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Amplificadores Operacionales

Hambley:
• Amplificadores Operacionales
• Circuitos Conformadores de Onda y
Convertidores de Datos: 1-2-3
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.1 Circuit symbol for the op amp.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.2 Equivalent circuit for the ideal op amp. A
OL
is very large (approaching
infinity).
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.3 Op-amp symbol showing power supplies.
Impedancia de Entrada

Infinita

M. Grande > 10
5
O

Impedancia de Salida

Cero

Pequeña < 100 O

Ganancia en Tensión

Infinita

M. Grande > 10
5

Ancho de Banda Máximo

Infinito

M. Grande > 10
5
Hz

Características básicas del A.O.
Ideal

Real

Excursión de la Tensión de Salida Infinita ó Vcc Vcc - IoRo ó < Vcc
a) Lazo abierto
c) Lazo cerrado
con realimentación negativa
b) Lazo cerrado
con realimentación positiva
-
o
V V
V
A
÷
= · =
+
0 V V
-
= ÷
+ -
V V =
+
Cortocircuito virtual
· =
O
V
( )
-
o
V V A V ÷ · =
+
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.4 Inverting amplifier.
1
2
R
R
i
v
v
O
÷ =
Figure 2.5 We make use of the summing-point constraint in the analysis of the inverting amplifier.
Amplificador inversor
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.11 Noninverting amplifier.
1
2
1
R
R
v
v
i
O
+ =
Amplificador no-inversor
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.12 Voltage follower.
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.16 IC resistors are fabricated from a layer of conductive material.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.18 A resistor having L/W = 3.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.21 If very high value resistors are used, stray capacitance can couple unwanted signals into the circuit.
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
uA 741
AO-Patillaje
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.28 For a real op amp, clipping occurs if the output voltage reaches certain limits.
Margen dinámico
uA 741
uA 741
Impedancias de entrada y de salida
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.25 Bode plot of open-loop gain for a typical op amp.
Ganancia diferencial
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Figure 2.26 Noninverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.27 Bode plots for Example 2.5.
uA 741
SR
dt
dv
o
s
max max
2 f V V SR
p p
t e = =
p
πV
SR
f
2
max
=
( ) πf V V
dt
dVo
t V V
p p p o
2 sin
max
= = ¬ = e e
Slew rate
uA 741
uA 741
CMRR

D D C
D
C
D D C C D D
V A V
A
A
V A V A V A Vo ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
C
D
A
A
CMRR log 20 =
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.33 Current sources and a voltage source model the dc imperfections of an op amp.
2
÷ +
+
=
B B
B
I I
I
÷ +
÷ =
B B IO
I I I
Corriente de polarización
Corriente de offset
Tensión de offset
IO
V
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.35 Adding the resistor R to the inverting amplifier
circuit causes the effects of bias currents to cancel.
Figure 2.36 Noninverting amplifier, including resistor R to
balance the effects of the bias currents. See Exercise~2.17.
La tensión de offset de salida es consecuencia tanto de la
tensión de offset como de la corriente de offset. El fabricante
proporciona dos terminales de offset null. Entre ambas se
deberá colocar un potenciómetro de 10KO con el cursor
conectado a alimentación (V
CC
). Para compensar este
desajuste se pondrá a tierra la entrada del circuito. Se
observará la salida mientras se ajusta el cursor. Cuando la
salida sea nula, se retirará la puesta a tierra de la entrada del
circuito.
29
uA 741
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.47 Inverting amplifier.
Amplificador inversor

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.48 Ac-coupled inverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.49 Summing amplifier.
Sumador inversor

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Figure 2.50 Noninverting amplifier. This circuit approximates an ideal voltage amplifier.
Amplificador no-inversor

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.51 Ac-coupled noninverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.52 Ac-coupled voltage follower with bootstrapped bias resistors.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.53 Differential amplifier.
Amplificador diferencial

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.54 Instrumentation-quality differential amplifier.
Amplificador de instrumentación

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Figure 2.55 Voltage-to-current converter (transconductance amplifier).
Convertidor V-I

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.56 Voltage-to-current converter with grounded load (Howland circuit).
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.57 Current-to-voltage converter (transresistance amplifier).
Convertidor I-V

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.58 Current amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.60 Integrator.
Integrador

Figure 2.64a Comparative Bode plots.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.63 Differentiator.
Derivador

Figure 2.64b Comparative Bode plots.
1 3
min
1 3
2
10
2
1
C R
f
C R
f
CH
t t
> ¬ =
Derivador inversor Integrador inversor
1 3
max
1 3
2
10
2
1
C R
f
C R
f
CL
t t
< ¬ =
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.1 Circuit symbol for the comparator. If
v
1
> v
2
, then v
o
is high; if v
1
< v
2,
then v
o
is low.
Figure 12.2 Transfer characteristics of ideal comparators.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.4 The LM111 has an open-
collector output.
Figure 12.3 Transfer characteristic of a real
comparator.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.5 The input voltage v
in
is compared to the reference voltage V
r
.
Figure 12.6 Noise added to the input signal can cause undesired transitions in the output signal.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.7 A Schmitt trigger is formed by
using positive feedback with a comparator.
Figure 12.8 Noninverting Schmitt trigger.
Figure 2.10b Schmitt trigger circuit
and waveforms.
OL TL
OH TH
V
R
R
V
V
R
R
V
2
1
2
1
÷ =
=
Schmitt trigger

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.9 Schmitt triggers that can be designed to have specified thresholds.
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
Oscilador de relajación
Generador de señal cuadrada o triangular
Reloj
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.16a Astable multivibrator.
Figure 12.16b Astable multivibrator.
Astable de señal cuadrada

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.20 Circuit for Exercise 12.5. Figure 12.22 Circuit for Exercise 12.6.
Amplificadores Operacionales
• El amplificador operacional ideal
• Amplificadores inversor y no-inversor
• Resistencias integradas
• El amplificador operacional real
• Circuitos operacionales
• Comparadores analógicos
• Multivibradores
• El temporizador 555
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.24 Simplified functional block diagram of 555 timer IC.
H
H
H H
L L
L
L
L
H
L
555

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.25 Monostable multivibrator.
C R . C R T
A A
1 1 3 ln ~ =
Monostable de señal cuadrada

© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 12.26 Astable oscillator.
Astable de señal cuadrada

B A
B A h
R R
R R
T
t
D
2 +
+
= =