TU Delft
Control systems
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Physical
System
Modeling
Physical
Modeling
TU Delft
Control systems
Bond
Graph
Non Linear
State Space
Model
`Mechanical'
Analysis
http://blackboard.icto.tudelft.nl/courses/et3100/
Non Linear
State Space
Model
Linear
State Space
Model
InOut
Model
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Control systems
Linearisation
state space
to
inout
Laplace Tr.
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Linear
State Space
Model
InOut
Model
Transfer
Functions
Contents
Modeling (2.1)(2.5)
Linearisation (2.6)
Transfer Functions (3.1)
Block Diagrams (3.2)
Signal
ow graphs (3.2)
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Control systems
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Modeling
TU Delft
Control systems
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..
TU Delft
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TU Delft
Control systems
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TU Delft
Control systems
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Control systems
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10
Parts:
1 inductor (storage of
magnetic energy)
gen.kinetic energy =
Control systems
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11
Domain
Eort
Flow
Mech. Trans. force F
velocity v
Mech. Rot.
torque ang. vel. !
Elec.Magn. voltage v
current i
Hydraulic
pressure p
ow rate Q
Thermic
temp. T entropy f. E_
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12
Network structure
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13
Bond graphs
Bond graphs is a language for physical modeling
which shows the interconnections of physical
elements and the energy exchanged between
them.
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14
Bond
signs !
In general,
Control systems
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15
Linearisation
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16
TU Delft
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17
Control systems
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18
Linearisation
x_ = f (x; u)
y = h(x; u)
with one of the form
x_ = F x + Gu
y = Hx + Ju
using linearization or small signal analysis.
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Control systems
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19
@f
)+
@x x ;u
0
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Control systems
x
0
@f
+
u +
@u x ;u
o(x; u)
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20
@f
:=
@x x ;u
@f
:=
@u x ;u
0
_ = F x + Gu +f (x ; u ) + o(x; u)
x
0 0
{z
}

Linear Part
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21
_ = F x + Gu +f (x ; u ) + o(x; u)
x
0 0
{z
}

Linear Part
= 0
(x0; u0)
is an equilibrium
Control systems
_ = F x + Gu
x
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22
Geometric idea of
_ = F x + Gu for dependence on x
x
f (x; u0)
x0
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Control systems
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x
23
Geometric idea of
_ = F x + Gu for dependence on u
x
f (x0; u)
G
u0
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u
24
Output equation
The same procedure can be used for the
function h(x; u):
y = h(x; u) = h(x0 + x; u0 + u) =
h(x0; u0
@h
)+
@x x ;u
0
TU Delft
Control systems
x
0
@h
+
u +
@u x ;u
o(x; u)
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25
@h
:=
@x x ;u
0
@h
:=
@u x ;u
0
and
y := y
we have for the output equation:
y0 := h(x0; u0)
y0
y = Hx + J u
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26
system
AROUND
x_ = F x + Gu
y = Hx + J u
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27
S

