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Algebra Success in 20 Minutes a Day Practical Math Success in 20 Minutes a Day Statistics Success in 20 Minutes a Day Trigonometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day

Copyright © 2010 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Geometry success : in 20 minutes a day—3rd ed. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-1-57685-745-8 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-57685-745-X (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Geometry—programmed instruction. 1. LearningExpress (Organization) QA461.T46 2010 516—dc22 2009053260 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Third Edition ISBN-10 1-57685-745-X ISBN-13 978-1-57685-745-8 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION PRETEST LESSON 1 The Basic Building Blocks of Geometry Explains the basic building blocks of geometry: points, lines, rays, line segments, and planes Types of Angles Describes right, acute, obtuse, and straight angles Working with Lines Describes perpendicular, transversal, parallel, and skew lines and shows how to solve problems involving them Measuring Angles Describes how to measure and draw a variety of angles using a protractor and how to add and subtract angle measures Pairs of Angles Explains the special relationships that exist between complementary, supplementary, and vertical angles Types of Triangles Shows how to identify scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute, equilangular, right, and obtuse triangles

vii 1 13

LESSON 2 LESSON 3

23 29

LESSON 4

37

LESSON 5

45

LESSON 6

51

iii

–CONTENTS–

LESSON 7

Congruent Triangles Deﬁnes congruent triangles and shows how to prove that triangles are congruent Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem Shows how the various parts of a right triangle are related and how to use the Pythagorean theorem and its converse to solve problems Properties of Polygons Describes plane ﬁgures such as decagons, hexagons, pentagons, and octagons and shows how to ﬁnd their interior and exterior angle measurements Quadrilaterals Discusses the various properties of parallelograms and trapezoids and explains why they are quadrilaterals Ratio, Proportion, and Similarity Explains ratio, proportion, and similarity and shows how to discern if triangles are similar Perimeter of Polygons Explains how to ﬁnd the perimeter of concave and convex polygons Area of Polygons Explains how to ﬁnd the area of polygons Surface Area of Prisms Shows how to ﬁnd the surface area of prisms Volume of Prisms and Pyramids Explains how to ﬁnd the volume of prisms and pyramids Working with Circles and Circular Figures Explains how to ﬁnd the circumference and area of circles and the surface area and volume of cylinders and spheres; includes a thorough discussion of pi Coordinate Geometry Introduces coordinate geometry, describes the coordinate plane, and shows how to plot points and determine distance between two points The Slope of a Line Deﬁnes slope and shows how to determine the slope of a line

59

LESSON 8

67

LESSON 9

77

LESSON 10

87

LESSON 11

95

LESSON 12 LESSON 13 LESSON 14 LESSON 15 LESSON 16

105 113 123 131 141

LESSON 17

153

LESSON 18

159

iv

and tangent by using right triangles 167 LESSON 20 173 POSTTEST ANSWER KEY GLOSSARY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B Postulates and Theorems Additional Resources 181 193 207 211 215 v . cosine. including horizontal and vertical lines Trigonometry Basics Shows how to ﬁnd the trigonometric ratios sine.–CONTENTS– LESSON 19 The Equation of a Line Describes the equation of a line and shows how to write equations of lines.

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a glossary of mathematical terms. a posttest. As you work through the lessons in this book. The only assignment more difﬁcult than working math problems is reading about math problems. an appendix with postulates and theorems. Although the title of this book suggests studying each lesson for 20 minutes a day. You’ll ﬁnd the answers in the answer key at the end of the book. The book also includes a pretest. vii . take the pretest.INTRODUCTION T his book will help you achieve success in geometry. so numerous ﬁgures and illustrations are included to help you understand the material. and an appendix of additional resources for further study. Reading about math is often slower than reading for amusement. you should feel as if someone is guiding you through each one. and answers those questions in a clear and understandable way. which will assess your current knowledge of geometry. After taking the pretest. you should work at your own pace through the lessons. move on to Lesson 1. This book is the next best thing to having your own private tutor. Before you begin Lesson 1. How to Use This Book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day teaches basic geometry concepts in 20 self-paced lessons. It addresses the kinds of questions students have about geometry. Taking the pretest will help you determine your strengths and weaknesses in geometry.

–INTRODUCTION– Lessons 1–19 offer detailed explanations of basic geometry topics. At the end of each lesson is an exercise called Skill Building until Next Time. Make a commitment to improve your geometry skills. If you feel that you need more help with geometry after you complete this book. you will have laid a solid foundation for future challenges and successes. Make a Commitment Success in geometry requires effort. This exercise applies the lesson’s topic to an activity you may encounter in your daily life since geometry is a tool that is used to solve many real-life problems. and Lesson 20 introduces basic trigonometry. Work for understanding. see Appendix B for additional resources to help you continue improving your geometry skills. If you truly want to be successful. After you have completed all 20 lessons. Why you do a math operation is as important as how you do it. After you study the examples. which has the same format as the pretest but different questions. The answers to the practice problems are in the answer key located at the back of the book. Compare your scores to see how much you’ve improved or to identify areas in which you need more practice. you’re given a chance to practice similar problems. You can do it! When you achieve success in geometry. So sharpen your pencil and get ready to begin the pretest! viii . take the posttest. make a commitment to spend the time you need to do a good job. Each lesson includes example problems with step-by-step solutions.

While 50 questions can’t cover every geometry skill taught in this book. you may need more than 20 minutes a day to work through a lesson. If that’s the case. which includes 50 multiple-choice questions covering the topics in this book. check your answers in the answer key at the end of the book. If you score high on the pretest. If you score low on the pretest. This book will take you through the geometry concepts. step-by-step. However. so you can spend as much time on a lesson as you need. When you are ﬁnished. you may want to ﬁnd out how much you already know and how much you need to learn. If you get a low score. your performance on the pretest will give you a good indication of your strengths and weaknesses.PRETEST B efore you begin the ﬁrst lesson. don’t despair. Take as much time as you need to complete the pretest. You decide when you fully comprehend the lesson and are ready to go on to the next one. 1 . you have a good foundation and should be able to work your way through the book quickly. take the pretest in this chapter. Each answer also tells you which lesson of this book teaches you about the geometry skills needed for that question. this is a self-paced program.

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49. 33. 17. 4. 45. 37. 24. 7. 40. 14. 38. 29. 10. 16. 42. 20. 39. 13. 28. 30. 19. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 35. 22. 34. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 18. 11. 23. 50. 6. 2. 26. 32.– LEARNINGEXPRESS ANSWER SHEET– 1. 43. 46. 3. 44. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 3 . 31. 5. 48. 27. 25. 15. 12. 36. 8. 9. 41. 47. 21.

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ෆ Xෆ d. c. b.–PRETEST– Pretest 1. c. line l line m line n line r 7. Which of the following sets contains noncollinear points? K H J I L 5. b. Which is a correct name for this angle? R a.L J. XZ → b. b. has boundaries d. d. H. d. Which line is a transversal? r s l m n 2. Which is not a property of a plane? a.J J.L a.K. Which pairs of angles are congruent? 1 3 2 4 5 7 6 8 S T a. ෆ Yෆ Z ↔ 3. ZX Y c. d. is a ﬂat surface b.J. c. ∠RST ∠TSR ∠S ∠R 6. b. ∠1 and ∠2 ∠1 and ∠5 ∠1 and ∠3 ∠1 and ∠6 5 . ∠R ∠T ∠TSR ∠RTS a. c. d. has two dimensions 4. b. Which is NOT a correct name for the angle? R S T a. c. Which is a correct name for this line? X Y Z a. d. has no thickness c.L H.

d. Find the measure of ∠AOD. c. 50° 65° 75° 90° a. c. What is the measure of ∠JTK? A J B 60˚ T K a. 180° 120° 60° 30° 6 . c. c. d. b. d. b. perpendicular intersecting parallel skew a. b. c. 55° 90° 75° 130° 11. 90˚ C D 130˚ 55˚ B U 25˚ T 180˚ E O 0˚ A a. b. Find the measure of ∠BOD. d. What is the measure of ∠RUS? R S 9. 90˚ C D 130˚ 55˚ B m 180˚ E O 0˚ A a. b. d.–PRETEST– 8. What is the best way to describe the pair of lines l and m? l 10. 55° 90° 75° 130° 12.

d. isosceles c. b. leg vertex angle base angle base 14. What angle would be supplementary to ONP ? M 16. d. a. equilateral d. d. Classify the triangle by its sides.–PRETEST– 13. 4 17. c. ∠FGE ∠FGH ∠HEF ∠HGF 18. c. and AC = 7. scalene isosceles equilateral none of the above E 2 H 2 G 15. b. What is the best name for ∠W? A O L N 20˚ P S W a. ∠MNO ∠MNP ∠MNL ∠LNO a. angle = angle = angle side = angle = side angle = side = angle side = side = side 7 . none of the above a. ∠FEH is approximately equal ∠_____? F 3 5 4 6 4 a. BC = 7. scalene b. AB = 3. b. b. b. c. d. ΔSAW is an isosceles triangle. Which postulate could you use to prove ΔFGH ≅ ΔPQR? F P H G R Q a. c. c. d. Classify ΔABC with the following measurements.

d. b. c. ෆ Lෆ M. Which ﬁgure is a convex polygon? a. ෆ Hෆ M. d. The hypotenuse of ΔHLM is H 21. L M a. ∠H. M.–PRETEST– 19. c. b. ෆ Lෆ 20. L M a. A leg of ΔHLM is H b. ෆ Hෆ L. 8 . L. c. ∠L. ෆ Hෆ H. ෆ Hෆ d.

d. What is the name for a polygon with six sides? a. hexagon c.2 b. Express the ratio ᎏ JM in simplest form. decagon 24. parallelogram c. a. 1:2 = 4:9 c. trapezoid b. Which of the following is NOT a quadrilateral? a.2 d. not enough information 31. 4 c. 3:7 = 5:8 b. rhombus d. c. 2:5 = 4:10 29.2 9 . a. Find the perimeter of a square that measures 16 inches on one side. Which of the following is not necessarily a parallelogram? a. 36 in. Find the perimeter of the polygon. 20 28. square 25. 5 d. 2 cm 2 cm 3 cm 2 cm a. rectangle c. octagon d. 1 b. 180° d. 77 in. 154 in. Find the area of a rectangle with base 7 inches and height 11 inches. c. 32 in. 9 cm 18 cm 36 cm 72 cm 3 J L 7 M a. 64 in. Which of the following is a true proportion? a. 3 ᎏᎏ 7 7 ᎏᎏ 3 3 ᎏ 1ᎏ 0 10 ᎏᎏ 3 30. Solve for y: ᎏ5 y = 4 a. quadrilateral b.–PRETEST– 22. square JL ᎏ 26. What is the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a convex quadrilateral? a. b. 18 in. d. 360° 23. 90° c. decagon d. 45° b. 16 in. pentagon b. b.2 c. b. 6:3 = 10:6 d. 20 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 27. c. d.

d. ෆ Hෆ K c.3 c. 50 cm 2 c. width 5 inches. 5 cm 4 cm 12 cm 35. 88 m 2 36. a. ෆ Iෆ J d. 14 cm 3 21 cm 3 42 cm 3 84 cm 3 38. 30 in.2 and whose height is 6 in. 40 in.3 c. b. I H M L 2m 3m O K J 1m N a. c. Find the area of a parallelogram with base 5 cm and height 20 cm. ෆ Lෆ M a. Find the volume of the triangular prism. b.–PRETEST– 32. ෆ Lෆ O b.3 10 . d. Find the volume of a prism with length 12 inches. 15 cm 2 33.3 b. 100 cm 2 b. and height 8 inches. c. 480 in. 60 in. Use the formula SA = 2(lw + wh + lh) to ﬁnd the surface area of the prism. 20 in. Find the area of the trapezoid in the ﬁgure.3 b. Find the volume of a pyramid whose base has an area of 10 in. 22 m 2 b. a. Which segment does not equal 3 m? I H M L 37. 11 m 2 c. 44 m 2 d. 10 in.3 J K 1m N 2m O 3 cm 4 cm 7 cm a.3 d.3 d. 25 cm 2 d. 18 cm2 24 cm2 34 cm2 60 cm2 34. 96 in. a. 60 in. 3m a.

11 .74 in.94 in. Find the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 21 inches. Use 3.–2). d.8 cm 2 c. (–2. b. ᎏ x =y b. 31. c. a.4 cm 2 41. c. Which of the following is not a linear equation? a. b.14 for π. y = –4 1 ᎏ ᎏᎏ c. 62. b.14 for π. IV 42. 40. 628 cm 2 b.3). (3. ᎏ1 4 ᎏ d.–3). positive. negative. 3x + 2y = 10 47. a.–6)? a. d. I b. 3x 2 + 2y = 10 d. negative. In which quadrant would you graph the point (5. undeﬁned. Find the area of a circle with a diameter of 20 cm. 32. d. 45.5). –ᎏ1 4 44. positive.1) and (–3. 3x + 2y 2 = 10 c. 1 b. undeﬁned. zero. –1 ᎏ c. II c. c. b. Which of the following is a linear equation? 10 ᎏ a.– PRETEST – –PRETEST– 39. 46. 314 cm 2 d. 756. 2 ᎏᎏ = y x A x a. A vertical line has a slope that is a.2). 65. Use 3. a. (–3.47 in. zero. (2. x = 4 b. III d. 129.88 in. c. A line that points up to the right has a slope that is a. Find the slope of a line that passes through the points (1. ᎏ1 2x + 3y = 7 d. d. The coordinates for point A are y 43.

c. d. cosine. c. 50. hypotenuse. sine.3) 49. (0. The ratio of the adjacent leg to the hypotenuse is the trigonometric ratio a. sine.–PRETEST– 48. b.0) b. The ratio of the opposite leg to an adjacent leg is the trigonometric ratio a. Which ordered pair satisﬁes the equation 3x + 4y = 12? a. hypotenuse. tangent.4) d. d.2) c. b. 12 . (2. cosine. (0. tangent. (1.

T L E S S O N he term geometry is derived from the two Greek words geo and metron. There are countless points on any one line. and the period at the end of this sentence. A point is named with an italicized uppercase letter placed next to it: •A If you want to discuss this point with someone. rays. line segments. But you must accept that a point exists in order to have lines and planes. has no measurement at all. the point. It means “to measure the Earth. a corner of a room. A series of points is what makes up lines. Let’s begin this lesson by looking at each of the basic building blocks of geometry. because lines and planes are made up of an inﬁnite number of points.” 13 . however. Points A point has no size and no dimension. and planes. lines. line segments. and planes.1 THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY Lesson Summary This lesson explains the basic building blocks of geometry: points. rays. you would call it “point A. it indicates a deﬁnite location. Some real-life examples are a pencil point.” The great irony is that the most basic building block in geometry. It also shows you the basic properties you need to understand and apply these terms.

–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY–

Lines

A line is straight, but it has no thickness. It is an inﬁnite set of points that extends in both directions. Imagine a straight highway with no end and no beginning; this is an example of a line. A line is named by any one italicized lowercase letter or by naming any two points on the line. If the line is named by using two points on the line, a small symbol of a line (with two arrows) is written above the two letters. For example, this line could be referred ↔ ↔ to as line AB or line BA:

A B

Practice

The answer key for practice exercises begins on p. 194. 1. Are there more points on AB than point A and point B? 2. How are points distinguished from one another?

↔

3. Why would lines, segments, rays, or planes not exist if points do not exist?

4. Write six different names for this line.

X

Y

Z

5. How many points are on a line? 6. Why do you think the notation for a line has two arrowheads?

14

–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY–

Rays

A ray is a part of a line with one endpoint that continues indeﬁnitely in the direction opposite the endpoint. It has an inﬁnite number of points on it. Flashlights and laser beams are good ways to imagine rays. When you refer → → to a ray, you always name the endpoint ﬁrst. The ray shown here is ray AB, not ray BA.

A B

Line Segments

A line segment is part of a line with two endpoints. It has an inﬁnite number of points on it. A ruler and a baseboard are examples of ways you might picture a line segment. Like lines and rays, line segments are also named with two italicized uppercase letters, but the symbol above the letters has no arrows. This segment could be referred to as A ෆB ෆ or B ෆA ෆ:

A B

Practice

7. Name two different rays with endpoint S. 8. Why is it important to name the endpoint of a ray ﬁrst? 9. Why are ray AB and ray BA not the same?

→ →

R

S

T

10. Name six different line segments shown.

L

M

N

P

11. Why are arrowheads not included in line segment notation?

12. How many points are on a line segment?

15

–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY–

Planes

A plane is a ﬂat surface that has no thickness or boundaries. Imagine a ﬂoor that extends in all directions as far as you can see. Here is what a plane looks like:

B C A

When you talk to someone about this plane, you could call it “plane ABC.” However, the more common practice is to name a plane with a single italicized capital letter (no dot after it) placed in the upper-right corner of the ﬁgure as shown here:

X

If you want to discuss this plane with someone, you would call it “plane X.”

16

–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY–

**THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY
**

FIGURE NAME SYMBOL READ AS PROPERTIES EXAMPLES

•A

Point

•A

point A

• has no size • pencil point • has no dimension • corner of a room • indicates a deﬁnite location • named with an italicized uppercase letter

A B l

↔

Line

AB or BA

↔

↔

↔

line AB or BA • is straight • continuous highway • has no thickness without boundaries or line l • an inﬁnite set of points • hallway without ends that extends in opposite directions • one dimension ray AB (endpoint is always ﬁrst) • is part of a line • ﬂashlight • has only one endpoint • laser beam • an inﬁnite set of points that extends in one direction • one dimension • is part of a line • edge of a ruler • has two endpoints • baseboard • an inﬁnite set of points • one dimension • is a ﬂat surface • ﬂoor without boundaries • has no thickness • surface of a football ﬁeld • an inﬁnite set of points without boundaries that extends in all directions • two dimensions

A B

→

Ray

AB

→

A B —

Line Aෆ B or ෆ Bෆ A ෆ segment

segment AB or BA

Plane

B A C

None

plane ABC or plane X

X

17

Noncollinear points are points not on the same line. Collinear points Noncollinear points 18 . . A line is different from a ray because 14. rays. A ray is different from a segment because 16. . you cannot work many complex geometry problems. Working with the Basic Building Blocks of Geometry Points. a circle and a square are two-dimensional and can occur in a plane. . . A plane is different from a line because . One way you can see how points and lines are related is to notice whether points lie in a straight line. A sphere (ball) and a cube are examples of three-dimensional ﬁgures that occur in space. not a plane. you probably understand the following two ﬁgures based on the sound of the names collinear and noncollinear. You will use them in all the lessons that refer to plane ﬁgures—ﬁgures that are ﬂat with one or two dimensions. Collinear points are points on the same line. lines. you will study three-dimensional ﬁgures—ﬁgures that occur in space.–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY– Practice 13. These ﬁve items are closely related to one another. Even though you may not have heard these two terms before. they are called plane ﬁgures. Space is the set of all possible points and is three-dimensional. Therefore. and planes are very important building blocks in geometry. A property of a line segment is 17. line segments. Later in the book. For example. A property of a point is 15. Without them.

Practice 18. Can three points be noncollinear? Why or why not? 20. In the ﬁgure labeled Noncoplanar points. What are three examples of ﬁgures that occur in space? 19. you may have guessed which name is correct by looking at the ﬁgures and seeing that in the ﬁgure labeled Coplanar points. the points are on different planes. all the points are on the same plane. For instance.–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY– A way to see how points and planes are related is to notice whether points lie in the same plane. see these two ﬁgures: Coplanar points Noncoplanar points Again. Can coplanar points be noncollinear? Why or why not? 21. Can collinear points be coplanar? Why or why not? 19 .

Practice State whether each set of points is collinear. B. A. Theorems are statements that can be proved. Postulates (sometimes called axioms) are statements accepted without proof. . written about 300 b.c. F 25. Understanding the terms of geometry is only part of the battle. is the basis for many geometry books today. A. F 24. and theorems. B. We often refer to this as Euclidean geometry. These facts are divided into two categories: postulates and theorems. Euclid is known for compiling all the geometry of his time into postulates and theorems. D M B A F E C 22. postulates. You must also be able to understand and apply certain facts about geometry and geometric ﬁgures. You will be using both postulates and theorems in this book.–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY– Postulates and Theorems You need a few more tools before moving on to other lessons in this book. E 20 . D. His masterwork. Here are two examples of postulates: Postulate: Two points determine exactly one line. but you will not be proving the theorems. E. Postulate: Three noncollinear points determine exactly one plane. A. Geometry is the application of deﬁnitions. C 23. The Elements.

