CE63-CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND SCHEDULING

(FOR VI SEMESTER)

PREPARED BY M.S Britto Jeyakumar Assistant Professor De artment of !i"i# en$ineerin$ T%E I&DIA& E&'I&EERI&' (O))E'E VADA*A&'+)AM

+&IT , I
1. What is pla i !"

P#annin$ aims at formu#ation of a time -ase. #an of a!tion for !oor.inatin$ "arious a!ti"ities an. resour!es to a!/ie"e s e!ifie. o-0e!ti"es. P#annin$ is t/e ro!ess of .e"e#o in$ t/e ro0e!t #an. T/e #an out#ines /o1 t/e ro0e!t is to -e .ire!te. to a!/ie"e t/e assi$ne. $oa#s. It s e!ifies a re.etermine. an. !ommitte. future !ourse of a!tion2 -ase. on .is!ussions an. .e!isions ma.e on t/e !urrent kno1#e.$e an. estimation of future tren.s. #. What is $% st&'$ti% pla i ! T/e !onstru!tion #annin$ ro!ess is stimu#ate. t/rou$/ a stu.y of ro0e!t .o!uments. T/ese .o!uments in!#u.e -ut are not #imite. to t/e a"ai#a-#e te!/ni!a# an. !ommer!ia# stu.ies an. in"esti$ations2 .esi$ns an. .ra1in$s2 estimation of 3uantities2 !onstru!tion met/o. statements2 ro0e!t #annin$ .ata2 !ontra!t .o!uments2 site !on.itions2 market sur"ey2 #o!a# resour!es2 ro0e!t en"ironment an. t/e !#ient4s or$ani5ation. T/e #annin$ ro!ess takes in to a!!ount2 t/e stren$t/s an. 1eakness of t/e or$ani5ations. 3. What a&( th( %)*($ti+(s %, pla i !" Pro er .esi$n of ea!/ e#ement of t/e ro0e!t Pro er se#e!tion of e3ui ment an. ma!/inery in -i$ ro0e!ts2 t/e use of #ar$e !a a!ity #ants are foun. e!onomi!a#  Pro!urement of materia#s 1e## in a."an!e  Pro er arran$ement of re air of e3ui ment an. ma!/inery  Em #oyment of traine. an. e6 erien!e. staff on t/e ro0e!t  To ro"i.e in!enti"e for $oo. 1orkers  To arran$e !onstant f#o1 of fun.s for t/e !om #etion of ro0e!t  To ro"i.e ro er safety measures an. "enti#ation2 ro er arran$ement of #i$/t an. 1ater. -. What a&( th( t.p(s %, p&%*($t pla s"   P#annin$ t/e entire ro0e!t from its in!e tion to !om #etion re3uires a "ast !o"era$e2 "arie. ski##s an. .ifferent ty es of #ans. T/e nature of #ans en!ountere. in a ty i!a# !onstru!tion ro0e!t are in.i!ate. -e#o1 T.p(s %, p&%*($t pla s De"e#o ment sta$e In!e tion sta$e En$ineerin$ sta$e Im #ementation sta$e nature of #an ro0e!t feasi-i#ity #an ro0e!t re#iminary #an ro0e!t !onstru!tion #an

.u#in$ of !onstru!tion a!ti"ities2 a#on$ 1it/ estimatin$ t/e resour!es re3uire.$etin$ !osts2 . ana#y5in$ t/e ro0e!t net1ork or mo. !osts for !om #etin$ t/e ro0e!t. !ontro##in$ men2 materia#s2 e3ui ment2 !osts an.$etary !ontro# 6.s for #annin$ an.entifyin$ !riti!a# an.o#o$y T($h i2'(s34(th%5s 7ork -reak .e"e#o in$ time net1ork #ans Fore!astin$ resour!e re3uirements2 #annin$ man o1er re3uirements2 #annin$ materia# re3uirements2 -u.ia$ram to esta-#is/ a re#ations/i amon$ a!ti"ities an. se3uen!e amon$ t/e tasks. in!ome of ea!/ 1ork a!ka$e f.etermine ro0e!t ./. inte$ratin$ t/ese . T/e terms 1ork tasks or a!ti"ities are often use.ar.u#in$ Resour!e a##o!ation (ost #annin$ 8 -u. What a&( th( st(ps i +%l+(5 i pla i !" a.i"i.en!e or re3uire. i.o1n ro0e!t 1ork2 . List %'t th( p&%*($t pla Sta!(s P#annin$ time i ! t($h i2'(s" Pla i ! p&%$(ss Breakin$ .one .ua# 1ork tasks an. re arin$ t/e #o$i! or net1ork .efinin$ t/e s!o e of 1ork to -e erforme.u#in$ Materia# s!/e. s!/e.u#in$ P#annin$ resour!es P#annin$ im #ementation Resour!e ro. Fore!astin$ in ut resour!es2 ro.esi$nin$ or$ani5ationa# stru!ture Formu#atin$ monitorin$ met/o. E6 #orin$ tra.u!tion !osts an.e9off -et1een time to !ost to arri"e at o tima# time an. items of 1ork. t/e "a#ue of t/e 1ork .o1n2 net1ork ana#ysis2 $nat !/art Man o1er s!/e.ia$rams to .e"e#o t/e net1ork mo. e.u!ti"ity !ontro#2 time !ontro#2 !ontri-ution !ontro#2 -u. D(.efine. -y t/e in.e#s to . .$etin$ E3ui ment se#e!tion an. Esta-#is/in$ stan. a ne!essary re!e. inter!/an$ea-#y in !onstru!tion #ans to refer to s e!ifi! .uration2 an. -.i ( 0%&1 tas1s" 7ork tasks re resent t/e ne!essary frame 1ork to ermit s!/e.e# !. non9!riti!a# a!ti"ities . 6.

