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User’s Guide
Power Analytics CORPORATION
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Version 6.60.00
May 2011
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Table of Contents
1 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short circuit Program ........................................................ 1 1.1 WHAT’S NEW IN THIS RELEASE ......................................................................................................... 1 2 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4. 2.4.2 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 Type of Faults ............................................................................................................................... 2 Terminology .................................................................................................................................. 3 Sources in Fault Analysis ............................................................................................................. 6 ANSI/IEEE Standard .................................................................................................................... 7 1Multiplying Factors (MF) ............................................................................................................. 7 Local and Remote Contributions .................................................................................................. 8 IEC 60909 .................................................................................................................................. 10 System Parameters .................................................................................................................... 10 Short Circuit Current Calculus .................................................................................................... 24 Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB)............................................................ 30 Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LVCBs) ................................................... 34 Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches................................................... 36 CIRCUITBREAKERS ................................................................................................................ 40 Rated characteristics to be given for all circuitbreakers ........................................................... 40 Circuit Breaker Name Plate Data ............................................................................................... 47 FUSES........................................................................................................................................ 48 General considerations .............................................................................................................. 48 Fuse IEC Characteristic Quantities [IEC 602691] ..................................................................... 49 Breaking range ........................................................................................................................... 49 Cutoff current ............................................................................................................................ 49 Cutoff current characteristic; letthrough current characteristic ................................................ 49 Peak withstand current ............................................................................................................... 49 Prearcing time; melting time ..................................................................................................... 50 Arcing time of a fuse................................................................................................................... 50 Operating time; total clearing time ............................................................................................. 50 I2t (Joule integral) ....................................................................................................................... 50 Fuse nameplate data.................................................................................................................. 51 Fuses Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 55 LVCB Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 55 HVCB Evaluation........................................................................................................................ 56 A. B. C. D. E. F. Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools............................................................. 57 AC ANSI/IEEE Standard – Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools: ................................. 58 AC Classical Short Circuit Method....................................................................................... 72 AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method .................................................................................... 73 AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method .................................................................................... 82 AC Single Phase Short Circuit Method ................................................................................ 94
ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEEE) .............................................................. 30
IEC Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEC) ............................................................................ 40
4.2.3 5 5.1 5.2 5.3
Protective Device Evaluation Based on IEC Standard ...................................................................... 52
6. DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method ........................................................................................ 57
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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
7. Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program ............................................................... 94 A. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, ½ Cycle ........................................................................................... 94 B. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 Cycle ............................................................................................ 97 C. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Steady state .................................................................................... 99 D. 3 Phase Fault, Steady State .............................................................................................. 101 E. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool Based on ANSI/IEEE Standard ....................... 103 F. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Based on IEC Standard ........................................... 112 G. Report Manager – ANSI/IEEE ........................................................................................... 127 H. Short Circuit Back Annotation ............................................................................................ 142 I. Managing Schedule in Short Circuit .................................................................................. 145 J. Managing Utility / PCC Short Circuit contribution .............................................................. 159 K. Managing MOTOR CONTRIBUTION ................................................................................ 160 L. Managing UPS bypass function during a fault downstream UPS source ......................... 161 M. Threephase Faults IEC 61363 Method ............................................................................ 163 N. Short Circuit Analysis Input Data ....................................................................................... 167 Power Grid Input Data .............................................................................................................. 167 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data .................................................................... 168 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data .................................................................................. 169 Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data............................................................................ 170 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data .......................................... 171 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data ........................................... 172 Low Voltage IEC Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data ....................................................... 173 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data ........................................................... 174 Medium / Low Voltage IEC Fuse Short Circuit Input Data ....................................................... 175 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 176 Sample System Data................................................................................................................ 176 How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations ................................................................ 177 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System................................................... 178 Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent................................................................................... 179 Reporting of the Equivalent System ......................................................................................... 180 Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result ............................................ 183 Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent .................................................. 185 Validation and Verification of the Equivalent ............................................................................ 192 The Calculation Tools............................................................................................................... 196 Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation) ..................................................................... 197 ACANSI/IEEE Method............................................................................................................. 197 Short Circuit Annotation Tool ................................................................................................... 199 3Phase Fault, 30 Cycles at Bus 18 ......................................................................................... 200 3Phase Fault Current, ½ Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”:...................................................... 202 3Phase Fault Current, 5 Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”:....................................................... 204 Change the “Fault Type” displayed onto the drawing. ............................................................. 207 Professional Report .................................................................................................................. 215 All types of Faults at bus MAINBUS, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical:.................................................. 215 All types of Faults at All buses, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical: .......................................................... 219 All types of Faults at All buses, 5 Cycle Symmetrical: ............................................................. 222 All types of Faults at All buses, 30 Cycle Symmetrical: ........................................................... 224
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9 9.1 9.2 9.2.1 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4
Network Reduction/Equivalent .......................................................................................................... 176
TUTORIAL: Conducting a Threephase Short Circuit Study .......................................................... 195
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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
List of Figures Figure 1: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 1 .................................................................................... 38 Figure 2: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 2 .................................................................................... 39 Figure 3: Percentage D.C. current component in relation to the time interval from initiation of shortcircuit current, for different time constantτ. ............................................................................ 44 Figure 4: PDE Flow Chart  IEC standard: ..................................................................................................... 52 Figure 5: Unbalanced system ......................................................................................................................... 66
List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Note: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times ............. 6 30 cycles calculation impedance....................................................................................................... 7 Resistivity and equivalent earth penetration ................................................................................... 22 IEC voltage factor ............................................................................................................................ 23 CB rated interrupting time in cycles ................................................................................................ 30 K factor ............................................................................................................................................ 33 Default Device X/R Values Using EDSA’s Library .......................................................................... 34 n factor based on PF and short circuit level .................................................................................... 42 Icu and k factor ................................................................................................................................ 46 CB Name plate data ........................................................................................................................ 48 IEC c factor...................................................................................................................................... 81
You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is: Short Circuit Analysis Program 3_Phase_Short_Circuit.pdf
You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial in the following location:
C:\DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC
Test Files: ANSIYY1, IECYY; Busfault, EDM5, IEC160909, IEC260909, IEEE399, IEEEpde, MutualNet, SlidingFault, T123, T123PDE, testma1, Trib, TribNVTAP, UPSexpse, West
©Copyright 2011 Power Analytics Corporation All Rights Reserved
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1 Fault analysis of complex power systems having over 50.000 buses Exact short circuit current and contributions computation using ThreeSequence Modeling Simulate sliding and open conductor faults High speed simulation by utilizing the stateoftheart techniques in matrix operations (sparse matrix and vector methods) Automated reactor sizing for 3 Phase networks Exporting and importing data from and to Excel Import system data from Siemens/PTI format into Paladin DesignBase Customize reports Professional Reports UPS source bypass Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDC (protective device coordination) Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDE (protective device evaluation) Fully integrated with ARC flash program Fully integrated with PDC What’s new in this release 9 9 9 9 New PDE based on IEC Standards New professional report tool based on Crystal Reports New functions for UPS bypass and motors fed from VFD Minimum and maximum utility fault contribution 1 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 1 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program The salient features of the Paladin DesignBase advanced short circuit program: 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1.
the total energy is less than a threephase fault. Such cases include faults that are close to the following types of equipment: • • • • The Wye side of a solidly grounded deltawy transformer / autotransformer The WyeWye solidly grounded side of a three winding transformer with a delta tertiary winding A synchronous generator solidly connected to ground The Wye side of several Wye grounded transformers running in parallel 2 . with or without ground (3P.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2 INTRODUCTION The short circuit is an accidental electrical contact between two or more conductors. There are cases that can lead to single phase fault currents exceeding the threephase fault currents. The most common faults are: • • • • ThreePhase Fault. however. 2.1 Type of Faults Types of Faults depend on the power system grounding method. The protective devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are applied to isolate faults and to minimize damage and disruption to the plant’s operation. or 3PG) Single line to ground Fault (LG) Line to Line Fault (LL) Line to line to ground Fault (LLG) Estimated frequency of occurrence of different kinds of fault in power system is: 3P or 3PG: LL: LLG: LG: 8% 12 % 10 % 70 % Severity of fault: Normally the threephase symmetrical short circuit (3P) can be regarded as the most severe condition.
the close and latching duty calculation is simplified by applying a 1. Breaking Current . b):LL. It is the sum of the relay or release delay and opening time. Available Short Circuit Current . Crest Current / Peak Current – the highest instantaneous current during a period. of relative low impedance. Close and Latch Capability .” and was formerly called momentary duty.2 Terminology Arcing Time . and immediately thereafter latch closed. The close and latch asymmetrical rms current capability is 1.the interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of the arc in the protective device and the instant of final arc extinction in all phases. Often. It is also known as “Interrupting Current” in ANSI Standards.” The rms asymmetrical rating was formerly called momentary rating. and d): LG. Often called “first cycle capability.the maximum short circuit current that the power system could deliver at a given circuit point assuming negligible short circuit fault impedance. with any applicable multipliers with regard to fault current X/R ratio. linetoground 2. Close and latch duty is also called “first cycle duty. including the arc. during the first cycle.the interval between the beginning of a specified over current and the instant when the primary arcing contacts have just begun to part in all poles. whether made accidentally or intentionally.6 times the circuit breaker rated maximum symmetrical AC rms interrupting current.the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation (pole separation).Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Type of Short Circuits: a):3P – threephase.the maximum asymmetrical current capability of a medium or highvoltage circuit breaker to close. c):LLG. for normal frequency making current. 3 . linetoline. Contact Parting Time . Close and Latch Duty . Fault – an abnormal connection. linetolinetoground.the maximum rms value of calculated short circuit current for medium and highvoltage circuit breakers.6 factor to the first cycle symmetrical AC rms short circuit current. between two points of different voltage potentials.
Short circuit current is the current that flows at the short circuit location during the short circuit period time. Peak Current – the maximum possible instantaneous value of a short circuit current during a period. on the opening of a mechanical switching device under short circuit conditions. Initial symmetrical short . IEC60909. I b . IEC 60909. Nominal Voltage UN – (IEC) the nominal operating voltage of the bus. Making Current – the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant the device closes and latches into a fault. Momentary Current Rating – the maximum available first cycle rms asymmetrical current which the device or assembly is required to withstand. Offset Current . Symmetrical short circuit current is the power frequency component of the short circuit current. Rated voltage VR the phasetophase voltage. is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current flowing through the switching device at the instant of the first contact separation. present terminology: “Close and Latch Capability”. Initial short circuit current IK" is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current at the instant of occurrence of the short circuit. Interrupting Current – the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation. IEC UR the rated voltage is the maximum phasetophase voltage. Branch short circuit currents are the parts of the short circuit current in the various branches of the power network.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Point X/R – the calculated fault point reactance to resistance ratio (X/R). different calculation procedures are used to determine this ratio. Sometimes referred to as “Breaking Current”. First Cycle Duty – the maximum value of calculated peak or rms asymmetrical current or symmetrical short circuit current for the first cycle with any applicable multipliers for fault current X/R ratio. Symmetrical breaking current Ia . First Cycle Rating – the maximum specified rms asymmetrical or symmetrical peak current capability of a piece of equipment during the first cycle of a fault. Maximum asymmetrical short circuit current Is is the highest instantaneous rms value of the short circuit current following the occurrence of the short circuit.an AC current waveform whose baseline is offset from the AC symmetrical current zero axis. It was used on medium and highvoltage circuit breakers manufactured before 1965.circuit power S K " is the product of 3 *I K "*U N 4 . Depending on the Standard. according to which the power system is designated.
Pierre IEC 609090/200107. 141 – 1993. MoldedCase Switches. IEEE Standard for LowVoltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures IEC909 – 1988. Thermal stress is the effect of electrical heating during the short circuit conditions. Highvoltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 111: Overhead. IEEE Application Guide for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 3: Switches. Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 1: General rules IEC 609472:2003. by Conrad St. Standard for Safety for MoldedCase Circuit Breaker. disconnectors. International Electro technical Commission. Part 0: Calculation of currents IEC 609093/2003.131990. IEEE Application Guide for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total Current Basis ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. Shortcircuit currents in threephase AC systems. DesignBase Short Circuit Analysis Program is based on ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards and fully complies with the latest ANSI/IEEE/IEC Standards: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ANSI/IEEE Std. Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 2: Circuit breakers EN 609473:1999. and CircuitBreaker Enclosures “A Practical Guide to ShortCircuit Calculations”. 399 – 1997.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE System breaking power S B is the product of 3 *I a * U N Minimum time delay t min is the shortest possible time interval between the occurrence of the short circuit and the first contact separation of one pole of the switching device. Direct earthing / effective earthing is the direct earthing of the neutral points of the power transformers. Highvoltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 100: Highvoltage alternatingcurrent circuitbreakers IEC 62271111:200511. Short Circuit Current Calculation in ThreePhase Ac Systems UL 489_9 – 1996. that flows back to the system through the earth.010 – 1979. Equivalent generator is a generator that can be considered as equivalent to a number of generators feeding into a given system. IEEE Recommended Practice for Power Systems Analysis (IEEE Brown Book) ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. Shortcircuit currents in threephase AC systems.51979. dry vault and submersible automatic circuit reclosers and fault interrupters for alternating current systems up to 38 kV 5 . Part 3: Currents during two separate simultaneous linetoearth shortcircuits and partial shortcircuit currents flowing through earth IEC 609471:200010. Short circuit earth current is the short circuit current. IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution of Industrial Plants (IEEE Red Book) ANSI/IEEE Std. Dynamic stress is the effect of electromechanical forces during the short circuit conditions. padmounted. switchdisconnectors and fusecombination units BS EN 62271100:2001. or part of it.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2.5* Z dv 1. high and low voltage fuses and withstand currents for switches and highvoltage breakers.3 Sources in Fault Analysis Power utilities. It is generally used for the first ½ cycles up to a few cycles. all rotating electric machinery and regenerative drives are sources in fault calculation.67* Z " 6 .13 1.2* Z " 3* Z ∞ " ANSI C37.5* Z Z" " ANSI C37. because all rotating machines are represented by their sub transient reactance.010 1. ½ cycle short circuit currents are used to evaluate the interrupting duties for lowvoltage power breakers.010 Z " dv " Z dv 1.010 ANSI C37. The main impedances for the first ½ cycle is the subtransient impedance. Type of Device High voltage circuit breaker Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC Relay Duty Closing and latching capability Interrupting capability Bus bracing Instantaneous settings Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times Source Type 1/2Cycle Calculations Interrupting Time calculations (1.010 ANSI C37. The ½ cycle network is also referred to as the sub transient network.010 ANSI C37. ½ Cycle Network Duty The decay of short circuit current is due to the decay of stored magnetic energy in the equipment.5 to 4 cycles cpt) Reference Remote Utility (equivalent) Local Generator Synchronous Motor Large Induction Motors: >1000 HP or 250 HP and 2 poles Medium Induction Motors 50 to 249 HP or 250 to 1000 HP <2poles Small Induction Motors <50 HP Z " s Zs Z " dv " ANSI C37. The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the ½ cycle network. low voltage moldedcase breakers.
