingpliers.Cover keywayswith maskingtape. (Courtesy Tecumseh Products Co. Oncethe sealhasrelaxed.Fig. InstaIlthe new sealwith a lengthof pipe whoseoutsidediameter&s&y matchesthat of the seal. The seal lips shouldbe greasedto aid breakin andthe crankshaft shouldbe lightly polished. Oil seals can be pryad loose with a large screwdriver.) Newseals areoftendamaged duringengineassembly. 176 . In passing. it shouldbe mentionedthat it is not necessary to disassemble the engineto removeandinstallanoil seal. 740.beingcarefulnot to damage the seal cavityor the crankshaft.Deformand tear the old sealwith a punch.

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Index A Alternators dust circuit 4.0 Amp 7. starter E Engine teardown trouble.0 Amp Amp. throttle C Camshaft Carburetor Briggs & Stratton dribbles fuel FloJet Vacu-Jet 8 P&a-Jet Charging circutt Choke automatic RoJel remote controlled VacuJet 8 Pulsa-Jet Cleaning CMoh wag 113 118 115 117 113 109 173 168 80 58 151 51 57 54 55 55 118 63 66 66 ii: 56 86 Coil cocdi!lg Connecting rod Crankcase breather Crankshaft horizontal vertical Cylinder bore head 0 Deglazing Drives. storage Searing.43 14 155 140 172 82 83 167 131 171 102 130 125 78 74 64 148 60 57 25 9 179 . alternator By’. pump c Flange or base Float Flo-Jet Flywheel Four-cycle engine 30. symptoms oversp=xds Erratic response Elements. Salterles. main wng Srfggs 8 Stratton governors Suahings.

refuses Starters electric horizontal pull impulse mechanical rewind vertical pull Sysiem..6 GOVWlOlS centrifugal pneumatic runaway Hard to start cold ” Hunting I Identificatfon Idle port 8 throttle valve 1 Lubrkation 1 Magna-Matfc Magneto external point set internat point set types. pickup v Vacu-Jet Vatves !fJim seat inlet springs Venturt 24 23 79 43 33..* Tube.. symptoms Mod~~~rglne N NomenclilbU~ 73 78 74 80 53 75 16 47 15 37 ii 20 28 62.. IO Amp Replacement points spark plug Response.lrrkrr*:~” I I”“YlrJOlwu:::.. nicad 1 Timing T. EL condenser i?iJzzei* ii 180 .175 64 53 85 i! ii 05 89 22 33.41 58 62 62 135 140 146 1:: 45 Poklis Z& fuel Pfats%Lt le Point. Brtggs & Stratton ~~~foning. ifi 125 95 9 P 37 65 :: R Rebuilding vs overhauling Refinishing. valve seat Refuses to run at steady no load speed Regulator.l. governor Rotor Runs lean rich Seal oil Spiral Start.

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