#e"e#s !. in t/e or$ani5ation of . What is th( p'&p%s( %. D(pa&t4( tal sp($i.ata ro!essin$ system 8. To ena-#e t/e ro!essin$2 sortin$2 an.es use.i!ate t/e #o!ation of materia#s in site 1are /ouses 1:.es an. . To i. e6tra!tion of information re3uire. -y a numeri!a# "aryin$ from > to ? Alpha '4(&i$al $%5(s9 It is t/e !om-ination of a# /a-ets an.es are . D(.$.es or sim #y referre. Desi$nin$ a !ontro# system for t/e or$ani5ation i.i"i.i$ati% " In !onstru!tion ro0e!ts2 t/e !o. H%0 4a . in to t1o !ate$ories i. numera#s to . 11.e artment s e!ia#i5e.o#o$y 7.ata-ase for mana$in$ "arious ro0e!t fun!tions.2 sin$#e or !om-ine.e. De"e#o in$ t/e resour!es2 time an. E6: to in.e"e#o e. alpha)(t $%5(s ).e artmenta# /ea.es use.e for t/e foun.e..$et a##o!ations for a!/ie"in$ tar$ets assi$ne.e. alpha '4(&i$ $%5(s Alpha)(t $%5(s9 A# /a-et #etters A to .es2 ea!/ !/ara!ter !an -e re resente. ro0e!t interfa!in$ !o. P&%*($t i t(&. $at(!%&i(s a+aila)l( i $%5i. fun!tiona# units.a$( $%5(s9 T/ese are t/e !ommon !o.i i ! p&($(5( $( &(lati% ship a4% ! a$ti+iti(s" Pre!e. -y t/e .e"e#o a ea!/ !o.ata from t/e "ery . as ro0e!t !o. at "arious #e"e#s of mana$ement an. An a# /a-et in a sin$#e !/ara!ter s a!e !an re resent <= "ariations as !om are.e"e#o in$ an inter . . -.es.2 !an -e use.ata !onne!te.ata-ase. '4(&i$al $%5(s $.s for t/eir use.in$ in numeri!a# !o.en!e re#ations -et1een a!ti"ities si$nify t/at t/e a!ti"ities must take #a!e in a arti!u#ar se3uen!e.p(s %. D(.etai#e. To !om uteri5e t/e .i(5 $%5(s9 T/ese !o. to numera#s > to ?2 1/i!/ !an .in$. la)(li ! app&%a$h" a. to re resent a !o.e. to t/e "ery -roa. &umerous natura# se3uen!es e6ist for .i ( th( t. $%5i !" a. for . !ost !ontro# met/o. Fore!astin$ t/e ro0e!t -u. !o. 1it/ ea!/ 1ork a!ka$e2 as 1ork a!ka$es from t/e . to ea!/ or$ani5ationa# unit /.ation of a -ui#. To ai. !an -e -roa.#y . E6: a ro0e!t !o.entify t/e .e artment .e i!t ma6imum of @> "ariations N'4(&i$al $%5(s9 It is t/e most im ortant form of !o.

i ( a$ti+it. D(. ot/er . $%sts Dire!t materia#s !ost of !on!rete an.in$ one.%ll%0i ! t(&4s" i. T. It !onsists of !osts of . ot/er te!/ni!a# re3uirements. For e6am #e: in t/e a!ti"ity of roof !on!retin$2 t/e fo##o1in$ .9 a ro0e!t !an -e -roken .ire!t #a-our2 . ii. ro!ess ne!essary for its !om #etion.in$ a!ti"ity an. For e6am #e: E6!a"ation < E+( t9 it is t/e state -et1een t/e !om #etion of a re!e. in fu## 1it/ t/e e6e!ution of a s e!ifi! a!ti"ity. It /as no . a$ti+it.%& (<a4pl( E6!a"ate Tren!/ #a!e form1ork #a!e reinfor!ement our !on!rete 1#. a!ti"ity. -e in"o#"e. -y arro1s. < . T/e a!ti"ities are re resente. ro!esses2 1/i!/ !onsume time an.ire!t e3ui ment an.ire!t !osts 1ou#.o1n in to "arious o erations an. Ea!/ of t/ese o erations an. stee# Dire!t #a-our !ost of #a-our em #oye. . D(. ossi-#y resour!es2 is !a##e..uration an e"ent is s/o1n -y a !ir!#e or e##i se @ 13.ire!t !osts.p(s %.i ( th( . (+( t A$ti+it.!onstru!tion a!ti"ities . 5i&($t $%st" T/is is t/e !ost t/at !an -e tra!e. $%sts it(4 %. t/e -e$innin$ of t/e su!!ee.ue to re3uirements for stru!tura# inte$rity2 re$u#ations an.