4. the fault current has the AC component only. If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the current are not symmetrical around the zero axis. The DC component decays to zero. 7 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Harmonic Filters Z% = 100 Tuned _ harmonic X”d = 1 LRC / For Induction Motors 1. Table 2: 30 cycles calculation impedance Source Type Power Utility /Grid Generators Induction Motors Synchronous Motors 30 Cycle Calculation Impedance Z s" ' Z dv Infinite impedance Xd 2. they are called “Symmetrical”. Note that the induction machines.0 kV) Unfused Low Voltage PCB without instantaneous All Other Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC bus Duty Interrupting capability Interrupting capability N/A N/A N/A Steady State or 30Cycle Network This network is used to calculate the steady state short circuit current and duties for some of the protective devices 30 cycles after the fault occurs (delayed protective devices).5 – 4) cycles after the fault.4 ANSI/IEEE Standard 2. if DC fault component is considered. and it is symmetrical. If the DC fault component is not considered in the fault current. and the amplitude of the symmetrical AC component decays to constant amplitude in the steadystate. If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the current waveform are symmetrical around zero axis. and condensers are not considered in the 30cycle fault calculation. The type of power system component and its representation in the 30cycle network are shown in the following table. Type of Device High voltage circuit breaker (>1.1 Multiplying Factors (MF) The short circuit waveform for a balanced threephase fault at the terminal bus of a machine is generally asymmetrical and is composed of a unidirectional DC component and a symmetrical AC component. synchronous motors. they are called “Asymmetrical”. then the fault current is asymmetrical and is called asymmetrical or total fault current.54 Cycle Network This network is used to calculate the interrupting short circuit current and protective device duties (1.
2 where τ is the instant of time when fault occurs.1 Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.7 . If the generator is remote from the faulted point. the AC short circuit current decay will be slow and a conservative simplification is to assume that there is no AC decay (NACD) in the symmetrical AC component. “No AC Decay” (NACD) at its initial value or it may reduce with time toward a residual AC current magnitude (ACD). then the AC component decays (ACD). The MF is calculated based on the X/R ratio and the instant of time that the fault current happens. Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2. The X/R ratio for ANSI breaker duties is calculated from separate R and X networks. when a generator is local or close to the faulted point.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The multiplying factors MF converts the rms value of the symmetrical AC component into asymmetrical rms current or short circuit current duty. For: τ = ½ Cycle.6 Peak Multiplying Factor Is defined as: MFPeak = 2 (1 + e − 2πτ X /R ) .7. the MF is equal to 1. If the fault is close to a generator. First Cycle (Asymmetrical) Total Short Circuit Current MF (Circuit Duty): Is defined as: − 2π X R MFm = 1 + 2e For: X/R = 25.2 Local and Remote Contributions The magnitude of the symmetrical current (AC component) from remote sources remain essentially constant. the short circuit current decays faster.4.6. . and X/R = 25 to one decimal place is MFPeak = 2. 2. X/R for ANSI breaker duties are calculated from separate R and X network. In other words. 8 .
then NACD = 0 9 . or when there is no generator.4 * EG . then NACD = 1 When all contributions are local.4 * EG .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Per ANSI Standards: A generator is a LOCAL SOURCE of the short circuit current if: • • The per unit reactance external to the generator is less than 1. " Xd EG is the generator short circuit current for a threephase fault at its terminal bus " Xd A generator is a REMOTE SOURCE of a short circuit current if: • The per unit reactance external to the generator is equal to or exceeds 1. 3 • • Its location from the fault is two or more transformations or Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes is less than or equal to 0.5 times the generator perunit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes will be greater than where the 0. " Xd where the EG is the generator short circuit current for a threephase fault at its terminal bus " Xd The ANSI Standards provide multiplying factors (MF) based X/R ratio for threephase faults and linetoground faults fed predominantly from generators and MF for faults fed predominantly from remote sources. No AC decay (NACD) Ratio The Total Short circuit Current is equal to: I Total = I Local + I Re mote and: 4 NACD = I Re mote I Total 5 When all contributions are remote.5 times the generator per unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA The generator short circuit contribution may be written as: IG = EG " ( XExternal + X d ) .
Ω. positivesequence and negativesequence shortcircuit impedances are equal: Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) . cables and other similar equipment. KT and KS or KSO when calculating shortcircuit currents with the equivalent voltage source at the shortcircuit location according to the standard [1]. 100 ⋅ S rT 8 Where: UrT is the rated voltage of the transformer. 6 Z(0) =U (0) / I(0) . feeders. neutral conductor. cable sheath and cable armoring).1 System Parameters Power transformer parameters The impedance module ZT can be calculated from the rated transformer data as follows: ZT = 2 u kr ⋅ U rT . network transformers (T) and power station units (S) will be multiplied with the impedance correction factors KG. The impedances of generators (G). earthing arrangement.5 IEC 60909 While using the IEC standard the following system components formulae are used: The network components like power transformers. earth wire. The positivesequence shortcircuit resistance RT of a twowinding transformer is given by the relationship: RT = PkrT . The zerosequence shortcircuit impedance. In this case. ukr is the shortcircuit voltage at rated current in percent. 7 is determined by assuming an AC voltage between the three paralleled conductors and the joint return (for example earth.5. the threefold zerosequence current flows through the joint return. 2 3 ⋅ I rT 9 10 . overhead lines. reactors.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2.Ω . SrT is the rated apparent power of the transformer. on the highvoltage or lowvoltage side. 2.
Ω.. For large transformers. 13 Zerosequence impedance arrangements for the calculation of unbalanced shortcircuit currents are given in IEC 609094. which is equal to the negativesequence shortcircuit impedance Z(2) : Z T = Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) . when calculating shortcircuit currents. Note: The resistance RT is to be considered if the peak shortcircuit current ip or the DC component iDC is to be calculated. 11 . 10 The relative reactance of the transformer xT is given by the formula xT = S rT ⋅ XT . The zerosequence shortcircuit impedance the manufacturer: Z ( 0 )T may be obtained from the rating plate or from Z ( 0 )T = R( 0 )T + jX ( 0 )T . . 12 The actual data for twowinding transformers (used as network transformers or in power stations) are given in IEC 609092. Ω . 2 U rT 11 Note: The ratio RT/XT generally decreases with transformer size. IrT . The positivesequence shortcircuit reactance XT of a twowinding transformer results as follows: 2 2 X T = ZT − RT .the rated current of the transformer on the highvoltage or lowvoltage side.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Where: PkrT is the total loss of the transformer in the windings at rated current. The impedance shortcircuit impedance Z T of a twowinding power transformer is considered like positivesequence Z (1) . the resistance is so small that the impedance is represented by the reactance only.
2) ÷ (1.4): KT = 0.the highest operating voltage before short circuit. If the longterm operating conditions of network transformers before the short circuit are known for sure.10) in order to calculate the correction factor KT: KT = Un cmax ⋅ . ϕ tb .the angle of power factor before short circuit.the highest operating current before short circuit (this depends on network configuration and relevant reliability philosophy).2. The correction factor KT is multiplying all the components of the transformer positivesequence impedance. then the following equation may be used instead of equation (1. 1 + 0. 15 The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negativesequence and the zerosequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced short circuit currents. The rated transformation ratio tr of the power transformer: 12 .6 xT 14 where cmax (from table 2.95 ⋅ cmax . according to the following relationship: Z TK = K T ⋅ Z T = (K T RT ) + j (K T X T ) . The impedances between the star point of transformers and earth are to be introduced as (3 ZN) into the zerosequence system without a correction factor.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE For twowinding power transformers with and without onload tapchanger. The correction factor will not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units. The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negativesequence and the zerosequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced shortcircuit currents. b b b U 1 + xT I T / I rT sin ϕT ( ) 16 Where: cmax is the voltage factor from table 1. related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the LV side of the network transformer. b IT .2) is related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the LV side of the network transformer and the transformer relative reactance is calculated with the relationship (11). an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to equations (1. Ub .
the negativesequence and the zerosequence shortcircuit impedances of reactors are equal: Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) = Z ( 0 ) . respectively. related to the rated impedance is: x" d = " Xd . U rTLV tr = 17 where UrTHV and UrTLV are transformer rated voltages of the HV and LV windings. 18 Shortcircuit currentlimiting reactors will be treated as a part of the shortcircuit impedance. Z rG 21 The following values for the fictitious resistances RGf may be used for the calculation of the peak shortcircuit current with sufficient accuracy: 13 . Synchronous Generators and Motors The synchronous generator rated impedance is given by: 2 U rG . ZR ≅ X R = u kR ⋅ U n .Ω. S rG Z rG = 20 The relative subtransient reactance x" d . UN – the system nominal voltage. the positivesequence.Ω 100 3 ⋅ I rR 19 Where: ukR and IrR are given on the reactor rating plate.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE U rTHV . Reactors Assuming geometric symmetry.
the nominal voltage of the system. The influence of various windingtemperatures on RGf is not considered. UrG .07 d for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG < 100 MVA. the manufacturer’s values for RG should be used. given by the relationship: KG = where: ( cmax ⋅ U n . UN .2.15 d for generators with UrG ≤ 1 kV.the rated voltage of the generator. ϕrG is the phase angle between U rG and I rG . the corrected impedance positivesequence system: Z GK of the SG has to be used in the " Z GK = K G Z G = (K G RG ) + j K G X d . x" d .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE " Xd for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG ≥ 100 MVA. 0. according to the (21) relationship. 14 .05 In addition to the decay of the DC component. Z G = RG + jX d 22 When calculating initial symmetrical shortcircuit currents in systems fed directly from generators without transformers unit.the relative subtransient reactance of the generator related to the rated impedance. RGf = 0.15 also take into account the decay of the AC component of the shortcircuit current during the first halfcycle after the short circuit took place. The subtransient impedance Z G of the generator. 1 + x ⋅ sin ϕ rG U rG " d ) 24 cmax is the voltage factor according to table 2. The values RGf cannot be used when calculating the aperiodic component iDC of the shortcircuit current. X" RGf = 0.05.07. in the positivesequence system can be calculated with the formula: " . 23 ( ) with the correction factor KG for SG. the factors 0. When the effective resistance of the stator of synchronous machines lies much below the given values for RGf. and 0. " X RGf = 0.
for the negativesequence reactance X ( 2 )G of the SM. Z ( 0 )G 27 For the shortcircuit impedance with KG from equation (1. and the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The correction factor KG (equation 24) for the calculation of the corrected subtransient n impedance Z GK has been introduced because the equivalent voltage source is used instead of the subtransient voltage E″ behind the subtransient reactance of the synchronous generator. 25 If the values of " " Xq Xd and reactances are different. synchronous compensators are treated in the same way as SG. by the following equation: Z ( 2 )GK . the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib. they are subject to additional considerations. If not. 26 The corrected shortcircuit impedance of SG. in the negativesequence system. Z ( 2) GK = (K G RG ) + j (K G X ( 2) G ) . the peak shortcircuit current ip. they are treated like synchronous generators. 28 When an impedance is present between the starpoint of the generator and earth. the following applies Z ( 0 )GK = (K G R( 0 )G ) + jX ( 0 )G . When calculating the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current k . it may be necessary to introduce: U G = U rG (1 + pG ) . If synchronous motors have a voltage regulation.20): of SG in the zerosequence system. their arithmetical mean can be used: " " Xd + Xq X ( 2)G = 2 . I" Asynchronous Motors (AM) The rated apparent power of an AM can be calculated from the equation: 15 . (cU / 3 ) If the terminal voltage of the generator is different from UrG. the correction factor KG will not be applied to this impedance. is given.
The impedance module ZM of AM in the positive. ⋅ η rM ⋅ cos ϕ rM 30 where UrM is the rated line voltage of the AM. according to the circuit diagram (interlocking) or to the process (reversible drives).Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE S rM = η rM PrM . in accordance with its nameplate data. MV motors have to be considered in the calculation of maximum shortcircuit current. The contribution of AM in LV power supply systems to the shortcircuit current calculated without motors: " ∑ I rM ≤ 0. providing that.the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current without influence of motors. rated power factor and rated efficiency of the motor. also to the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik.05 ⋅ I k 0 M . ∑ I rM In the calculation of shortcircuit currents. cosϕrM and ηrM are respectively the active rated power.and negativesequence systems can be determined by: 16 . those MV and LV motors may be neglected. MV and LV motors contribute to the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current k . The rated current of the AM is given by the relationship: I rM = 3 ⋅ U rM PrM . for example in networks of chemical and steel industries and pump stations. I" 31 Where: is the sum of the rated currents of motors connected directly (without transformers) to the network where the shortcircuit occurs. for unbalanced short circuits. ⋅ cos ϕ rM 29 where PrM. " Ik 0 M . LV motors are to be taken into account in auxiliaries of power stations and in industrial and similar installations. to the peak shortcircuit current ip. they are not switched in at the same time. " Ik may be I" neglected if their contribution is not higher than 5 % of the initial shortcircuit current k 0 M . to the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib and.
RM/XM=0. If the ratio (RM/XM) is known. 33 However the motor resistance RM will be R M = X M ⋅ ( RM / X M ) . MV and LV motors.922⋅ZM for LV motor groups.the rated apparent power of the motor (see relationship (1. with XM=0. may be neglected in the calculation of shortcircuit currents for a shortcircuit at the feeder connection point Q.25)). Z M . RM/XM=0. 34 For the determination of the initial shortcircuit current according to the shortcircuit currents calculation method.989⋅ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles (PrM/p)<1 MW.15.995⋅ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles (PrM/p)≥1 MW. if needed. if there is the following condition: 17 . with XM=0. AM are substituted by their impedances negativesequence systems: " Z M = RM + jX M . ⋅ (I LR / I rM ) Z rM = S rM 32 Where: UrM is the rated voltage of the motor. with connection cables.10. (ILR/IrM) .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2 U rM . with XM = 0.42.the ratio of the lockedrotor current to the rated current of the motor. where p is the pair of poles number. in the positivesequence and 35 The zerosequence system impedance Z(0)M of the motor will be given by the manufacturer. then the motor reactance XM will be calculated as follows: XM = 1 + ( RM / X M ) ZM 2 . SrM . which are connected by twowinding transformers to the network in which the short circuit occurs. The following relations may be used with sufficient accuracy in order to calculate AM parameters: RM/XM=0.
54 1 1 ρ Al = Ω ⋅ mm 2 / m for Aluminum and ρ Ala = Ω ⋅ mm 2 / m for Aluminum alloy. 38 The line resistance RLr at the reference temperature θr=20°C can be determined if its length lL is known: 18 .the nominal voltage of the system at the feeder connection point Q.3 Where: ∑ PrM is the sum of the rated active powers of the mediumvoltage and the lowvoltage motors which will be considered. Z L = RL + jX L . 37 may be calculated from the conductor data.the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current at the feeder connection point Q without supplement of the motors. UnQ .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 0. 36 − 0. Lines Constants The positivesequence shortcircuit impedance. ∑ S rT . " I kQ .8 ∑ PrM ≤ ∑ S rT 100 ⋅ c ⋅ ∑ S rT " 3 ⋅ U nQ ⋅ I kQ . through which the motors are directly fed.the sum of the rated apparent powers of all transformers. 34 31 ρ Cu = The effective resistance per unit length RLr of overhead lines at the conductor temperature 20°C may be calculated from the nominal crosssection qn and the resistivity ρ: ' ' RLr = ρ qn . such as the crosssection qn and the centredistances d of the conductors. The following values for resistivity may be used: 1 Ω ⋅ mm 2 / m for Copper.Ω / m.
the radius of a single conductor. r . d⎞ ⎛ 1 X 'L = μ 0 f ⎜ + ln ⎟ . in the case of overhead lines. valid with sufficient accuracy for most practical purposes for copper. 39 Line Resistances RL (overhead lines and cables. Ω . Where: 41 dL1L2. θr=20°C . is determined by the relationship: d = 3 d L1L 2 ⋅ d L 2 L3 ⋅ d L 3 L1 .the resistance value at a reference temperature of 20°C. Where: n is the number of bundled conductors. or the center of bundles. θe. see also IEC 608651. aluminum and aluminum alloy. when calculating minimum shortcircuit currents: 40 RL = [1 + α (θ e − θ r )]⋅ RLr . the equivalent radius rB can be determined by the following formula: rB = n n ⋅ r ⋅ R n−1 . In the case of bundle conductor. θe . IEC 60949 and IEC 60986). RLr . Where: α=0. assuming transposition.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE ' RLr = RLr ⋅ lL . The reactance per unit length from: 42 ' XL for overhead lines may be calculated. r⎠ ⎝ 4n 43 19 .the reference conductor temperature in degrees Celsius.004 K1 is the temperature factor of resistivity.the conductor temperature in degrees Celsius at the end of the shortcircuit duration (for The geometric mean distance between conductors. R is the bundle radius (see IEC 609092). dL2L3 and dL3L1 are geometric distances between conductors. line conductors and neutral conductors) will be introduced at a higher temperature θ e ≠ θ r .