Are three points that are collinear sometimes. Y. B. ෆ Xෆ Y and ෆ Yෆ X are the same segment. A. B. B. D M B A F E C 26. Any four points W. C. A. F 29. always. Otherwise. 30. and Z must lie in exactly one plane. 31. state “not possible. XY and YX are the same line. three noncoplanar points 36. four collinear points → → ↔ ↔ 35.” 34. 33. XY and YX are the same ray. E. Draw and label a ﬁgure for the following two questions to ﬁt each description.–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY– Determine whether each set of points is coplanar. E Determine whether the following statements are true or false. E 27. C. B. X. if possible. E 28. or never coplanar? 21 . 32. C. D.

22 . then one of the legs is shorter than the other three.–THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY– Skill Building until Next Time If you place a four-legged table on a surface and it wobbles. The bottoms of the three legs must represent three noncollinear points and determine exactly one plane. be on the lookout for some three-legged objects that support this principle. Why do you think this is true? Throughout the day. You can use three legs to support something that must be kept steady. Examples include a camera tripod and an artist’s easel.

2 L E S S O N TYPES OF ANGLES Lesson Summary This lesson will teach you how to classify and name several types of angles. an angle is formed by two rays with a common endpoint. The common endpoint is the vertex of the angle. The two rays→ are the → sides of the angle. These different names don’t change who you are—just the way in which others refer to you. You will also learn about opposite rays. For example. In geometry. The symbol used to indicate an angle is ∠. angles for pool shots and golf shots. you are referred to by your full name. we talk about camera angles. only by your ﬁrst name or maybe even a nickname. Sometimes. 23 . and other times. M any of us use the term angle in everyday conversations. and angles for furniture placement. For example. D R Y Naming Angles People call you different names at different times. and the vertex is R. In the following ﬁgure. the sides are RD and RY. You can be named differently according to the setting you’re in.

W 1 E T Practice 1. The different ways an angle can be named may be confusing if you do not understand the logic behind the different methods of naming. Name the vertex and sides of the angle. then you can name the angle with only the letter of the vertex. Name the vertex and sides of the angle.–TYPES OF ANGLES– you may be called your given name at work. or ∠1. Confusion can sometimes arise when these names are different. X Z Y 2. but your friends might call you by a nickname. K T 1 B 4. Name the angle in four different ways. ∠TEW. then the middle letter always names the vertex. All angles are made up of what components? 24 . If a number is written inside the angle that is not the angle measurement. T A J 3. If the angle does not share the vertex point with another angle. Just like you. then you can name the angle by that number. You can name the following angle any one of these names: ∠WET. ∠E. If three letters are used to name an angle. an angle can be named in different ways.

26 for more details about what makes an angle a right angle). In the following → → ﬁgure. Why is ∠O an incorrect name for any of the angles shown? 25 . 7.–TYPES OF ANGLES– Right Angles Angles that make a square corner are called right angles (see p. In drawings. 8. D H S Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 5–8. They form a straight angle. 6. the following symbol is used to indicate a right angle: Straight Angles Opposite rays are two rays with the same endpoint that form a line. P N O M 5. HD and HS are opposite rays. Name a pair of opposite rays. Name a straight angle. Name two right angles.

Here are two examples of acute angles: 45° 89° Right Angles A right angle has a 90° measure. equals 360°. or a circle. Here are two examples of obtuse angles: 91° 170° 26 . L → M → N 9. do they have to be opposite rays? Why or why not? Classifying Angles Angles are often classiﬁed by their measures. Here are two examples of right angles: Obtuse Angles An obtuse angle has a measure between 90° and 180°. The corner of a piece of paper will ﬁt exactly into a right angle. One full turn. If two rays share the same endpoint.–TYPES OF ANGLES– Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 9 and 10. Are LM and MN opposite rays? Why or why not? 10. The degree is the most commonly used unit for measuring angles. Acute Angles An acute angle has a measure between 0° and 90°.

Name three acute angles. An angle with measure 90° is called a(n) __________ angle. A straight angle minus an acute angle would result in a(n) ________ angle. ∠ABC is an example of a straight angle: 180˚ A B C Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 11–15. Name two straight angles. and write it two ways. If ∠MON measures 27°.–TYPES OF ANGLES– Straight Angles A straight angle has a 180° measure. 19. 18. J K N O L M 11. 21. An angle with a measure between 0° and 90° is called a(n) __________ angle. Two adjacent right angles combine to a(n) ________ angle. 12. An angle with a measure between 90° and 180° is called a(n) ________ angle. Complete each statement. 13. 27 . then ∠JOK measures ________ degrees. An angle with measure 180° is called a(n) _________ angle. 14. 20. 15. Name three obtuse angles. Determine the largest angle shown. 16. 17.

right. 180° 24.–TYPES OF ANGLES– Questions 22–25 list the measurement of an angle. or straight. C 29. and D. the word acute can mean sharp and the word obtuse can mean dull or not sharp. A 27. 26. right. or straight. from questions 26–29 and list them in order from smallest to largest. 22. 10° 23. How can you relate these words with the drawings of acute and obtuse angles? 28 . Classify each angle as acute. D 30. 98° 25. Take angles A. 90° You may want to use a corner of a piece of scratch paper for questions 26–29. obtuse. B. Skill Building until Next Time In conversational English. Classify each angle as acute. obtuse. C. B 28.

29 . parallel. You will also study nonintersecting lines: parallel and skew lines. They actually share this point. but you may not pay much attention to them most of the time. The point where they cross is called a point of intersection. you can’t. and skew lines. Can you make these straight lines cross at more than one point? No. B oth intersecting and nonintersecting lines surround you. draw two straight lines that cross. The angles formed by a pair of parallel lines and a transversal are also explained. because it is on both lines. Two special types of intersecting lines are called transversals and perpendicular lines. because intersecting lines cross at only one point (unless they are the same line). Intersecting Lines On a piece of scratch paper. In this lesson. You will learn about properties of lines that have many applications to this lesson and throughout this book. you will focus on two different types of intersecting lines: transversals and perpendicular lines. You’ll soon start to look at the lines around you with a different point of view.3 L E S S O N WORKING WITH LINES Lesson Summary This lesson introduces you to perpendicular. transversal.

Is line d a transversal? Why or why not? 2. line s is not. In the following ﬁgure. Line m is a transversal for lines s and t. s t m n The preﬁx trans means across. Is line t a transversal? Why or why not? 4. line s is not a transversal. Is line y a transversal? Why or why not? 3. Line s crosses lines m and n at the same point (their point of intersection). In the previous ﬁgure. line t is a transversal. therefore. Also. d y t r 1.–WORKING WITH LINES– Transversals A transversal is a line that intersects two or more other lines. A transversal can cut across parallel as well as intersecting lines. as shown here: t m n Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer questions 1–4. line n is a transversal across lines s and t. Is line r a transversal? Why or why not? 30 . you can see that line t cuts across the two lines m and n. each at a different point.

line t is perpendicular to both line l and line m. Perpendicular lines always form multiple right angles. you shouldn’t assume anything without being told. You could write x ⊥ y to show these lines are perpendicular. The symbol “⊥” means parallel. Perpendicular lines meet to form right angles. lines x and y are perpendicular: y x The symbol “⊥” means perpendicular. 7. 6. Never assume a pair of lines are perpendicular without one of these symbols. 5. the symbol that makes a square in the corner where lines x and y meet indicates a right angle. In the following ﬁgure. Also. 8.–WORKING WITH LINES– Perpendicular Lines Perpendicular lines are another type of intersecting lines. t l m Practice State whether the following statements are true or false. Perpendicular lines can be formed by intersecting or nonintersecting lines. 31 . Transversals must always be parallel. Everyday examples of perpendicular lines include the horizontal and vertical lines of a plaid fabric and the lines formed by panes in a window. In geometry. A transversal can be perpendicular to a pair of lines. Right angles always measure 90°. In the following ﬁgure. but it does not have to be.

An example of skew lines is the vapor trails of a northbound jet and a westbound jet ﬂying at different altitudes. or never. Arrowheads on the lines in a ﬁgure indicate that the lines are parallel. 32 . Lines l and m do not intersect. j l m k Lines l and m are parallel. Lines j and k are noncoplanar lines.” Do not assume a pair of lines are parallel unless it is indicated. One jet would pass over the other.” by writing “l ͰͰ m. So you can abbreviate the sentence. “Lines l and m are parallel. Parallel lines __________ intersect. Sometimes. Lines j and k are skew. 11. 12. Lines j and k do not intersect. 9. The symbol “ͰͰ” means parallel. Parallel lines are __________ coplanar. sometimes. Parallel lines are __________ cut by a transversal. Practice Complete the sentences with the correct word: always. 10. double arrowheads are necessary to differentiate two sets of parallel lines. as shown in the following ﬁgure: Everyday examples of parallel lines include rows of crops on a farm and railroad tracks. but their paths would not cross. then they are either parallel or skew. Lines l and m are coplanar lines. Lines that are skewed __________ form right angles.–WORKING WITH LINES– Nonintersecting Lines If lines do not intersect.

5. 7. 14. and 6 are inside the parallel lines and are called interior angles. angles 3 and 5 and angles 4 and 6 are examples of alternate interior angles. Angles 3. In the previous ﬁgure. as shown in the following examples: 33 . look for a Z-shaped ﬁgure. To spot same-side interior angles. Skew lines __________ intersect.–WORKING WITH LINES– 13. look for a U-shaped ﬁgure in various positions. as shown in the following ﬁgures: Same-Side Interior Angles Same-side interior angles are interior angles on the same side of the transversal. 1 4 3 2 l 5 6 8 7 t m Alternate Interior Angles Alternate interior angles are interior angles on opposite sides of the transversal. 2. To spot alternate interior angles. 4. line l is parallel to line m and line t is a transversal forming angles 1–8. Angles 1. Angles Formed by Parallel Lines and a Transversal If a pair of parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Skew lines are __________ coplanar. and 8 are outside the parallel lines and are called exterior angles. then eight angles are formed. In the following ﬁgure.

as shown in these examples: Angles Formed by Nonparallel Lines and a Transversal Even when lines cut by a transversal are not parallel. look for an F-shaped ﬁgure in various positions.–WORKING WITH LINES– Corresponding Angles Corresponding angles are so named because they appear to be in corresponding positions in relation to the two parallel lines. 2 and 6. alternate interior. ∠3 and ∠5 are alternate interior angles. 4 and 8. you still use the same terms to describe angles. and 3 and 7. ∠4 and ∠5 are same-side interior angles. 1 4 3 2 l 5 6 8 7 t m To spot corresponding angles. look at the following ﬁgure: 1 4 3 2 5 6 8 7 ∠1 and ∠5 are corresponding angles. and same-side interior angles. Examples of corresponding angles in the following ﬁgure are angles 1 and 5. 34 . For example. such as corresponding.

–WORKING WITH LINES– Postulates and Theorems As mentioned in Lesson 1. corresponding angles.___________ 35 .___________ 16. Although you will not go through that process in this book.___________ 18. then corresponding angles are congruent. you will still use both postulates and theorems for applications. 20. List all angles that are equal to ∠1. ∠2 and ∠10 a. Practice In the following ﬁgure. There are some important facts you need to know about the special pairs of angles formed by two parallel lines and a transversal. Theorems are statements of fact that can be proved. List all angles that are supplementary to ∠11. Another important fact you should know is that a pair of angles whose sum is 180° is called supplementary. then you are on the right track. If you noticed that some of those pairs of angles appear to have equal measure. ∠11 and ∠14 a. ∠6 and ∠7 a. Postulate: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. m ͰͰ n and s ͰͰ t. then alternate interior angles are congruent. ∠13 and ∠15 a. then same-side interior angles are supplementary. or same-side interior angles).___________ b. Theorem: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal.___________ b. m 1 5 2 6 n 9 13 10 14 s 3 7 4 8 11 15 12 16 t 15.___________ b. For questions 15–18. Theorem: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. postulates are statements of fact that we accept without proof. (a) state the special name for each pair of angles (alternate interior angles. Here are the theorems and the postulate that you will apply to a ﬁgure in the next few practice exercises. You will apply both types of facts to problems in this book. Some geometry books teach formal proofs of theorems.___________ b. 17. The term used for two angles with equal measure is congruent. then (b) tell if the angles are congruent or supplementary.___________ 19.

36 . Same-side interior angles differ from corresponding angles because ________________________. 21. 30. Same-side interior angles are similar to corresponding angles because ______________________. Same-side interior angles differ from alternate interior angles because ______________________. Are the ﬂoor beams the same distance apart at the front of the building as they are at the back? Why is this important? If they were not the same distance apart. Same-side interior angles are similar to alternate interior angles because _____________________. m∠2 = 125°. how would this effect the ﬂoor? Of course. 29. 27. 26. You can see the importance of parallel lines in construction. the ﬂoor would sag. 28. Building codes specify how far apart ﬂoor beams can be based on safety codes.–WORKING WITH LINES– For questions 21–24. Skill Building until Next Time Look around your neighborhood for a building under construction. Alternate interior angles differ from corresponding angles because _________________________. Alternate interior angles are similar to corresponding angles because _______________________. so m∠12 = ______ 23. use the measure of the given angle to ﬁnd the missing angle. so m∠11 = _____ Complete the statement for practice problems 25–30. m∠2 = 100°. 25. m∠8 = 71°. so m∠7 = ______ 24. so m∠7 = ______ 22. m∠5 = 110°.

Choose the scale that has zero at one side of the angle. Most protractors have two scales. Check to see if your measurement and estimate agree. it is not necessary to have one of the rays passing 37 .4 40 20 0 180 L E S S O N MEASURING ANGLES Lesson Summary This lesson focuses on using the protractor to measure and draw angles. Read the measure of the angle. If the sides of the angle do not reach the scale. right. obtuse. Here is an example of a protractor: 90 60 90 120 140 160 60 40 20 0 180 160 120 140 A Carefully line up your protractor by placing the center point of the protractor scale on the vertex of the angle. one reading from left to right. or straight before measuring will help you choose the correct scale. When measuring an angle. n instrument called a protractor can be used to ﬁnd the measure of degrees of an angle. extend them. Estimating whether an angle is acute. and the other from right to left. You will also add and subtract angle measures. which is the place where both sides of the angle meet.

∠COE Drawing Angles You can use a protractor to draw an angle of a given size. ﬁnd the measure of each angle. ∠FOA 3. ∠BOF 9. ∠COD 10. First. ∠AOD 4. Align the ray with the base line of the protractor. Make a dot at that point and connect it to the endpoint of the ray. draw a ray and place the center point of the protractor on the endpoint of the ray. Putting the ray on zero simply makes the counting easier. 120 60 0 180 0 180 38 . The angle could be measured by subtracting the smaller measurement from the larger one. ∠BOE 8. ∠FOB 5. ∠AOB 2.–MEASURING ANGLES– through zero on the protractor scale. Practice Using the following ﬁgure. Locate the degree of the angle you wish to draw. ∠BOC 6. D 100˚ E 135˚ B 20˚ 180˚ F O A 0˚ C 75˚ 1. ∠BOD 7.

75° 15. 45° 14. 125° 12. 32° 13. 11. 100° 39 .–MEASURING ANGLES– The resulting angle will have the correct degree of measurement: 60° Practice Use a protractor to draw angles with the given measures.

Angles 1 and XYZ are not adjacent. What relationship do you notice among the measures of the three angles? You should ﬁnd that the measure of ∠1 plus the measure of ∠2 equals the measure of ∠XYZ. Z 2 1 Y W X In the previous ﬁgure. ∠2. For example. 40 . ∠1 and ∠2 are adjacent angles. If you draw another pair of adjacent angles and measure the angles. Use a protractor to measure ∠1. and ∠XYZ. The letter m is used before the angle symbol to represent the word measure. m∠1 + m∠2 = m∠XYZ.–MEASURING ANGLES– Adding and Subtracting Angle Measures The following ﬁgures suggest that you can add and subtract angle measures: C 180° B 2 1 O A 3 4 ∠1 + ∠2 = ∠AOC 180° – ∠3 = ∠4 Adjacent angles are two angles in the same plane that have the same vertex and a common side but do not have any interior points in common. will the relationship be the same? Try it and see.

(a) m∠1 = 40° m∠2 = 75° m∠RSW = ______ (b) m∠DEG = 35° m∠GEF = 145° m∠DEF = _____ T W G 2 1 R S D E F m∠1 + m∠2 = m∠RSW m∠RSW = 115° m∠DEG + m∠GEF = m∠DEF m∠DEF = 180° 41 . then B A O C m∠AOB + m∠BOC = 180° Examples: Find the measure of each angle.–MEASURING ANGLES– Angle Addition Postulate (1) If point B is in the interior of ∠AOC. then A B O C m∠AOB + m∠BOC = m∠AOC. (2) If ∠AOC is a straight angle.

m∠RPM = 42° m∠MPS = ______ M R P S 42 . 16. m∠DOS = 120° m∠DOH = 70° m∠HOS = ______ D H O S 18.–MEASURING ANGLES– Practice Find the measure of each angle. m∠KJB = 60° m∠BJT = 40° m∠KJT = ______ B T K J 17.

m∠GEO = 100° m∠GEM = 60° m∠MEO = ______ M G O E Use the following ﬁgure to answer problems 21–27. m∠ACR = 25° m∠RCD = ______ A R C D 20.–MEASURING ANGLES– 19. m∠BPC = ______ 22. C B T S A 35˚ D P E 21. m∠APC = ______ 43 .

200 800 2. You may also want additional practice using your protractor.400 of a circle. m∠STB = ______ Use the following ﬁgure for practice problems 28–31. A mil is deﬁned as ᎏ 6.S. If so. m∠CPE = ______ 25.400 1. 135° angle 30. practice drawing several angles of different measurements.000 2. m∠EPB = ______ 24. Find the measure in mils of each of the following angles. 45° angle 31. 2.600 1. 180° angle Skill Building until Next Time Look around your environment for angles and estimate their measurements. 90° angle 29. The protractor is marked in mils. estimate the size of an angle created by leaving your door open partway.–MEASURING ANGLES– 23. Army uses a unit of angle measure called a mil.800 400 3.200 0 1 ᎏ The U. 44 . For example. m∠ETS = ______ 27. 28. m∠APE = ______ 26.

and on road maps. W 45 . These pairs of angles are called supplementary angles. hen two angles come together to form a 90° angle. you can ﬁnd the measurements of the other three angles. the applications are endless. You can ﬁnd the measurement of one angle if the measurement of the other is given. When two lines intersect. supplementary angles. at construction sites. If you know the measurement of one angle. you will learn how to use the relationships among three special pairs of angles: complementary angles. two pairs of vertical angles are always formed. the angle can be very useful for solving a variety of problems. just to name two areas. If you know the measurement of one of these angles.5 L E S S O N PAIRS OF ANGLES Lesson Summary In this lesson. and vertical angles. then you can ﬁnd the measurement of the other. When two angles come together to form a 180° angle. You can see pairs of intersecting lines in fabric patterns. Angles measuring 90° are essential in construction and sewing. or a straight line. Pairs of angles whose measures add up to 90° are called complementary angles.

m∠1 = 68° 3. 46 . m∠1 = 80° 4. To be complementary. a pair of angles do not need to be adjacent. Similar to complementary angles. Each angle is a supplement of the other. ∠XOY and ∠W are also supplementary angles. supplementary angles do not need to be adjacent. m∠1 = 44° 2. ∠AOB and ∠BOC are a pair of complementary angles. ∠AOB is a complement of ∠BOC and ∠D. ∠XOY is a supplement of ∠YOZ and ∠W. m∠1 = 3° Supplementary Angles Two angles are supplementary angles if and only if the sum of their measures is 180°. m∠1 = 25° 5. Practice Find the measure of a complement of ∠1 for each of the following measures of ∠1. ∠AOB and ∠D are also a pair of complementary angles. ∠XOY and ∠YOZ are supplementary angles. A 20˚ B 20˚ O C D In the previous ﬁgure. W 150˚ Y 30˚ X O Z In this ﬁgure.–PAIRS OF ANGLES– Complementary Angles Two angles are complementary angles if and only if the sum of their measures is 90°. 1. Each angle is a complement of the other.

m∠2 = 1° Vertical Angles Vertical angles are two angles whose sides form two pairs of opposite rays. as well as ∠2 and ∠4. in other words. ∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary angles. Since ∠1 and ∠3 are both supplements to the same angle. 47 . they are congruent. they have the same measurement. m∠2 = 130° 8.–PAIRS OF ANGLES– Practice Find the measure of a supplement of ∠2 for each of the following measures of ∠2. m∠2 = 60° 9. they form two pairs of vertical angles. m∠2 = 155° 10. Vertical Angles Theorem: Vertical angles are congruent. the two pairs of vertical angles are ∠1 and ∠3. m∠2 = 78° 7. Also. 6. 1 4 3 2 In the previous ﬁgure. When two lines intersect.