In ot/er 1or. F. i 5i&($t $%st" T/is is t/e !ost t/at in!urre. E. D(.e"e#o ment ro!ess.u#es9Bar !/arts 9 T/e !riti!a# s!/e.u#in$ for A!ti"ity9on9no.1-.urations9(ras/in$ an. Define !onstru!tion #annin$B 7/at . 1it/ #ea. a. S!/e.ifi!ation a roa!/.u#in$ 1it/ #ea. T/ese re resent t/e a ortione. e6 #ain t/e #imitation of -ar !/art E6 #ain t/e main !auses of ro0e!t fai#ure. s!/e. E6 #ain t/e !o.s2 #a$s an. #ain t/e !o.o1s9Resour!e oriente.u#in$ 1it/ un!ertain . s!/e. D.9 (a#!u#ations for !riti!a# at/ s!/e. #ain t/e ro#es of a ro0e!t mana$er in . . on !ostB E6 #ain t/e -asi! !on!e ts in t/e .u#es9(riti!a# at/ met/o. Intro. =. re!e.u#es9Presentin$ ro0e!t at/ s!/e. E6 #ain t/e ro0e!t . ASSIGN=ENT ?UESTIONS @.u#in$9A!ti"ity f#oat an.ifi!ation a roa!/.u!tion to a #i!ation soft1are PART @ A TWO =AR>S ?UESTIONS AND ANSWERS .u#in$9S!/e.i ( a$ti+it.e"e#o ment of !onstru!tion #ans.s2 )a$s an.en!e4s 9+se of A. G.o1s9(a#!u#ations for s!/e.s.en!e re#ations/i B &ame t/e !#assifi!ation of ro0e!t -ase. C.u#in$ 1it/ resour!e !onstraints an. 1/i#e erformin$ an a!ti"ity2 -ut !annot -e tra!e. s/are of su er"isionA $enera# an."an!e.e"e#o ment ro!essB #ain t/e main !auses of ro0e!t fai#ure.u#in$ ro!ess . 7in.e offs 9Im ro"in$ t/e S!/e.ire!t#y to its e6e!ution.e an. E6 D. 16 =AR> ?UESTIONS @. E6 <. <.u#in$ Te!/ni3ues9S!/e. timeH!ost tra. 1in. E6 #ain t/e ro0e!t .ministration !osts are !ommon#y refer to as o"er/ea. UNIT @ II SCHEDULING PROCEDURES AND TECHNI?UES Re#e"an!e of !onstru!tion s!/e.o you mean -y re!e. Define -ar !/art an.etai#.ire!t ones fa## in t/is !ate$ory.s2 a## !osts ot/er t/an t/e . E6 C.

( !) It e"a#uates t/e im #i!ations of s!/e.u#in$ te!/ni3ues.u#e. termination . T/e ro0e!t is .ifferent sta$es of 1ork.istin!tion e6ists -et1een resour!e oriente.u#in$ means uttin$ t/e #an on !a#en.u#e s/o1s t/e #anne.in$ t/e re3uire. #atest !om #etion time2 -ut t/ese nee. !/art ty e 1ork s!/e.ination2 e6e!ution an."erse !#imati! !on. "ersion of t/e 1ork #an2 1/i!/ !an easi#y -e un.u!e. A ro0e!t net1ork s/o1s t/e se3uen!e an. C. 1it/ #annin$2 !o .es a sim #ifie.ata . -. 1ise 1/i#e uttin$ t/e 1ork #an on a !a#en.ar -asis2 it takes into a!!ount re. If t/ere is any .en!ies of a!ti"ities2 t/eir time an. ena-#es re aration of a #an of 1ork 1it/in t/e frame 1ork of t/ese !onstraints. 0%&1 s$h(5'li !" T/e -ar . What is th( p'&p%s( %. inters . It $i"es a !#ear i. 1it/ t/e a!tua# #an. !ontro# of t/e ro0e!t. What is th( %)*($t %.ates t/e time o-0e!ti"es: A 1ork s!/e. -y a## !on!erne. effi!ien!y of resour!es to a. men2 materia#s an.itions an.e#ay2 ro er reme.u#in$ !onstraints: A 1ork s!/e. A!tua# ro$ress of t/e 1ork is monitore. su!/ .i"i.e en.erstoo. #. s$h(5'li !. 3.etermine !ommen!ement an. Resour!e uti#i5ation is o timi5e. +sin$ o timum resour!es or 1orkin$ 1it/in resour!e !onstraints2 it is a time ta-#e of 1ork. to . ot/er fa!tors. What a&( th( st(ps i +%l+(5 i s$h(5'l( $ha&t" .1.ia# measures !an -e taken to a"oi.ar -asis. t/e many a#ternati"e met/o.u#e -rin$s out t/e im #i!ations of !onstraints an. @. By stu. or. into num-er of o erations. (-) It "a#i. S!/e.u#e ro"i. D..ea re$ar. A -asi! . <.e#ays. List %'t th( a5+a ta!(s %. e3ui ments at . t/eir ear#iest an.s to -e s!/e.yin$ of any 1ork an. se3uen!e of a!ti"ities2 . s!/e.s of e6e!ution2 1e !an !/oose t/e -est one.e. s$h(5'li !".ates of ea!/ a!ti"ity.

.ates2 t/ese . i.ation /ori5onta# #ine. -y t/e set -a!k. -reak. ( ! ) Startin$ from t/e oint of interse!tion2 mo"e for1ar. mark its interse!tion 1it/ t/e to to foun. A $B =at(&ials9 (onstru!tion materia#s are in!reasin$#y -e!omin$ s!ar!e an.s in fore!astin$ of materia#s an. for an. $ha&t. What a&( th( .ay. !om #etion of a!ti"ities. 6. t/e strikes an. ( -) P#ot t/e #o1est rate s#o1in$ #ine an.a$t%&s a.ra1 a #ine s#o in$ e3ua# to its rate of e6e!ution i. T/e s!/e. ro$ress 1ork. t/eir time#y #y . A)B =a p%0(&9 Man o1er is one of t/e main in t/e su!!essfu# e6e!ution of ro0e!ts. . D&a0 S$h(5'l( hi(&a&$h.2 @ unit er .(a) Se#e!t t/e EST oint of a!ti"ity #ayout on t/e $ra /2 an.e !onstraints on start an.#e #a-our time is ai. /ori5onta##y on t/e to #ine an. .($ti ! 0%&1 s$h(5'li !" AaB Ti4(9 Most of t/e ro0e!ts !arry time !onstraints in t/e form of im ose.u#e ai.o1n of 1ork are ke t in "ie1 -y man o1er.. T/e i.e.etermines t/e e!onomi!s an. /. t/eir ro!urement is a time !onsumin$ su ro!ess.ates may in!#u.entify #atest !om #etion oint of su-se3uent a!ti"ity as in.i!ate.

