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By Definition Polices

By Definition Polices

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By Definition Polices by Linda Graff
By Definition Polices by Linda Graff

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Policies For Volunteer Programs

Page 85

Linda L. Graff


This sample reflects many of the specific aspects of the "Municipal Conflict of Interest Act,

1983." See Boards of Directors' Resource Binder edited by Ginette Johnstone and published

by Volunteer Ontario (1990) for details of the Act.


The old standards `volunteers will supplement, not supplant' and `volunteers' roles will be

complementary to those of staff' are of little use any more. They sound good, but are of little

practical value in actually deciding what should and should not be volunteer work. (Duncan,



See Graff (1983) for a detailed discussion of replacement and displacement of paid staff by



See the Directory Of Special Needs Programs In Canada, published by Volunteer Ontario

(Graff, 1992) for examples and discussions of special needs volunteering for a variety of



In fact, Susan Joanis, Analyst, Policy Unit of the Ontario Human Rights Commission has



that the Commission would take seriously any complaint of discrimination lodged by

a volunteer, since volunteer work may not necessarily be seen to be ouside of the jurisdiction of

the Commission. Hence, while a test case is needed to establish jurisdiction for certain, it is

even more advisable than ever that volunteer programs follow the guideleines of the Human

Rights Commission in their selection and management practices.


Reported by Lorraine Street, North Halton Volunteer Centre, from a conversation between

Ms. Joanis and the North Halton Volunteer Centre, February, 1992.


`Vulnerable client' might be defined, for example, as children (under the age of 16), seniors,

individuals with disabilities, and, in some cases, women.


Since the institution of the Municipal Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act,

many police forces have become more formal about how information is released, and what

charges are levied for the service. There is no uniformity in these decisions from municipality

to municipality and Managers are encouraged to contact their local police forces to determine

what process is in place, what paper work will be required, and what, if any, the fee will be.


Jone Pearce (1983: 88-89) offers a great illustration of an organization that sponsors an

`inappropriate' type of recognition event, is surprised by the poor turnout, and concludes that

the volunteers are `apathetic.'


Susan Ellis and Katherine H. Noyes discuss the `hard to track but nonetheless important' data

that should be reported and recognized. (1990: 33)


See Graff (1983) for more details on volunteer/staff/union relations.


Henson and Larson (1988) have written a manual on risk management for managing volunteer

programs. They say policies and procedures facilitate decisions about the four means of risk

management: avoid, assume, transfer or reduce. This is a useful manual for understanding

where risk might exist and for choosing the right risk management strategy in volunteer


Policies For Volunteer Programs

Page 86

Linda L. Graff


For examples of standards for volunteer programs in agencies, see "Guidelines for Volunteer

Involvement in Health Care Facilities" (O.H.A., 1991). For examples of standards for

Volunteer Centre programs, see "Standards For Volunteer Centres" (The National Volunteer

Centre Advisory Council, 1991). The following publication includes standards for both agency

programs and Volunteer Centre programs: "Standards and Criteria For Excellence for the

Voluntary Sector for the Province of Ontario" (Ontario Association of Volunteer

Bureaux/Centres, 1988).


There is a great deal of literature and virtually no agreement about the policy-making process,

who the players ought to be, and who should do what. See, for example, Conrad and Glenn

(1976) who devote an chapter to `Board Policy Process' and cover items such as board/staff

responsibility, steps, authority, accountability, formulation process, variables of influence,

power and control; John Carver (1990) who takes a rather new look at policy, boards and

staff; Paula Cryderman (1987: 13-18) who diagrams, through flow charts, different approval

processes for different kinds of manuals.

Policies For Volunteer Programs

Page 87

Linda L. Graff

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