17. 12. 18. B C A O D E 11. 14. Name two supplement angles of ∠DOE. Supplementary angles can be adjacent. Supplementary angles must be obtuse. Name two pairs of vertical angles. Two acute angles can be supplementary. Any two right angles are supplementary. Name a pair of complementary angles. 19. A pair of vertical angles can be complementary. Complementary angles can be adjacent. 15. 16. State whether the following statements are true or false. Complementary angles must be acute. Vertical angles must have the same measure.–PAIRS OF ANGLES– Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 11–13. 13. A pair of vertical angles can be supplementary. 21. 23. 22. 48 . 20. Two acute angles are always complementary.

1 5 2 4 3 26. Name three other pairs of nonadjacent angles that are also not vertical. Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problem 26.–PAIRS OF ANGLES– 24. List the vertical angles shown in the ﬁgure. A common error is assuming that any pair of angles that are “across from each other” are vertical. List the complementary angles of ∠WAX. 30. Y Z X A 50˚ U W 27. In this ﬁgure. 29. ∠1 and ∠3 are vertical angles because they are formed by intersecting lines. 49 . 25. List the supplementary angles of ∠WAU. Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 27–30. What is the measure of ∠ZAX. Angles 2 and 4 are not vertical angles. An acute and an obtuse angle are always supplementary. 28. The intersection of two rays creates two pairs of vertical angles and four pairs of supplementary angles.

–PAIRS OF ANGLES– Skill Building until Next Time Find a pair of intersecting lines. Measure the four angles that the intersecting line forms to conﬁrm the vertical angles theorem. 50 . or you could draw your own. a fabric design. You might use the lines in a ﬂoor tile. or a piece of furniture.

it is a skill that will help you solve complex geometry problems. isosceles.6 L E S S O N TYPES OF TRIANGLES Lesson Summary In this lesson. On the next page are three examples of special triangles called equilateral. 51 . you will learn how to classify triangles according to the lengths of their sides and their angle measurements. and scalene. however. I t would be difﬁcult to name an occupation where classifying triangles is a required skill. Classification by Sides You can classify triangles by the lengths of their sides. Each of the triangles discussed in this lesson has special properties that will help you solve problems.

You can match up the number of hatch marks to ﬁnd which sides are congruent. or scalene. Sometimes.–TYPES OF TRIANGLES– Isosceles two ≅ sides Equilateral three ≅ sides Scalene no congruent sides To show that two or more sides of a triangle have the same measurement. 1. and sometimes. three hatch marks are made on each congruent side. 4 4 4 2. 52 . isosceles. Practice Classify each triangle shown or described as equilateral. two hatch marks are made on each congruent side. The symbol for congruent is ≅. You’ll see these hatch marks in most geometry books. a hatch mark is made through the congruent sides.

and AC = 8. ΔABC with AB = 10. and XZ = 7. YZ = 7. BC = 10.–TYPES OF TRIANGLES– 3. 11 8 5 6. 4. 7. and DF = 10. ΔDEF with DE = 6. EF = 8. 53 . 5 3 4 5. ΔXYZ with XY = 7. 8.

For our purposes. The other two angles are called the base angles.–TYPES OF TRIANGLES– Isosceles Triangles Isosceles triangles are important geometric ﬁgures to understand. Some geometry books deﬁne isosceles as having at least two congruent sides. base angles. Did you know that the parts of an isosceles triangle have special names? The two congruent sides of an isosceles triangle are called the legs. the side opposite the vertex angle is called the base. X legs: ______ vertex angle: _______ base angles: _______ base: ______ Y Z 10. and base of the isosceles triangles. R S legs: ______ vertex angle: _______ base angles: _______ base: ______ T 54 . Example: A legs: ෆ Aෆ C and ෆ Aෆ B vertex angle: ∠A C B base angles: ∠B and ∠C C base: ෆ Bෆ Practice Name the legs. we will deﬁne isosceles as having exactly two congruent sides. And ﬁnally. vertex angle. 9. The angle formed by the two congruent sides is called the vertex angle.

right. They are called acute.–TYPES OF TRIANGLES– 11. 6 6 5 Acute three acute angles Equiangular three ≅ angles Right one right angle Obtuse one obtuse angle 55 . D F legs: ______ vertex angle: ______ base angles: ______ base: ______ E Classification by Angles You can also classify triangles by the measurements of their angles. Here are four examples of special triangles. and obtuse. equiangular.

60° 60° 60° 14.–TYPES OF TRIANGLES– To show that two or more angles of a triangle have the same measurement. 15. 56 . right. You can also use two small curves to show that angles are congruent. obtuse. a small curve is made in the congruent angles. 70° 55° 55° 13. 12. or equiangular. Practice Classify each triangle shown or described as acute.

A small curve made on an angle of a triangle signiﬁes ___________________. m∠H = 70°. and m∠I = 90°. and m∠T = 55°. 20. 30. The vertex angle of an isosceles triangle will always be the smallest angle. 17.–TYPES OF TRIANGLES– 20° 135° 25° 16. 24. ΔMNO with m∠M = 130°. It is possible for a scalene triangle to be equiangular. A triangle cannot have more than one right angle. A triangle can have two obtuse angles. 19. An equilateral triangle is also an equiangular triangle. It is possible for an obtuse triangle to be isosceles. The non-congruent side of an isosceles triangle is called the ______________. Determine whether the following statements are true or false. 23. An isosceles triangle may also be a right triangle. 22. 29. 26. 27. List the types of triangles with at least two acute angles. ΔRST with m∠R = 80°. m∠S = 45°. 25. Give the answer to each question based on the readings from the chapter. An equilateral triangle is also an acute triangle. 21. ΔGHI with m∠G = 20°. m∠N = 30°. 18. It is possible for a right triangle to be equilateral. 28. 57 . and m∠O = 20°.

This is an important quality in construction. Then try to balance a box of toothpicks on the dollar bill without the box of toothpicks touching the glasses. Now try to balance the box of toothpicks on the folded dollar bill. 58 .–TYPES OF TRIANGLES– Skill Building until Next Time A triangle is called a rigid ﬁgure because the length of at least one side of a triangle must be changed before its shape changes. Bridge the cups with a dollar bill. Fold the dollar bill like a fan. what shape do you see? The view of the dollar bill from the side shows several triangles. place two glasses about four inches apart. Notice the triangles you can see in ﬂoor and roof trusses. To prove the strength of a triangle. When you look at the folded dollar bill from the side.

They have the same size and shape. you get tiles that are all the same shape and size. In this lesson. such as the width of a river or the distance across a canyon. Y C X Z 59 . you will learn simple ways to determine whether two triangles are congruent. Congruent triangles are also used to estimate inaccessible distances. buildings. In geometry. in the following ﬁgure. C ongruent triangles are commonly used in the construction of quilts. Similarly. ΔABC and ΔXYZ are congruent.7 B A L E S S O N CONGRUENT TRIANGLES Lesson Summary This lesson will help you identify corresponding parts of congruent triangles and to name the postulate or theorem that shows that two triangles are congruent. One tile will ﬁt right on top of another. and bridges. you would say one tile is congruent to another tile. When you buy ﬂoor tiles.

ෆ Sෆ T and ෆ Fෆ G. S F R T G E ΔRST ≅ ΔEFG Solution: Corresponding angles: ∠R and ∠E. Example: Name the corresponding angles and corresponding sides. This statement is often referred to by the initials CPCTC. If you name the ﬁrst triangle ΔCAB. When ΔABC is congruent to ΔXYZ. ∠S and ∠F. you must start with the corresponding letter. ΔCAB ≅ ΔZXY. and point C on point Z. to name the second triangle. given ΔJKM ≅ ΔPQR. Z. complete each statement. you write ΔABC ≅ ΔXYZ. This means that all of the following are true: ∠A ≅ ∠X Aෆ B ≅ෆ Xෆ Y ෆ ∠B ≅ ∠Y Bෆ C ≅ෆ Yෆ Z ෆ ∠C ≅ ∠Z Aෆ C ≅ෆ Xෆ Z ෆ Suppose instead of writing ΔABC ≅ ΔXYZ. In other words. ෆ Rෆ T and ෆ Eෆ G Practice For practice problems 1–6. ∠T and ∠G Corresponding sides: ෆ Rෆ S and ෆ Eෆ F. and ෆ Aෆ B and ෆ Xෆ Y are called corresponding sides. Since you started with C to name the ﬁrst triangle. J P M R K Q 60 . point B on point Y. you started to write ΔCAB ≅ _____.–CONGRUENT TRIANGLES– Imagine sliding one triangle over to ﬁt on top of the other triangle. Corresponding angles and corresponding sides are often referred to as corresponding parts of the triangles. you could say Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent. You would put point A on point X. ∠A and ∠X are called corresponding angles. Corresponding parts are named in the same order. In other words. then the second triangle must be named ΔZXY. When the vertices are matched in this way.

given ΔGFH ≅ ΔJFH. Take a look at the following triangles to see this postulate in action: B S A C R T ΔABC ≅ ΔRST 61 . 4. 2. ∠M corresponds to ∠_______. A postulate of geometry states this same idea. Side-Side-Side Postulate: If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of another triangle. then the two triangles are congruent. ෆ Jෆ K corresponds to ______.–CONGRUENT TRIANGLES– 1. F G H J 7. 3. ΔHJF ≅ Δ______ 9. would it be possible for each of you to make different-looking triangles? No. ΔJFH ≅ Δ______ Side-Side-Side (SSS) Postulate If you have three sticks that make a triangle and a friend has identical sticks. it is impossible to do this. ΔFGH ≅ Δ______ 8. 5. ∠Q corresponds to ∠_______. ෆ Pෆ R corresponds to ______. complete each statement. ∠P corresponds to ∠_______. ෆ Rෆ Q corresponds to ______. ΔFHJ ≅ Δ______ 10. 6. For practice problems 7–10. It is called the side-side-side postulate.

Is ΔRSV ≅ ΔRTS? Side-Angle-Side (SAS) Postulate If you put two sticks together at a certain angle. 13. For example. Another postulate of geometry states this same idea. ෆ Since the markings indicate that the three pairs of sides are congruent. VR corresponds to _______. it would be impossible. there is only one way to ﬁnish forming a triangle. Would it be possible for a friend to form a different-looking triangle if he or she started with the same two lengths and the same angle? No. Side-Angle-Side Postulate: If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle. then the triangles are congruent. which shows that these two segments are congruent. as shown by the two hatch marks. R 8 10 T 6 S 8 V 6 11. ෆ Rෆ S corresponds to _______. you can conclude that the three pairs of angles are also congruent. Is ΔRTS ≅ ΔRVS? 15. ෆ Tෆ S corresponds to _______. 12. Aෆ C and ෆ Rෆ T both have one hatch mark. From the deﬁnition of congruent triangles. 14. 62 . and ෆ Aෆ B and ෆ Rෆ S are congruent as shown by the three hatch marks. ෆ Bෆ C is congruent to ෆ Sෆ T. it is called the side-angle-side postulate.–CONGRUENT TRIANGLES– The hatch marks on the triangles show which sides are congruent to which in the two triangles. Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer questions 11–15. it follows that all six parts of ΔABC are congruent to the corresponding parts of ΔRST.

The side is called an included side. Angle-side-angle involves two angles and a side between them. Is ΔACB ≅ ΔEDC? Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) Postulate There is one more postulate that describes two congruent triangles. Is ∠ACB ≅ ∠ECD? 18. then the triangles are congruent. D A C E B 16. Angle-Side-Angle Postulate: If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to corresponding parts of another triangle.–CONGRUENT TRIANGLES– Look at the following two triangles to see an example of this postulate: F P G H Q R ΔFGH ≅ ΔPQR Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 16–20. ෆ Bෆ 20. C corresponds to _______. ෆ Cෆ E corresponds to _______. 19. What kind of angles are ∠ACB and ∠ECD? 17. 63 .

64 . ∠BDA corresponds to ______. Is ∠ACD ≅ ∠DBA? 24. Is ∠BAD ≅ ∠CAD? 25. A B D C 21. 22. 27. 23.–CONGRUENT TRIANGLES– Take a look at the following two triangles: E D S R F T ΔDEF ≅ ΔRST Practice Use the ﬁgure below to answer practice problems 21–25. 26. Is ∠B ≅ ∠C ? State which postulate you would use to prove the two triangles congruent. DC corresponds to ______.

Get a carpenter’s square and mark equal lengths W ෆX ෆ and W ෆෆ Z along the edges. as well as for wallpaper hanging. With the recent craze for home improvement. A carpenter’s square can be used to bisect an angle at the corner of a board. 30. you may either have a carpenter’s square or may be able to borrow one from a neighbor. W X Y Z a) Which postulate can you use to show that ΔWXY ≅ ΔWZY? b) Why is ∠XWY ≅ ∠ZWY? 65 . 29. Mark point Y and draw W ෆෆ Y. Skill Building until Next Time A carpenter’s square is a tool used in carpentry. Put the carpenter’s square on a board so that X ෆෆ Y= ෆ Yෆ Z.–CONGRUENT TRIANGLES– 28. Similar tools are used for arts and crafts projects.

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Right triangles can be used to ﬁnd solutions to problems involving ﬁgures that are not even polygons. The hypotenuse is always the longest of the three sides.8 TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM Lesson Summary In this lesson. You will also learn how to use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd missing parts of a right triangle and to determine whether three segments will make a right triangle. The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse. 67 . the sides that meet to form the right angle are called the legs. you will learn the special names for the sides of a right triangle. T he right triangle is very important in geometry because it can be used in so many different ways. regardless of what position the triangle is in. It is important that you can correctly identify the sides of a right triangle. The Pythagorean theorem is just one of the special relationships that can be used to help solve problems and find missing information. L E S S O N Parts of a Right Triangle In a right triangle.

–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– leg leg hy e us en t po use oten p y h hypotenuse leg leg leg leg Practice ΔABC is a right triangle. Name the legs. ΔPQR is a right triangle. 2. 4. Name the hypotenuse. Name the legs. Name the legs. 68 . 6. H L M 5. A B C 1. R P Q 3. Name the hypotenuse. Name the hypotenuse. ΔHLM is a right triangle.

In other words. To square a number.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– Review of Squares and Square Roots Before you study the Pythagorean theorem. Just like addition and subtraction are inverses. let’s first review squares and square roots. But the exponent tells you how many times to use the base (bottom number) as a factor. Even the most basic calculators can help you determine squares and square roots of larger numbers. which is 25. When completed. Complete the chart. it looks like this: 52 = 5 × 5 = 25. It can be written as the product of two equal factors. NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 25 36 7 8 81 10 11 12 144 169 14 15 16 196 100 49 SQUARE 1 4 9 69 . they “undo” each other. Written algebraically. 52 means two factors of five. A common mistake is to say that you multiply by two. you multiply it by itself. the following chart will be a useful reference. Practice 7. For example. It is not necessarily important that you memorize the chart. since two is the exponent (the small raised number). Twenty-ﬁve is a perfect square. It would be helpful for you to learn the ﬁrst 16 perfect squares. but you need to understand how the numbers are generated. so are squares and square roots. or five times five.

but for the length of the side. If you know the hypotenuse and one of the legs. A common mistake is always adding the squares of the two known lengths. Pythagorean Theorem: In a right triangle. Another common mistake is forgetting to take the square root as your ﬁnal step. You just need to remember that you are solving not for the square of the side. The Greek mathematician Pythagoras (circa 585–500 b. You need to know only two of the sides of a right triangle to ﬁnd the third unknown side. 12 9 13 5 c b a2 + b2 = c2 12 2 + 9 2 = c 2 144 + 81 = c 2 225 = c 2 2 ͙ෆ 225 ෆ = ͙c ෆ 15 = c a2 + b2 = c2 5 2 + b 2 = 13 2 25 + b 2 = 169 b 2 = 144 ͙b ෆ2 ෆ = ͙14 ෆ4 ෆ b = 12 70 . You add the squares of the legs only when you are looking for the hypotenuse. Any unknown length can be found if you can make it a part of a right triangle. Evidence shows that it was used by the Egyptians and Babylonians for hundreds of years before Pythagoras.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– The Pythagorean Theorem The Pythagorean theorem is one of the most famous theorems in mathematics.c. the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. ) is given credit for originating it. then you subtract the square of the leg from the square of the hypotenuse. c a b a2 + b2 = c2 The Pythagorean theorem can be used to solve many real-life problems. Examples: Find each missing length.

12.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– Practice Find each missing length. c 24 7 9. 71 . 6 10 b Use this parallelogram to answer questions 11 and 12. x y 3 5 13 11. 8. Determine x. 15 a 12 10. determine y2. Using the information given.

5 4 3 c2 52 25 a2 + b2 32 + 42 9 + 16 Since 25 = 9 + 16. Examples: Determine whether the following are right triangles. and 5 do not make a right triangle. This involves using the converse of the Pythagorean theorem. 3. and 4 make a right triangle. 4.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem Another practical use of the Pythagorean theorem involves determining whether a triangle is acute. Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two shorter sides. Note that c represents the length of the longest side in each triangle. the three sides with lengths of 6. 72 . the three sides with lengths of 5. Here is another example: 6 4 5 c2 62 36 a2 + b2 42 + 52 16 + 25 Since 36 ≠ 16 + 25. then the triangle is a right triangle. right. or obtuse.

7 16. 41 73 . 39 18. 36. 13. 15 20 24 15. 24.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– Practice The lengths of three sides of a triangle are given. 25. 15. Determine whether the triangles are right triangles. 7. 9 17. 13 5 12 14. 40. 9. 5.

then the triangle is obtuse. c2 9 81 81 Since 81 > 74. the lengths of the sides are c = 9. the lengths of the sides are c = 24. then you can determine whether it is an acute or obtuse triangle by using one of the following theorems: Theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side is greater than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two shorter sides. a = 5. this is an acute triangle. a c b c2 > a2 + b2 Theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side is less than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two shorter sides. Example: In ΔABC. a c b c2 < a2 + b2 Let’s take a look at a couple of examples to see these theorems in action. b = 7. then the triangle is acute. this is an obtuse triangle. Example: In ΔABC. c2 24 2 576 576 Since 576 < 625. b = 20.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– Acute and Obtuse Triangles If you have determined that a triangle is not a right triangle. a = 15. 74 a2 + b2 15 2 + 20 2 225 + 400 625 a2 + b2 52 + 72 25 + 49 74 .

40.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– Practice The lengths of the three sides of a triangle are given. 19. 5. 28 24. 6. 13 21. 2. 8. 10 23. Find HK and determine the type of triangle. 11 22. 75 . 50 20. 10. 11. EK = 36 ft. or obtuse. I G H F J E N L M K 26. and wanted to know more about the properties of some of the triangles she created in the process. Classify each triangle as acute. 7. 14. 30. 7 25. Find EI and determine the type of triangle. 7 Julie drew the following star. 50. and EH = 27 ft. 7. IL = 41 cm and EL = 9 cm. 27. right. 10. Use the Pythagorean theorem and the concepts of the lesson to answer questions 26 and 27. 12.

a 25-foot ladder was used. how long must the ladder be? Skill Building until Next Time Look around your home for examples of right triangles. How many can you ﬁnd? Measure the three sides of the triangle to make sure it is a right triangle. how far would the ladder need to be from the base of the building in order for it to reach a window that is 20 feet from the ground? 30. 5 ft. If instead of an 18-foot ladder.–TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM– Use the following ﬁgure to answer question 28–30. How far up a building will an 18-foot ladder reach if the ladder’s base is 5 feet from the building? Express your answer to the nearest foot. 28. Why would it be impractical to solve the problem if the base of the ladder was closer than 3 feet from the building? 29. If a ladder is going to be placed 6 feet from the base of the wall and needs to reach a window that is 8 feet from the ground. 18 ft. 76 . Solve the problem when the ladder is 3 feet from the building.