u
+
u0
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Control systems
x_ = f (x; u)
y = h(x; u)
y+
y0
x_ = F x + Gu
y = Hx + Ju
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28
Example
m
r
Ft
Ft
x
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Control systems
m1
m2
Fg
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29
=
(m2l + m1r )
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Control systems
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30
!
= f ((!; ); m) =
1
m l +m r
2
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Control systems
f1((!; ); m)
f2((!; ); m)
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0=
0=!
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32
where
0 := arcsin(
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rm1g + 0
m2gl
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= +
@f1 @f1
@! @
@f2 @f2
@! @
G=
!0;0;0)
@f1
@
@f2
@ (!0;0;0)
_
!
0
= 1
!
=
F
TU Delft
Control systems
where is a
0
m2gl cos 0
m2l2+m1r2
m2l2+m1r2
1
+ G
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34
_!
!
=
F
+
G
is the dynamics around (0; ) for an input equal to
+ .
0
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Control systems
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35
Conclusions on Linearization
_ = F x + Gu
x
y = Hx + Ju
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36
_ = F x + Gu
x
y = Hx + Ju
where x is a SMALL displacement from x and u is
a varying part of the input which is supplied together
with the bias u .
0
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37
x_ = F x + Gu
y = Hx + Ju
For what follows, it is handy to have a discription in
inputoutput dierential terms:
n
X
i=0
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Control systems
di
ai i y(t) =
dt
m
X
j =0
dj
bj j u(t)
dt
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38
a I +a F +a F
0
R nn
+ : : : an F n = 0
where
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+ a + a + : : : + ann = det(I
1
Control systems
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F)
39
y = Hx + Ju
y_ = H x_ + J u_ = H (F x + Gu) + J u_ =
HF x + HGu + J u_
:::
y n = HF nx + f (u; u;
_ : : :)
(
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40
yi
( )
= HF ix + : : :
a y + a y_ + : : : + any n =
H (a I + a F{z+ : : : anF n}) x+
(
=0 for CayleyHamilton. !!
b u + b u_ + : : : + bnu n
(
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Control systems
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41
di
ai i y(t) =
dt
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Control systems
m
X
j =0
dj
bj j u(t)
dt
y
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42
Laplace Transform
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Solution
Problem
Starting
Problem
Time domain
s domain
Transf.
Problem
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Control systems
Solution
Transf.
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44
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45
! F (s) :=
f (t)
f (t) :=
Note:
1
2j
+1
Z j
0
0 j 1
f (t)e
F (s)estds
st
dt
F (s)
Control systems
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46
Convolution:
L ff (t) f (t)g = F (s)F (s)
1
Linearity (superposition)
L ff (t) + f (t)g = F (s) + F (s)
1
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47
Dierentiaton
L
Integration
L
L ftne atg =
TU Delft
Control systems
df
dt
Z t
0
n!
n+1
(s+a)
= sF (s) f (0 )
f ( ) d
1
= F (s)
s
(Fundamental!)
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48
f (0
) = slim
sF
(
s
)
!1
lim
f
(
t
)
=
lim
sF
(
s
)
t!1
s!
0
Time delay
L ff (t )g = L ff (t)g e
Control systems
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49
(t)
1(t)
s+a
s
am
..
( + )
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at
tm e
1
1)!
at
..
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50
F (s)
s+a
2 2
(s+a) +b
at
cos bt
b
2 2
(s+a) +b
at
sin bt
sin at
cos at
s2+a2
s2+a2
..
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Control systems
f (t) t 0
..
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51
bmsm + bm sm + : : : + b
G(s) = n
=
n
s + an s + : : : + a
C
s p
1
we get:
Cn
+ : : : + s pn
Cn
L fG(s)g = L s p + : : : + L s p
n
which we know by the previous table. Review Partial
fraction Expansion (pag.98).
1
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52
Convolution Integral
y(t) =
Z 1
g(t )u( ) d
Z 1
g( )u(t ) d
y(t) =
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Z 1
g( )(t ) d
= g(t)
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53
Consider
Z 1
g(t ) u( ) d
Then
Y (s)
or
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y(t) = L
Control systems
fL fg(t)g L fu(t)gg
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54
Transfer Function
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55
For
1<t<1
y =gu
and using the convolution result of the Laplace transform:
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56
U (s)
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G(s)
Y (s)
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57
For t > 0
Furthermore, if we consider the linear time invariant
system in the dierential form:
n
X
i=0
di
ai i y(t) =
dt
m
X
j =0
dj
bj j u(t)
dt
aisiY (s)
TU Delft
Control systems
n
X
i=1
ai
i 1
X
j =0
sj y i
(
1)
(0 ) =
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m
X
j =0
bj sj U (s)
58
n
X
i=0
aisiY (s) =
gives
m
X
j =0
bj sj U (s) +
n
X
i=1
ai
i 1
X
j =0
sj y i
(
1)
(0 )
where
b0 + b1s + : : : + bms
G(s) =
a0 + a1s + : : : + ansn
m
en
Y0(s) =
n
i=1 i
i 1 j (i j 1)
(0
j =0
n
+ n
1 +
sy
a0 + a s : : : a s
Note:
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59
Y0(s)
If y (0
then we have:
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60
Zeros, poles
=1
where
zi roots of b
G(s)
zi )
pj )
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61
DC gain
For a stable system, the nal value we get after a unitary
input step is called the DC gain.
Using Final Value Theorem (pag.103)
lim
y
(
t
)
=
lim
sY
(
s
)
=
t!1
s!
1
lim
sG
(
s
)
U
(
s
)
=
lim
sG
(
s
)
=
s!
s!
s
b
lim
G
(
s
)
=
s!
a
0
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62
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63
U(s)
S
+
Y(s)
R(s)
U(s)
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G(s)
Y(s)
U(s)
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U(s)
U(s)
U(s)
64
Z(s)
1
Y(s)
1
R(s)
G(s)
U(s)
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U(s)
Y(s)
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65
G1(s)
Z(s)
Y(s)
G2(s)
G1(s)
U(s)
G2(s)
Z(s)
Y(s)
G(s)
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66
Parallel connection
G1(s)
U(s)
Y(s)
G2(s)
G1(s)
Y(s)
U(s)
G2(s)
G(s)
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67
Feedback connection
R(s)
E(s)
G1(s)
Y(s)
G2(s)
R(s)
E(s)
G1(s)
Y(s)
 G2(s)
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68
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69
Y (s) 1 X
=
G(s) =
Gi(s)i
U (s) i
Gi(s)= Path gain of the i th forward path
P
=
The system
determinant=
1
(all
individual
P
loop gains)+
(gain products
of all possible two
P
loops that do not touch)
(gain products of all
possible three loops that do not touch)+...
i= i
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70
Example
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71
Various Paths
Forward paths
1236
12346
123456
G
G
G
1
2
3
Loops
=1
=1
=1
232
2342
23452
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l
l
l
1
2
3
=
=
=
Control systems
a =s
a =s
a =s
1
( )(1)
( )(1)
(b )(1)
Determinants
= 1 as1
=1 0
=1 0
=1 0
s b1
1
1
s s b2
1
1
1
s s s
a2
s2
a3
s3
+0
1
2
3
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72
Y (s)
U (s)
which is equal to
Y (s)
U (s)
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Control systems
b1s2 + b2s + b3
s3 + a1s2 + a2s + a3
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73
Conclusions
For
We
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74
A
The
linear systems
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75
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