urations in 1/i!/ t/e ro0e!t !an -e !om #ete. D(..uration an. ii. i".e.etermines t/e minimum . D'44.e for !om uter a #i!ation.%ll%0i ! t(&4s9 1.e# i. . iii. (a) To ro"i. It /as 5ero . (-) To sim #ify t/e .es!ri tion of a n a!ti"ity in terms of e"ent num-ers. termination of an a!ti"ity.9 It is su erim ose. a!ti"ity2 1/i!/ . #.in$ e"ent. !riti!a# at/ an.2 it takes into a!!ount un!ertainties in"o#"e.e"e#o in$ i. as i9 0 1/ere i an. What is th( p'&p%s( %. in t/e estimation time of a 0o.es!ri tion of !on!urrent a!ti"ities in terms of e"ent num-ers. T/e a!ti"ities are !o. It sim #ifies t/e i.in$ e"ent it s/ou#.. -e #ess t/an t/at of t/e su!!ee.or an a!ti"ity.e a #o$i!a# #ink to maintain t/e !orre!t. a$ti+it. PERT A P&%!&a44( E+al'ati% a 5 R(+i(0 T($h i2'(B9 PERT is "ent oriente.oes not re resent any s e!ifi! o eration or ro!ess. 7. 0 are t/e e"ent num-ers as !ommen!ement an.entifi!ation !o. . It /e# s in ..6.entifi!ation an. essimisti! time an. It uses t/ree estimates of t/e a!ti"ity time2 o timisti! time an. '4)(&i ! (+( ts" i. It is ara-o#isti! mo. C&iti$al path9 T/e #on$est at/ t/rou$/ t/e net1ork is !a##e.i ( th( .2 most #ike#y time. It systemati5es t/e !om utations of !riti!a# at/ for ea!/ a!ti"ity as far as ossi-#e2 t/e num-er of t/e ro!ee. 3.e. its #en$t/ . !onsumes no resour!es2 its ur ose is t1o fo#.

i$ati% %. What a&( th( $lassi.T/e .uration of t/e entire ro0e!t. LST ALat(st Sta&t Ti4(B 9 T/is is t/e #atest time an a!ti"ity !an start !onsistent2 1it/ t/e !om #etion of t/e ro0e!t in t/e sti u#ate.uration from t/e )FT of su!!ee. L.i ( th( .%ll%0i ! t(&4s. #. 1:.etermines t/e . to ensure t/e !om #etion of ro0e!t 1it/in t/e sti u#ate.ra1n #ike any ot/er a!ti"ity2 -ut 1it/ .in$ e"ent.i ish Ti4(B9 It is t/e ear#iest time -y 1/i!/ an a!ti"ity !an -e !om #ete. $&iti$al path" (a) It is t/e #on$est at/ in t/e net1ork2 /o1e"er it is ossi-#e for a net1ork to /a"e more t/an one !riti!a# at/. T/e sum of t/e . T/e )ST of an a!ti"ity is . (-).i$a $( %. -y su-tra!tin$ t/e a!ti"ity . It is t/e most sensiti"e at/2 any !/an$e in . D(. (t0%&1s" @.etermine.i ish Ti4(B9 It is t/e #atest time -y 1/i!/ an a!ti"ity must -e !om #ete. to effe!t t/e . What is th( si! i.T ALat(st . 3.uration of t/e ro0e!t.urations of !riti!a# a!ti"ities a#on$ t/e !riti!a# at/ . Ske#eton net1ork . time. 11. #ines. -.T A Ea&li(st .uration !riti!a# a!ti"ities a#on$ t/e !riti!a# at/ is -oun. EST A Ea&li(st Sta&t Ti4(B 9 T/is is t/e ear#iest time an a!ti"ity !an -e starte.ummy a!ti"ity is . 1. assumin$ t/at a## t/e a!ti"ities rior to it -e$in at t/eir EST. time. 8.2 assumin$ t/at a## t/e a!ti"ities rior to it /a"e taken #a!e as ear#y as ossi-#e. E.otte.

(ras/in$. to erio. &(s%'&$( l(+(li ! a 5 $&ashi !" R(s%'&$( l(+(li !9 T/e aim is re. A)B T%tal .ifferen!e -et1een t/e #atest start time an. 1-.uration of time a"ai#a-#e for t/e !om #etion an. D(. to !om #ete an a!ti"ity.ire!t !ost re3uire. C&ash ti4(9 .<. Detai# net1ork D. Master net1ork C. #.uration times2 1/i#e #on$er .%ll%0i ! t(&4s9 1. F#oat is a measure of t/e amount of time -y 1/i!/ t/e start of an a!ti"ity !an -e . What is 4(a ). N%&4al ti4(9 &orma# time is t/e ma6imum time re3uire.efine. . 1#.u!tion of a!ti"ity times -y uttin$ in e6tra effort is !a##e. assi$nment 1it/in a !onstraint on t/e ro0e!t . 1it/ sma##er a!ti"ity . C&ashi !9 %i$/er amounts of .u!e t/e eak resour!e re3uirements an. to !om #ete an a!ti"ity at norma# !ost.ire!t a!ti"ity !ost 1ou#. Su!/ .uration time 1ou#.l%at9 Tota# f#oat of an a!ti"ity is . as t/e . 3. ear#iest start time of an a!ti"ity is !a##e.i ( th( . in"o#"e !om arati"e#y #o1er .uration. D(. !onsistent 1it/ t/e !om #etion of t/e ro0e!t on time. as f#oat.uration re3uire. Summary net1ork.ifferen!e -et1een t/e ma6imum . -e asso!iate. smoot/ out erio.e#i-erate re. 13.l%at9 T/e .uration. N%&4al $%st9 &orma# !ost is t/e #o1est ossi-#e .%ll%0i ! t(&4s9 AaB .e#aye.i ( th( .ire!t !ost. to !arry out t/at .