9 L E S S O N PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS Lesson Summary In this lesson. The line segments are called sides that intersect only at their endpoints.” A polygon is a closed plane ﬁgure formed by line segments. Polygons Not polygons 77 . which are called vertex points. T he word polygon comes from Greek words meaning “many angled. You will learn how to classify polygons by their sides and how to ﬁnd the measures of their interior and exterior angles. you will learn how to determine whether a ﬁgure is a polygon. You will also learn how to identify concave and convex polygons.

78 . it would ﬁt snugly without gaps. if you wrapped a rubber band around a convex polygon. 1. 2.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – A polygon is convex when no segment connecting two vertices (vertex points) contains points outside the polygon. 3. 5. a concave polygon. In other words. 4. or not a polygon.” Convex polygons Concave polygons Practice Classify each ﬁgure as a convex polygon. A concave polygon has at least one place that “caves in.

Parts of a Polygon Two sides of a polygon that intersect are called consecutive or adjacent sides. The endpoints of a side are called consecutive or adjacent vertices. 8. 9. 79 . The segment that connects two nonconsecutive vertices is called a diagonal of the polygon.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – 6. 7.

or EDCBA. For example. DEABC. Polygons are classiﬁed by their number of sides. you cannot skip around when you name a polygon. Here are a few of the ways to name the following polygon: ABCDE. NUMBER OF SIDES 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 POLYGON triangle quadrilateral pentagon hexagon heptagon octagon nonagon decagon 80 . or ACEDB.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Naming Polygons When naming a polygon. you cannot name the polygon BDEAC. A E B D C Although you can start at any vertex. you name its consecutive vertices in clockwise or counterclockwise order. ECBAD.

10.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Practice Classify each polygon by the number of sides. R Q C D V U S WQS W T DCAB 11. W V X P 15. J 14. and determine if each is correctly named. A B 13. E F Z WXYZ Y L G K H J IJKLEFGH I 81 . M L L JKL K Q N O QONMLP 12.

The other theorem works for all convex polygons. including triangles. DGFE 17. They will form a straight line or straight angle. EFGD 19. Tear off the three angles or points of the triangle. To illustrate this. What type of polygon is Figure 2? Is it convex or concave? Finding the Measure of Interior Angles There are two theorems that you can use to ﬁnd the measure of interior angles of a convex polygon. Theorem: The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180°.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Which of the following are acceptable names for each polygon? P Figure 1 S Figure 2 D G Q R E F U T 16. UTSPQR 23. UPQRST 21. Let’s take a look at the theorem for triangles ﬁrst. FDGE 18. the three angles of a triangle add up to 180°. put the vertex points together. 180° 82 . therefore. Without overlapping the edges. as shown in the following ﬁgures. One theorem works only for triangles. Remember that a straight angle is 180°. cut a triangle from a piece of paper. RQSPUT 22. What type of polygon is Figure 1? Is it convex or concave? 20.

You will always have two fewer triangles than the number of sides of the polygon. then its angle sum is given by this formula: S = 180(n – 2) Example: Find the sum of the interior angles of a polygon with 12 sides. multiply the number of triangles by 180 to get the sum of the interior angles.800°. Theorem: If a convex polygon has n sides. Solution: n = 12 S = 180(n – 2) S = 180(12 – 2) S = 180(10) S = 1. Look for a pattern in the number of sides a polygon has and the number of triangles drawn from one vertex point. 83 . the sum of the interior angles of a 12-sided polygon is 1.800 Therefore. Since each triangle has 180°. Do you see a pattern? 180° 360° 540° The diagram suggests that polygons can be divided into triangles. Look at these ﬁgures.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – You can ﬁnd the sum of the interior angles of a convex polygon if you know how many sides the polygon has. You can write this as a general statement with the letter n representing the number of sides of the polygon.

S. Solution: n = 5 180(n–2) ᎏ x=ᎏ n 180(5–2) ᎏ x=ᎏ 5 180ᎏ (3) x=ᎏ 5 x = 108 Each interior angle in a pentagon will measure 108°. of a regular polygon with n sides is given by the formula: 180(nϪ2) ᎏᎏ n Example: Find the measure of an interior angle of a regular pentagon. Theorem: The measure of an interior angle. Finding the Measure of Interior Angles of Regular Polygons A regular polygon is any polygon whose interior angles all have the same angle measurement. x. 24. 25. S. n. divide the sum. In order to calculate the measure of the interior angle of a regular polygon.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Practice Find the sum of the interior angles for each ﬁgure. 84 . Recall that the formula to calculate the sum. by the number of sides. of the interior angles of a polygon with n sides is S = 180(n–2).

you will have rotated 360°. Complete the table for convex polygons. Do you see that this would be true for all polygons as stated in the theorem? Practice 26.–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Finding the Measure of Exterior Angles Use this theorem to ﬁnd the measure of exterior angles of a convex polygon. you will turn the number of degrees in the exterior angle. Theorem: The sum of the exterior angles of a convex polygon is always 360°. As you reach each vertex point. To illustrate this theorem. This ﬁgure shows this theorem using a pentagon. When you return to your starting point. picture yourself walking alongside a polygon. NUMBER OF SIDES Interior Є sum Exterior Є sum 6 10 14 16 85 .

29. (Hint: Recall the sum of the exterior angles of a convex polygon. there are three right angles and two congruent obtuse angles. 86 .–PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – 27. Find the measure of an interior angle of a regular decagon. What are the measures of the two obtuse angles? 28. The home plate used in baseball and softball has this shape: As you can see.) Skill Building until Next Time Observe your surroundings today and see how many examples of convex and concave polygons you can ﬁnd. Find the measure of an exterior angle of a regular hexagon. Find the measure of an interior angle of a regular octagon. 30.

you will learn how to name and classify special quadrilaterals. If the trapezoid has congruent legs. Trapezoids are quadrilaterals that have only one pair of opposite parallel sides. and design. the ﬁgures become more specialized as the chart ﬂows downward. rhombuses.10 L E S S O N QUADRILATERALS Lesson Summary In this lesson. squares. Quadrilaterals branch off into two distinctive subgroups: parallelograms and trapezoids. The diagram on the next page shows the characteristics and relationships among the special quadrilaterals. a square is also a rectangle and a rhombus. then the ﬁgure is an isosceles trapezoid. which is one type of quadrilateral. architecture. A square is a parallelogram with four congruent angles and four congruent sides. The other main branch of quadrilaterals consists of parallelograms. rectangles. A rhombus is a parallelogram with four congruent sides. A rectangle is a parallelogram with four congruent angles. In other words. In other words. Q uadrilaterals are one of the most commonly used ﬁgures in buildings. Parallelograms have two pairs of opposite parallel sides. All four-sided polygons are classiﬁed as quadrilaterals. The diagram on page 88 shows that an isosceles trapezoid is one type of trapezoid. and trapezoids. 87 . Parallelograms branch off into two special categories: rectangles and rhombuses. You will also learn how to use the special properties associated with parallelograms.

All isosceles trapezoids are parallelograms. 4.–QUADRILATERALS– Practice Use the diagram to determine whether each statement is true or false. All squares are trapezoids. 9. All rhombuses are squares. 1. All parallelograms are squares. 5. All quadrilaterals are squares. All rectangles are quadrilaterals. 8. 7. All parallelograms are rectangles. 88 . 2. All rectangles are both parallelograms and quadrilaterals. 10. 6. All trapezoids are quadrilaterals. All squares are both rectangles and rhombuses. 3.

120° 60° 60° 120° Theorem: Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Theorem: Consecutive angles of a parallelogram are supplementary. Properties of Parallelograms Deﬁnition: Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel. sides. Theorem: Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent. 89 .–QUADRILATERALS– Properties of Parallelograms The following properties of parallelograms will help you determine if a ﬁgure is a parallelogram or just a quadrilateral. The properties are also useful to determine measurements of angles. and diagonals of parallelograms. Theorem: Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent.

X WXYZ is a parallelogram. Opposite angles are congruent. Opposite sides are congruent. because it is a common error. 90 . Watch out for this. Diagonals bisect each other. Opposite angles are congruent. Diagonals bisect each other. Opposite angles are congruent. Examples: BMAH is a parallelogram. Consecutive angles are supplementary.–QUADRILATERALS– Note that diagonals of a parallelogram are not necessarily congruent. B H 135˚ 3 M WE KNOW THAT BM = 3 BH = 5 m∠M = 135° m∠A = 45° m∠B = 45° BECAUSE Opposite sides are congruent. 5 A Consecutive angles are supplementary. W 90˚ 45˚ O 6 2 Y Z WE KNOW THAT m∠XWZ = 90° + 45° =135° m∠XYZ = 135° m∠WXY = 45° m∠WZY = 45° WO = 2 ZO = 6 BECAUSE Angle addition postulate Opposite angles are congruent.

m∠B 14. m∠D Use the following ﬁgure of parallelogram PQRS to answer questions 16–20.–QUADRILATERALS– Practice Use the following ﬁgure of parallelogram ABCD to answer questions 11–15. DC 13. BC 12. OR 18. m∠SPQ 20. m∠SRQ 91 . P Q 5 7 O 15˚ 40˚ S R 16. m∠PQR 19. m∠A 15. A 12 B 8 115˚ C D 11. SQ 17.

rhombus. Opposite angles are congruent. . Deﬁnition of a rectangle. Examples: NEWS is a rectangle. Theorem: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular. because these ﬁgures are special parallelograms. they possess the same properties as any parallelogram. However. Alternate interior angles are congruent. Theorem: The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. A E 30˚ C D WE KNOW THAT m∠BEC = 90° m∠DCE = 30° m∠BAD = 60° m∠ABC = 120° m∠ADC = 120° 92 BECAUSE Diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular. N E 6 20˚ S WE KNOW THAT XE = 6 NW = 12 ∠NES = 20° ∠NSW = 90° BECAUSE X W Diagonals bisect each other. Diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. Consecutive angles are supplementary. a square possesses these same special properties. B ABCD is a rhombus. First. Opposite angles are congruent. they also have additional properties. when formed by parallel lines. Since a square is both a rectangle and a rhombus.–QUADRILATERALS– Other Special Properties The rectangle. Diagonals of a rhombus bisect the angles. remember that these ﬁgures are all parallelograms. and they bisect the angles of the rhombus. and square have a few other special properties. therefore.

Determine the perimeter of rectangle PQRS. OP Use the Pythagorean theorem to solve questions 25 and 26. m∠HGK 28. QS 22. given OR = 5 and QR = 6. m∠GHJ 29. 26. H G 58˚ M J K 27. m∠JMK 30.–QUADRILATERALS– Practice Use the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd the side length and angle measures for rectangle PQRS for questions 21–24. m∠GKH 93 . m∠QSR 24. m∠RPS Use the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd the angle measures for rhombus GHJK for questions 27–32. P 25˚ 6 15 R Q O S 21. 23. m∠GJK 31. m∠HJK 32. 25. Find PQ.

The Venn diagram shown in practice problem 33 may be useful to you. and a quadrilateral. Quadrilaterals Parallelograms Trapezoids Isosceles Trapezoids Rhombuses Sq u ar es Rectangles 33. Explain how this Venn diagram and the ﬂowchart shown at the beginning of this lesson show the relationships among quadrilaterals.–QUADRILATERALS– Use the following diagram to answer question 33. a parallelogram. 94 . the state of Tennessee is a quadrilateral that is also a parallelogram. For example. Your desktop may be a rectangle. Then go down your list and see how many correct geometric names you can give for each item. Skill Building until Next Time Look around your environment to ﬁnd examples of quadrilaterals and make a list of them.

11 RATIO. AND SIMILARITY Lesson Summary In this lesson. PROPORTION. Architects use them when they make scale models of buildings. 95 . Similar triangles can be used to ﬁnd indirect measurements. You will also learn how to determine whether two ratios are a proportion and how to use proportions to solve problems. In addition. What Is a Ratio? If you compare two quantities. you will learn how to write and simplify ratios. Measurements of distances such as heights of tall buildings and the widths of large bodies of water can be found using similar triangles and proportions. Let’s begin by looking at ratios. Ratios are usually expressed in simplest form. then you have used a ratio. you will learn how to determine whether two triangles are similar. A ratio is the comparison of two numbers using diviᎏ sion. The ratio of x to y can be written ᎏx y or x:y. Interior designers use scale drawings of rooms to decide furniture size and placement. R L E S S O N atios and proportions have many applications.

What Is a Proportion? 3 1 ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Since ᎏ2 4 and 6 are both equal to 2 . AND SIMILARITY– Examples: Express each ratio in simplest form. A proportion can be written in one of the following ways: 2 3 ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ 4 6 or 2:4 = 3:6 The ﬁrst and last numbers in a proportion are called the extremes. Write the ratio ᎏ Kᎏ B another way. BT 3. BT ᎏ Kᎏ T BT 6. Kᎏ B 2. PROPORTION. 2 = 4 means 3 6 extremes 2:4 = 3:6 means extremes 96 . 4 D DR ᎏ (a) ᎏ RY 12 R RY (b) ᎏ Dᎏ R Y DR ᎏ (c) ᎏ DY Solutions: 4 1 ᎏ (a) ᎏ 1ᎏ 2 =ᎏ 3 1ᎏ 2 (b) ᎏ 4 =3 4 1 ᎏ (c) ᎏ 1ᎏ 6 =ᎏ 4 Practice Express each ratio in simplest form. 10 K BT ᎏ ᎏ KT 5 B T 1.–RATIO. ᎏ Kᎏ B BT 4. 5. Write the ratio ᎏ Kᎏ T another way. The middle numbers are called the means. A statement that two ratios are equal is called a proportion. Write the ratio ᎏ BT another way. they are equal to each other.

9. State the extremes for the proportion 12:16 = 9:15. then ad = bc. 2:3 = 3:2 12. 12:16 = 9:15 10. the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. 11. you can ﬁnd the fourth part by using the means-extremes property. Examples: Solve each proportion. State the means for the proportion 2:3 = 3:2. State the means for the proportion ᎏ2 7 1ᎏ 4. 4 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 7. 2 a 12 ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏ = ᎏᎏ (b) ᎏ7 (a) ᎏ4 x = 10 21 Solutions: (a) 2x = 4 ϫ 10 2x = 40 x = 20 (b) 21a = 7 ϫ 12 21a = 84 a=4 15 ᎏ ᎏᎏ (c) ᎏ5 2 = y (c) 5y = 2 ϫ 15 5y = 30 y=6 97 . 1 2 ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏ ᎏᎏ (a) ᎏ3 (b) 2:5 = 4:10 (c) ᎏ1 6 = 2 3 = 9 Solutions: (a) 3 ϫ 2 = 6 ϫ 1 (b) 2 ϫ 10 = 5 ϫ 4 (c) 1 ϫ 9 = 3 ϫ 2 6=6 20 = 20 9≠6 yes yes no Practice Determine whether each of the following is a proportion. AND SIMILARITY– Means-Extremes Property In a proportion. Examples: Tell whether each of the following is a proportion. Solving Proportion Problems Proportions can also be used to solve problems. When three parts of a proportion are known. If a:b = c :d. ᎏ2 7 = 14 4 ᎏ=ᎏ 8. PROPORTION. c ᎏ ᎏᎏ If ᎏa b = d . then ad = bc.–RATIO.

given ∠BCA ≅ ∠ECD. if two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. and the side-angle-side postulate. In addition to using the deﬁnition of similar. This will help you understand the next postulate.–RATIO. AND SIMILARITY– Practice Solve each proportion. ᎏ2 7 = z a ᎏ ᎏᎏ 16. vertical ∠’s are ≅ ΔABC ∼ ΔDEC. you know that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180°. ᎏ8 2 2 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 14. x 1 ᎏ = ᎏᎏ 13. ᎏ9 x = 4 Triangle Similarity You can prove that two ﬁgures are similar by using the deﬁnition of similar. Therefore. can you ﬁnd the measurement of the third angle? Yes. then the triangles are similar. PROPORTION. ᎏ8 y = 11 8 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 15. You should know that the symbol used for similarity is ∼. Angle-Angle Postulate (AA Postulate): If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. Examples: Are these triangles similar? (a) B E Solutions: (a) ∠A ≅ ∠D. ᎏᎏ2 5 = 20 4 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 17. (2) Corresponding sides are in proportion. AA postulate C A D 98 . then their third angles must also be congruent. the side-side-side postulate. If you know the measurements of two angles of a triangle. ᎏ8 b = 7 36 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 18. you can use three other methods for proving that two triangles are similar: the angle-angle postulate. from Lesson 9. Two ﬁgures are similar if you can show that the following two statements are true: (1) Corresponding angles are congruent.

AA postulate 80 60 A 40 T Z Practice Determine whether each pair of triangles is similar.–RATIO. AND SIMILARITY– (b) X J 60 Y (b) m∠J = 180 – (60 + 40) m∠J = 80 ΔAJT ∼ ΔYZX. 120 25 45 120 99 . 19. B E 20 A C D 21 F 21. PROPORTION. N 50˚ K 50˚ J 70˚ M O 70˚ L 20.

PROPORTION. AND SIMILARITY– 22. Side-Angle-Side postulate (SAS postulate): If the lengths of two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the corresponding included angles are congruent. Examples: Which postulate.–RATIO. could you use to prove that each pair of triangles is similar? (a) 12 4 16 3 ? 12 ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ 4 16 3 3 × 16 = 4 × 12 48 = 48 SAS postulate 100 . then the triangles are similar. then the triangles are similar. 30 70 Here are two more postulates you can use to prove that two triangles are similar: Side-Side-Side Postulate (SSS Postulate): If the lengths of the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional. 23. if any.

–RATIO. PROPORTION. but the included ∠’s are not necessarily ≅ none 101 . AND SIMILARITY– (b) 6 25 8 10 15 20 6 ? 10 ᎏ ᎏ 1ᎏ 5 =ᎏ 25 6 ? 8 ᎏ 1ᎏ 5 =ᎏ 2ᎏ 0 8 ? 10 ᎏ ᎏ 2ᎏ 0 =ᎏ 25 6 × 25 = 15 × 10 150 = 150 SSS postulate (c) 9 6 × 20 = 15 × 8 120 = 120 8 × 25 = 20 × 10 200 = 200 10 4 8 3 7 3 ? 9 ᎏᎏ = ᎏ 1ᎏ 0 4 3 × 10 = 4 × 9 30 ≠ 36 none (d) 2 30° 4 30° 6 2 ? 4 ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ 3 6 3 2×6=3×4 12 = 12.

PROPORTION. if any. 26. 102 . 25. AND SIMILARITY– Practice Which postulate. could you use to prove that the following pairs of triangles are similar? 24.–RATIO. 75 85 20 27.

–RATIO. PROPORTION. 7 10 21 30 5 15 103 . 7 4 8 6 29. 10 5 4 8 31. 20 110 15 6 100 8 30. AND SIMILARITY– 28.

The other should be too tall to measure with a measuring tape. PROPORTION. 104 . One should be short enough to measure with a measuring tape. ﬁnd two objects that are fairly close to each other. AND SIMILARITY– Skill Building until Next Time Outside your school. A ﬂagpole or a lightpost would be good choices. Set up a proportion: height of the ﬂagpole ᎏᎏᎏ shadow of the ﬂagpole height of the stop sign ᎏᎏᎏ shadow of the stop sign = Replace the height of the ﬂagpole with x and the other parts of the proportion with the measurements that you found. workplace. Measure the length of the shadows of the short and the tall objects. Some good choices would be a stop sign or a ﬁrehydrant.–RATIO. or home. Solve by using the means-extremes property.

Crown molding around a room and a fence around a garden are just two examples of where you might need to ﬁnd a perimeter. To ﬁnd the perimeter of an irregular shape. Carpenters and landscape architects use perimeters on a regular basis. you will learn how to ﬁnd the distance around convex and concave polygons. by using formulas. which have a uniform shape.12 1 cm 4 cm 6 cm 2 cm 5 cm 3 L E S S O N PERIMETER OF POLYGONS Lesson Summary In this lesson. You will also learn how to use formulas to ﬁnd the perimeter of polygons. (a) (b) 5 2 4 105 . Examples: Find the perimeter of each polygon. simply add all the lengths of its sides. P erimeter is found by measuring the distance around an object. You can ﬁnd the perimeters of polygons.