Z Z However. 44 For measurement of the positivesequence impedance Z ( 1 ) = R( 1 ) + jX ( 1 ) . ( 1 )L ( 0 )L and of LV and HV cables depend on national techniques and The impedances standards and may be taken from IEC 609092.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Where: μ0 = 4π⋅107 H/m.the number of bundled conductors. Earth Wire Impedance The equivalent earth penetration depth δ is given by the following relationship: 20 . r .the radius of a single conductor or. (see IEC 609094). the impedance of a network feeder at the connection point Q is given by: 2 c ⋅ U nQ ZQ = where S " kQ = c ⋅ U nQ " 3 I kQ .the geometric mean distance between conductors. like in the resistance case. 45 Z ( 0 ) = R( 0 ) + jX ( 0 ) . or n=1 for a single conductor. Ω . from the (43) relationship. 47 " I kQ is the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current. from textbooks or manufacturer’s data. r is to be substituted by rB. and the zerosequence shortcircuit impedance. if its length lL is done: ' XL = XL ⋅ lL . in the case of conductor bundles. f – the nominal frequency of the power system.37) relationship. 46 Sometimes it is possible to estimate the zerosequence impedances with the ratios R(0)L/RL and X(0)L/XL (see IEC 609092). according to (2. The overhead line reactance XL follows to be determined. d . n .
Resistivity ρE and equivalent earth penetration depth δ for different soil types 21 . 48 ω= 2πf . having values in accordance with table 2.1 content.angular frequency.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE δ = 1.85 ⋅ Where: ρE ωμ 0 . ρE is the earth type resistivity. μ0 = 4π⋅10−7 H/m – vide absolute magnetic permeability. m.
for other ACSR wires.65÷8.32)⋅10 (0.3)⋅103 (4.65)⋅103 (1. =⎨ 8 ⎩0.69÷4.2)⋅103 660÷930 600÷850 295÷660 <415 270÷600 <380 Granite Rocks Stony soil Pebbles.relative permeability of earth wire. 10.. 49 ⎠ ' ' Z W ≈ RW + ' ωμ 0 ⎛ μr δ + j μ0 f ⎜ + ln ⎜ 8 rWW ⎝ 4ν Where: ' RW is the earth wires resistance per unit length. wire ⎧0. ν . if there are two earth wires: 50 rWW = rW ⋅ dW . 51 22 . equal to the earth wire radius rW if there is just one earth ωμ 0 rWW = rW .1)⋅103 (2. μr ≈ 5 .1÷9. for f = 50 Hz . μr .32÷3. wet sand Farmland Clay. where dW is the distance between two earth wires.94÷5. loam Marshy soil The earth wire impedance per unit length Z W is: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ..2)⋅103 (2. μr ≈ 1.78÷1.22)⋅103 (1.equivalent earth wire radius. for Steel wires.94)⋅103 3 (0. For Aluminum core steel reinforced (ACSR) wires with one layer of aluminum. μr ≈ 75.300 >8. Ωm >104 (3÷10)⋅103 (1÷3)⋅103 (0.2)⋅103 70÷200 50÷100 10÷50 <20 Equivalent earth penetration depth δ.71÷1.the earth wires number.500 (5.05 Ω / km .2÷1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Table 3: Resistivity and equivalent earth penetration Earth types Resistivity ρE. rWW . and calculated with following formula.2÷2. dry sand Calcareous soil. for f = 60 Hz .06 Ω / km . m f=50 Hz f=60 Hz >9.
10 Tolerance. Low voltage. when there is only one earth wire and by the next formula 53 dWL = 6 dW 1L1 ⋅ dW 1L 2 ⋅ dW 1L 3 ⋅ dW 2 L1 ⋅ dW 2 L 2 ⋅ dW 2 L 3 . U n ∈ (1.95 1. V U n ∈ [100. V. cmin currents. % 6 10 Nominal voltage U n. 55 where c is the voltage factor. 54 Sources As per IEC 60909 the equivalent voltage source (rms) is given by the relationship U es = c ⋅U n 3 . having values according to the table 4: Table 4: IEC voltage factor Voltage factor c for the calculation of Minimum shortcircuit Maximum shortcircuit currents.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The mutual impedance per unit length between the earth wire and the parallel line conductors with common earth returns Z WL ≈ ' ωμ 0 8 + j μ 0 f ln δ dWL . L2 and L3. when there are two earth wires.1000]kV Medium voltage. given by the formula dWL = 3 dWL1 ⋅ dWL 2 ⋅ dWL 3 .35]kV U n > 35 kV High voltage2). 52 Where: dWL is the geometric mean distance between the earth wire and the line conductors L1. 1.05 0.10  23 .00 1. cmax1) 1.
there is no change: o in the involved network o in the type of shortcircuit involved Additional calculations about all different possible load flows at the moment of the shortcircuit are superfluous General rules • • • • All network feeders.generator short circuits if X TLVK ≥ 2 ⋅ X Qt .5. voltages and currents are to be converted by the rated transformation ratio tr. 56 The impedances of the equipment in superimposed or subordinated networks are to be divided or multiplied by (tr)2. In the case of a farfromgenerator short circuit.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 1) cmaxUn should not exceed the highest voltage Um for equipment of power systems: cmax ⋅U n ≤ U m . are neglected Arc resistances are not taken into account For the duration of the shortcircuit. which differ in their magnitude. synchronous and asynchronous machines are replaced by their internal impedances The equivalent voltage source is the only active voltage of the system When calculating shortcircuit currents in systems with different voltage levels. are to be calculated. it is necessary to transfer impedances values from one voltage level to another.9U m should be applied. the square of the rated transformation ratio tr..e. In general. system no transformation is necessary if these systems are coherent.the AC component with constant amplitude during the whole shortcircuit .the aperiodic DC component beginning with an initial value A and decaying to zero Singlefed short circuits supplied by a transformer may be regarded as farfrom. i. if no nominal voltage is defined 2) U m = cmaxU n or cminU n = 0. U rTHV / U rTLV = U nHV / U nLV . for each transformer in the system with partial shortcircuit currents. usually to that voltage level at which the shortcircuit current is to be calculated For p. except those of the zerosequence system. two shortcircuit currents. 2. 57 24 .u. the shortcircuit current can be considered as the sum of the following two components: .2 Short Circuit Current Calculus Assumptions • • • • • All line capacitances and shunt admittances are neglected Nonrotating loads.
The type of short circuit which leads to the highest shortcircuit current depends on the values of the positivesequence. the shortcircuit current can be considered as the sum of the following two components: . Normally. it is of interest not only to know the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current " and the peak shortcircuit current ip. the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib is smaller than the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current " . Calculations are simplest for balanced short circuits on radial systems. and the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik at the shortcircuit location. When sources are distributed in meshed network and for all cases of unbalanced shortcircuits.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE with XQt calculated in accordance with 11 and X TLVK = K T ⋅ X TLV . In this case. the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik is smaller than the symmetrical shortIk circuit breaking current Ib. negativesequence. Shortcircuits may have one or more sources. From the calculated initial symmetrical shortcircuit current and characteristic curves of the fuses or currentlimiting circuitbreakers. For the calculation of the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current " Ik the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib. While using fuses or currentlimiting circuitbreakers to protect substations. network reduction is necessary to calculate shortcircuit impedances Z ( 1 ) = Z ( 2 ) and Z ( 0 ) at the shortcircuit location. the cutoff current is determined. the system may be converted by network reduction into an equivalent shortcircuit impedance Zk at the shortcircuit location. it is necessary to distinguish between networks with and without parallel branches. powerstation units and motors (neartogenerator and/or neartomotor short circuits).the aperiodic DC component beginning with an initial value A and decaying to zero In the calculation of the shortcircuit currents in systems supplied by generators. the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current is first calculated as if these devices were not available.the AC component with decaying amplitude during the short circuit . but also the Ik symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib and the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik. 25 . In this case. This procedure is not allowed when calculating the peak shortcircuit current ip. which is the peak shortcircuit current of the downstream substation. as the individual contributions to a balanced short circuit can be evaluated separately for each source. and zerosequence shortcircuit impedances of the system. 58 In the case of a neartogenerator short circuit.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Maximum and minimum shortcircuit currents When calculating maximum shortcircuit currents.5 and [1] . This situation is described by the following relationships: Z ( 2 ) / Z ( 0 ) > 1.voltage factor cmin for the calculation of minimum shortcircuit currents will be applied according to table 3 . 59 For shortcircuits near transformers with low zerosequence impedance.voltage factor cmax .when equivalent impedances ZQ are used to represent external networks.resistances RL of lines (overhead lines and cables. and neutral conductors) will be introduced at a higher temperature Initial symmetrical shortcircuit current The highest initial shortcircuit current will occur for the threephase short circuit. the minimum equivalent shortcircuit impedance will be used which corresponds to the maximum shortcircuit current contribution from the network feeders . Z(0) may be smaller than Z(1). " Ik 60 The initial symmetrical shortcircuit current equation: will be calculated using the following general 26 . line conductors. In that case.lines resistance RL are to be introduced at a temperature of 20°C When calculating minimum shortcircuit currents. 2.choose the system configuration and the minimum contribution from power stations and network feeders which lead to a minimum value of shortcircuit current at the shortcircuit location .motors will be neglected .motors will be included if appropriate in accordance with 2. it is necessary to introduce the following conditions: .choose the system configuration and the maximum contribution from power plants and network feeders which lead to the maximum value of shortcircuit current at the shortcircuit location. it is necessary to introduce the following conditions: . Z ( 2 ) = Z (1) . or for accepted sectioning of the network to control the shortcircuit current . the highest initial shortcircuit current " I kE 2 E will occur for a linetoline short circuit with earth connection.4. will be applied for the calculations of maximum shortcircuit currents in the absence of a national standard . because for the common case Z( 0 ) > Z( 1 ) = Z( 2 ) .
in between two systems. 27 .. in which the shortcircuit occurs. If there are several transformers with slightly differing rated transformation ratios (trT1. X k = X Qt + X TK + X L . The impedance of the network feeder side connected to the shortcircuit location. trT2. parallel connection. The impedances in systems connected through transformers to the system. 64 When there is more than one source contributing to the shortcircuit current.. deltastar transformation) using the positivesequence shortcircuit impedances of electrical equipment. 61 where Rk and Xk are the sum of the seriesconnected resistances and reactances of the positivesequence system respectively: Rk = RQt + RTK + RL .. the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current " Ik at the shortcircuit location F is the sum of the individual branch shortcircuit currents.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE c ⋅U n " Ik = 3 Rk2 + X k2 ( ) .. trTn).3 ⋅ X k . may be neglected. and the sources are unmeshed. Each branch shortcircuit current can be calculated as an independent singlesource threephase shortcircuit current in accordance with equation: " Ik = 3 Rk2 + X k2 ( c ⋅U n ) . Resistances Rk 62 63 Z Qt = RQt + jX Qt is referred to the voltage of the transformer Rk < 0. have to be transferred by the square of the rated transformation ratio. 65 In meshed networks. 66 by network reduction (series connection. it is generally necessary to determine the shortcircuit impedance Z k = Z (1) . the arithmetic mean value can be used.
67 where the factor κ will be calculated by the following expression: κ = 1. is the sum of the partial shortcircuit currents: i p = ∑ i pi . the shortcircuit breaking currents are equal to the initial shortcircuit currents: " " " " Ib = Ik .the time R/X .98 ⋅ e −3( R / X ) .02 + 0.the resistance/reactance ratio Note: The correct resistance RG of the generator armature should be used and not RGf.the nominal frequency t . the contribution to the peak shortcircuit current from each branch can be expressed by: " ip = 2 κ Ik . 70 Where: " is the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current Ik f . = 2 I k e . fed from sources which are not meshed with one another. 71 28 .c . I b2 = I k 2 . I b1 = I k 1 . i 69 DC component of the shortcircuit current The maximum DC component iDC of the shortcircuit current may be calculated with sufficient accuracy by equation: " −2πf t ( R / X ) id . For farfromgenerator short circuits. Symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current The breaking current at the shortcircuit location consists in general of a symmetrical current Ib and a DC current iDC at the time tmin For some neartogenerator short circuits the value of iDC at tmin may exceed the peak value of Ib and this can lead to missing current zeros.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The peak shortcircuit current For threephase shortcircuits fed from nonmeshed networks. I b 2 E = I k 2 E . 68 The peak shortcircuit current ip at a shortcircuit location F.
the symmetrical breaking current at the shortcircuit location can be calculated by the summation of the individual breaking current contributions: I b = ∑ I bi . the decay to the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current is taken into account by the factor μ according to equation: " Ib = μ ⋅ Ik . i 73 The shortcircuit breaking current Ib in meshed networks will be calculated by: " Ib = Ik . in the case of a single fed shortcircuit or from nonmeshed networks. For threephase short circuits in nonmeshed networks. 72 " I kG / I rG and IrG is the where the factor μ depends on the minimum time delay tmin and the ratio rated generator current. according to IEC 609090/200107 [1]. 74 which is usually greater than the real symmetrical shortcircuit breaking currents. 29 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE For a neartogenerator short circuit.
Note: For circuit breakers rated on Total Current S=1. However. 30 .2 1.0 S is the breakers’ asymmetrical capability factor and is determined based on the rating structure to which the breaker was manufactured.0 Medium voltage breakers duty is based on: 1. the MV CBs interrupting time correspond to 3 cycle contact parting time for the short circuit current. Both the symmetrical and total current rated breakers have some DC interrupting capability included in their ratings and it is a matter of how it is accounted for in the total interrupting current. the Contact Parting Time (CPT) needs to be known for application of breakers. The interrupting rating is calculated differently based on the formulae shown in the next sections.06 – 1987). Momentary rating (C&L) 2. The typical total rated interrupting time for MediumVoltage Circuit Breakers is 5 cycles (ANSI C37. Table 5: CB rated interrupting time in cycles Circuit Breaker Rated Interrupting Time. Most breakers manufactured after 1964 are breakers rated on a ‘symmetrical’ current basis. However.1 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 3 3.4 1. in Cycles 2 3 5 8 CPT. Peak (Crest) 3. Interrupting The Momentary and Peak formulae apply to both breakers symmetrical and total current rated breakers.1 ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEEE) Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB) The ANSI/IEEE Standards define the CB total interrupting time in cycles. Those manufactured before 1965 were rated on a ‘total’ current basis.5 2 3 4 S 1. in Cycles 1. in the 2 8 cycle network.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Momentary Duty Calculation (C & L): The CB Closing and Latching Capability defines the CB ability to withstand (close and immediately latch) the maximum value of the firstcycle short circuit current. where: 2π MFm = 1 + 2e X / R .rms. Calculate the ½ cycle symmetrical short circuit (Isym.rms. Calculate asymmetrical current value using the following formula: Imom. then the device Pass or otherwise it fails 4.49 . 2. Calculate the peak value of momentary SC using the following formula: Imom.rms.rms rating ≥ Imom.asym.0.asym = MFm*Isym.asym against the medium voltage circuit breaker (C&L.rms).1 * e X/R 3 77 31 .rms ) value: If Device C&L. or peak current.asym*100)/Device C&L.rms.rms. Compare Imom. Calculate the % Rating = (Imom.6 3.peak = MFp*Isym.rms where: MFp = (1 + e 2πτ X /R ) 2 .rms). DesignBase uses the following steps to calculate the circuit breaker momentary duty: 1.76 and τ = 0. 75 Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym. The closing and latching capability of a symmetrical currentrated CB is expressed in terms of Asymmetrical. Total rms current. 2.rms rating Peak Duty calculation (Crest): 1.