p&%*($t. $%st sl%p(.2 anti!i ate.i$ati% %.(ras/ time is t/e minimum ossi-#e time in 1/i!/ an a!ti"ity !an -e !om #ete.sB 3: :6 1: :: . W&it( th( st(ps . a 5 .%& th( . D&a0 a (t0%&1 .u!in$ t/e . -. in !om #etin$ an a!ti"ity 1it/in t/e !ras/ time. usin$ a. &orma# time .uration of an a!ti"ity. 3. s$h(5'li !. -.%ll%0i ! a$ti+it.i ( a$ti+it. in re. A$ti+it..3.e!rease in time.e. C&ash $%st9 (ras/ !ost is t/e .itiona# !ost in!urre. er unit of time sa"e. 1.ire!t !ost i.# 1.3 #. A!ti"ity (ost s#o e I !ras/ !ost .. T/e !ost s#o e in. 1/. A!ti"ity !ost s#o e is t/e rate of in!rease in t/e !ost of a!ti"ity er unit 1it/ a . E<plai th( $&iti$al path 4(th%5 0ith (<a4pl(.D'&ati% A5a.%& &(s%'&$( l(+(li ! a 5 &(s%'&$( all%$ati% .i 5 th( $&iti$al path a 5 5'&ati% %.i!ates t/e a.itiona# resour!es. E<plai th( $lassi. #. D(. (ras/ time PART @ B SICTEEN =AR>S ?UESTIONS 1.%&4 . &orma# !ost .

%& th( 5ata !i+( )(l%0 %. AN%+ #::6B #.3. a $% st&'$ti% p&%*($t s$h(5'l(5 5(t(&4i ( th( $&iti$al path a 5 all .B #: #/ 3: 1: 1/ -: /. AN%+ #::6B A$ti+it. si< a$ti+iti(s 0ith . D&a0 th( (t0%&1 a 5 %)tai %&4al a 5 4i i4'4 p&%*($t 5'&ati% . AN%+ #::6B 3.sB :6 :/ 1: :3 :6 :1 $&ash $%st ARs. A s4all p&%*($t $% sists %.1: -.35a.7 6.7 /. W&it( )&i(.l%ats.8 7. 1-# 1-3 1-#-3---/ N%&4al 5'&ati% s A5a.sB :8 :7 1/ :/ 1: :# 3: 1#1 1: :6 :: :6 1# 1/ 1/ C&ash 5'&ati% A5a.6 6.11 A$ti+it.l%0s.6 6. PART @ C ASSIGN=ENT ?UESTIONS 1.l.%ll%0i ! i .8 8. a)%'t th( p&%*($t $ash .%&4ati% s. A B P&(5($(ss%& A D'&ati% 6 6 .11 1:./ -. . What a&( th( +a&i%'s $%sts i +%l+(5 i a $% st&'$ti% p&%*($t.

EDE . A=a. #::6B 6. 5is$'ss th( th&(( ti4( (sti4at( i PERT (t0%&1 a al.(&( $( )(t0(( CP= a 5 PERT. B&i(. D(t(&4i ( th( $&iti$al path a 5 (sti4at( th( 4i i4'4 p&%*($t 5'&ati% .sis. G H I E > L = N O A B CDD CDD D H . GDI GDI LDN 1 1/ 7 7 3 / 3 1# 6 # 6 -. A=a. #::6B UNIT-III COST CONTROLD =ONITORING AND ACCOUNTING PART @ A TWO =AR> ?UESTIONS AND ANSWERS .C D E . A B C D E .l.. Dis$'sss th( 5i. G H I t% 3 # 6 / 6 1: # t4 3 7 6 8 1# # / 6 tp / / 1: 7 117 7 /.%& th( p&%*($t 5ata !i+( )(l%0. AN%+ #::6B A$ti+it.

iture is in!urre.e a!tua# fi$ures of !ost for !om arison 1it/ estimates an. (iii) Assistan!e to "arious arties : It ro"i. W&it( th( a5+a ta!(s %. D(. -. to assiat t/e mana$ement in t/eir ri!e fi6in$ o#i!y.e!ision makin$ D. in!ome measurement. (ii) (om arati"e stu.e artment or ser"i!e an.e!isions -y t/e use of information. @. To ro"i. !ommuni!atin$ e!onomi! information to ermit informe. D(. To ro"i. It starts from t/e osition at 1/i!/ e6 en.e o1ners2 !re. What a&( th( a5+a ta!(s %. To fa!i#itate rationa# . /.u!t !ost for in"entory "a#uation an. It in"o#"es !#assifi!ation2 a!!umu#ation2 a##o!ation2 a-sor tion an. finan!ia# osition of a -usiness enter rises from t/eir o1n "ie1 oint. to . To as!ertain t/e o erationa# rofit or #oss C. a$$%' ti !" (i) E"i. To as!ertain !ost of ro. mana$er /o1 a!tua# !osts !om are 1it/ stan.e"e#o !ost stan. .s <.i ( th( t(&4 a$$%' ti ! T/e ro!ess of i. To kee systemati! re!or.e. !ontro# of !ost.y of t/e "arious as e!ts of t/e -usiness su!/ as rofits2 sa#es2 e6 enses et!. !ost an.y : It ro"i.$ment an. e"i.es information to "arious i. a$$%' ti !. W&it( th( %)*($ti+(s %.i ( $%st a$$%' ti ! (ost a!!ountin$ is . an. To re!or. $%st a$$%' ti !.en!e in !ourt : Pro er#y maintaine. as a $oo. as t/e ro!ess of a!!ountin$ for !ost. ti## t/e esta-#is/ment of its u#timate re#ations/i 1it/ !ost !entre or !ost unit. #.ar. 0u.efine. ossi-#e !auses of . C. W&it( th( %)*($ti+(s %. a!!ounts are often treate. or !ommitte.ar. @.e unit ro.ifferen!e -et1een t/em 6.en!e in t/e !ourt to sett#e a .1. D. $%st a$$%' ti !. t/e fa!i#ity of !om arati"e stu.is ute.itors2 in"estors2 $o"ernmenta# mana$ers2 resear!/ s!/o#ars an.u!tion of e"ery unit2 0o-2 o eration2 ro!ess2 . To as!ertain t/e finan!ia# osition of -usiness 3. <. .s. re ort to t/e !on!erne.entifyin$2 measurin$ an.