1. 5 4 4 106 .– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS – Solutions: (a) perimeter = 1 + 4 + 2 + 5 + 6 = 18 cm (b) 7 3 4 5 7 2 3 2 4 5 perimeter = 7 + 7 + 5 + 4 + 2 + 3 = 28 Practice Find the perimeter of each polygon. 3 3 3 3 9 2. 3 5 5 5 3.

you can ﬁnd the perimeter in a more efﬁcient manner. 5 4 2 1 3 Perimeter For mulas For certain polygons.–PERIMETER OF POLYGONS – 4. Using a standard formula for a particular shape is faster and easier than adding all the sides. 4 3 2 5 4 9 6 5. Here are the most commonly used perimeter formulas: Square Rectangle Regular Pentagon l s w s p = 4s p = 2l + 2w or p = 2(l + w) p = 5s 107 .

– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS –

Examples: Use a formula to ﬁnd each perimeter. (a)

(b)

8 cm

3 cm

7 cm

p = 4s p = 4(8) p = 32 cm

p = 2l + 2w or p = 2(l + w) p = 2(7) + 2(3) p = 2(7 + 3) p = 14 + 6 p = 2(10) p = 20 cm p = 20 cm Either of these formulas will always work. You can choose which one is easier for you.

(c)

4 cm

p = 5s p = 5(4) p = 20 cm A regular polygon is a polygon with all congruent angles and all congruent sides. So if you know the length of one side of a regular polygon, all you need to do to ﬁnd its perimeter is multiply the number of sides by the length of a side. In other words, p = ns, where n = number of sides and s = the length of each side.

108

–PERIMETER OF POLYGONS –

Practice

Use a formula to ﬁnd the perimeter of each polygon. 6.

4 in. 9 ft.

9.

7 in.

10. 7.

5 cm

8 cm

11. square: s = 20 cm

7

**12. parallalogram: l = 5 ft, w = 10ft. 8. 13. rectangle: l = 12 in., w = 6 in.
**

3 cm

14. regular octagon: s = 10 in. 15. regular nonagon: s = 7 ft.

109

– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS –

Working Backward

If you know the perimeter of a polygon, you can also use a perimeter formula to ﬁnd the length of one of its sides by working backward. Examples: (a) Solutions: (a) p = 4s 20 = 4s s = 5 cm

s

p = 20 cm s = _____

(b) (b) w = 5 p = 2l + 2w 32 = 2l + 2(5) 32 = 2l + 10 22 = 2l l = 11

w

5

l

p = 32 w = _____ l = _____

(c)

regular hexagon p = 24 mm

(c) p = 6s 24 = 6s s = 4 mm

110

–PERIMETER OF POLYGONS –

Practice

Find the length of the indicated side(s). 16.

1m

19.

**p = 12 m w = _____ l = _____ 17. p = 32 yd. s = _____ 20. equilateral triangle: p = 60 cm s = _____
**

10 cm

21. regular octagon: p = 80 cm 22. regular hexagon: p = 48 cm 23. regular decagon: p = 230 cm

s = _____ s = _____ s = _____ s = _____

p = 30 cm w = _____ l = _____ 18.

24. rhombus: p = 44 cm

p = 35 in. s = _____

111

How much fencing will you need? 27. The posters you like each measure 3 ft. If your house is 32 feet by 40 feet and one package of lights is 9 feet long. If the length of the room is 17 feet. How much molding will you need to buy? 26. the door of your room. and a window in your room. tall that you want to cover with posters. how much crown molding should you purchase? 28.You have a wall that is 9 ft. tall. The dimensions of the garden are 30 feet by 10 feet. Suppose you want to hang holiday icicle lights around your house. A fence must be placed around your vegetable garden. 25. how many packages of lights should you buy? 29. by 3 ft. Suppose you want to frame an 8-inch by 10-inch picture. Use formulas when possible.– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS – Find answers to these practical problems. If you bought 15 posters and placed them next to each other from ﬂoor to ceiling on the wall. wide by 12 in. Suppose a bookshelf has three shelves that are each 3 feet long by 1 foot tall. 112 . You have a square dining room that you would like to trim with crown molding. You have books that are all 2 in. how wide would the portion of the wall covered posters be? Skill Building until Next Time Use a tape measure to ﬁnd the perimeter of your room. How many of your books will ﬁt in the bookcase? 30.

and trapezoids. like a square. you will learn how to use formulas to ﬁnd the areas of rectangles. the number of tiles on a kitchen ﬂoor would be found by using an area formula. the number is said to be squared. perimeter is the distance around an object. you need to measure the object in two directions. As you learned in Lesson 12. 113 . Perimeter is always expressed in linear units. By looking at a tiled ﬂoor.13 L E S S O N AREA OF POLYGONS Lesson Summary In this lesson. In this lesson. which is the amount of surface covered by an object. while the amount of baseboard used to surround the room would be found by using a perimeter formula. you’ll work with area. it is easy to see that area refers to how many squares it takes to cover a surface. When you multiply a number by itself. In the same way. the unit is expressed in square units. triangles. when two units of measurement are multiplied by each other. parallelograms. P eople often confuse area and perimeter. Area is always expressed in square units. A ﬂat surface has two dimensions: length and width. You will also learn how to use the formulas to work backward to ﬁnd missing lengths of polygons. For example. as in area. You can not measure the amount of surface that is covered by an object by simply measuring it in one direction.

l.2 114 . h. and the height is often called the width. w. Length. and width. The sides perpendicular to the base are referred to as the height. Theorem: The area (A) of a rectangle is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h). and height. l. (a) 8 cm 5 cm A = bh A = 5(8) A = 40 cm 2 (b) 2 ft. The height is referred to as h. Here is a useful theorem you can use to ﬁnd the area of a rectangle. A = bh Examples: Find the area of each rectangle. This book uses base and height. A = bh A = 10(2) A = 20 ft.–AREA OF POLYGONS – Finding the Area of a Rectangle For a rectangle. b. the base can be any side. 10 ft. are used in the same manner as base. The base is often called the length. w. The base length is represented by b.

(a) h 8 cm A = 32 cm 2 b = _____ h = _____ Solution: A = bh 32 = 8h h = 4 cm 115 . Finding the Length of an Unknown Side of a Rectangle You can also use the area formula for a rectangle to ﬁnd the length of an unknown side if you know the area. 1m 7 ft. 4. 2. 4 cm 3. 16 m 3 ft. ﬁnd the length of the indicated sides. 1. Examples: For each rectangle.–AREA OF POLYGONS – Practice Find the area of each rectangle. 14 in. 6 cm 14 in.

2 b = _____ h = _____ 6. A = 150 cm 2 b = _____ h = 10 cm 9. A = 25 yd. b A = 84 ft. h 8. 5. h = _____ 7 in. b 7. ﬁnd the length of the indicated side(s).–AREA OF POLYGONS – (b) 12 ft. Practice For each ﬁgure.2 b = _____ h = _____ Solution: A = bh 84 = b(12) b = 7 ft.2 b = 4 yd. h 15 m A = 75 m 2 b = _____ h = _____ 2 cm A = 60 cm2 b = 2 cm h = _____ 116 . A = 56 in.

The altitude is a segment perpendicular to the base.2 117 .–AREA OF POLYGONS – Finding the Area and Unknown Sides of a Parallelogram Any side of a parallelogram can be called the base. 12 in. Solution: A = bh A = 12(9) A = 108 in. A = bh Examples: Find the area of the parallelogram. b h h b h b b h Using this information. Fit the two pieces together to form a rectangle. h h b b Draw an altitude of a parallelogram. then look at the following theorem. Theorem: The area (A) of a parallelogram is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h). You’ll ﬁnd that the base and height of the rectangle coincide with the base and altitude of the parallelogram. The height is the length of the altitude. Cut along the altitude to separate the parallelogram into two pieces. 9 in. can you predict the area formula for a parallelogram? Take a moment to make your prediction.

6 cm 3 cm 5 cm 12 cm 8 cm h A = _____ b = _____ h = _____ 11.2 b = _____ h = _____ 118 . 5 ft. h 7 ft.3 mm 5 mm A = 60 cm 2 b = _____ h = _____ 13. 12. A = _____ b = _____ h = _____ A = 28 ft. 10. h 10 cm 5 cm A = 40 cm 2 b = _____ h = _____ Solution: A = bh 40 = 10 h h = 4 cm Note that the 5 cm measurement is unnecessary information for this problem. Practice Find the indicated information. 8. Recall that the base and height must be perpendicular to each other.–AREA OF POLYGONS – Find the indicated lengths.

ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 bh ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 (10)(6) A = 30 in. Triangle: b =13 inches. Theorem: The area (A) of any triangle is half the product of its base length (b) and height (h). 16. 7 cm 10 in. Triangle: b = 10 feet. 1 ᎏ A=ᎏ 2 bh Examples: Find the area. 5 in. h = 7 feet 17. 7 cm 15. (a) (b) 4 cm 6 in. h = 26 inches 119 .–AREA OF POLYGONS – Finding the Area and Unknown Sides of a Triangle Look at the following ﬁgures and try to predict the area formula for a triangle. h h h b Now see if your prediction is correct by reading the theorem below.2 ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 bh ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 (7)(4) A = 14 cm 2 Practice Find the area of each triangle. 14. 6 cm 12 in.

2 with a height of 16 in. 21. h A = 68 ft.2 with a base of 8 ft. 19. b 6 in. A = 51 in. What is the base? 11 cm A = 77 cm 2 h = ______ 20. A = 160 ft. For a given triangle.2 b = ______ Find the indicated length. 22. For a given triangle. h = ______ 120 . 17 ft.–AREA OF POLYGONS – 18. A = 64 in. What is the height? h 23.

–AREA OF POLYGONS – Finding the Area and Unknown Sides of a Trapezoid Can you predict the area formula for a trapezoid? Look at these ﬁgures: A b2 B A C h D C A B h D C b1 b1 1b h A= 2 1 b2 1b h A= 2 2 Area of the trapezoid = area of two triangles 1 ᎏ ᎏᎏ = ᎏ1 2 b1h + 2 b2h ᎏ = ᎏ1 2 h(b1 + b2) Theorem: The area of a trapezoid is half the product of the height and the sum of the base lengths (b1 + b2). (a) 7 cm (b) 10 cm 6 cm 16 cm 130 cm2 b1 12 cm ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 h(b1 + b2) ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 (6)(7 + 12) 1 A = ᎏ2ᎏ(6)(19) A = 57 cm 2 ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 h(b1 + b2) ᎏ 130 = ᎏ1 2 (10)(b1 + 16) 130 = 5(b1 + 16) 130 = 5b1 + 80 50 = 5b1 b1 = 10 cm 121 . 1 ᎏ A=ᎏ 2 h(b1 + b2) Examples: Find the area or indicated length.

b1 9 cm 15 cm A = 90 cm 2 b1 = _____ 26. A = 92 m2 h=8m b1 = 14 m b2 = ______ 30. a table leg shaped like a trapezoid. and a triangular scarf. 122 . b2 = 12 in. 10 in. Measure and ﬁnd the area of each. 15 m A = _____ 25. 7m 27.–AREA OF POLYGONS – Practice Find the area or indicated length. 18 in.2 h = _____ 28. a quilt piece shaped like a parallelogram. 8 in. a square ﬂoor tile. A = 360 m2 h = ______ b1 = 3 in. 12 m A = 75 in. A = Skill Building until Next Time Try to ﬁnd an object shaped like each of the polygons in this lesson. Examples would be a rectangular win_____ dow pane. h = 6 cm b1 = 5 cm b2 = 10 cm A = ______ 29. 8 in. h 15 in. 24.

A rectangular prism has six faces. and some buildings. Sometimes.14 L E S S O N SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS Lesson Summary In this lesson. A rectangular prism has 12 edges. it is necessary to completely cover these objects. 123 . A rectangular prism is a shape you see every day. A rectangular prism has eight vertices. Vertices are the points where the edges meet. The edges are the segments formed by the intersection of two faces of a solid ﬁgure. you will learn how to identify various parts of a prism and how to use formulas to ﬁnd the surface area of a prism. or make a label for a box. You might need to wrap a gift. The faces are parts of planes that form sides of solid ﬁgures. Examples are bricks. cereal boxes. determine how much siding is needed to cover a house.

G is a vertex. CG is an edge. Edges that are parallel to each other have the same measurements.–SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS– Example: face B A F E H D edge G vertex C ABCD is a face. Example: M L O 6 cm N Q P 3 cm S R 2 cm PQ = 2 cm LO = 3 cm LP = 6 cm 124 .

GJ = ______ 4. How many vertices does any face touch? 11. How many edges come together at each vertex? Using a For mula to Find the Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism If you take a box apart and fold out all the sides. H G J 5 in. N I 1.? 12. K 9 in. JI = ______ 6. How many vertices does a rectangular solid have? 10. HL = ______ 2. 125 .–SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS– Practice Determine the length of each side. How many edges does a rectangular solid have? 8. KL = ______ 3. You will have three pairs that are the same size. L M 4 in. You could ﬁnd the area of each rectangle and add up all their areas to obtain the total area. 3 2 4 2 4 2 2 3 4 You could make a chart to help you organize all the faces. you will have six rectangles. GK = ______ 5. LM = ______ 7. or you could use a formula. How many vertices have a length of 5 in. How many faces does a rectangular solid have? 9.

S.A.A.) of a rectangular prism is twice the sum of the length (l) times the width (w). and the length (l) times the height (h).A. = 2(6 + 10 + 15) S.A. w = 2 cm.–SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS– Theorem: The surface area (S. = 2(lw + wh + lh) h w l Example: Find the surface area of the rectangular prism.A. the width (w) times the height (h). = 2(lw + wh + lh) S. = 2(31) S. 5 cm 2 cm 3 cm l = 3 cm. = 2[(3)(2) + (2)(5) + (3)(5)] S.A. = 62 cm 2 126 .A. h = 5 cm S.

15. w 1 in. l 3 in. h = 5 in.. A = 448 ft. A = 280 m2 l=4m w = 4m h=? 127 . h = 4 ft. w=? h = 6 ft... 3m 5m 16. 19. l = 5 ft.. 7 ft.–SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS– Practice Find the surface area of each rectangular prism. w = 3 in. 4 ft. 20. w = 10 ft. 13. 18. Working backward. l = 9 in. 6 cm 2 cm 11 cm 17. h 2 in. 8m 14.2 l = 14 ft. ﬁnd the missing edge length using the given information. 1 ft.

A. 2 in. = 6(3) 2 S. 3 cm S.A. = 6e 2 S. so all six faces have the same area. 23.–SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS– The Surface Area of a Cube A cube is a special rectangular prism. S. 7m 128 . All the edges of a cube have the same length.A.A. 6 cm 24. = 6e 2 Example: Find the surface area of the cube. 21. = 54 cm 2 Practice Find the surface area of each cube. 4 ft. e e e Theorem: The surface area of a cube is six times the edge (e) squared. = 6(9) S. 22.A.

Unfold the empty juice box.2. Working backward. (Assume that there’s no need for the edges of the wrapping paper to overlap. ﬁnd the missing edge length using the given information. and 18 in. 28.–SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS– 25. Susie bought a blender that came in a rectangular prism box with edges measuring 8 in. she will use her yellow paper. Now take a break and drink the juice. Use the following information to answer questions 29 and 30. ϫ 100 in. 12 in. How many square inches of wrapping paper will Susie need to cover the blender box? 30.5 ft. If the surface area of a cube is 726 in. 129 . Find the area of each rectangle that made up the box. If the surface area of a cube is 73. ﬁnd the length of each edge. she will use her green paper. ﬁnd the perimeter of its front face. Use the formula to ﬁnd its surface area. Susie simply needs to cover the entire box.2. She needs to wrap it as a gift and wants to use her blue wrapping paper. Compare the two answers.8 cm 26. If she doesn’t have enough blue.2. of which she has an endless supply..) 29. and height. What color paper will Susie use? Skill Building until Next Time Take a juice box and measure its length. e = 5. ϫ 80 in.. which measures 9 in. 27. If she doesn't have enough green. which is 12 in. If the surface area of a cube is 486 ft. ﬁnd the length of one of its edges. width.

.

L E S S O N W hen you are interested in ﬁnding out how much a refrigerator holds or the amount of storage space in a closet. Volume of Prisms Prisms can have bases in the shape of any polygon.15 VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS Lesson Summary In this lesson. A prism with a rectangle for its bases is called a rectangular prism. Prisms can be right or oblique. 131 . you will concentrate on the volume of right prisms. A right prism is a prism with its bases perpendicular to its sides. you will learn how to ﬁnd the volume of prisms and pyramids using formulas. Just like an ice tray is ﬁlled with cubes of ice. volume tells you how many cubic units will ﬁt into a space. and so on. A prism with triangles for its bases is referred to as a triangular prism. An example of an oblique prism is the Leaning Tower of Pisa. you can assume we mean a right prism. meaning they form right angles. Bases of oblique prisms do not form right angles with their sides. A prism with hexagons as its bases is called a hexagonal prism. When we refer to prisms in this lesson. Volume is expressed in cubic units. In this lesson. you are looking for the volume of a prism.

The area of the base of a rectangular prism is the length times the width. you studied ways to ﬁnd the area of most polygons. then multiply by the height (h) of the ﬁgure. 12 in. but not all. Likewise. In Lesson 13. V = lwh The volume of a rectangular prism could also be stated in another way. Theorem: To ﬁnd the volume (V) of any prism. the same length and width used with the height to ﬁnd the volume—in other words. multiply the area of a base (B) by the height (h). However.3 132 . multiply the length (l) by the width (w) and by the height (h). then it is possible to ﬁnd its volume.–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– Theorem: To ﬁnd the volume (V) of a rectangular prism. if you do know how to ﬁnd the area of the base (B). use the formula for that shape. V = Bh Examples: Find the volume of each prism. This same approach can also be applied to other solid ﬁgures. 6 in. if you are given the area of the base and the height of the ﬁgure. V = lwh V = (12)(6)(6) V = 432 in. the area of the base (B) times the height. (a) 6 in.

becomes the base. A. Solution: First. Solution: V = Bh V = (30)(5) V = 150 ft. in the volume formula V = Bh.3 (c) B = 30 ft. 3 in.2 The area. h = 10 m Solution: V = Bh V = (42)(10) V = 420 m 3 133 . 6 in. V = Bh V = (6)(6) V = 36 in.–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– (b) 4 in.2 h = 5 ft.3 (d) Prism: B = 42 m 2. B. 1 A = ᎏ2ᎏ(3)(4) ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 (12) A = 6 in. ﬁnd the area of a base. As you remember from Lesson 13. the formula for ﬁnding the area ᎏ of any triangle is A = ᎏ1 2 bh.

h = 14 cm 11. 6. 2. 5. 1. 5 ft. 24 cm2 7 cm 8. 8 ft. 9.2. Prism: B = 85 m2. 10 ft. h = 8 m 6m 134 . 6 ft. 6m 6m 12. 12 in. 9 in. Prism: B = 48 ft. 12 in. 3. 4 ft. 10. 10 ft. 30 m2 7 cm 7 cm 5m 4. 1m 2m 16 m 5 cm 7. h = 12 ft. Prism: B = 80 cm2.–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– Practice Find the volume of each prism. 4 in.2 3 in.

In the following ﬁgure. a length of 8 in.3. 8 in. the area of the rectangular base is 52 cm2 and the total volume is 468 cm3. and a total volume of 336 in. 6 in. 52 cm 2 V = 468 cm3 h = ______ 14. use the given volume to determine the length of the missing edge. W W = ______ 135 .–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– For questions 13 and 14. 13.. The following ﬁgure has a height of 6 in..

10 m 16. then you will have the formula for the volume of the cube. width (w ). Cube: e = 4 in.–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– Volume of a Cube Recall that the edges (e) of a cube all have the same measurement. V = e 3.3 136 . 15. if you replace the length (l ). V = e3 Example: Find the volume of the cube. 3 ft.375 ft. Find the edge of a cube with volume 3. 17. Cube: e = 9 cm 19. and height (h) with the measurement of the edge of the cube. 18. Theorem: The volume of a cube is determined by cubing the length of the edge. 5m V = e3 V = (5) 3 V = 125 m 3 Practice Find the volume of each cube. therefore.