For remote fault the multiplying factor is MFr: 4π C X /R MFr = 1 + 2e S 80 32 .7.peak rating ≥ Imom. NACD = 1. then the NACD (the current is obtained by using the (1. which the CB can interrupt regardless of how low the operating voltage is. 3.5 times the Generator Z’’dv. 2.peak rating Interrupting Duty Calculation The Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability for a Symmetrical CurrentRated CB is the maximum rms current of the symmetrical AC and DC component. total local contribution. or MFl) Remote – If Generator current contribution to fault is less than 40% of a generator terminal fault then this generator is Remote.peak.54) cycle network impedance Calculate NACD (No AC Decrement) ratio NACD = 4. This is the most conservative solution “All Local”. or otherwise it fails 4.peak ) value. There are three options: • • • 1. Compare Imom.e. If Device Creast.peak against the medium voltage circuit breaker (Creat. Calculate The % rating = (Imom. “All Remote” i. then the device pass. NACD = 0 “Adjusted”. i. 3. this is based on actual calculations Determine if the generator is Local or Remote Calculate total remote contribution.peak*100)/Device Crest. For a system other than of 60 Hz adjust the calculated X/R as follows: ( X / R) mod = (X/R) * 60 System Frequency (Hz) 78 The following steps are used to calculate the circuit breaker interrupting. Iremote (Itotal .e. or equivalent impedance to generation terminals is > 1. The interrupting fault currents for the MV & HV circuit breakers is equal to 1.54 cycles short circuit current.Ilocal) Itotal (Iremote + Ilocal) 79 Calculate the Multiplying factor based on the fault location (MFr.0.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Where C = CB Contact Parting Time in Cyc. Local – For any local fault the multiplying factor MFl is calculated using the following formula within EDSA or look up tables. The equations are not given in ANSI C37.101, but are empirical equations to match the curves within the ANSI breaker standard.
4π
MFl =
where:
K 2 + 2e X / R S
C
,
81
Table 6: K factor CPT 1.5 2 3 4 K= 1.0278  0.004288(X/R) + 0.00002945(X/R)2  0.000000068368(X/R)3 1.0604  0.007473(X/R) + 0.00006253(X/R)2  0.0000002427(X/R)3 1.0494  0.00833(X/R) + 0.00006919(X/R)2  0.000000075638(X/R)3 1.0370  0.008148(X/R) + 0.0000611(X/R)2  0.0000002248(X/R)3 The Adjusted Multiplying Factor (AMFi) is equal to: AMFi = MFl +NACD (MFrMFl), If AMFi is less than 1.0 then the program uses 1.0 5. Calculate Iint, All Remote: All Local: Mixed local and remote: 6. Iint = MFr*Iint,rms,sym Iint = MFl*Iint,rms,sym Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym 82
Calculate 3 phase Device Duty by adjusting the device interrupting duty based on rated voltage using the following formula:
3P Device Duty = Min (
7.
Device Int Rating * Rated Max kV * Device Max Int Rating) Operating Voltage kV
Compare Iint against the CB 3P Device Duty. If 3P Device Duty ≥ Iint, then the device Passes, otherwise it Fails.
8.
Calculate % rating = (Iint *100)/ (3P Device Duty)
33
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
3.2
Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LVCBs) For LowVoltage CBs (LVCBs) the time of short circuit current interruption occurs within the sub transient time interval. However, the interrupting capabilities of unfused LVCBs are sensitive to the maximum peak magnitude of the total /asymmetrical fault current. If the device library does not have a value for X/R then the following default values are used as default by the EDSA program:
Table 7: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSA’s Library Breaker Type Unfused Power Circuit (PCB) Breaker Fused Power Circuit Breaker, MCCB, ICCB (Insulated Case CB) Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated ≤ 10,000A Molded Case MCCB), ICCB rated 10,00120,000 A Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated > 20,000 A Test %PF 15 20 50 30 20 Test X/R 6.59 4.9 1.73 3.18 4.90
The following steps are used to calculate the low voltage circuit breaker interrupting: 1. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms). 2. Calculate Low Voltage Multiplying Factor (LVF) PCB: Power Circuit Breaker ICCB: Insulated Case Circuit Breaker
Fused PCB / MCCB / ICCB
(1 + 2e
2π Calc X/R
LVFasym =
) )
2π (1 + 2e Test X/R
( EQ − 7)
,
83
Unfused PCB / MCCB / ICCB with Instantaneous setting
−2πτ X/Rcalc
LVFp =
(1 + e

)
, 84
(1 + e
−2πT X/Rtest
)
34
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Where
τ = 0.49  0.1e
and T=
X/Rcalc 3
 X/Rtest 0.49  0.1e 3
In Options of the short circuit Tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” , the user can select to use τ =T = 0.5 instead of using the empirical formula by selecting “Applies 0.5 Cycles”.
Unfused PCB without Instantaneous setting If the breaker does not have an instantaneous setting then the breaker has two interrupting rating (peak and asymmetrical). Therefore the LVFp and LVFasym are calculated.
LVFasym =
(1 + 2e (1 + 2e

4πt X/Rcalc
) )
85
4πt X/Rtest
Where t is the breaker minimum short time trip in cycles at interrupting duty. The default value used by EDSA is 3 cycles. The peak interrupting rating is calculated as follows:
LVFp =
(1 + e

−2πτ X/Rcalc
)
86
(1 + e
Where
−2πT X/Rtest
)
τ = 0.49  0.1e
and
X/Rcalc 3
T = 0.49  0.1e
 X/Rtest 3
35
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
3. If any of the LVF is less than 1.0 then uses 1.0 4. Calculate adjusted Interrupting factor Fused Breakers Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 38 cycle interrupting short circuit) Unfused Breakers With Inst Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit) Unfused Breakers Without Inst Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 38 cycle interrupting short circuit) Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit) 5. Compare Iint,adj against the CB symmetrical interrupting rating. If Device Symmetrical rating ≥ Iint,adj, then the device passes, or otherwise it fails 6. Calculate The % rating = (Iint,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating
3.3
Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches The LVFs interrupting capability is the maximum symmetrical rms current which the fuse can interrupt and still remain intact. While the fuse has a symmetrical current rating it can also interrupt the DC component up to a value based on its test X/R ratio. The interrupting capabilities of LVFs are classified by the UL according to symmetrical current ratings in rms Amperes. In some rare cases the fuse asymmetrical rating is provided. Evaluation procedure: 3. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms). 4. Calculate Iasym: Iasym,adj = MFasym*Isym(1/2 Cyc) • If the fuse is symmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
36
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE MFasym = (1 + 2e  2π X/R ) 87 • If the fuse is asymmetrical rated.adj against the fuse symmetrical interrupting rating. Compare Iasym. For standard switches the same formulae are used Note: 37 . then MFasym is calculated using the following formula: MFasym = (1 + 2e (1 + 2e  2π Calc X/R ) ) . If Device Symmetrical rating ≥ Iasym. then the device Pass otherwise it Fails 6.adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating. 88  2π Test X/R 5.adj. Calculate The % rating = (Iasym.
sym.adj*100/ Device rating Calculate %rating=Iint.rms. ICCB rated <=10.adj? NO Yes MCCB/ICCB/PCBWith Instantaneous : Iint.adj =LVFasym*Isym.rms(38 Cyc) NO Is Device Symmetrical rating greater or Equal to Iint.59 MCCB. selected: y Calculate MF based on EQ1 Fuse / Switch Asymmetrical Rating selected: y Calculate MF based on EQ10 MVCB NO Fused? YES CB X/R is known? CB X/R is known? NO Yes The X/R is equal to: NO The X/R is equal to: PCB.73 = 3.00120.adj =LVF*Isym.18 = 4. ICCB rated 10. Page 1 38 . then LVF =1 Is Device rating greater or Equal to Iasym.000 A MCCB.rms). ICCB rated > 20.adj? Yes Fail Pass Fail Pass Calculate %rating=Isym. then adjust the X/R where. MVCB & Fuses Calculate the ½ cycle shortcircuit current (Isym.000A MCCB.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION Perform ShortCircuit Study & Update Answer File. ICCB = 4.9 PCB. ANSI Standard. MCCB.adj*100/ Device rating Figure 1: Device Evaluation. (X/R)mod=(X/R)*60/(System Hz) y y y For LVCB.adj =LVFp*Isym. For PCB without instantaneous use EQ8 & EQ9 Calculate LVF based on EQ7 Go to Page 2 IF LVF < 1.rms(½ Cyc) int. For MVCB calculate the Iint. ICCB = 6.9 YES Calculate LVF based on EQ8 for PCB breaker with Instantaneous Setting.rms PCB Without Instantaneous: Iint. For frequency other than 60 Hz.000 A = 1. MCCB and ICCB. Run the PDE analysis Fuses/ Switches LVCB Fuse / Switch Symmetrical Rating.
rms.sym) y NACD using (EQ3) y If NACD=0 then all contribution are Local y If NACD=1 then all contribution are Remote Peak Duty (Crest) Peak Duty (Crest) Momentary Duty (C&L) Momentary Duty (C&L) MFp = 2.6 ALL Remote Calculate MFp using EQ2 Calculate MFm using EQ1 All Local Calculate y MFr using EQ4 y Iint=MFr*Iint.sym NACD Is Device peak (crest) rating greater or Equal to Imom.rms.peak? NO Yes Calculate: y NACD using EQ3 y MFr using EQ4 y MFl using EQ5 y AMFi = using EQ6.peak*100/ device peak (crest) rating NO Is Device Int rating greater or Equal to calculated Iint? Yes NO Is Device C&L.rms Calculate y MFl using EQ5 y Iint=MFl*Iint.rms.peak=MFp*Isym. Page 2 39 .rms rating Figure 2: Device Evaluation.rms.0 y Iint = AMFi*Iint.sym/S Fail Pass Calculate 3 phase device duty using EQ6a Calculate %rating=Imom.asym*100/ device C&L.7 MFm = 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE MVCB From Page 1 Calculation Based on Generation: y All Remote y All Local y NACD ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION Page 2 In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has selected the fixed MF factor YES YES NO Interrupting Duty NO Calculate: y Total Remote Contribution y Total Local contribution y Total Contribution (Iint.asym=MFm*Isym.rms.rms.asym? Yes Fail Pass Fail Pass Calculate %rating=Iint*100/ 3P device Int rating Calculate %rating=Imom. y If AMFl less than 1 use 1.rms Calculate Imom.sym Calculate Imom.rms rating greater or Equal to Imom. ANSI Standard.
On the HV breakers it may to check if the breaker voltage rating is greater than the system voltage. energy requirements and cost. although this does not alleviate the duty on other associated equipment and may be inconvenient from an overall system viewpoint. However.: If the manufacturer indicates a few values for the rated voltage. some manufacturers do give a different current at various voltages. It must be stressed at this point that there is no intention to cast doubt on the capabilities of particular equipment design philosophies merely to emphasize that as refined design techniques lead to minimized designs so the importance of well constructed and realistic testing regimes increases. In principle. An obvious.1 Rated characteristics to be given for all circuitbreakers a1) Rated voltage Ur. Normally the interrupting current is a constant current at any voltage. for which extensive operating experience is available. interpolation of test evidence is relatively simple and accepted. then the greatest represents the maximum rated voltage. High Voltage Breakers. This trend is not problematic in itself but further emphasizes the need for future testing regimes to be fully representative of the system conditions in which the equipment needs to function correctly. 4. such interpolations are far more difficult to achieve simply and it is quite conceivable that critical fault duties may be identified at fractional shortcircuit levels. may have considerable margins in handover and above modern equipment. This contrary to the tendency for reducing protection times in modern equipment. reduced size. The same standards are used for LVPCB and MCCB.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 4 IEC Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEC) 4. weight. However. Low Voltage Breakers.1. but this presents obvious difficulties if varying design technologies have specific sensitivities. This progression is also perceived to have led to an inevitable reduction in inherent design margins such that much of the older equipment.1 CIRCUITBREAKERS Circuitbreaker design techniques have improved over time leading to benefits of technical performances. equipment testing should consider the equipment under test to be a "black box" model regardless of the technology being employed. solution to problems of asymmetric switching is to increase circuitbreaker operating times. the effect of low energy minor loops and the possibility of extended arcing periods. a2) Rated insulation level. in what are generally very short overall travel times. The voltage rating of IEC breakers is the maximum voltage that the breaker can be applied at. the high energies and relatively low di/dt values associated with an asymmetrical duty make it less onerous for such a device than an equivalent symmetrical duty. 40 . However. in technologies where the basic interruption characteristics of the device are duty dependent. Ultimately. but nonpreferred. are factors which might prove particularly critical. In technologies where the interruption capability is fundamentally constant regardless of the switching duty.
5 kA . pt . indicated by a manufacturer. disconector or swichdisconector means the rms value of a rated. which the equipment can support without any damages. shorttime current. I e ≤ 2. It is necessary that the last mentioned value to be lower than the product between the short duration acceptable rated current and the factor n.5 kA . pt . The rated shorttime withstand current Icw of a CB. on the base of the mentioned standard. 89 A complete determination of the rated shorttime withstand current is made. admited. indicated in table 3. in accordance with CEI 609471: I k ≤ n ⋅ I cw . The rated shorttime withstand current must be greater than twelve times the rated maximum operation current and. 5 kA}. 92 Values of the power factor. pt . a4) Rated normal current Ir: Current which the main circuit of a circuitbreaker is capable of carrying continuously under specified conditions of use and behavior. The standard values for the rated frequency of high voltage circuitbreakers are 50 Hz and 60 Hz. without other manufacturer’s indication. I e > 2. 90 91 InAC the rated shorttime withstand current is compearing with the rms value of the periodical shortcircuit current component. a5) Rated shorttime withstand current Icw. as follows: I cw = Max{ (12 ⋅ I e ). I cw = 30 kA . Tcw = 1s . the time constants and the ratio n between the peak value and the rated shorttime withstand current.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE a3) Rated frequency fr. the current duration must be 1 s: I cw ≥ 12 ⋅ I e . 41 . The testing determination of this current for a concret equipment is made in standard conditions [CEI 609471].