8. in.in$2 !#assifi!ation an. D(. !ontro##a-#e !osts C%st A$$%' ti ! It ro"i.i ( th( .es information to users interna# to t/e firm (ost A!!ountin$ in"o#"e an.s re"ea#s a!tua# an.entifi!ation 1it/ !ost units ( Dire!t an. "aria-#e !osts an.i<(5 $%st AiiiB Fa&ia)l( $%st .e -et1een . "a#ue ana#ysis to$et/er 1it/ !ost re.in$ to t/eir i.(i) Detai#e.ar.e"iation of a!tua# resu#ts from t/ose -u.ire!t) a!!ountin$ to t/eir "aria-i#ity (fi6e.e for a. 7.i ( .istin$uis/e.%ll%0i ! t(&4s AiB C%st AiiB . otentia# sour!es of !ost sa"in$ an. T/e art of re!o.e3uate !ontro# a"er materia# 1a$es an. annua##y of re orts are In !ost A!!ountin$2 !osts are . (ost !ontro# are sou$/t to -e ke t 1it/in #imits -y -u. (ontro# of o erationa# in"o#"es monitorin$ a!ti"ate.i a $ial a$$%' ti ! It ro"i. !ost an.istin!tion is ma.ire!t !ost2 fi6e. of t/e or$ani5ation an. 6.oes not ro"i. stan. !ontro# -e!omes easier (iii) Market resear!/ an. +sers (ontro# as e!ts Ana#ysis of !osts . In finan!ia# a!!ountin$ no .i ( $%st $% t&%l.ai#y !ost re orts 1:. information to users e6terna# to t/e firm Finan!ia# a!!ountin$ . a!!or.i a $ial a$$%' ti !. in terms of money2 transa!tions an. re ortin$ .u!tion ro$rammer #ea. !ost re. !osts.. an. C%4pa&( .u!tion. (i") It /e# s in !reatin$ a !om etiti"e s irit -et1een or$ani5ationa# units.$ete. to e!onomy.e.i a $ial a$$%' ti ! a 5 $%st a$$%' ti !. !osts of materia#s2 #a-our an. summari5in$ in a si$nifi!ant manner an. D(.$ets an. in. e"ents 1/i!/ are at #east in art of finan!ia# !/ara!ter an. D(. o"er/ea. takes !are of !ontro# o"er a## e#ements of !ost Fre3uen!y Finan!ia# a!!ounts u-#is/e. (ii) Profit #annin$ an. "aria-#e) a!!ountin$ to res onsi-i#ity ( !ontro##a-#e an. inter retin$ t/e resu#ts.ire!t an. un!ontro##a-#e ) !osts $enera##y (ost a!!ounts su #y 3uarter#y2 mont/#y or e"en . o"er/ea.

D(. -y .e!isions ma.i"i.ay to #annin$2 monitorin$ an.e in t/e future.ua# a!ti"ate. 13. ot/er outsi. t/e asso!iate.i ( p&%*($t )'5!(t.Ai+B S' 1 $%st A+B C% t&%ll(5 $%st AiB C%st9 It is t/e -enefits $i"en u to a!3uire $oo. 11.%ll%0i ! t(&4s AiB B'5!(t(5 $%st AiiB Esti4at(5 t%tal $%st AiB B'5!(t(5 $%st 9 T/e -u. an.s or ser"i!es AiiB . !ost estimate re are.e arties.%&($asti ! a$ti+it. . from t/e .i ( th( . .etai#e. 1-.. W&it( th( a5+a ta!(s %.u#e to monitor t/e ro$ress of a!ti"ities. at t/e start of ro0e!t. are not affe!te.i a $ial a$$%' ti !" (i) Interna# re ortin$ to ro0e!t mana$ers for .$ete.e t/e -ase#ine referen!e for su-se3uent ro0e!t monitorin$ an.. For s!/e. Ai+B S' 1 $%st9 (osts t/at /a"e a#rea. For !ost !ontro# on a ro0e!t2 t/e !onstru!tion #an an.i<(5 $%st9 (ost t/at remain t/e same in tota# irres e!ti"e of !/an$es in t/e #e"e# of a!ti"ity AiiiB Fa&ia)l( $%st: (osts t/at !/an$e in tota# in . AiiB Esti4at(5 t%tal $%st9 T/e estimate or fore!ast tota# in ea!/ !ate$ory is t/e !urrent -est estimate of !osts -ase. D(. A+B C% t&%ll(5 $%st9 (ost t/at !an -e . 1#.y -een in!urre. any !/an$es sin!e t/e -u. ro"i. on ro$ress an.$et 1as forme.in$ strate$i! #annin$ (iii) E6terna# re ortin$ to o1ners2 $o"ernment2 re$u#ators an.u#es2 ro$ress on in. !ontro# (ii) Interna# re ortin$ to mana$ers for ai. 1it/ t/e ro0e!t s!/e. !as/ f#o1 estimates !an !ontro#. . !an -e !om are. !ost is . What is th( p'&p%s( %.eri"e. -y a $i"en mana$er in t/e or$ani5ation.ire!t ro ortion to !/an$e in t/e #e"e# of a!ti"ity.ire!t#y re$u#ate.