3 (c) Regular pyramid: B = 36 ft. 50 in.–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– Volume of a Pyramid A polyhedron is a three-dimensional ﬁgure whose surfaces are all polygons.2 ᎏBh V = ᎏ1 3 ᎏ(50)(9) V = ᎏ1 3 V = 150 in. width. If you have a pyramid and a rectangular prism with the same length. h h w l l 1 ᎏ ᎏᎏ V = ᎏ1 3 lwh or V = 3 Bh w V = lwh or V = Bh Examples: Find the volume of each pyramid. one-third of the volume of the prism is the volume of the pyramid. h = 8 ft.3 137 . (a) h = 6 cm 3 cm 5 cm ᎏ V = ᎏ1 3 lwh ᎏ V = ᎏ1 3 (5)(3)(6) V = 30 cm 3 (b) h = 9 in.2. In other words. ᎏ Solution: V = ᎏ1 3 Bh 1 V = ᎏ3ᎏ(36)(8) V = 96 ft. you would ﬁnd that it would take three of the pyramids to ﬁll the prism. A regular pyramid is a polyhedron with a base that is a regular polygon and a vertex point that lies directly over the center of the base. and height.

2. Regular pyramid: B = 156 ft. h = 12 in. h = 1 cm 138 . 26. 28. h = 15 m 81 m2 6m 6m 25. h = 5 ft. h= 6 in. 20. Regular pyramid: B = 3 cm2.–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– Practice Find the volume of each pyramid. h= 5 cm 22.2. h = 9 cm B = 36 ft. 23. 51 cm2 10 in. h = 8 ft. Regular pyramid: B = 64 in. 10 in. 27. 8 cm h= 10 m 21.2 8 cm 24.

Compare the two volumes. 139 . B = 70 ft 2 V =210 ft. width. use the given volume to determine the missing value.–VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS– For questions 29 and 30. width.3 h = ______ Skill Building until Next Time Take a box of saltine crackers. and height of the sleeve of crackers and ﬁnd its volume. and height of the cracker box and ﬁnd its volume. 10 m 7m V = 140 m3 w = ______ 30. 29. Now measure the length. the kind with four packages of crackers inside. Measure the length.

.

and the volume of cones. Although its value has been computed in various ways over the past several hundred years. you need to know about the irrational number. The exact value of π is still a mathematical mystery. the surface area and volume of cylinders and spheres. but there is still no termination or repeating group of digits. You may have a π key on your calculator. this value was named with the Greek letter π. You will also learn to use formulas to ﬁnd the circumference and area of circles. π is an irrational number. Over 2. These are not the true values of π. only rounded approximations. B efore you begin to work with circles and circular ﬁgures. mathematicians approximated the value of the ratio of the distance around a circle to the distance across a circle to be approximately 3. A rational number is a number that can be written as a ratio. or π. you will learn about the irrational number pi.14. π (pronounced “pie”). a fraction. no one has been able to ﬁnd a decimal value of π where the decimal terminates or develops a repeating pattern. This key will give you an approximation for π that varies according to how many digits your calculator displays. circumference ᎏ π=ᎏ diameter 22 ᎏ The most commonly used approximations for π are ᎏ 7 and 3. 141 .16 WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES L E S S O N Lesson Summary In this lesson. Computers have been used to calculate the value of π to over ﬁfty billion decimal places. Years later. or a terminating or repeating decimal.000 years ago.

you should use ≈ instead of =. The diameter of a circle is the distance across a circle through its center. (a) 10 cm Solution: Use the C = πd formula. since the diameter of the circle is given. The symbol ≈ means approximately equal to. the amount of lace edge around a circular skirt can be found by using the circumference formula.14)(10) C ≈ 31. For example. it’s time to start working with circles. A radius is the distance from the center to the edge. There are many reasons why people need to ﬁnd a circle’s circumference. after you substitute the value 3. Since π is the ratio of circumference to diameter.4 cm 142 . Use the approximation of 3.14. since the radius of the circle is given.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Circumference of a Circle Now that you know about the irrational number π.4 cm (b) 5 cm Solution: Use the C = 2πr formula. The amount of fencing for a circular garden is another example of when you need the circumference formula.14 for π. C = πd or C = 2πr Since π is approximately (not exactly) equal to 3. One-half the diameter is equal to the radius or two radii are equal to the length of the diameter. the approximation of π times the diameter of the circle gives you the circumference of the circle. The distance around a circle is called its circumference. ᎏ d = 2r or r = ᎏ1 2d Here is a theorem that will help you solve circumference problems: Theorem: The circumference of any circle is the product of its diameter and π. Examples: Find the circumference of each circle.14)(5) C ≈ 31.14 for π in the formula. C = 2πr C ≈ 2(3. C = πd C ≈ (3.

14 for π. Use 3. 2. Area of a Circle To understand the area of a circle. so if you are given the diameter. 3. You pick which formula to use based on what information you are given—the circle’s radius or its diameter. 1. two times a number and the square of a number are very different. h=r b = 1 C = 1 (2πr) = πr 2 2 Theorem: The area (A) of a circle is the product of π and the square of the radius (r ). 8 cm 15 ft. 143 . They are the same only when the radius is 2. Some people will mistakenly think that squaring the radius and doubling it to get the diameter are the same.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Notice that these two circles have the same circumference because a circle with a diameter of 10 cm has a radius of 5 cm. Imagine a circle that is cut into wedges and rearranged to form a shape that resembles a parallelogram. take a look at the following ﬁgure. r = 25 m 5. d = 7 m 4. A = πr 2 Notice that this formula squares the radius. not the diameter. 8 cm 11 in. Practice Find the approximate circumference of each circle shown or described. Otherwise. you should divide it by two or multiply it by one-half to obtain the radius.

2 144 . ᎏ r = ᎏ1 2d ᎏ r = ᎏ1 2 (14) r = 7 in.86 in.14 for π.14)(6) 2 A ≈ (3.14)(49) A ≈ 153. Use 3.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Examples: Find the approximate area for each circle. A = πr 2 A ≈ (3.04 cm 2 (b) 14 in. (a) 6 cm A = πr 2 A ≈ (3.14)(7) 2 A ≈ (3.14)(36) A ≈ 113.

4 cm 8m Surface Area of a Cylinder When you are looking for the surface area of a cylinder. 4 cm 10 ft. 7. 10. πr 2 b bh h πr 2 Same as the C of the circle base: 2πr Surface area of a cylinder = area of two circles + area of rectangle = 2πr 2 + bh = 2πr 2 + 2πrh 145 . The area of the curved surface is the area of a rectangle with the same height as the cylinder. 6. The area of the curved surface is hard to visualize when it is rolled up. d = 24 in. and the base measurement is the same as the circumference of the circle base. 8. Picture a paper towel roll. When you unroll a sheet of the paper towel. r = 13 cm 9.14 for π. It has a circular top and bottom. Use 3. it is shaped like a rectangle.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Practice Find the approximate area for each circle shown or described. you need to ﬁnd the area of two circles (the bases) and the area of the curved surface that makes up the side of the cylinder.

≈ 2(3.A. ≈ 244. ≈ 2(3.14)(4) 2 + 2(3.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Theorem: The surface area (S. S.A.14)(3)(10) S.A.A.48 + 125. S.A.14 for π.14)(3) 2 + 2(3. Use 3.4 S.6 S.A. 10 ft. = 2πr 2 + 2πrh S. (a) 4 cm 5 cm S. = 2πr 2 + 2πrh Examples: Find the surface area of each cylinder.) of a cylinder is determined by ﬁnding the sum of the area of the bases and the product of the circumference times the height. ≈ 100. ≈ 226.A. = 2πr 2 + 2πrh S.A.A.2 146 . ≈ 56.A.52 + 188.92 ft.14)(4)(5) S.08 cm 2 (b) 3 ft.

Of course.14)(36)(8) V ≈ 904.14)(3) 2(9) V ≈ (3. Theorem: The volume (V) of a cylinder is the product of the area of the base (B) and the height (h). 9 cm V = πr 2h V ≈ (3.14)(6) 2(8) V ≈ (3. 11.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Practice Find the surface area of each cylinder. 8 in..34 cm 3 V = πr 2h V ≈ (3.14)(9)(9) V ≈ 254. Volume of a Cylinder Similar to ﬁnding the volume of a prism. V = Bh or V = πr 2h Examples: Find the volume of each cylinder. 10 in. 7 in. h = 3 cm 9 cm 12. so you need to ﬁnd the area of a circle times the height.3 147 . Cylinder: r = 6 ft. 4 cm 13. Use 3. (a) 3 cm (b) 6 in. Cylinder: d = 18 cm.32 in.14 for π. 14. the base of a cylinder is a circle. Use 3.14 for π. h = 16 ft. you can ﬁnd the volume of a cylinder by ﬁnding the product of the area of the base and the height of the ﬁgure.

Cylinder: d = 22 ft. ᎏ 2 V = ᎏ1 3 πr h 2 ᎏ V ≈ ᎏ1 3 (3. 5 cm 16.14 for π.14 for π. Use 3. 3 in. If you have a cone and a cylinder with the same radius and height. 3m 12 m Volume of a Cone A cone relates to a cylinder in the same way that a pyramid relates to a prism. h = 12 ft. Cylinder: r = 3 ft. In other words. 18. Use 3.3 148 . it would take three of the cones to ﬁll the cylinder.14)(3) (7) V ≈ 65. r h h r V = Bh or V = πr 2h Example: Find the volume of the cone.. h = 12 ft. 15. 1 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 2 V = ᎏ1 3 Bh or V = 3 πr h 7 in. 9 cm 17. the cone holds one-third the amount of the cylinder..94 in.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Practice Find the volume of each cylinder shown or described.

h = 5 ft.A.14 for π. 13 in. it roughly appears to be four circles.A. When you lay out the cover of the ball.A. = 4πr 2 Example: Find the surface area of the sphere.14 for π.A. 6m 21.. Cone: d = 14 ft.14)(2) 2 S. 5 in.24 cm 2 149 . Theorem: The surface area (S. Use 3.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Practice Find the volume of each cone shown or described. Try to ﬁnd an old baseball and take the cover off of it. 4m 20. = 4πr 2 S.) formula for a sphere is four times π times the radius squared. 19. ≈ (4)(3. ≈ 50. Surface Area of a Sphere A sphere is the set of all points that are the same distance from some point called the center. A sphere is most likely to be called a ball. 2 cm S. S. h = 12 cm 22. Recall that the formula for ﬁnding the area of a circle is A = πr 2. Cone: r = 6 cm. Use 3.A.

The height of each pyramid represents the radius (r) of the sphere. Sphere: r = 20 ft.A. Sphere: r = 16 cm 26. Theorem: The volume (V) of a sphere is determined by the product of ᎏ 3 4 3 ᎏπr V=ᎏ 3 150 . picture the sphere ﬁlled with numerous pyramids. 16 in. To ﬁnd the volume of a sphere. 23. ᎏ Volume of each pyramid = ᎏ1 3 Bh 1 Sum of the volumes = n ϫ ᎏ3ᎏBr ᎏ = ᎏ1 3 (nB)r 2 ᎏ = ᎏ1 3 (4πr )r ᎏ 3 = ᎏ4 3 πr Substitute r for h of n pyramids Substitute nB with the S.14 for π. The sum of the areas of all the bases represents the surface area of the sphere. Volume of a Sphere If you were ﬁlling balloons with helium. Use 3. it would be important for you to know the volume of a sphere. 25. of a sphere 4 ᎏπ and the cube of the radius. 7m 24.–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Practice Find the surface area of each sphere shown or described.

–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– Example: Find the volume of the sphere. 29. 7 in. Skill Building until Next Time Find an example of a cylinder—an oatmeal box would be a good choice.14 for π. 9 cm ᎏ 3 V = ᎏ4 3 πr 3 ᎏ V ≈ ᎏ4 3 (3. Use 3. Sphere: d = 9 ft. Use 3. Measure the height and radius of the cylinder.14)(9) V ≈ 3052.14 for π. 5m 28.08 cm 3 Practice Find the volume of each sphere. 151 . Sphere: r = 12 m 30. Use the formulas in this lesson to ﬁnd the surface area and volume of the cylinder. 27.

–WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES– 152 .

y-axis Quadrant II Quadrant I x-axis origin (0. I f you have ever been the navigator on a road trip. You will also learn how to plot or graph points on a coordinate plane and name the coordinates of a point. y-axis. the origin. A grid map uses a horizontal and vertical axis in a similar manner as a coordinate plane. and the four quadrants on a coordinate plane. The point where the two axes cross is called the origin. The vertical axis is called the y-axis. On a coordinate plane.0) Quadrant III Quadrant IV 153 . then you have probably read a road map or grid map. The distance between two points will also be found using a formula.17 L E S S O N COORDINATE GEOMETRY LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. the horizontal axis is called the x-axis. you will learn to identify the x-axis.

start from the origin. move 6 units down. which are called quadrants.–COORDINATE GEOMETRY – The two axes divide the coordinate plane into four regions. On which axis will each point lie? Solution: y right 2 C x down 6 D To graph point C. Point A is in quadrant II. Label the point D. The coordinates (x. To graph point D. Example: Graph point A(–4. from the origin. To graph point B(5. The quadrants are numbered counterclockwise beginning with the upper-right region.1). Label the point A. from the origin. Point C is on the x-axis. from the origin.1) and point B(5.–6). The coordinates of the origin are (0. go right 2 units.–3).–3).y) of a point are an ordered pair of numbers. The ﬁrst number is the x-coordinate. Some points may be graphed on the axes also. go left 4 units and up 1. but do not move up or down. Point B is in quadrant IV. In which quadrant would you ﬁnd each point? Solution: y A up 1 left 4 right 5 down 3 B x To graph point A(–4. then go right 5 units and down 3.0). 154 . Point D is on the y-axis. Label the point C. do not move right or left.0) and point D(0. Example: Graph point C(2. The second number is the y-coordinate. Label the point B.

–5) 16.–COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Practice Draw a set of axes on graph paper. A(–6.2) 2. H(–2.0) 24. L(0.5) 9. F(–3. K(2. I(–1. D(–5. J(3.0) 7.–5) 155 . B(5.3) 10. K(2. E(0.6) 6. A(–6.–1) 22. Graph and label each point.6) 18. B(6.–5) 4.0) 19.4) 15. L(0. E(0.–3) 11. I(–1.–5) In which quadrant or axis does each of the following points lie? 13. H(0. J(5. G(1. C(4. G(1. F(–3.3) 3. D(–1.4) 20.2) 14. 1. C(4.–2) 23.0) 12.0) 21.4) 8.–5) 17.–1) 5.

F 31. y C A B F D E x Solution: A(2. H 156 . E y H A x C G F D B 25.1) C(0. you can also ﬁnd the coordinates of a point on a graph. You can think of an ordered pair as an address.–3) F(5. C 28. A 26.–2) E(2. Example: Find the coordinates of each point. G 32. Now that you have located a point.4) D(–4. E 30. B 27.–COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Finding the Coordinates of a Point Each point on the coordinate plane has its own unique ordered pair. D 29.2) B(–3.0) Practice Find the coordinates of each point.

you can use the Pythagorean theorem. However. Theorem: The distance d between any two points A(x1. For example.–7) 2 ෆෆ 2 d = ͙( xෆ ෆ ෆෆ xෆ (ෆ y2ෆ –ෆ yෆ 2– 1)ෆ+ 1)ෆ d = ͙(– ෆෆ 3– ෆෆ (– ෆ3) ෆෆ )2ෆ +ෆ (– ෆෆ 7– ෆෆ 4ෆ )2 d = ͙(–3 ෆ + 3ෆ )2 + (–ෆ 11)2 2 + 121 d = ͙0 ෆ ෆ d = ͙12 ෆ1 ෆ d = 11 157 .4) and S(–3.y2) is 2 ෆෆ 2 d = ͙ෆ (xෆ ෆෆ xෆ (ෆ y2ෆ –ෆ yෆ 2– 1)ෆ+ 1)ෆ Example: Find the distance between R(–3. Since ΔXYZ is a right trifollowing ﬁgure. in the ෆ = 3 and Y ෆZ ෆ = 4.–7). ෆ XY angle. you won’t be able to use the Pythagorean theorem all the time.–COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Finding the Distance between Two Points You can easily count to ﬁnd the distance between two points on a horizontal or vertical line. you cannot ﬁnd ෆ XZ ෆ simply by counting.y1) and B(x2. Solution: It helps to label the coordinates of the points before you insert them into the formula. you can use the following formula to ﬁnd the distance between any two points.4) S(–3. However. y X Y Z x XZ2 = 3 2 + 4 2 XZ2 = 9 + 16 XZ2 = 25 XZ = 5 Of course. x1 y1 x2 y2 R(–3.

–2) and (–5. 158 .6) Skill Building until Next Time Examine a city map to see if there are any streets that cut diagonally across horizontal and vertical streets.–COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Practice Find the distance between the points with the given coordinates.–6) and (4. construct a coordinate plane for the map and determine the distance between two locations that are on the diagonal street.–8) and (–6. (3.5) and (–1.5) 34. 33.–4) 36.4) 35. (–3. (3. If so. (–1.

18 L E S S O N THE SLOPE OF A LINE LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. it has a positive slope. When a line points up to the right. The slope of a line is determined by the ratio of its rise to run. or undeﬁned. you will learn how to determine the slope of a line from its graph or from two points on the line. A line with a negative slope points up to the left. T he slope of a line is the measure of its steepness. When looking at a line on a coordinate grid. You will also learn how to tell by sight if the slope of a line is positive. always count the run before you count the rise. zero. negative. 159 .

–THE SLOPE OF A LINE– Examples: Find the slope of each line. (a) y run rise V W x rise 1 ᎏ Solution: Slope of ෆ Vෆ W=ᎏ ruᎏ n =ᎏ 3 (b) y X rise run Y x rise –3 ᎏ Solution: Slope of ෆ Xෆ Y=ᎏ ruᎏ n =ᎏ 5 160 .

1. y 6. y 4. y x x 3. y x x 161 . y x x 2.–THE SLOPE OF A LINE– Practice Find the slope of each line. y 5.

so ᎏ ru n =ᎏ 0 since it doesn’t make sense to take something and divide it up into zero parts. graph the line made by the given coordinates and ﬁnd its slope. (3. o slope ero slope 162 . In this case.–5) Special Cases of Slope You may be wondering what the slope is for horizontal and vertical lines—these two types of lines do not slant up toward the left or the right.) On the other hand. “no slope”). (–1. The following illustrations may help you remember which type of line—horizontal or vertical—has an undeﬁned (no slope) or a slope of zero.2) and (–7.5) and (3. the vertical line has an undeﬁned slope (sometimes said to have rise y ᎏ ᎏ. the run is equal to zero.6) 8. 7. since the rise is equal to zero. y y x x The horizontal line has a slope of zero. They are special cases. so ᎏ ru n =ᎏ x = 0.–THE SLOPE OF A LINE– For questions 7 and 8. (Remember that zero divided by anything rise 0 ᎏ ᎏ equals zero. and a number divided by zero is said to be undeﬁned.

9. or undeﬁned (no slope. negative. 14. 11. 10. 13.–THE SLOPE OF A LINE– Practice Tell whether the slope of each line is positive. zero. 163 . 12.

18.–THE SLOPE OF A LINE– For questions 15–18 use the shapes in the following ﬁgures and label the type of slope of each line segment. moving from left to right. 164 . 17. 16. 15.

3).–1).y2). (–3. (–3.–5) Slope of AC: ______ Slope of AB: ______ Slope of BC: ______ 165 . (8.–1) 2 1 ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ Slope = ᎏ x – x = –2 – ( –6) = –2 + 6 = 4 = 2 2 1 y –y –1 – 5 –6 –6 –3 Practice Use a formula to ﬁnd the slope of the line through each pair of points. 29.3) 24.1) and (1.8) 23. (5.7) 26.0) and (–7.6) and (–1.–3) 25.0) and (5.–3) 21.–2) and (–4. x 1y1 x 2 y2 P(–6. graph the points of the triangle and then calculate the slope of each side.y1) and point B(x 2. B(–4.–6) and (–2.–5) and (–10. (5.7) For questions 29–30. Solution: Begin by labeling the coordinates before you insert the values into the formula.2) and (–2.–1).5) and Q(–2. point A(x1.–THE SLOPE OF A LINE– Using a For mula You can also use a formula to determine the slope of a line containing two points.–3) 22.–1). 19.–5) 28. Here is the formula: 2 1 ᎏ slope = ᎏ x –x 2 1 y –y Example: Find the slope of the line through P(–6.3) and (–3. A(2. ΔABC: A(–4. (–3.–5). C(0. ΔSTA: S(2.6) 20.6) 27.5) Q(–2. (5.–4) Slope of AT: ______ Slope of SA: ______ Slope of ST: ______ 30.–3) and (–1. T(4. (1. (0. (–2.