5.20 5 10 15 At the same time.5 0. 50] 50≤ Power Factor 0.05. as applicable. ms n factor 1.5.10 2. kA ≤1. 4.1} s 1. switchdisconnectors and fusecombination units. a9) Rated supply frequency of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits. interruption and insulation.2 Time constant.7 0.9 0. This break time is that required by the circuitbreaker with the over current release set for the maximum time lag when operating in accordance with its rated operating sequence.8 0. the short duration acceptable rated current represents the upper limit value of the rms value of the shortcircuit current periodical component which is presumed constant during the short timing τ. p.5] (4. a10) Rated pressures of compressed gas supply and/or of hydraulic supply for operation. disconnectors. When connected in a circuit the prospective breaking current of which is equal to its rated shortcircuit breaking current. 20] (20. 0 . for which the following normalized values are recommended: τ ∈ {0 . a6) Rated peak withstand current (Ip): It is equal to the rated shortcircuit making current.5. 42 . 0 . 10] (10. A rated duration of a shortcircuit need not be assigned to a selftripping circuitbreaker provided that the following applies.1. the circuitbreaker shall be capable of carrying the resulting current for the breaktime required.47 1.33] .53 1. a8) Rated supply voltage of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits Ua. a7) Rated duration of a shortcircuit tk.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Table 8: n factor based on PF and short circuit level Shortcircuit current. 3] (3.41 1.70 2.00 2. 6] (6.5 (1. Direct over current releases include integrated tripping systems.EN 609473:1999 Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 3: Switches.95 0. 0.3 0. The rated shorttime withstand current is equal to the rated shortcircuit breaking current [5.25 0.42 1.25.
The standard value of the AC component of the rated shortcircuit breaking current shall be selected from the R10 series specified in IEC 60059.6 – 2 – 2. the AC component relates to a threephases shortcircuit. – the percentage DC component. it shall be capable of breaking its rated shortcircuit breaking current . The rated shortcircuit breaking current is characterized by two values: – the rms value of its AC component. For threepole circuitbreakers. % ⎠ 43 . the percentage DC component shall correspond to a time interval equal to the minimum opening time of the first opening pole Top of the circuitbreaker plus one halfcycle of rated frequency Tr.c.15 – 4 – 5 – 6.for a circuitbreaker which is tripped solely by any form of auxiliary power.3 – 8} and their products by 10n.at voltages above the rated voltage.5 – 3.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE a11) Rated shortcircuit breaking current Icn. any percentage DC component up to that specified. The value of the percentage DC component shall be determined as follows: . The rated shortcircuit breaking current is the highest shortcircuit current which the circuit breaker shall be capable of breaking under the conditions of use and behavior prescribed in standards. The R10 series comprises the numbers {1 – 1. The following applies to a standard circuitbreaker: . Such a current is found in a circuit having a powerfrequency recovery voltage corresponding to the rated voltage of the circuitbreaker and having a transient recovery voltage equal to a specified value. under the conditions mentioned above. associated with it. % = 100 ⋅ exp⎜ ⎜− τ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟.at voltages below and equal to the rated voltage. The minimum opening time mentioned above is that specified by the manufacturer.for a selftripping circuitbreaker. The percentage value of the dc component (iDC%) is based on the time interval (Top + Tr) and the time constant τ using the formula: ⎛ Top + Tr id .25 – 1. If the DC component does not exceed 20%. the percentage DC component shall correspond to a time interval equal to the minimum opening time of the first opening pole Top of the circuit breaker. which is expected by the manufacturer to cover the entire population of the circuitbreaker concerned under any operational conditions when breaking asymmetrical currents. The circuitbreaker shall be capable of breaking any shortcircuit current up to its rated shortcircuit breaking current containing any AC component up to the rated value and. Time Tr in the formula (6) is to be set to 0 ms . the rated shortcircuit breaking current is characterized only by the rms value of its AC component. no shortcircuit breaking current is guaranteed. The minimum opening time is the shortest opening time.
the required DC component and any additional test requirements should be specified in the inquiry. for example if a circuitbreaker is close to a generator.60 ms for rated voltages from 72. They are provided as unified values for such special system needs.C. some applications may require even higher values. for example their particular system structures. design of lines. a12) Rated ultimate shortcircuit breaking capacity Icu The rated ultimate shortcircuit breaking capacity Icu represents the highest rms value of the current that the device is able to interrupt without suffering significant damages. 44 . current component in relation to the time interval from initiation of shortcircuit current. related to the rated voltage of the circuitbreaker: .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The graphs of the DC component against time given in figure 1 below are based on: a) standard time constant of 45 ms b) special case time constants.120 ms for rated voltages up to and including 52 kV . In addition. taking into account the characteristics of the different ranges of rated voltage. for different time constantτ. In these circumstances.75 ms for rated voltages 550 kV and above Figure 3: Percentage D. etc. These special case time constant values recognize that the standard value may be inadequate in some systems.5 kV up to and including 420 kV .
the transient recovery voltage approximates to a damped single frequency oscillation. particularly in systems with a voltage less than 100 kV. This is taken into account by introducing a time delay. is used for testing at shortcircuit breaking currents equal to the rated value. This waveform is generally adequately represented by an envelope consisting of three line segments defined by means of four parameters. the transient recovery voltage contains first a period of high rate of rise. The rated shortcircuit making capacity Icm of a circuitbreaker or switch represents the value of the shortcircuit closing capacity. by multiplying it to the factor k. is the upper (superior/higher) limit of the shortcircuit ac component (the dc component is considered null): I cu ≥ I k a13) Transient recovery voltage . and where the shortcircuit currents are relatively large in relation to the maximum shortcircuit current at the point under consideration. The influence of local capacitance on the source side of the circuitbreaker produces a slower rate of rise of the voltage during the first few microseconds of the TRV. given in the table 2. In some cases. In other cases.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The magnitude of this current. or in systems with a voltage greater than 100 kV in conditions where the shortcircuit currents are relatively small in relation to the maximum shortcircuit currents and fed through transformers. According to IEC 609471 the rated shortcircuit making capacity is established in comparison with the limit value of the shortcircuit rated breaking capacity Icu. This parameter is indicated by the equipment manufacturer in the device catalogue data. followed by a later period of lower rate of rise. for LVCB. particularly in systems with a voltage 100 kV and above. expressed by the highest instantaneous value of the current that the device can connect at the rated voltage and frequency and at a specified power factor. in accordance with the relationship: I cm = k ⋅ I cu 94 45 .TRV 93 related to the rated shortcircuit breaking current is the reference voltage which constitutes the limit of the prospective transient recovery voltage of circuits which the circuitbreaker shall be capable of withstanding under fault conditions. determined under the conditions specified in the product standard. a14) The rated shortcircuit making current Icm of a circuitbreaker having simultaneity of poles is that which corresponds to the rated voltage and the rated frequency. This waveform is adequately represented by an envelope consisting of two line segments defined by means of two parameters. The transient recovery voltage corresponding to the rated shortcircuit breaking current when a terminal fault occurs.
96 where the multiplying factor kH was introduced. 50] 50≤ cosϕ 0.0 2. the rated shortcircuit making capacity Icm of an CB is compared with the peak current ip and the next inequality have to be fulfilled in order that the device withstands the shortcircuit action: I cm ≥ i p The following values apply for the high voltage CB (Ur >1 kV): • 95 for a rated frequency of 50 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is equal to 2.5.30 0. • for a rated frequency of 60 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is equal to 2. kA (6.2 The rated shortcircuit making capacity implies that the breaker is able to connect the current suitable to this rated capacity at an applied voltage corresponding to the use rated voltage.25 0. 20] (20. Being an instantaneous value.1 2.20 k 1.7 2.6 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated shortcircuit breaking current for all special case time constants it is equal to 2. so a following relationship can be written: I cm = k H ⋅ I cn . In this case.5 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated shortcircuit breaking current (Icn).Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Values of the multiplying factor k when fixing the rated shortcircuit making capacity Icm of the LVCB Table 9: Icu and k factor Icu. independent of the rated frequency of the circuitbreaker • 46 . kH=2. 10] (10.7 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated shortcircuit breaking current.50 0.
arcing time (of a multipole switching device): interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of an arc and the instant of final arc extinction in all poles . a16) Rated time quantities: .for a selftripping circuitbreaker. the circuitbreaker being in the closed position. and the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles . the opening time is the interval of time between the instant at which. the circuitbreaker being in the closed position.1. For circuitbreakers with more than one interrupting unit per pole. the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles is determined as the instant of contact separation in the first unit of the last pole.opening time of a circuitbreaker defined according to the tripping method as stated below and with any time delay device forming an integral part of the circuitbreaker adjusted to its minimum setting . .2 Circuit Breaker Name Plate Data The nameplates of a CB and its operating devices shall be marked and must contain data in accordance with the standards IEC Standards. The main nameplate information is indicated in the Table 10 below. 47 .break time: interval of time between the beginning of the opening time of a mechanical switching device and the end of the arcing time 4.for a circuitbreaker tripped by any form of auxiliary power. the opening time is the interval of time between the instant of energizing the opening release. The opening time includes the operating time of any auxiliary equipment necessary to open the circuit breaker and forming an integral part of the circuitbreaker. the current in the main circuit reaches the operating value of the over current release and the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles The opening time may vary with the breaking current.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE a15) Rated operating sequence.
characterized as "fastblow". a fastblow fuse may require twice its rated current to blow in 0. This limitation of current reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which would otherwise occur. The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material of which the fuse is made.1 General considerations The fuses can operate as single devices or can be combined with switch disconnectors.1 seconds. The nameplate shall be visible in the position of normal service and installation.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE CB Name Plate Information Table 10: CB Name plate data Information Manufacturer Type designation and serial number Rated voltage Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated switching impulse withstand voltage Rated frequency fr Rated normal current Rated shortcircuit breaking current DC component of the rated shortcircuit breaking current Rated duration of shortcircuit Ir Isc (idc%) tk Hz A kA % s Ur Up Us kV kV kV Abbreviation Unit Required marking condition Mandatory for CB and operation device “ Mandatory “ Rated voltage 300 kV and above Rating is not applicable at both 50 Hz and 60 Hz Mandatory “ More than 20 % Different from 1 s Coils of operating devices shall have a reference mark permitting the complete data to be obtained from the manufacturer. according to time required to respond to an over current condition. One of the most critical factors for optimum protection is proper fuse selection. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second. and a slowblow fuse may require twice its rated current for tens of seconds to blow. but decreases as the current increases.2. This can be done based on theoretical calculations but in many cases practical knowledge obtained from actual test results could make it easier and even more reliable. A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that. The operating time is not a fixed interval.2 FUSES 4. Releases shall bear the appropriate data. "slowblow" or "timedelay". 4. thereby 48 . so that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value [Schneider]. The choice depends on each application requirements and specific network conditions. owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high shortcircuit current levels. a current cutoff begins before the occurrence of the first major peak.
Note: the peak withstands current is not less than the highest cutoff current of any fuselink with which the fuseholder is intended to be associated.2 Fuse IEC Characteristic Quantities [IEC 602691] Prospective current (of a circuit with respect to a fuse) – current that would flow in the circuit if each pole of the fuse were replaced by a conductor of negligible impedance.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE minimizing danger and damage at the fault position.2. for AC). the values of the cutoff currents are the maximum values reached related to the time constants as specified. Close to the source (MV/LV transformer) the relationship Ipeak / I rms (of AC component) immediately following the instant of fault. Peak withstand current – value of the cutoff current that the fuseholder can withstand. the values of the cutoff currents are the maximum values which can be reached whatever the degree of asymmetry. As already mentioned. can be as high as 2. R greatly predominates XL. The peakcurrentlimitation effect occurs only when the prospective rms AC component of fault current attains a certain level. Cutoff current characteristic. 49 . Breaking range – range of prospective currents within which the breaking capacity of a fuselink is assured. at lower distribution levels in an installation. the magnitude and duration of which depend on the XL/R ratio of the fault current loop. In the case of DC. Note: in the case of AC. and fault levels are generally low. The rated shortcircuit breaking current of the fuse is therefore based on the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current. XL is small compared with R and so for final circuits Ipeak / Irms ~ 1. Fuse Breaking capacity – value of prospective current that a fuse is capable of breaking at a stated voltage under prescribed conditions of use and behavior (the rms value of the periodic component. On the other hand. the prospective current is expressed by the rms value of the AC component. I2t and cutoff current characteristics.41. e.5 (standardized by IEC). 4. as previously mentioned.g. Note: the prospective current is the quantity to which the breaking capacity and characteristics of the fuse are normally referred. No shortcircuit currentmaking rating is assigned to fuses. For AC. Shortcircuit currents initially contain DC components. Cutoff current – maximum instantaneous value reached by the current during the breaking operation of a fuselink when it operates in such a manner as to prevent the current from reaching the otherwise attainable maximum. This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peak current limitation. At lower levels of distribution in an installation. letthrough current characteristic – curve giving the cutoff current as a function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation. the DC transients (in this case) have an insignificant effect on the magnitude of the current peak. as previously noted.
under specified conditions. Operating time. e. Conventional nonfusing current (Inf) – value of current specified as that which the fuselink is capable of carrying for a specified time (conventional time) without melting. purposes the difference between prearcing and operating time is negligible. Timecurrent characteristic – curve giving the time. under specified conditions.interval of time between the instant of the initiation of the arc in a fuse and the instant of final arc extinction in that fuse. prearcing time or operating time as a function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation.1 s. Rated current of a fuselink (In) – value of current that the fuselink can carry continuously without deterioration under specified conditions. Conventional fusing current (If) . I2t (Joule integral) – integral of the square of the current over a given time interval: I 2 t = ∫t 1 i 2 dt 0 Notes: • • • t 97 The prearcing I2t is the I2t integral extended over the prearcing time of the fuse The operating I2t is the I2t integral extended over the operating time of the fuse The energy in Joules released in a 1Ω resistor in a circuit protected by a fuse is equal to the value of the operating I2t expressed in A2s I2t characteristic – curve giving I2t values (prearcing I2t and/or operating I2t) as a function of prospective current under stated conditions of operation. melting time – interval of time between the beginning of a current large enough to cause a break in the fuse element(s) and the instant when an arc is initiated. Note: for times longer than 0. for practical.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Prearcing time. total clearing time – sum of the prearcing time and the arcing time. I2t zone – range contained by the minimum prearcing I2t characteristic and the maximum operating I2t characteristic. Timecurrent zone – range contained by the minimum prearcing timecurrent characteristics and the maximum operating timecurrent characteristic.value of current specified as that which causes operation of the fuselink within a specified time (conventional time). 50 . Arcing time of a fuse .g.
2. i. 3. 4.e. 2.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 4. 6. fuse speed Approvals by national and international standards agencies Manufacturer / part number / series Breaking capacity 51 .3 Fuse nameplate data The follwoing data will generally be provided for a fuse: 1. 5. Rated current (Ampere rating) of the fuse Voltage rating of the fuse Timecurrent characteristic.
IEC standard: a .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 5 Protective Device Evaluation Based on IEC Standard Figure 4: PDE Flow Chart . 52 .main branch and fuses evaluation.
53 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE b LVCB evaluation. c .HVCB evaluation.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE c HVCB evaluation 54 .
b.1 Fuses Evaluation Compare the voltage rating of the fuse (Ur) against the system voltage (Un) where the fuse is placed: if the fuse rated voltage Ur ≥ Un then the device Pass. if Ur = Un then the fuse breaking capacity rating (Irb) = the fuse real breaking capacity (Ib). For the PASS situation 55 . if Icm ≥ ip then the device Pass.2 LVCB Evaluation The LVCB evaluation begins after the comparison of the CB rated voltage presented in the right side of the figure 2. For the Ur ≥ Un case. for this situation calculate the fuse real breaking capacity: Ib = Ur ⋅ I rb .a. For the FAIL situation Calculate % rating = ip I cm ⋅ 100 . Un " Ik : Compare the fuse real breaking capacity against the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current if Ib ≥ I k then the device Pass. Determination of the LVCB shortcircuit making current Icm. otherwise Fail. if Ur > Un then the real breaking capacity of the fuse will be used in the next steps. Compare Icm with the peak shortcircuit current. otherwise Fail. For both situations of the last comparison " Calculate %rating = I" k Ib 5. there are two situations: a.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 5. otherwise Fail (the user have to verify the fuse ratings).