i!ate 1/ere t/ese resour!es /a"e !ome from.atin$ t/e ro0e!t s!/e. (iii) De#ays in !onstru!tion re resent a.(&( $( $%4p%' 5s %.e. ot/er !re. D(..e ser"i!e in t/e future. (ii) It in"o#"es for 1ork !om #etion2 so !ontra!tua# a$reements 1i## for!e attention to s!/e. • Pro0e!t mana$ers must a#so !onsi.H tota# estimate. to . for u .u#e.ata !an a#so -e use. to estimate t/e 1ork ro$ress (ost ratio I (ost in!urre.(i) Measurements of a!tua# ro$ress s/ou#..u#es .ate an.ers an. (ii) It is use. T/e !ost in!urre.9 T/e fun. A -a#an!e s/eet . -e store. in a!tua# . 16.u#e. . 16. D(. What a&( th( 5i.es!ri-es t/e resour!es t/at are un. -y outsi.ata-ase an.i ( )ala $( sh((t. (iii) Th( %0 (&Gs (2'it.era-#e attention to monitorin$ s!/e. W&it( sh%&t %t( % s$h(5'l( $% t&%l. 17. a )ala $( sh((t" It !onsists of t/ree ma0or se!tions (i) (ii) Ass(ts 9 Va#ua-#e ri$/ts o1ne. What is th( p'&p%s( %.s /a"e -een ro"i.e #en. -y t/e !om any Lia)iliti(s9 T/e fun.status re orts AiiiB To fin. t/en ro!esse. to re arin$ 0o.era-#e attention to monitorin$ s!/e. !ost. te!/ni!a# ro-#ems. 1/.i ( $%st &ati% 18.u#e.ue to #ate fa!i#ity o!!u an!y or ot/er fa!tors. -y t/e !om any4s o1ner or on t/eir -e/a#f. in.itiona# !osts .s /a"e -een ro"i. s$h(5'l( $% t&%l" (i) Pro0e!t mana$ers must $i"e !onsi.e.itors in e6!/an$e for t/e !om any4s romise to make ayments or to ro"i. out t/e future re"enues2 future !osts an.er a !om any4s on a s e!ifie.

!osts2 a!tua# a!ti"ity .$ete. #ine for 1ork !om #etion so !ontra!tua# a$reements 1i## for!e attention to s!/e.• • • It in"o#"es a .B SICTEEN =AR> ?UESTIONS @.is!uss re#ations/i -et1een estimatin$ an.e. on arti!u#ar a!ti"ities is a"ai#a-#e estimate !an -e estimate.C ASSIGN=ENT ?UESTIONS @. On!e estimates of 1ork !om #ete an. PART. E6 #ain t/e finan!ia# a!!ountin$ systems an. 7/at are t/e o-0e!ti"es of !ost !ontro# BE6 #ain (MayHJune9<>>F) <.u#e (osts are !om are. 7rite -rief#y a-out ro0e!t !as/ f#o1s (&o"HDe!<>>F) 7/at are t/e "arious !osts in"o#"e. !ost a!!ountin$ system. to -u. (&o"HDe!<>>F) UNIT IF ?UALITY CONTROL AND SA.urations may -e !om are.urations.$et ro!e. E6 #ain t/e fore!astin$ for a!ti"ity !ost !ontro# C. 7rite s/ort note on (i) (ontro# of ro0e!t !as/f#o1 (ii) (om are finan!ia# a!!ountin$ an.ETY DURING CONSTRUCTION PART @ A .ea. time e6 en. Brief#y . D. E6 #ain t/e ro0e!t -u.ure an.. in a !onstru!tion ro0e!t. !ost a!!ountin$. !ost !ontro# ro-#ems D. . PART. <. to e6 e!te. !ost !ontro# (MayHJune9<>>F) C.

T/is is referre. as t/e -asis for a!!e tin$ or re0e!tin$ 1ork !om #ete. usin$ a measurin$ instrument an. statisti!a# met/o. D(. 7/en t/e . to t/eir 1ork #a!e. 1. -. a "aria-#e.in$ to t/e . D(.p(s %.i ( att&i)'t(. What a&( th( t.i ( 2'alit.efe!ti"e item in t/e sam #e .oin$ simi#ar 1ork 1/o meet re$u#ar#y i.i ( A$$(pta $( ?'alit. statisti$al sa4pli !" @.efe!ti"e (-a.efine. Jua#ity !ir!#e is a sma## $rou of eo #e . e6 resse. L(+(lAA?LB AJ) is . Sam #in$ -y "aria-#es 1. #. to as sam #in$ -y attri-utes. -at!/es of materia#s.TWO =AR> ?UESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1.om sam #es an.efe!ti"es t/at for t/e ur ose of sam #es ins e!tion !an -e !onsi. on t/e num-er of .i ( t%tal 2'alit. A sin$#e measurement 3ua#ity !/ara!teristi! su!/ as . so#"e ro-#ems re#ate. .imension2 1ei$/t an. to -e an attri-ute.ere. an. Jua#ity !ontro# in !onstru!tion in"o#"es insurin$ !om #ian!e 1it/ minimum stan.esi$n. "o#ume is !a##e. Sam #in$ -y attri-utes <. att&i)'t(s T/e a!!e tan!e or re0e!tion of a #ot is -ase.s are !ommon#y use. For t/e ur ose of insurin$ !om #ian!e ran. D(. $% t&%l. D(.s of materia# an.ar. 6. Sa4pli ! ). as a num-er on some !ontinuous s!a#e of measurement. $i&$l(. 1orkmans/i in or. t/e num-er fai#in$ to !onform to any s e!ifi! re3uirement2 t/e 3ua#ity is sai. D(.entify2 ana#y5e an. satisfa!tory as a ro$ress a"era$e.er to insure t/e erforman!e of t/e fa!i#ity a!!or. as t/e ma6imum er!ent .i ( +a&ia)l( Varia-#e is t/e 3ua#ity !/ara!teristi! a!tua##y measure. for ana#ysis is on#y a num-er of arti!#es !onformin$ an. 3.ata o-taine.) or a non .