–THE SLOPE OF A LINE– Skill Building until Next Time Locate a set of steps near your home or school. Measure the rise and run of the set of steps. height (rise) length (run) 166 . Use these measurements to ﬁnd the slope of the steps.

A salesperson will compare commissions from sports cars and family vans. a nurse looks at a patient’s temperature over a period of time. and C are constants. The product or quotient of variables is not found in linear equations. where A. These types of comparisons can often be graphed in a straight line to make predictions about future events. You will also learn how to use the equation of a line to ﬁnd points on the line. 167 . You will also determine if an ordered pair is on a line using the equation of the line. Take a look at the following examples of linear and nonlinear equations. P eople often make comparisons among numbers. For example. A and B cannot both be equal to zero. What Is a Linear Equation? The standard form for a linear equation is Ax + By = C. Linear equations will not have exponents on the variables x and y. This straight line may be created by using a linear equation. B. you will learn how to identify linear equations.19 L E S S O N THE EQUATION OF A LINE LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson.

1. 3y2 = 2x 3. (0. 168 . you can easily see whether they could be connected to form a straight line.– THE EQUATION OF A LINE– Linear equations 2x + 3y = 7 x = –3 ᎏ y = ᎏ2 3x + 4 Nonlinear equations 2x 2 + 3y = 7 –3 ᎏᎏ = x y ᎏ y 2 = ᎏ2 3x + 4 y=7 xy = 7 Practice Identify each equation as linear or nonlinear. If the ordered pair can replace x and y. 3x + 2y2 = 12 10. (a) (2. (2. x + y = 15 5.2) Solution: 2x – y = 4 ? 2(2) – 2 = 4 ? 4 – 2 =4 2≠4 no. (b) (0. and the result is a true statement. x – 3y = 0 2. x 2 + y 2 = 49 4. 1 ᎏᎏ = 2 y ᎏ 7.–4) is on the line 2x – y = 4. Examples: Determine if the ordered pairs satisfy the linear equation 2x – y = 4.2) is not on the line 2x – y = 4. y = –12 6.–4) Solution: 2x – y = 4 ? 2(0) – (–4) = 4 ? 0 + 4 =4 4=4 yes. it is possible for you to determine whether a point is on a line or satisﬁes the equation of a line without using a coordinate plane. x = 4y – 3 Points on a Line When you graph multiple points on a coordinate plane. 4x – 7y = 28 9. However. ᎏ1 3 x = 36 8. then the ordered pair is a point on the line.

–3) 14.–10) 21. (3.–1) ᎏ 17. (–ᎏ5 2 .6) 22. (15.1) ᎏ 13.–4) 18. (0. (–3. (6. (3.–6) 20.–THE EQUATION OF A LINE– Practice Determine if the ordered pairs satisfy the linear equation 2x + 5y = 10.2) 24.–18) 23. (–5.–2) 12. 19. (ᎏ5 2 .4) 16.–6) 169 . 11. (–1.3) 15. (2.0) Determine whether each ordered pair satisﬁes the linear equation y = –2(2x – 3). (10. (5. (0.

Graph each equation.6) –2 –2 + 4 0 0+4 2 2+4 2 x –2 –2 2 170 .y) x x+4 y 2 4 6 (x. but for this example. This is easier if you organize your work into a table. and then solve the equation to ﬁnd the other variable. let’s use the x-values.2) (0.– THE EQUATION OF A LINE– Graphing Linear Equations You can graph any linear equation you want by choosing several x or y coordinates to substitute into the original equation. You could choose any values you want and get a solution that would be an ordered pair or point on the line.4) (2. y=x+4 Solution: x –2 0 2 y x+4 y (x. Example: Find three ordered pairs that satisfy the equation.y) (–2.

–THE EQUATION OF A LINE– Practice Find three ordered pairs that satisfy each equation. y = 4x – 5 x 1 0 –1 ᎏx + 6 29.y) 26.y) 27. 25.y) 2 0 –2 Skill Building until Next Time The distance that a lightning ﬂash is from you and the time in seconds that it takes for you to hear the t ᎏ thunder clap can be written in the following linear equation: d = ᎏ 5 .y) 28.y) 30. y = ᎏ1 4 4x – 5 y (x. Then graph each equation.d) that satisfy the formula.y) x 2 0 –2 1 4 x+6 y (x. y = 5x – 1 x y = 5x – 1 y (x. then graph the line. 171 . Find at least three ordered pairs (t. y = 2x + 4 x –2x + 4 y 1 0 –1 (x. y = –x x 2 0 –2 –x y (x. y = 2x + 3 x 2 0 –2 2x + 3 y (x.

20

L E S S O N

TRIGONOMETRY BASICS

LESSON SUMMARY

In this lesson, you will learn how to write the trigonometric ratios sine, cosine, and tangent for a right triangle. You will learn how to use the trigonometry ratios to ﬁnd unknown angle or side measurements.

P

roperties of similar right triangles are the basis for trigonometry. Measurements sometimes cannot be made by using a measuring tape. For example, the distance from a ship to an airplane can’t be determined this way; however, it could be found by using trigonometric ratios. The word trigonometry comes from the Greek language; it means “triangle measurement.” Recall that the hypotenuse is the side of the triangle across from the right angle. The other two sides of the triangle are called legs. These two legs have special names in relation to a given angle: adjacent leg and opposite leg. The word adjacent means beside, so the adjacent leg is the leg beside the angle. The opposite leg is across from the angle. You can see in the following ﬁgure how the legs are named depending on which acute angle is selected.

173

–TRIGONOMETRY BASICS–

A

hypotenuse opposite A adjacent adjacent

hypotenuse

opposite

**Sine, cosine, and tangent ratios for the acute angle A in a right triangle are as follows:
**

opposite leg ᎏ sin A = ᎏ hypotenuse ad jacent leg ᎏ cos A = ᎏ hypotenuse opposite leg tan A = ᎏ adjaceᎏ nt leg

**Examples: Express each ratio as a decimal to the nearest thousandth.
**

A

3

5

C 4

B

(a) (b)

sin A, cos A, tan A sin B, cos B, tan B

**Solution: opp 4 ᎏ ᎏᎏ (a) sin A = ᎏ hyp = 5 = 0.8
**

3 ᎏ ᎏᎏ cos A = ᎏ hyp = 5 = 0.6 4 ᎏ ᎏᎏ tan A = ᎏ adj = 3 ≈ 1.33 o pp adj

(b)

3 ᎏ ᎏᎏ sin B = ᎏ hyp = 5 = 0.6 4 ᎏ ᎏᎏ cos B = ᎏ hyp = 5 = 0.8 3 ᎏ ᎏᎏ tan B = ᎏ adj = 4 = 0.75 o pp adj

opp

174

–TRIGONOMETRY BASICS–

Practice

Express each ratio as a decimal to the nearest thousandth. Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 1–6.

X 4 Y

3 5 Z

1. sin Y 2. cos Y 3. tan Y 4. sin Z 5. cos Z 6. tan Z Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 7–12.

L 24 M 7 25 N

7. sin L 8. cos L 9. tan L 10. sin N 11. cos N 12. tan N

175

424 0.961 0.287 0.866 0.616 0.829 0.515 0.466 0.510 0.625 0.799 0.727 0.358 0.404 0.344 0.883 0.364 0.306 0.682 0.454 0.391 0.554 0.292 0.588 0.–TRIGONOMETRY BASICS– Using a Trigonometric Table Trigonometric ratios for all acute angles are commonly listed in tables.675 0.927 0.906 0.891 0. Part of a trigonometric table is given here.485 0.375 0.309 0.934 0.766 0.276 0.743 0.819 0.788 0.951 0.545 0.700 0.946 0.809 0.577 0.914 0. Scientiﬁc calculators also have functions for the trigonometric ratios.707 TAN 0.649 0. ANGLE 16° 17° 18° 19° 20° 21° 22° 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28° 29° 30° 31° 32° 33° 34° 35° 36° 37° 38° 39° 40° 41° 42° 43° 44° 45° SIN 0.755 0.839 0.707 COS 0.956 0.643 0.559 0.669 0.875 0.848 0.342 0.000 176 .601 0.966 1.532 0.810 0.445 0.940 0.900 0.602 0.500 0.719 0.629 0.438 0.731 0.574 0.839 0.754 0.933 0.423 0.530 0.384 0.470 0.326 0.869 0.777 0.407 0.656 0.857 0.781 0.325 0. Consult your calculator handbook to make sure you have your calculator in the degree and not the radian setting.899 0.921 0.695 0.488 0.

384 22. (a) sin A = 0.313 opp 177 . sin 18° 14. tan 17° 19.656 (b) tan 42° = 0. sin A = 0. cos 20° 17. cos A = 0.8829 24. 13.–TRIGONOMETRY BASICS– Example: Find each value.788 23. (a) cos 44° (b) tan 42° Solution: (a) cos 44° = 0. cos A = 0.719 Example: Find m∠A. sin 32° 15. tan A = 0. 5 ᎏ ᎏᎏ sin A = ᎏ hyp = 16 ≈ 0.731 Solution: (a) m∠A = 41° (b) m∠A = 43° Practice Use the trigonometric table or a scientiﬁc calculator to ﬁnd each value to the nearest thousandth or each angle measurement rounded to the nearest degree. Example: Find m∠A. tan 36° 18.900 (b) cos A = 0. sin A = 0. B 16 A 5 C Solution: The sin A involves the two lengths known.306 Finding the Measure of an Acute Angle The trigonometric ratio used to ﬁnd the measure of an acute angle of a right triangle depends on which side lengths are known.743 21. tan A = 0.485 20. cos 27° 16.

Example: Find m∠C. Using the sin column of a trigonometric table.326 } difference 0. the tan button on a scientiﬁc calculator can be used to ﬁnd an angle measure when its tangent is known. –1 Again. 10 7 A A 12 5 27. A scientiﬁc calculator typically includes a button that reads sin–1. B 8 A 11 C Solution: The tan C involves the two lengths known. 10 178 .313 has been rounded to the nearest thousandths place.727 o pp Using the tan column. m∠C = 36°. 8 A 28.004 sin A ≈ 0. you’ll ﬁnd: sin 18° = 0.727 Therefore.013 Since 0. 26. m∠A ≈ 18° to the nearest degree. 8 ᎏ ᎏᎏ tan C = ᎏ adj = 11 ≈ 0.309. which means inverse sine.309 } difference 0. you’ll ﬁnd: tan 36 = 0.313 sin 19° = 0. and can be used to ﬁnd an angle measure when the sine is known.313 is closer to 0. Practice Find the measure of ∠A to the nearest degree. 25.–TRIGONOMETRY BASICS– Note that the ≈ symbol is used in the previous solution because the decimal 0.

574) x ≈ 5.2 179 .–TRIGONOMETRY BASICS– 1 2 A Finding the Measure of a Side The trigonometric ratio used to ﬁnd the length of a side of a right triangle depends on which side length and angle are known. Example: Find the value of x to the nearest tenth.883 = ᎏ9 x 9 x=ᎏ 0.7 (b) 28° x 9 Solution: ᎏ cos 28 = ᎏ9 x ᎏ 0.574 = ᎏ 1ᎏ 0 x = 10(0. (a) 35° x 10 Solution: x sin 35 = ᎏ 1ᎏ 0 x 0.8ᎏ 83 x ≈ 10.

29. x 38° 29° 3 Skill Building until Next Time Find a set of steps near your home or school. Then use cosine to ﬁnd the angle of elevation of the steps. 8 42˚ x 30. 5 x 32. 14 20˚ x 31. There are building codes that limit the angle of elevation of a set of steps to help prevent accidents. hypotenuse x adjacent 180 . Measure the length of the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg.–TRIGONOMETRY BASICS– Practice Find the value of x to the nearest tenth.

After you complete the posttest. While the format of the posttest is similar to that of the pretest. go back and work through the applicable lessons again.POSTTEST N ow that you have completed all the lessons. it is time to show off your new skills. Noted along with each answer is the lesson of this book that teaches you about the geometry skills needed for that question. The posttest has 50 multiple-choice questions covering the topics you studied in this book. Take the posttest in this chapter to see how much your geometry skills have improved. If you still have weak areas. 181 . check your answers with the answer key at the end of the book. the questions are different.

.

3. 13. 21. 33. 2. 8. 17. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 183 . 19. 29. 9. 46. 6. 34. 14. 48. 45. 50. 7. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 35. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 18. 15. 37. 47. 42. 16. 49. 24. 40. 26. 31. 10. 25. 12. 44. 5. 32. 36. 20. 11. 30. 23.– LEARNINGEXPRESS ANSWER SHEET– 1. 43. 39. 27. 22. 4. 41. 38. 28.

.

obtuse d. c. less than 360 3. equiangular 6. what type of triangle is it? a. In the ﬁgure. 130° 50° 40° 120° 2. greater than 90.–POSTTEST– Posttest 1. less than 90 b. b. What is the measure of ∠MOL? M 50˚ P N O L X a. right c. c. less than 180 c. greater than 0. 8. greater than 0. acute b. c. Which of the following is not a correct name for the line? 4. and ∠O = 90°. acute b. b. XZ ZX XYZ YZ Y Z a. ∠N = 65°. b. b. AAA SAS ASA SSS 7. greater than 90. d. Three sides of a triangle are 6. d. d. obtuse d. and 10. Which postulate would you use to prove ΔMNO ≅ ΔRST? M N S R T O W Z a. ∠XWZ = 130° and ∠YWZ = 70°. 60° 55° 50° 65° a. Classify ΔMNO with ∠M = 25°. d. less than 180 d. a. c. What is the range of degrees for an acute angle? a. What is the measure of ∠XWY? X Y 5. right c. straight 185 .

all of the above x 11 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 10. Find the area of a triangle with a base that measures 35 feet and height 10 feet. 6m H S a. 56. d. 4 c. ᎏ4 5 b. 2 c.56 cm 3 16. 25 5m 6m a. d.Which of the following is a property of rectangles? a. 11 d.2 c. Which of the following is not an acceptable name for the pentagon? M O E 13. 100 cm b. Opposite sides are parallel. 900 in. c. Find the perimeter of a rectangle with base 5 cm and height 20 cm. ᎏ a. MESHO SEMOH HEMOS HOMES 9. = 6e 2. a. 3. 70 ft.2) and (3. 55 cm 12.51 cm 3 c.–POSTTEST– 8.68 cm 3 b. 175 ft.2 b. 1 ᎏᎏ 2 5 ᎏᎏ 4 186 . c.52 cm 3 d. 300 in. Find the slope of the line that passes through the points (1. 25 cm c. b.3).2 d. a.2 c.2 15.2 b. 169. Find the volume of a cone with radius 9 cm and height 2 cm.2 d. a.8)? a. Opposite sides are congruent.5 ft. a. 60 m 3 180 m 3 30 m 3 36 m 3 11. 50 cm d. d. d. IV 17. Use 3. In which quadrant will you graph the point (–4. 508. 150 in. Solve for x: ᎏ 25 = 100 . 350 ft. Find the volume of the pyramid. II c.A. 3194. Use S. 44 b. a.2 14. 30 in. c. I b. b.14 for π. III d. b. Find the surface area of a cube that measures 5 inches on an edge. The diagonals are congruent.

–POSTTEST–

18. Which ordered pair does not satisfy the equation 2x – y = 6? a. (3,0) b. (0,–6) c. (1,–4) d. (2,6) 19. What is the sin B for this ﬁgure?

A 5 B

22. What is the correct classiﬁcation for this angle?

a. b. c. d.

acute right obtuse straight

3 C 4

a. b. c. d.

4 ᎏᎏ 3 3 ᎏᎏ 4 3 ᎏᎏ 5 4 ᎏᎏ 5

23. What type of angle is shaped like a corner of a piece of paper? a. acute b. right c. obtuse d. straight 24. What is the measurement of ∠AOC?

A B

**20. Which of the following sets of points are collinear?
**

B A C E D O 20˚ 40˚

C

a. b. c. d.

A, B, C B, C, D B, C, E D, C, A

a. b. c. d.

20° 80° 60° 85°

**21. Which of the following is a pair of same-side interior angles?
**

A C D B

**25. In the ﬁgure ∠OMN = 45°, what is the measurement of ∠LMO?
**

O

45˚

E G F H

L

M

N

a. b. c. d.

∠A and ∠B ∠B and ∠D ∠D and ∠E ∠D and ∠F

a. b. c. d.

120° 125° 130° 135°

187

–POSTTEST–

**26. What is the measure of ∠A XB?
**

A B

**29. Which postulate would you use to prove ΔABD ≅ ΔCBD?
**

B

F

C

30˚

X

A

E D

C 4

D

4

a. b. c. d.

30° 60° 90° 180°

a. b. c. d.

AAA SAS ASA SSS

**30. Find the missing length.
**

x

**27. Classify the triangle in the ﬁgure by its angles.
**

140˚ 20˚ 20˚ 8 6

a. b. c. d.

acute right obtuse equiangular

a. b. c. d.

2 14 12 10

28. What type of triangle is shown?

80˚

31. Three sides of a triangle are 7, 7, and 10; what type of triangle is it? a. acute b. right c. obtuse d. straight

50˚

50˚

a. b. c. d.

acute right obtuse equiangular

188

– POSTTEST – –POSTTEST–

32. Which ﬁgure is a concave polygon? a.

35. Name the means in the ratio: 3:4 = 6:8. a. 3 and 4 b. 4 and 6 c. 3 and 8 d. 6 and 8 36. Find the perimeter of a regular pentagon that measures 3 ft. on each side. a. 3 ft. b. 9 ft. c. 12 ft. d. 15 ft. 37. Find the length of a side of an equilateral triangle whose perimeter is 42 m. a. 126 m b. 21 m c. 14 m d. 7 m 38. Find the area of the trapezoid in the ﬁgure.

b.

c.

d.

33. Which of the following is not a property of parallelograms? a. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent. b. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel. c. Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent. d. Diagonals of a parallelogram are congruent. 34. ABCD is a square. Which of the following is not true?

A B

6 cm 4 cm 12 cm

a. b. c. d.

22 cm 2 72 cm 2 36 cm 2 18 cm 2

X

D

C

39. Find the surface area of a right rectangular prism with length 4 m, width 2 m, and height 8 m. Use the formula S.A. = 2(lw + wh + lh). a. 64 m 2 b. 112 m 2 c. 56 m 2 d. 32 m 2

a. m∠BCD = 90° B ≅ෆ Aෆ C b. ෆ Aෆ c. m∠AXB = 90° C ≅ෆ Bෆ D d. ෆ Aෆ

189

–POSTTEST–

40. How many faces does a cube have? a. 4 b. 6 c. 8 d. 12 41. Find the area of the triangle.

45. Find the slope of the line in the ﬁgure.

7 ft.

a.

2 ᎏᎏ 3 3 ᎏᎏ 2 –2 ᎏ ᎏ 3 –3 ᎏ ᎏ 2

12 ft.

a. b. c. d. 19 38 ft.2 42 ft.2 84 ft.2 ft.2

b. c. d.

42. Find the volume of a cylinder with radius 5 cm and height 3 cm. Use 3.14 for π. a. 47.1 cm 3 b. 78.5 cm 3 c. 141.3 cm 3 d. 235.5 cm 3 43. Find the surface area of a sphere with an 8-inch radius. Use 3.14 for π. a. 25.12 in.2 b. 631.01 in.2 c. 803.84 in.2 d. 200.96 in.2 44. Find the distance between (1,2) and (3,2). Use d 2 ෆෆ 2 ෆ ෆෆ xෆ (ෆ y2ෆ –ෆ yෆ = ͙( xෆ 2– 1)ෆ+ 1)ෆ. a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4

46. Find the volume of a rectangular prism with base area 50 m2 and height 8 m. a. 100 m3 b. 200 m3 c. 400 m3 d. 800 m3 47. If the x-value is 4, ﬁnd the y-value in the equation –x + y = 5. a. 9 b. 1 c. 5 d. –1 48. What is the trigonometric ratio for sine? a. b. c. d.

opposite leg ᎏ ᎏ hypotenuse adjacent leg ᎏ ᎏ hyp otenuse opp osite leg ᎏ ᎏ adjacent leg adjacent leg ᎏ ᎏ opp osite leg

190

what is the correct sequence of the slopes of the various line segments from left to right? 3 C 4 a. In the following ﬁgure. underﬁned. positive. positive zero. b. d. negative 191 . undeﬁned. b. negative zero. undeﬁned. zero slope. negative. zero. undeﬁned. zero. positive. positive undeﬁned. For the following ﬁgure.–POSTTEST– 49. positive. what is the tan A? A 5 B 50. c. c. zero. undeﬁned. d. 4 ᎏᎏ 3 3 ᎏᎏ 4 3 ᎏᎏ 5 4 ᎏᎏ 5 a.