3 HVCB Evaluation The HVCB evaluation. according to the IEC standards calculus. ⎝ 100 ⎠ 2 Compare the asymmetrical shortcircuit presumed current with the CB shortcircuit breaking current Icn.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Calculate ⎛ Top + Tr i dc % = exp⎜ ⎜ τ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ . τ – circuit time constant. For both situations of the last comparison calculate % rating = I asymsc I cn ⋅ 100 . given in paragraph. presented in Figure 2. The differences occur just in the loop of the Icm determination.b. 56 . 5. Calculate the asymmetrical shortcircuit presumed current I asymsc = I k ⎛i %⎞ 1 + ⎜ dc ⎟ . Tr – according to the specifications from figure 2. otherwise Fail. if Iasymsc < Icn then the LVCB Pass. ⎠ Where: Top represents the minimum opening time and it is specified by the manufacturer.c is similar to the LVCB one.
Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools To launch DesignBase Short Circuit program.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 6. both the short circuit analysis method and the corresponding short circuit tools are displayed as indicated below: Paladin DesignBase provides several short circuit calculation methods based on the ANSI/IEEE Standards and the IEC Standards. click the short circuit icon as presented below: While in Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program. as per ANSI/IEEE Standard) AC Classical. X/R from the complex Z) AC IEC 60909 AC IEC 61363 AC 1 Phase DC Classical DC IEC 61660 57 . The following short circuit calculation methods are implemented: • • • • • • • AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X. DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method a. for both AC threephase and singlephase networks. (Z complex method.
and are listed below: AC Short Circuit Options Report Manager Short Circuit Back Annotation Analyze Reactor Sizing 58 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE b. AC ANSI/IEEE Standard – Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools: Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program: Short Circuit Tools The Short Circuit tools are presented in the Figure above.
Click on this icon to launch the “Short Circuit Analysis Options”. with the same fields for: AC ANSI/IEEE. for LL and LLG fault phase B and C For LG fault. phase B. AC IEC 60909. phase C. faults can be performed only at all buses in this release. AC IEC 61363 and AC Single Phase calculation. It has two tabs: Calculation and Control for ANSI/IEEE: Note: For LG fault. AC Single Phase. phase A.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Icon: Short Circuit Analysis Option has two tabs: • • Calculation Tab. for LL and LLG fault phase A and B Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option 59 . Control Tab: this tab depends on the short circuit method that user selects. The Short Circuit Option Dialog Window is opened and presented in the Figure below. for LL and LLG fault phase A and C For LG fault. AC Classical.
To remove a bus from the “Selected Buses” list highlight the bus ID and click on “Remove” button. load flow calculated bus voltage or actual/name plate voltage Default output: Annotation or report Contribution level: levels away from the fault location for the output results. Depending on the specified fault type. lineto 60 . while the “shift key” is being held down. the program will place a threephase. branch contribution to that fault. select each bus individually Menu Driven: highlight the desired bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the Add. by a simple click on the desired bus. This option is applied if the fault is calculated at one bus only Fault location: selected buses. when the buses are faulted individually. (Sliding and series fault does not apply to IEC61363 or AC Single phase calculation) Miscellaneous options: use only X to calculate the faults. Depending on the specified fault type. linetoground. then hold down the “shift key”. Selecting More Than One Bus: • • Graphically on the drawing space: click onto the desired first bus. The highlighted bus/buses will be transferred to the “All Buses” List. The calculated results are displayed either on the oneline diagram (if Default Output: Annotation is selected by the user) or printed in the output report (if Default Output: Report is selected by the user) Fault impedance. are faulted individually in turn. or Highlight the bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the “Add” button. then any fault type at that bus is calculated. sliding fault or series fault. not simultaneously. and linetolinetoground fault at each bus which is faulted for short circuit studies. the selected buses will be transferred to the “Selected Buses” list. the selected bus will be transferred to the “Selected Buses” list. It can be: system voltage. Selection of One Bus: The Bus can be selected: • • Graphically on the one line diagram. If One Bus is selected. The highlighted bus will be transferred to the “All Buses“list. The bus faults are displayed at all buses simultaneously. linetoline. the program will place a threephase. not simultaneously.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Calculation Tab allows the user to select the followings: • • • • Base voltage: o Adjusted by tap/turn ratio if power transformer is run on “off nominal” taps o System voltage Prefault voltage represents the bus voltage at the instant the fault is applied at that bus. bus postfault voltage and fault summary are generated. all buses. Notes: • Faults at more than one bus. To remove a bus or several buses from the Selected Buses List highlight the bus ID and click on Remove button. and apply phase shift Duty type for PDE based on: maximum branch fault flow or total bus fault current • • • • Fault Location • • Fault at one or more buses in the same run Fault at all system buses.
LL. are faulted individually. Asymmetrical rms. not simultaneously. LL. and F4) and single point sliding fault and a specific location (F). by selecting “All Buses” option. LG. In the Calculation Tab. and linetolinetoground fault at each selected bus which is faulted for short circuit studies • On the drawing are displayed only the bus fault current value: Symmetrical rms. DC rms. depending on the user selection). F2. LLG. Branch currents (3P. IPeak instantaneous value. “From” Bus F1 F F2 F3 F4 “To” Bus Click on this button to open the “Short Circuit Option” dialog window. Asymmetrical rms. F3.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE ground. 61 . as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation All buses are colored in “Red” The Short Circuit Report will provide: • • • • Bus Fault Current (3P. The figure below shows examples of evenly spaced sliding faults (F1. Fault Summary. linetoground. and linetolinetoground fault at all buses which are faulted for short circuit studies On the drawing are displayed: Symmetrical rms. linetoline. LG. depending on the user selection). Short Circuit multiplying Factors. select “Sliding Fault”. linetoline. DC rms. LLG. Sliding Fault: The Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program can simulate a fault along a feeder/cable/transmission line. Using this option eliminates the need to create a dummy bus at a location along the feeder. Depending on the specified fault type. the program will place a threephase. • • • Faults at “All Buses”. as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation Selecting All Buses: Fault at all buses can be selected from the “Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option only. IPeak instantaneous value.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Sliding Fault 62 .
the selected Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the “Selected Feeders and Cables” Box. In this release. Select a feeder “3C – 12”. The highlighted Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the “All Feeders / and Cables Box / List. Sliding Fault: Report Manager 63 . To remove a Feeder/Cable from the “Selected Feeders and Cables” box. and then press on the “OK” button. the Sliding Fault Report Manager is displayed as presented below: Note: Sliding fault does not apply to IEC61363 and AC Single Phase calculation. highlight the Feeder/Cable and click on Remove button. only one Feeder/Cable can be selected for Sliding fault calculation at a time.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Selecting a Feeder / Branch: Highlight the desired Feeder/Cable in the “All Feeders and Cables” Box and then click on the Add button.
with the userdefined decimal places Per Unit MF. %X/R: with the userdefined decimal places 64 . Contributions from both ends of the feeder/line for each fault location as well as the voltages at the faulted location and at both ends are also reported. with the user defined decimal places For Capacity: KVA or MVA. 300 Feet down from sending end) should be specified. with the user defined decimal places For Bus Voltages: Volts or Kilo Volts.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The program allows the user to introduce the Fault position on the selected Feeder: “Any Position” away “From Bus” or select the “Number of Fault Spots” evenly spaced alongside the selected feeder.e. then the exact fault location (i. In case only one fault location is selected. Fault type: • • • • Units: • • • • 3Phase Fault Linetoline fault Linetoground fault DoubleLinetoGround fault For fault Current: Amps or KiloAmps. The program automatically divides the feeder/line into as many equidistant segments and fault currents are calculated for each intermediate points.
5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults  Fault Feeder From Bus To Bus Fault Spot : : : : 3C 12 3C 150 >12 Fault R(Ohms) : Fault X(Ohms) : Length(Feet) : 0 0 300 Feet away from 'From Bus' Thevenin Imped.8206 3. Complex PreFlt 3P Flt.. LG Flt. voltage side of a transformer or To Bus > Fault Spot for Sliding Fault Feeder.9297 2. A partial Report is presented below: 3Phase Short Circuit Project No....Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Sliding Fault Report: 300 Feet away from “From Bus”. : Company : Revision No. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : 01:14:44 am Drawing No.08 >12 Fault R(Ohms) : Fault X(Ohms) : Length(Feet) : 0 0 300 Feet away from 'From Bus' Base Volt: 480 LG 29176 V LLG 31828 Prefault Volt: 480 V A LL 27494 * Stands for the Low or Mid.3B >11 0 0 0 3C >12 28. LL Flt.Fault Spot480 31748 27494 29176 31828 3..2 27050 27163 2....1 100..Bus Name V A A A A Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R .... 3Phase Fault LineGround Fault Thevenin .: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123 Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE Fault Spot Report for Sliding Fault Bus Results: 0.0819 Branch Report for Sliding Fault Branch Results: 0.8 29373 38..7886 4.4 2426 3.7253 4.From Bus (A) From Bus (A) Impedance Branch Name V Ia Va Vb Ia 3Io Z+(pu) Zo(pu) ..5561 3C >12 * 2..6 98.4 2194 2135 3.6677 65 .5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LG Faults Fault Feeder From Bus To Bus Fault Spot System Volt: Fault Type Spot RMS( Spot X/R : : : : 480 : ): : 3C 3C 12 150 V 3phase 31748 3. LLG Flt .
and Zn are: Figure 5: Unbalanced system 66 . and unequal series impedances) with or without neutral unbalance are supported in the Paladin DesignBase’s short circuit program.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Series Fault: Series fault types (one phase open. The series fault types are shown in the below figure. two phases open. Zb. It should be noted that series faults are meaningful only if prefault load has been taken into account (i. For series faults.e. The default fault impedances Za. load flow solution is considered). the equivalent voltage at the opening point is computed from the prefault system current at the unbalance point.
0+j0.0+j0.0 For Series Unbalance (phases A. Default values: Zb=Zn=0. and C) Default values: Za=Zb=Zn=0. 67 .0 For two phases open (phases B and C) Default values: Za=Zn=0.0 In Paladin DesignBase short circuit Analysis Option. select “Series Fault” field to perform open phase study. B.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE For one phase open (phase A).0 +j0.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Select the feeder / branch: Highlight the desired feeder / cable in the “All feeders and Cables” box and then Click on the “Add” button. only one feeder can be selected at a time. Click “OK”. The selected feeder / cable will be transferred to the “Selected feeders box as is presented below: To remove a feeder / cable from the “Selected feeders” highlight the feeder/cable and click “Remove” button. For series fault. The highlighted feeder/cable will be transferred to the “All feeders and Cables” box. 1 2 3 68 .
Units: • • • For current: Amps or KiloAmps For capacity: KVA or MVA For voltages: volts or Kilo Volts Output File: to CSV or text file. 69 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Series Fault Report Manager: The program allows the user to select: • • • one phase (one phase open) two phases open unbalanced series fault At the fault (opening location) the user can select the fault impedance in ohms.
48 0.From 04 0.48 0.One Phase Open Item Phase A Phase B Phase C . 0 95 94 Angle 0 122 109. Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :……….4  70 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Report is listed below: EDSA 3Phase Short Circuit Project No..03 0.00 To 12 0.48 99.0 20.0 Fault Impedance(Ohms) : Za = Zb = Zc = Zn = Fault Current Direction : 0 +j 0 +j 0 +j 0 0 0 From Bus > To Bus A .. : Page : 1 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No.Magn.0 Calculating Series Fault Classical Calculation Complex Z for X/R and Fault Current Transformer Phase Shift is not considered. Angle in Degree) Phase Sym Fault Current at 1/2 Cycle (Magnitude in .: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123 Check by: ..48 0....000 60 48 48 47 3 4 0 5 20.94 0.48 0. Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE Base MVA System Frequence(Hz) # of Total Buses # of Active Buses # of Total Branches # of Active Sources # of Active Motors # of Active Shunts # of Transformers Reference Temperature(°C) Impedance Displaying Temperature(°C) : : : : : : : : : : : 100..48 100. : Company : Revision No. Base Voltages : Use System Voltages Prefault Voltages : Use Load Flow Results Feeder/Cable Series Fault Report Fault Feeder : 3C >12 Prefault Voltage System Base Bus Bus Name kV kV kV % Degree ...
0 • Or regardless of the X/R value. The tab provides also information on ANSI Standard impedances – first cycle and interrupting cycles: 28 cycles as per ANSI/IEEE Std. For calculating the MF the user can select: • Based on X/R using the equations in section 2.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Control Tab: AC ANSI/IEEE Standard: The AC ANSI/IEEE method is based on a separate R and X matrix method: Fault current multiplying factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed. the MF is fixed 71 .
In the second option.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In calculating the MF the user can also select to use: • Empirical value for τ • Or τ = T = 0. The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). zero. 72 . positive). the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows: R= X" X /R The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative. The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. C. AC Classical Short Circuit Method The AC Classical is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R).5 The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances.
e. In the second option. The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. variable X/R (see the lower left part of the above figure). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences. AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method The AC IEC 909 Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program tools are shown below. The user can also select the Machine Current Decay. Options Report Manager Back Annotation Analyze Reactor sizing 73 . The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows: X" R= X /R The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative. zero. D. i. positive). in cycles.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Current Multiplying Factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed.
the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows: R= X" X /R The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative. In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences. While in the IEC 60909 standard. see the lower left part of the above figure). zero. The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). In the second option (variable X/R. The user can select the calculation based on: • 1988 Version • 2001 Version The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. positive).Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The method is based on IEC60909 Standard. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. the control tab allows the user to select: • Fault Current Multiplying Factors 74 .
Xb from Fig.8 page 47 IEC 60909 Std.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE • The method which is employed in calculating the Peak Current (method A. The value of X is calculated from Fig.15 multiplied by the Xb. The smallest X/R ratio determines the k factor Method B: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks X=1. 8. Method C: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks. the user can select: • • • System Voltage IEC maximum Voltage IEC minimum Voltage Peak current method: • • • • Method A: uniform ratio R/X. 75 . as per IEC 60909 standard. This is the situation when the user calculates the short circuit current at generator terminal. IEC 60909 and depends on X/R ratio of the network EDSA Thevenin: X is calculated from the Thevenin equivalent Impedance correction factors: 1. Apply K g factor to Generator Z g impedance: This field should be selected by the user when calculating the initial short circuit current in systems fed directly from generators without unit transformers. C or EDSA Thevenin) Also. B.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The K g factor is given by formula (18) – IEC Std.generator phase angle between current and terminal voltage 76 .) " U rG 1 + X d sin ϕ G Where: U n .is the system rated voltage U rG .the generator rated voltage " Xd generator sub transient reactance referred to generator rated impedance sin ϕG . IEC 60909 Std.: KG = Un cmax (18.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 77 .
A network transformer (see the figure capture below) is when a transformer is connecting two or more networks at different voltages (IEC Std. For twowinding transformers with and without onload tapchanger.). Apply K t factor to network transformer Z t : The DesignBase user should check the above field if the short circuit occurs from a network transformer. K T = 0. an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to IEC (equation (7) to (9)).Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2.95 cmax 1 + 0. 6 X T 78 .
This factor is active only if the user selects the filed Network Transformer (used in IEC 60909 method) in the transformer editor.7). This correction factor shall not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units (IEC.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Where: X T is the relative reactance of the transformer and cmax is from table 1 is related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the lowvoltage side of the network transformer. as presented below: 79 . see 3.
then EDSA adjusts Z T by using actual transformer tap. In this situation the Apply Adjust program consider the transformer impedance as a function of the transformer tap position. Z t factor by using actual tap: If the user selects this field. If the user select the 1988 IEC 60909 version then the “c” factor values are provided by the program.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 3. as follows: 80 .