u!atin$ 1orkers D.u!e. ersonne# on site.#.(!'a&5s i $% st&'$ti% " It in"o#"es maintainin$ tem orary /ysi!a# safe$uar. Barri!a. su #ies an. E. as a 3ua#ity in. Sa4pli ! ).efe!ti"e an.orsin$ t/e $oa# of 5ero . .i!ator. Pro"i. Toe -oar. Rai#in$s E.efe!ts To insure safe an.s 8. /ats on site -.ure is referre. !osts of ins e!tion To im ro"e. "aria-#e is use. sa. Desi$n <. Bra!es C. H%0 5% .%' i4p&%+( i t%tal $% t&%l" • • • • • To im ro"e 1orker ent/usiasm To re. Insurin$ safety s/oes for 1orkers e.(t. traine. (/oi!e of te!/no#o$y C. of usin$ .in$ First9Ai.s su!/ as @.ertake T/ese in!#u. What a&( th( +a&i%'s t(4p%&a&. +a&ia)l(s Instea. What a&( th( sta 5a&5 4(as'&(s i sa. to as sam #in$ -y "aria-#es 6.efe!ti"e items To in!rease. non . 7. ..%' i4p&%+( i *%)sit( i $% st&'$ti% " Various measures are a"ai#a-#e to im ro"e 0o-site safety in !onstru!tion se"era# of t/e most im ortant o!!ur -efore !onstru!tion is un.ures are a ma0or e#ement. T/is testin$ ro!e.e @.H%0 5% . effe!ti"e !onstru!tion ro!e. $% st&'$ti% " a. Pre93ua#ifi!ation of !ontra!tors 1:. Re3uirin$ /ar. Re3uirin$ eye rote!tion on site !. 3ua#ity e"en 7it/out en. Re3uirin$ /earin$ rote!tion near e3ui ment .es <. 'uy #ines D.efe!ti"e !#assifi!ations for an item2 a 3uantitati"e 3ua#ity measure or t/e "a#ue of a measure.

ty i!a##y in"o#"es many e#ements @.s #iers are a#so re3uire to insure 5ero . What a&( th( st(ps i +%l+(5 i t%tal 2'alit.s an.ete!ts an. ins e!te. 1-.($ti ! i 2'alit. D. )a!k of attention in 1orksite D. $% t&%l" Tota# 3ua#ity !ontro# is a !ommitment to 3ua#ity e6 resse.a$t%&s a. effe!ti"e !onstru!tion ro!e. in 3ua#ity !ir!#e A## materia#s s/ou#. (onstru!tion S e!ifi!ation Institute ((SI) D. its satisfies t/e !ustomer. in a## arts of an or$ani5ation an. PART. Im ro er safe$uar. Jua#ity is .ar. T/e Ameri!an &ationa# Stan.. Im ro er 1orkmans/i C.i ( 2'alit. -e !ertifie. Materia#s ( ASTM) <.efine. i $% st&'$ti% " @. are issue.in$ So!iety (A7S) 1#. D(.Materia# su $oo.e#i"ere. in 11.s 13. Poor !onforman!e materia# 3ua#ity E.s Institute (A&SI) C. In!orre!t . )a!k of trainin$ in !onstru!tion 1ork =. as t/e fitness for t/e ur ose an. Desi$n re"ie1s to insure safe an. Trainin$ for ersonne# C. What a&( th( . . T/e Ameri!an So!iety for Testin$ an.efe!ts in .i$ati% s a+aila)l( i $% st&'$ti% " u-#i!ations of or$ani5ations su!/ as @. an. Ameri!an 7e#. What a&( th( 4at(&ial sp($i. 3ua#ity !ontro# is often forma#i5e.efe!ts from 3ua#ity !ontro# ins e!tors to 1orkers. re$u#ar#y 'enera# s e!ifi!ations of 1ork 3ua#ity are a"ai#a-#e fie#.B SICTEEN =AR> ?UESTIONS .esi$n <.ure <.• • To im ro"e. S/iftin$ t/e res onsi-i#ity for .

E6 #ain t/e materia# s e!ifi!ation in !onstru!tion PART. D.ents (MayHJune9<>>F) an.@. E6 #ain tota# 3ua#ity !ontro# in !onstru!tion <.ifferent ty es of !ontro# !/arts in statisti!a# 3ua#ity !ontro# (&o"HDe!<>>F) . 7/at are t/e !auses of a!!i. 7rite note on (i) Safety in !onstru!tion (ii) Or$ani5in$ for 3ua#ity an.entsB E6 #ain a-out /uman fa!tors 1/i!/ !ause a!!i. Dis!uss -rief#y t/e tota# 3ua#ity mana$ementB (MayHJune9<>>F) <. E6 #ain t/e a #i!a-i#ity of .C ASSIGN=ENT ?UESTIONS @. safety C. (&o"HDe!<>>F) C. E6 #ain t/e 3ua#ity !ontro# statisti!a# met/o.s.