05 cmin 1 1 1 0.95 1 User Defined: Above 1000 V: Low voltage networks: 230/400V.05 1 1.05 cmin 1 0.05 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Table 11: IEC c factor cmax Standard: Above 1000 V: Low Voltage networks: 230/400V.1 1. as follows: cmax Standard: Above 1000 V: A Other User Defined: Above 1000 V: Other 1. 3P3W Other voltage levels.95 Per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection 81 . 3P3W Low voltage networks: 230/400V. 3P4W 1. 3P3W/4W Other voltage levels 3P3W/4W Per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection If the user select the 2001 IEC 60909 version then the “c” factor values are provided by the program.1 1. 3P4W Other voltage levels.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE E. The machine’s sub transient reactance and time constants are used by this method. AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method IEC 61363 Standard calculates the short circuit instantaneous current as a function of time and displays its instantaneous values. DesignBase AC IEC 363 Short Circuit program tools are shown below: Options Report Manager Back Annotation Analyze 82 . The method provides an accurate evaluation of the short circuit current for sizing protective devices and coordinating relays for isolated systems (offshore platforms and ships electrical design). The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.
83 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Options: The “Options” features are similar to ANSI Method.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Report Manager: As can be seen from the window dialog above. the Short Circuit Report can be: • • • Fast User Defined Curve with Time 84 .
the following dialog window is displayed: Select the items to be displayed in the Report. 85 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report: If “Fast Report” is launched.
cycle 8 – cycle 30 – cycle User defined output options: Td – DC Time constant. Units & Log: 86 . rms value Idc – Short circuit DC component Ienv. in seconds Iac – Short circuit AC symmetrical component.cycle 1 – cycle 3 – cycle 5 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE “User Defined” Fault Report displays: Time Bands: 0 – cycle ½ .Short circuit envelope Input Report & Abbreviations: Input Data and Abbreviation. Report Style.
View Log File. the following steps need to follow: Step1: select the bus: bus 18. by clicking the program icon. The AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit program “Abbreviations” are displayed below: The work is identical with that presented for AC ANSI standards. Step2: launch the short Circuit program. In order to display the “Report of Short Circuit Results” varying with time. 87 . Unit.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Print Layout. Step3: click the “Report Manager” icon The following window is displayed: : Select “Curve with Time” and then click “OK” button.
However. The following graphs are displayed: The displayed graph components are user defined. the user can select the Short Circuit Current” components to be displayed such as: • • • • • Idc – dc component of SC Current iac – instantaneous ac component Ienv – Upper Envelope of Sc current I – Instantaneous total short circuit current Im – magnitude of ac component 88 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step4: click icon.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Idc – dc component of the Short Circuit Current: 89 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE iac – instantaneous ac component of the Short Circuit Current: 90 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Ienv – Upper Envelope of the Short Circuit Current: 91 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE i – Instantaneous .Total Short Circuit Current: 92 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Im – magnitude of the ac component of the Short Circuit Current: 93 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE F. 7. The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. ½ Cycle In the Short Circuit “Option” feature select the output results: Annotation or Report. LLG Fault. 3P. the user can select: • • Fast or User Defined Report: 94 . From the Report Manager. Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program A. AC Single Phase Short Circuit Method The AC Single Phase Method is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). LL. LG.
LLG. negative. and zero sequence networks 95 . and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive. LG. negative. LL. and zero sequence subtransient reactance X” are used in modeling both the generators and motors. Notes: • In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance • Generator. Motors are normally not grounded and therefore the grounding option should be none. The rms short circuit currents values at 1/2 Cycle are calculated at a selected bus/buses or at all buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). motor.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the “SC Report Manager” select “Fast” option. Time Bands ½ cycle. then the user can select the Fault Types as shown below: 3P. Click “OK” and then launch the program by clicking the “Analyze” icon. The positive.
55 34..: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE Bus Results: 0. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time :..48 31. ANSI PreFlt 3P Flt.47 33..5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults  Thevenin Imped. : Company : Revision No..MAINBUS 0. as presented below: 3Phase Short Circuit Project No.82 27. Drawing No.. LL Flt.6944  96 .53 3.7805 2..Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report. LLG Flt .9070 5. LG Flt.Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R ..
and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive. then Click “OK”. LG. The rms short circuit currents values at 5 Cycle are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). 3P.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE B. and zero sequence subtransient reactance is used for modeling both the Generators and motors In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance Generator. LL. 5 Cycle In the “SC Report Manager” select 5 cycle and the type of faults: 3P. negative. LLG. negative. Notes: • • • The positive. motor. LLG fault at ½ Cycle. and zero sequence networks 97 . LG. LL. LLG Fault. LL. Follow the steps presented above at 3P. LG. Launch the short circuit program by clicking “Analyze” icon . Select 5 cycle.
6944  98 .. ANSI PreFlt 3P Flt.48 30. : Company : Revision No.9070 5.05 31. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No. as presented below: 3Phase Short Circuit Project No.03 26.Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R ..0055 2..MAINBUS 0.01 33. LG Flt.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report...: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE Bus Results: 5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults  Thevenin Imped.99 4. LLG Flt . LL Flt...
LLG Fault. LG. The rms short circuit currents values at “Steady State/ 30 Cycle” are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). motor. Click “OK” button. Launch the program by clicking “Analyze” icon . and zero sequence reactance Short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored Generator. and zero sequence networks 99 . LL. negative. Lg. 3P. negative. LLG. Steady state In the “Report Manager” select “Steady” and the type of faults: 3P. and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive. Notes: • • • • It is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance in all the unbalanced fault calculation Generators are modeled by their positive. LL.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE C.
as presented below: 3Phase Short Circuit Project No.03 30.. : Company :….1790 2..6944  100 . ANSI PreFlt 3P Flt.93 32.. LL Flt.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report.9070 5.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE Bus Results: 30 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults  Thevenin Imped. Revision No..Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R .48 28. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No..93 4.. LLG Flt ..MAINBUS 0. LG Flt.78 24.
The short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored. 101 .Click “OK” and then launch the program by clicking “Analyze” icon . and the generators are modeled by their positive sequence transient reactance X’. Steady State In the “Report Manager” select fault type “3P” and “Time Bands – Steady”. The rms short circuit currents values after 30 cycles are calculated (as per ANSI/IEEE Standards or IEC 60909 Standard as per user selected fault calculation) at a selected bus/buses or at all buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly on the drawing).Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE D. 3 Phase Fault.
6944 4..48 28. : Company : Revision No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE Bus Results: 30 Cycle . : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time :04:23:01 am Drawing No.. as presented below: 3Phase Short Circuit Project No.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report.1790  102 .3 Phase Faults  PreFlt Isym X/R Thevenin Bus Name kV KA Ratio Z+(pu) .MAINBUS 0..78 5.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE E. fuses. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool Based on ANSI/IEEE Standard Paladin DesignBase PDE is a fast and accurate tool. and it can be: o Load Flow calculated Voltage o Actual Voltage o System voltage 103 . select PDE: The salient features added to the PDE program are: • The equipment operating voltage is selected by the user. In the Report manager. which evaluates the protective switching devices such as: LV. MV and HV CBs. and switches based on ANSI/IEEE Standard or IEC Standard as per user selection.
104 . The fault study is per the Standard selected by the user: IEEE/ANSI C37 Standard or IEC 60909.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE • • The PDE program includes the CB impedance and CB’s X/R ratio The output results are organized as per: o Equipment Input Rated Data o PDE Calculated Data o Circuit Duty calculated data The PDE output results are either graphically displayed onto the one line diagram (in green if the switching equipment passes or in red if they fail). based on the user selection. and if: I Circuit _ Duty ≤ I Equip. or as a Text Report. interrupting symmetrical rms. otherwise it fails. The circuit duties are checked against equipment interrupting capabilities. The program calculates momentary symmetrical and asymmetrical rms. momentary asymmetrical crest. _ Intrr the equipment passes. and interrupting adjusted symmetrical rms short circuit currents at faulted buses.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Consider the file ANSIYY located in the sample folder:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
PDE Graphical Display Results: In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option, select “All buses” and then click “OK” button as shown below:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
The Protective Device Evaluation List is displayed, as presented below:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Notes: Data error is displayed if: • • The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage The equipment voltage in the editor is zero
Double click on A10 equipment: The equipment rated voltage is 1500 V The system bus voltage is 13800 V
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in the Protective Device evaluation Table double click onto A1: 109 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE To fix this issue.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 110 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Partial Summary Report – ANSI: 110 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Detailed Report – ANSI: 111 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE F. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Based on IEC Standard HV CB IEC Input Data: HV Fuse IEC Input Data: 112 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE LV Fuse IEC Input Data: LV CB IEC Input Data: 113 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Consider the file IEC YY file located in the sample folder: 114 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 115 .
This option has been considered in the IEC PDE program. select PDE: Note: The “Total Bus Fault Current is the most conservative.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the Report Manager. 116 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE PDE Graphical Display Results: In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option. select “All buses” and then click “OK” button as shown below: 117 .
as presented below: Notes: Data error is displayed if: • • The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage The equipment voltage in the editor is zero 118 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Protective Device Evaluation List is displayed.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Double click on A10F equipment: The equipment rated voltage is 15000 V The system bus voltage is 13800 V No fuse breaking Irb 119 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 122 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The error has been fixed: Click on “Summary Report” to display the IEC Report: 123 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Partial Summary Report – IEC 60909: 124 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 125 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Detailed Report – IEC 60909: 126 .
The Report Manager provides: Output Reports: Fast.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE G. Abbreviation. “Time Bands”. If the fault is at one bus. Report Style. PDE. Input Data. Report Manager – ANSI/IEEE Click on this button to launch the Report Manager. Output Destination: output to CSV or output to Text File Fast Report: The user can select the “Fault Type”. Misc. the user can also select the “Branch Contribution” option. Fast Report and Unit Settings 127 . User Defined. Unit & Log.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Print Layout Fast Report. ANSI/IEEE: 128 . Text Output Report.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report. Text Output Report: 129 .
Fast Summary. ANSI/IEEE: 130 . Text Output Report.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report.
Text Output Report: 131 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report. Fast Summary.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
User Defined Reports: It is similar to “Fast Report”, but the user can also select the Phase Bus/Branch Components: X/R, AC, DC, Asym, Angle.
If User Defined Reports is selected then the above report screen is displayed. The user can select the Fault Type, Time Bands, User Defined Options, Phase Bus/Branch Components, Print Layout, Units, Output to CSV or Text File.
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In order to get the Tabulated Output Reports on short circuit current calculation, proceed as follows: • • • • Select Output to CSV or Text File Click on “Browse” icon and assign the path and the file title Click “OK” icon Click “Analyze” icon
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Short Circuit Detailed Report:
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Professional Report Writer Wizard: Option 1: Select AC ANSI/IEEE Method: In the “Report Manager” select ANSI Bus Summary. Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard.
The program displays the Report shown below:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 137 .
140 . Click OK.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Option 2: Select AC Classical Method: In the “Report Manager” select “Professional Report Writer Wizard.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The program displays the Report shown below: 141 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 142 .
The Short Circuit Back Annotation Dialog Window as presented below: 142 . The Short Circuit Back Annotation tool opens. Short Circuit Back Annotation Click on this button to launch the Short Circuit Back Annotation tool.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE H.
with the inserted components as per user selection. Phase or Sequence Components. 143 . Fault Components.Fault Voltage/ Residual Voltage Fault Current to be displayed Select the unit Select the displaying form Select this option to display the current flow arrows Select the Fault Type. Displayed Results: Bus Current. Bus Postfault Voltage. display or not the Fault Current Flow Arrows.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Select this option to display the bus PreFault Voltage Select the color and font size Select this option to display the Fault Branch Current Select this option to display the Bus Symm. The back annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the study network drawing. Bus Prefault Voltage. Units. Branch Current. Back Annotation is an Executive Short Circuit Report inserted onto the drawing.
Font. 144 . Autorefresh. size and font color. Font Style.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Select the back annotation ON or OFF.
One considers the following network: a) Model with each motor individually represented b) Same motors are represented inside the MCC schedule 145 . It is a very good practice to save “nodes” in modeling and in the meantime to represent all the nodes of a plant in the plant model. Managing Schedule in Short Circuit Schedule is a Paladin DesignBase feature that allows the user to combine several motors and loads in the same symbols.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE I.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The motors representation inside the schedule: 146 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Motors inside the schedule Motor Feeder representation inside the schedule 147 .
148 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Motor Status inside the schedule Motor Loading / Usage inside the schedule Inside the “Schedule” each motor is in detail represented together with the motor feeder as can be seen in the capture Figures above.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Short Circuit Calculation: The short circuit procedure was described so far. the short circuit results can be displayed either onto the drawing or as a Text Output Results: Step 1: Select MCC bus: 149 . However.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 2: Select the Short Circuit Basic Option: 150 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 3: In the Report Manager select the “Fast”. Fault Type and Time Bands as shown below: 151 .
5 A 152 . The Short Circuit Results are displayed onto the drawing: Short Circuit at MCC bus and branch contribution MCC fault current 10767.8 A and branch contribution via the Main_CB2 7975.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 4: Click “Analyze” icon.
proceed as follows: Step 1: Select Report Manager. Select “Misc”. MCC/Schedule. 153 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In order to provide the each motor contribution while the motors are represented inside the “Schedule”.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 2: Click “Analyze” icon: The results are displayed either on the drawing or in the Text Output Report as per user selection. 154 .
. C37.00 2 MI 2 200.1 MI 1 200.59 6.3 Phase Faults  MCC/Schedule Bus Name : MCC Prefault Voltage: 480.00 218.28 9682 12278 9. Complex Z for Fault Current The Multiplying Factors to calculate Asym and Peak are Based on Actual X/R Peak Time Applies ATPC Equation Transformer Phase Shift is not considered.00000 Ohms Fault Phases: Phase A for LineGround Fault Phase B..0433 0.60 5.100 0.00 Cable Data Length R X (Feet) Ohms/K Ohms/K .60 10095 13438 9.00 218.00 17.0433 0.00 3 MI 3 100. Separate R and X for X/R.28 9682 12278 9.0338 100 0.00000 + j 0.00 20. Base Voltages : Use System Voltages Prefault Voltages : Use System Voltages Jobfile Name: SC_MCC_SCHEDULE Page : 2 Bus Schedule Results: 0.....5 Cycle .00 104.0 V Motor Bus fault Motor Data Rating .60 5..00 17.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The fault results displayed as a “Text output Report” follows: Calculation Options Calculating Single Bus Fault with Fault Z = 0.. Generator and Motor X/R is constant.X/R Sym Asym X/R X Item Cd Device Name Status KVA HP Ratio kA kA Ratio (%) .0338 50 0..0101979 or above.C for LineLine or LineLineGround Fault ANSI/IEEE Calculation: Using ANSI Std..0433 0.0338 155 .
b) Schedule Representation Perform short circuit calculation at bus “Motor Bus”: Select this bus and launch Short Circuit program.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Results Validation: Two networks are considered: a) A model with each motor individually represented. b) A model with the same motors which are represented inside the MCC schedule Motor Representation: a) Individual Representation. Follow the steps listed below: 156 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 1: Select the faulted bus: Motor Bus and perform the fault at this bus: Fault Results: Individual Motor Representation: 157 .
158 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Comparative Fault Results: The fault results match in the both motor representation.
Both the Utility fault contribution and/R ration are considered as an input data of the Utility. 159 . Managing Utility / PCC Short Circuit contribution This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE J. It allows computing the Short Circuit Current under maximum and minimum fault contribution from the Utility / PCC.
Managing MOTOR CONTRIBUTION This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program. 160 . The user will need to activate this field for all the motors which are fed from VFD.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE K. The motors fed from VFD are not considered towards motor contribution.
when the FTS is “OPEN” Scenario during a Short Circuit downstream UPS source when the FTS is “CLOSED” 161 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE L. Managing UPS bypass FUNCTION DURING A FAULT DOWNSTREAM UPS SOURCE While using the UPS units. normally the engineer considers 2 (two) scenarios: • • Scenario during Power Flow.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE To avoid Scenarios. 162 . the user needs just to put the UPS source in “Bypass” and associate the Bypass Protective Device as seen in the figure capture below: As such during a Short Circuit downstream the UPS source the UPS unit is considered “OFF” and the fault contribution comes from the Utility and bypasses the UPS units.
Theirs subtransient and transient time constants and dc time constants are also considered in the calculations. select AC IEC 61363 to perform a threephase fault study per IEC61363 Standard. In order to display the short circuit results varying with time. only one bus can be faulted at a time. DC and total short circuit current and TDC time constant as well for short circuit at all system buses. The results are tabulated as a function of T/2. This option calculates the instantaneous values of the AC. annotate results on the one line diagram. Threephase Faults IEC 61363 Method From the Short Circuit Analysis program pickup list. and motors are modeled by their lockedrotor impedance. The user can display the results using the standard report format.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE M. Generators are modeled by their positive sequence sub transient reactance. and plot the short circuit results varying with time. Graphical Display Select AC IEC 61363 Analysis Method: 163 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE From the SC report Manager select “Curve with Time” option and then click “OK” button: Click on “Analyze” icon: 164 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE When the graph is displayed the user can select to view all items. 165 . or the values the user selects.
95 20 0.04 2.56 0.41 5.21 1.06 16.68 5.00 MAINBUS 0.58 0.00 6.21 2.34 18.74 2 0.02 8.48 20.65 14.49 0.48 2.66 20..: Company : Revision No.48 0.80 21 0.85 0.90 23.78 13..99 0.0 26.7 4.7 24.01 4.14 0.89 2.13 2.95 1.69 0.13 0.6 4.67 2.48 16.42 5.48 21.33 0.75 5.1 24.16 0.48 11.00 4.39 10.00 8.04 16 0.64 10 0.25 17..72 UTILITY2 4.54 6.95 1.48 25.86 19 0.8 0.00 4..08 24.91 8.32 17.14 31.62 5.48 1. Time Constant(ms) at the following Times PreFlt Tdc 0T 0T Tdc T/2 T/2 Tdc 2T 2T Bus Name kV Idc Iac @T/2 Idc Iac @ 2 T Idc Iac .: Title : Time:……………….06 15.00 6.17 3.48 3.77 5.32 5.55 12 0.82 13.5 4.48 9.11 14.10 16.62 17.17 5.28 12.4 25.10 4.80 15 0.82 6.90 18 0.09 8. Drawing No.00 0.7 45.48 12.42 GEN 0.81 13.02 1.23 17..55 1.56 4..00 0.15 0.74 5.21 1.: Engineer : JobFile Name: T123PDE Check by : Scenario : 1:mode1 CheckDate: Base kVA : 100000 Cyc/Sec : 60 Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE Bus Detailed Short Circuit Report  SC Current( kA ).9 0.69 6.00 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Report Format Display Partial results are tabulated below: IEC 363 Short Circuit Project No.00 0.31 0.42 16.18 19.05 0.1 8.94 0.7 26.76 30.35 0.12 16.23 0.04 2.23 5.74 5.3 8.94 9.14 0.18 6.91 5..77 0..00 2.0 29.29 5.57 20.46 5.05 18.48 25.64 15.72 166 .78 13.80 32.30 UTILITY1 4.06 2.84 17.04 0.33 7.00 0.10 7.88 6.90 5.51 29.10 16.62 14.10 8..64 1.41 4.04 22.55 1.64 1.92 0.48 0..41 17 0.5 23.46 5.14 07 0.67 0.80 33.: Page : 2 Project Name: Date .97 6.32 1.29 0.78 6.06 12BB 0.02 34.92 14.21 5.00 0.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE N.1 Power Grid Input Data Power Grid /PCC Required data for short circuit calculations The user has the options to input the Power Utility Maximum and Minimum Contribution and the associated X/R ratio. However. Short Circuit Analysis Input Data 7. 167 . during Fault analysis the user can select either “Apply SCKVA max” or “Apply SCKVA min”.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.2 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data Synchronous Generator required data for short circuit calculations 168 .
During the short circuit analysis this motor will not contribute towards short circuit. then click the “Motor is fed from VFD” field. It the motor is fed from VFD. 169 . The HP is the average value of the motor in schedules.3 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data Whenever there is a schedule.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7. you will see the composition rating on this screen.
4 Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data Synchronous Motor required data for short circuit calculations 170 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.
5 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations 171 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.6 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations 172 .
7 Low Voltage IEC Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data 173 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.
8 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse required data for short circuit calculations 174 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.
9 Medium / Low Voltage IEC Fuse Short Circuit Input Data 175 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.
8. For the convenience of the users. a network equivalent module is developed within the DesignBase short circuit program whereby exact system equivalent is computed. it is not necessary to model the entire system if exact equivalent representation of the neighboring systems can obtained and utilized rather than resorting to a detailed model of the “outside world”. utility A wishes to study their system. often power system engineers are required to exchange their system models to their neighboring utilities or vice versa in order to study the entire system. when.2 Sample System Data The single line diagram of the system to be used for equivalent computation is shown below: Single Line Diagram of Sample System for Equivalent Computation 176 . A power flow reduction is also under development that should become available in the near future.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8 8. However. This document illustrates stepbystep instructions on how to compute power system equivalents at given buses. V&V is performed for the equivalents system by showing the details of the system with equivalent model and system intact (complete representation).1 Network Reduction/Equivalent Introduction In an interconnected power system. The equivalent computed is primarily used in the fault analysis. Also. for example.
and ZZZ69 as shown below (the area inside of the reddottedline will be equivalenced at these buses): Part of the System to be Equivalence (the area inside of red dotted line) 177 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. first we should decide which part of the system should be equivalenced.3 How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations To perform the equivalent calculation for a power system. In the example system shown above. GGG138. let’s assume that we would like to replace the right part of the system by equivalent at buses BBB138.
and GGG138 without the right side of the network. feeders ZZZ69>JJJ69.4 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System Since the right part of the above network is required to be replaced by equivalent system. ZZZ69. After outaging the above feeders we proceed as follows. ZZZ69>AAA69. HHH138>GGG138. and BBB138>AAA138 in the original system SHOULD be placed out of service in order for the program to compute equivalent system seen from buses BBB138.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. Select the “Options” icon of the short circuit program as shown below. Selecting Options of the Short Circuit Program 178 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. Selecting Buses where the Equivalent System to be Computed 179 . the “Options” of the short circuit program should be used as shown above. It can be seen that we have selected buses GGG139. Now the buses for the equivalent can be specified in the dialog shown below. and ZZZ69. BBB138.5 Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent To specify where the equivalent should be computed.
Selecting Report Manager of the Short Circuit Program 180 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8.6 Reporting of the Equivalent System To obtain a report of the equivalent system at the selected buses. the “Report Manager” of the short circuit program should be selected as shown below.
choose the “Misc” option as shown below: Selecting Output Report (including report of network equivalent) 181 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE To select the equivalent system report.
” as shown below.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Then. Selecting Network Equivalent Report Option 182 . Now all the information regarding the equivalent computations is complete. select the “Equivalent Sys.
The following report contains a set of “Equivalent Generators” that should be placed at the equivalent buses (see column marked as “Type” in the below report toward bottom of the figure).Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. Again. Also.7 Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result At this point. equivalent. Performing Short Circuit Analysis (fault current.e. no coupling between buses). the column marked as “Type” shows some the links between the equivalent buses are feeder/line and some transformers (TRSF). generators) are just equivalent element representing a complex part of the system the following situation is common to occur: 1) The impedances may have negative resistances and/or reactances 2) Since positive and negative sequence values of the links (feeders/transformers) may not be equal. In this case. etc. Important Note: Since the equivalent links (feeders/transformers.) Once the computations are completed. we can proceed to the equivalent computations by selecting the “Analyze” option. it is safe to ignore the link 183 . there are equivalent branches (feeder/transformer) that should be connecting the equivalent buses. just assume that the negative sequence is the same as positive 3) If the value of impedance of a link between two buses are extremely high (i. buses where the equivalent to be placed and report options are specified. then. In this example connection between BBB138 and ZZZ69 is a transformer. the report of the equivalent system is displayed.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Sample Network Equivalent Report 184 .
the data for each of the equivalent elements. the right side of the network) to the equivalent part. Shown below is the reconstructed system. Reconstructing System Using the Equivalent Part 185 . the equivalent system contains equivalent elements (generators. are entered in the reconstructed network.8 Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent As described above.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. we need to join the part of the system which was not equivalenced (in our example. In order to reconstruct the original system using the equivalent. feeders and transformers). in this example. Based on the report shown above.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Generator At bus BBB138 186 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Generator At bus GGG138 187 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Generator At bus ZZZ69 188 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Feeder between Buses BBB138 and GGG138 189 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Transformer between Buses GGG138 and ZZZ69 190 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Transformer Between Buses BBB138 and ZZZ69 191 .
Comparison of these results show that the equivalent system is computed accurately and can be used reliably in the short circuit studies. the following is performed: 1) In the original system (without reduction) compute the threephase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138.9 Validation and Verification of the Equivalent To verify and validate the function of the network equivalent option. GGG138. GGG138EQUI. and ZZZ69EQUI 3) The result obtained in step 1 should agree well with the result obtained in step 2 above The result for the reconstructed network using the equivalent system is shown on page 185. and ZZZ69 2) In the reconstructed system (remaining system joined with the equivalent system shown in Figure 7. 192 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8.10 compute the threephase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138EQUI.
and ZZZ69 in the Original Network (Intact System) 193 . GGG138.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Current for Buses BBB138.
04 Original Net 1726 1957 3240 L. in A Equivalent Net 1728 1959 3242 Error. in % 0.G Flt. 1272 1464 2644 Equivalent Net 1273 1465 2645 Error.07 0. and ZZZ69 in the Reconstructed System (equivalent) Comparative Short Circuit Results and errors in %: 3 P Flt. GGG138.06 Bus Name BBB138 GGG138 ZZZ69 Pre_Flt Voltage.08 0. in A Original Net.12 0. in % 0. in V 138000 138000 69000 The above results demonstrate the accuracy of the system equivalent.10 0. 194 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Currents for Buses BBB138. The errors are less than 0.3%.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
9
TUTORIAL: Conducting a Threephase Short Circuit Study Go to DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC and open the file T123.axd:
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9.1
The Calculation Tools To activate the Short Circuit program, click on the Short Circuit Icon .
The Menu displays the following short circuit calculation methods: • • • • • • • AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X, as per ANSI/IEEE Standard) AC Classical, (Z complex method) AC IEC 60909 AC IEC 61363 AC 1 Phase DC Classical DC IEC 61660
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DesignBase Short Circuit Program: Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Program Tools
DesignBase Short Circuit Program has the following calculation capabilities: • • Fault at one or more buses in the same run; Fault at all system buses. In this case, the buses are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a threephase, linetoground, linetoline, and linetolinetoground fault at each bus which is faulted for short circuit studies.
A bus can be selected in two ways: • • Directly from the drawing  click on the desired bus By selecting the bus in the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option
9.2 9.2.1
Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation) ACANSI/IEEE Method Select the Short Circuit Method: AC ANSI/IEEE.
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In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option dialog window select “Default Output”: Annotation. Other selection is listed below: • • • • • • Select Base Voltage: System Voltage Select Prefault Voltage: System Voltage Contribution Level from fault location: 3 Default Output: Annotation; Report Bus Type to select: All Buses Fault location: Selected Buses
Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Calculation Tab
198
199 . Select the Short Circuit result components to be inserted into the drawing.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.3 Short Circuit Annotation Tool The Annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the drawing.
3.1 3Phase Fault. and in the Time Bands select “Steady”. Click “OK” button and then Click “Analyze” icon: 200 . Select the bus “MAINBUS” by clicking onto the bus”MAINBUS”. In the Report Manager select “Fault Type: 3P”. 30 Cycles at Bus 18 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.
Components): 201 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The bus “Fault Current” is displayed onto the drawing (Sym and Asym.
Select the bus “MAINBUS” by clicking onto the bus.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. In the Report Manager select “Fault Type: 3P”.2 3Phase Fault Current. 2. and in the Time Bands select “1/2 Cycle”. Click “OK” button and then Click “Analyze” icon: 202 .3. ½ Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: 1.
203 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The “Fault Currents” are displayed onto the drawing.
3. Click “OK” button and then Click “Analyze” icon: 204 . Select the bus “MAINBBUS” by clicking onto the bus. In the Report Manager select “Fault Type: 3P”. and in the Time Bands select “5 Cycle”. 5 Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: 1.3 3Phase Fault Current. 2.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Back Annotation 205 .
206 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The “Fault Current” map is displayed onto the drawing.
“Fault Type LG”.3. Select the bus “MAINBUS” by clicking onto the bus: 2. 207 . In the Report Manager select “Fast”. 1Phase fault. “Time Bands ½ Cycle” and enable /click “Branch Annotation” field. Phase A. ½ Cycle.AINBUS”: 1.4 Change the “Fault Type” displayed onto the drawing.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. Fault at Bus “.
In “EDSA Annotation” select LineGround.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2. Symmetrical (RMS) and Asymmetrical (RMS): 208 . Phase A.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 209 .
B Phase. In the SC Report Manager/ Fast select LL fault type. Time Bands ½ cycle: 210 . LineLine. Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Change the “Fault Type” displayed onto the drawing.
In EDSA Annotation. select phase B: 211 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The fault current displayed on the drawing: 212 .
select the fault type and phase to be displayed onto the drawing: 3Phase.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Change the “Fault Current Component” displayed onto the drawing: 3Phase Fault. A Phase. Asymmetrical Current. Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: In the back annotation. A Phase. Select Fault Component: Asymmetrical: 213 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 214 .
as presented in the figure capture below: In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation. Note: Professional Report Writer provides “All Type of Faults: 3P. LL.1 All types of Faults at bus MAINBUS.4 Professional Report 9. LLG” always. 0. ½ Cycle Time Bands. LG.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.4.5 Cycle Symmetrical: Click on bus “MAINBUS” in the Paladin DesignBase drawing Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage. select “Fast”. 215 . enable “Refresh Professional Report” filed and then click “Professional Report Writer Wizard”.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 216 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report – ANSI Bus Summary: 217 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 218 .
select “All Buses” as presented in the figure capture below 219 . 0.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.4.2 All types of Faults at All buses.5 Cycle Symmetrical: Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage.
½ Cycle Time Bands.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation. Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard” button: 220 . enable “Refresh Professional Report” filed and then click “Professional Report Writer Wizard”. select “Fast”.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 221 .
3 All types of Faults at All buses. 5 Cycle Symmetrical: Follow the steps presented above.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard” button: 222 .4. but in the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation select 5 cycles.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 223 .
select “All Buses” as presented in the figure capture below: 224 .4 All types of Faults at All buses.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.4. 30 Cycle Symmetrical: Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage.
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation select “Steady”. Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard” button: 225 .
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 226 .
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