.

d Lesson 4 30. c Lesson 8 193 . d Lesson 16 19.ANSWER KEY Pretest If you miss any of the answers. a Lesson 13 11. b Lesson 6 36. c Lesson 13 13. d Lesson 5 34. you can ﬁnd help for that kind of question in the lesson shown to the right of the answer. d Lesson 1 22. c Lesson 12 10. a Lesson 3 29. b Lesson 3 28. b Lesson 15 18. d Lesson 3 27. c Lesson 15 16. b Lesson 7 38. a Lesson 1 23. b Lesson 5 32. a Lesson 13 12. a Lesson 10 4. d Lesson 9 1. b Lesson 9 3. d Lesson 9 2. c Lesson 11 6. d Lesson 2 26. c Lesson 1 24. c Lesson 2 25. d Lesson 7 39. a Lesson 11 7. d Lesson 14 14. 21. c Lesson 4 31. a Lesson 14 15. d Lesson 11 8. c Lesson 6 37. c Lesson 15 17. c Lesson 16 20. c Lesson 10 5. b Lesson 5 33. b Lesson 12 9. c Lesson 8 40. a Lesson 6 35.

a third point could be off the line. but a segment has two endpoints. rectangular prism. XY. C. YZ → → → → 2. 9. and planes are made up of a series of points. but not always. remember that any two points determine a line. has no dimension. ෆ Lෆ M. YZ. 30. 13. ∠TBK. rays. 12. The notation for a line has two arrowheads because a line extends forever in both directions. ∠KBT. YX. 49. Yes.–ANSWER KEY– 41. ZX 5. A ray extends indeﬁnitely in one direction. They have starting points and stopping points. 46. 34. They are different because they have different endpoints and extend in different directions. no 24. and is onedimensional. coplanar points can be noncollinear because two points could be on one line with a third point that lies the same plane but not on the same line. The endpoint is the beginning of a ray. Yes. yes 27. A line segment is part of a line. 19. a line has one dimension. An inﬁnite number of points are on a line. SR. ෆ Mෆ N. A point has no size. no 29. M ෆP ෆ. 35. A plane has two dimensions. ∠1 194 . sides: YX. JT 3. includes an infinite set of points. A line has no endpoints. indicates a deﬁnite location. L ෆP ෆ 11. 48. B. no 28. 21. or triangular prism. 2. Yes. and is named with an italicized capital letter. 17. Line segments do not extend indeﬁnitely. 4. 42. even if it is not drawn. remember that any three noncollinear points determine a plane. 20. False. 45. ∠B. 44. Lines. Not possible. yes 25. 18. Points are distinguished from one another by the names assigned to them: A. always Lesson 2 1. 10. N ෆP ෆ. and so on. then all points on that line are in the same plane. any three points are coplanar. Vertex: J. ST 8. 3. 14. 43. 26. cube. Vertex: Y. sometimes they do. false 32. a ray has one endpoint. 15. even if it is not drawn. ZY. L ෆN ෆ. has endpoints. 7. An inﬁnite number of points are on a line segment. collinear points must be coplanar because if a line is in a plane. 6. sides: JA . 47. 36. true 33. d b a a d d d d c b Lesson 17 Lesson 17 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 19 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 20 Lesson 1 1. Yes. 50. Yes. segments. XZ. true 31. there are countless points on any line. yes 23. Answers will vary but could include a sphere. Yes. →→ ↔ ↔ ↔ ↔ ↔ ↔ 16. 22.

Yes. ∠PON (∠NOP) and ∠POM (∠MOP) 6. → → Lesson 3 1. 12. 109° 23. same-side interior angles. right 17. line d cuts across lines t and r. ∠NOM 12. corresponding angles. 13. from smallest to largest. Yes. corresponding angles. 10. supplementary 17. straight 30. no one would know which ∠O you meant. 7. 27. The angle measures. never 14. 10. ∠MOK. two rays with a common endpoint 5. 110° 24. 55° 25. 195 . 80° 22. congruent 16. transversals can be perpendicular. False. 2. sometimes 12. ∠NOK. They are both pairs of interior angles. 8. 63° (180° Ϫ27° Ϫ90°) 16. straight angle 21. Yes. 6. ∠KOM 15. 5. line r cuts across lines d and y at two different points. line t intersects lines d and y at the same point. 9. are ∠A. ∠MOJ. 3. right 29. 4. straight 18. 11. 2. acute 19. ∠JOK. 5. Also. the symbol means perpendicular. alternate interior angles. obtuse 28. No. ∠MOL 13. line y cuts across lines t and r. obtuse angle 22. congruent 19. and 15 21. 30. never 13. ∠MOK 14. 11. Corresponding angles are congruent. ∠C. 3. No. therefore. and ∠D. ∠MON (∠NOM) 7. Both pairs of angles are on the same side of the transversal. right 26. 29. obtuse 20. False. They are both pairs of congruent angles when formed by parallel lines and a transversal. both same-side interior angles are interior while corresponding angles have one angle “inside” and one “outside” the parallel lines. More than one angle uses the letter O as a vertex. ∠NOL. acute 23. Alternate interior angles are both “inside” the parallel lines. Same-side interior angles are supplementary. 28. ∠KOL. never 15. 8. and 16 20. 9. they may not form a line. straight 24. 7. ∠B. obtuse 25. 26. always 10. 14. ON and OM 8. No. 4. Corresponding angles are a pair of angles with one angle “inside” the parallel lines and one “outside” the parallel lines. never 11. true 6. but they do not have to be perpendicular. false 9. Alternate interior angles are congruent. not two different points. they don’t share the same endpoint.–ANSWER KEY– 4. Same-side interior angles are supplementary. congruent 18. acute 27.

20° 180° 100° 160° 55° 80° 115° 160° 25° 60° 15. 6. 30. 31. 9. 10. 20. 10. 32˚ 45° 12. 5. 9. 24. 25. 125° 1. 8.400 mils 800 mils 3. 7. 46° 22° 10° 65° 87° 102° 50° 120° 25° 179° ∠AOE and ∠COD ∠BOC and ∠COD ∠AOE and ∠COD. 18. 2. 3. 23. 26.200 mils Lesson 5 75° 13. 17. 16. 21. 29. 7. 13. 28. 5. 2. 8. 4.–ANSWER KEY– Lesson 4 1. 27. 11. 4. 22. 100° 14. 6. 11. 12. 3. 19. ∠EOD and ∠AOC true 196 .600 mils 2. 14. 100° 50° 138° 65° 40° 55° 90° 180° 125° 145° 35° 145° 1.

29. 14. 13. 8. 27. isosceles. 12. 15. 26. 19. 23. 4. 20. 10. 9. 6. 9. 8. 16. 25. 13. 11. 5. right. 7. 19. 24.–ANSWER KEY– 15. false false true true true false true true false false true ∠2 and ∠5. 6. 27. equilateral. ∠XAW and ∠YAU 40° Lesson 6 equilateral isosceles scalene scalene scalene isosceles scalene equilateral legs: ෆ Xෆ Y and ෆ Yෆ Z vertex angle: ∠Y base angles: ∠X and ∠Z base: ෆ Xෆ Z 10. 2. 24. acute equiangular and acute right obtuse obtuse acute right false true true false false true true false true base acute. 26. a congruent angle Lesson 7 1. legs: D ෆE ෆ and E ෆF ෆ vertex angle: ∠E base angles: ∠D and ∠F base: D ෆF ෆ 1. 2. 18. 7. ∠3 and ∠5. ∠1 and ∠4 ∠XAW and ∠YAU ∠XAZ and ∠ZAX ∠XAY and ∠WAU. 29. 25. 22. 17. 3. and scalene 30. 21. 17. 4. 16. 23. 20. 14. ∠R ∠J ∠K Pෆ Q ෆ Mෆ K ෆ Jෆ M ෆ ΔFJH ΔHGF ΔFHG ΔGFH Rෆ S ෆ Vෆ S ෆ TR yes no vertical angles 197 . 16. 21. 15. 12. 30. 3. equiangular. 28. 18. obtuse. 28. 22. 5. legs: ෆ Rෆ S and ෆ Sෆ T vertex angle: ∠S base angles: ∠R and ∠T base: ෆ Rෆ T 11.

yes 8. 18. 15. When the ladder is placed 3 feet from the 3 ᎏ feet up the building. 23. 3. 12. 22. 3. yes Aෆ C ෆ Cෆ D ෆ no (should be ΔACB ≅ ΔECD) ∠CDA DB no yes yes SAS ASA ASA SSS SAS Lesson 8 1. 10. 26. 23. The ladder would need to be 15 feet from the base of the wall. 9. 24. 20. 8. the ladder extends a little over 17 feet up the building. 6.. building. 28. 198 . 27. 19. (152 + 202 = 252) 30. 28. 20. 24. 29. (62 + 82 = 102) 14. 2. 2. 18. right triangle EI HK = 45 ft. 7. Lesson 9 1. 4. 4. 7. 5. 22. 16. 13. 6. 21. it reaches about 17ᎏ4 It would be impractical to place the ladder that close or even closer because it would not be stable. 27. 5. 10. You would not go very far up the ladder before you would be falling back down! 29. The ladder would need to be 10 feet tall. 25.–ANSWER KEY– 17. 25. 11. 30. right triangle When the ladder is placed 5 feet from the building. Aෆ B and ෆ Bෆ C ෆ Aෆ C ෆ Pෆ R and ෆ Rෆ Q ෆ Pෆ Q ෆ Hෆ L and ෆ Lෆ M ෆ Hෆ M ෆ Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 25 9 8 4 178 yes Square 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 Number 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Square 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 no yes no yes yes right acute obtuse obtuse obtuse acute obtuse = 40 cm. 26. 19. 17. not a polygon convex polygon concave polygon convex polygon not a polygon convex polygon concave polygon not a polygon not a polygon quadrilateral. 21. 9.

no 14. yes 16. Isosceles trapezoids are a special type of trapezoid. yes 19. true false true false true true false false false false 8 12 65° 115° 65° 14 5 55° 125° 125° 30 15 25° 65° 8 28 58° 64° 90° 58° 116° 32° Parallelograms and trapezoids are both quadrilaterals. 540° 25. 4. 30. concave 24. so use the formula with n = 5. 25. 5. no 23. hexagon. 9. no 13. 11. 24. no 18. 17. no 22. 28. 33. Home plate is a pentagon.–ANSWER KEY– 11. yes 17. quadrilateral. 199 convex polygon is 360°. 20. 18. 23. 3. You can check to see that your answer is correct: 90 + 90 + 90 + 135 + 135 = 540. Rhombuses and rectangles are parallelograms. pentagon. triangle.160 2. 16. S = 180(n – 2) S = 180(5 – 2) S = 180(3) S = 540 3(right angles) + 2(obtuse angles) = 540 3(90) + 2(obtuse angles) = 540 270 + 2(obtuse angles) = 540 Subtract the 3 right angles to see how much of the original 540 is left.520 Exterior ∠ sum 360 360 360 360 27. with squares being both rhombuses and rectangles. 15. 180(1ᎏ 0 – 2) ᎏ 28. Number of sides 6 10 14 16 Interior ∠ sum 720 1. octagon. 26. x = ᎏ = 135° 8 180(1ᎏ 0 – 2) 29.) . 32. 900° 26. yes 12. 7. 31. but a trapezoid can never be a parallelogram or vice versa. heptagon. 10. no 15. 2(obtuse angles) = 540 – 270 = 270 obtuse angle = 135 (divide by 2 because the two angles share the 270 evenly) Therefore.440 2. 22. 12. hexagon. 29. each obtuse angle equals 135°. 13. 19. 27. x = ᎏ 6 = 60° (The sum of the exterior angles of a Lesson 10 1. 2. x = ᎏ = 144° 10 36 0 ᎏ 30. 8. 21. yes 21. 14. 6. convex 20.

26. 5. s = 8 yd. 4. 30. 27. KB:BT 5 1 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 3. 24. 26. 12. 23. 20. 14. 9. 8. 10. 21. 23. 15. 22. h = 5 m h = 6. 21 2. 31. 16 packages 54 books (18 on each shelf) 15 ft. 11. b = 15 cm b = 2 cm. 14. 10. 13. 30. h = 7 in. 20. l = 10 cm s = 7 in. 15. 2. 8. 29. 8. ᎏ 5 = 1 2. 27.25 yd. 6. l = 5 m w = 5 cm. 6. 7. 12. 28.–ANSWER KEY– Lesson 11 10 2 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 1.. 22. 5 1 ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ 15 3 BT ᎏ ᎏ KT yes 7 and 4 no 12 and 15 no 3 and 3 x=4 y = 44 z = 28 a=8 b = 14 x=1 yes no no yes no SAS AA. 28. Lesson 13 1. SAS. 36 3. 21 18 cm 36 ft. 63 ft. 3. 21. 9. 7. BT:KB 5. 24 cm 2 16 m 2 196 in. 68 ft. h = 30cm Lesson 12 1. 80 ft. s = 20 cm s = 10 cm s = 8 cm s = 23 cm 11 cm 36 in. 7. 16. ᎏ 10 = 2 4. 19. 18. 33 30 22 in. b = 15 m. w = 1 m. 6. 17. 80 in. 9. 16. 24 200 . 13. 17. or SSS AA AA none none SAS SSS 4. 36 in. 24. 29.2 21 ft. 26 cm 80 cm 30 ft. 18.2 b = 8 in. 11. 25. 19. 5. 25.

8 in. e = 9 ft. 13. 23. 2. 10.3 1. 11 in. 912 in. b = 8.000 m 3 27 ft. 5.2 A = 169 in. 10. 16. 26.3 mm. 11. 15.3 64 in. 8. 158 m 2 200 cm 2 174 in. 9 in. 24. 30. 19. 14. 1. 432 in. 28. 19. 18. 28. A = 132 m 2 b1 = 5 cm A = 104 in. 25. 14.120 cm 3 576 ft. 9. 5 in. 9 in. 23. 13. 25. 22. h = 5 mm b = 6 cm.3 120 cm 3 150 m 3 36 in.84 cm 2 6e2 = 486.2 w = 7 ft.2 294 m 2 201. 29. 16.2 A = 32 cm2 h = 14 cm h = 8 ft.3 32 m 3 343 cm 3 240 ft. 20. 6. 7. 4. 14 ft.5 mm2. h = 16 m 96 ft.2 220 ft. 5 in. h = 3 cm A = 41. b = 17 in.2 b2 = 9 m h = 48 in. b = 8 cm. 4 in. 3. 17.3 108 m 3 100 ft. 27.2 216 cm 2 24 in. 21. 12. Lesson 14 1. 19. 12. 11. 15. 12. A = 21 cm 2 A = 30 in. 9.2 78 ft.2 A = 35 ft. 17.2 h = 6 in. 30. 6. 18.3 729 cm 3 e = 15 ft. 22. A = 45 in. 3. 13. h = 10 cm b = 7 ft. 11.. 4. 27. 15. 29.3 680 m 3 9 cm 7 in. 17. 12 edges 6 faces 8 vertices 4 vertices 4 vertices 3 edges 22 in.2 201 . A = 24 cm 2. 2. 20. e2 = 81. 8. 18. 16.–ANSWER KEY– 10. 4 in.2 green Lesson 15 1. 14. 26. h = 4 ft. 5. 7. 40 ft. 24. 21.

7.24 cm 2 1. 14. 5.2 523. 28.6) F(0. 19.64 cm 2 747. 29. 21.36 cm 2 A F I G B K x J L C D 13. 27. 11.7 cm 3 339. 26.234. 25. 26.98 m 157 m c = 25.5 ft. 23.32 in.16 cm 3 256.0) D(–6. 24.66 cm 2 452. 22. 12.16 in.3 452. y E H Lesson 16 1. 26. 30. 8. 27.–12.2 678. 4.2 828.43 ft. 30. 2.56 cm2 81. 9. 27.3 4.3 Lesson 17 1.51 ft. 13.84 in. 47.2 200. 22. 22. 31. 16. 18.44 m 2 803.96 m 2 530.3 615.–4) E(–2. 20. 29. 24. 21.48 m 3 340.3 1 cm 3 6m 9 ft. 5. 21.56 m 3 381.–2) G(6.17 in. 29. 15.436.024 ft. 15.3 416 ft. 17.–ANSWER KEY– 20. 23.2 100.3 270 m 3 85 cm 3 128 in. 3.28 ft. 30.271. 21. 18.3 7.12 m 3 339. 16. II I IV III y-axis x-axis I The origin point (0.2 3. III IV x-axis y-axis A(–4. 24. 28. 25.2 12. 19.3 m 3 1. 23.–5) C(4. 14.03 in. 17.12 cm 78. 192 cm 3 180 m 3 400 in.559. 28.96 ft. 69.215.2) B(1. 20. 10.1 ft. 25.12 ft.–1) 202 . 6.3 60 ft.0) rests on both areas and is not in any speciﬁc quadrant.08 in.

H(3. negative 15. slope ST = –2 29. zero. 9. zero. 3. 1 ᎏ 28. –ᎏ2 3 26. 1 21. 4.–ANSWER KEY– 32. 10. 2. zero. 7. 12. positive. zero. linear nonlinear nonlinear linear linear linear linear linear nonlinear linear yes no no 8. negative. positive. slope SA = undeﬁned. ᎏ6 4 3 ᎏ. 34. positive ᎏ 19. –ᎏ 5 ᎏ 2 y x 203 . 3. negative. 36. 0 27. zero 12. ᎏ6 5 20. ᎏ3 4 ᎏ 25. 8. 5. positive. zero. 5. negative. slope AB = undeﬁned. zero. 0 22. 13. negative 11. undeﬁned (no slope) ᎏ 24. 11. undeﬁned. slope AC = 0. undeﬁned 18. 4. undeﬁned (no slope) 14. 35. slope AT = ᎏ2 30. positive 13. 7. positive 10. undeﬁned. slope BC = –1 x Lesson 19 1. 2. 1 ᎏᎏ 3 2 ᎏ –ᎏ 1 = –2 4 ᎏ –ᎏ 1 = –4 3 ᎏᎏ 2 2 1 ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ 8 4 2 ᎏᎏ –5 –ᎏ 2 ᎏ 5 y 9. undeﬁned 16. 33. zero 17.4) 4 10 5 13 Lesson 18 1. 6. –2 23. negative. 6.

–1) 26. 17.–9) 29.2) (0.6) 28. 23. 25.0) (–2. 21.–ANSWER KEY– 14.–5) (–1. y 2 x –2 –2 2 (1.–1) (0.5.7) (0. y 2 x x –2 2 2 2 –2 –2 –9 (2. yes yes no yes yes no no yes yes no yes y 27. 20.–2) (0. 6 y 2 x –2 –2 2 –2 –2 2 x (2. 16.6) (–2. 15. 19.6.5) 204 . 24.3) (–2. 22.4) (–1. y (1.5) (0. 18.2) (2.

33 3 7 ᎏᎏ = 0.–11) 0.960 25 7 ᎏᎏ ≈ 0.429 7 5 5. 22. 12.9) (0. 4.306 29° 42° 21° 38° 298° 17° 45° 37° 23° 30° 13. 25. 2. 9. 27. 32. 11.6 5 4 ᎏ ᎏ ≈ 1. 6.940 0. 29. 28.6 5 4 ᎏ ᎏ = 0.960 25 7 ᎏ 2ᎏ 5 = 0.8 5 3 ᎏ ᎏ = 0.–ANSWER KEY– 30.891 0. 24. 21. 13.2 3.530 0. x 3 ᎏ ᎏ = 0. 17.292 24 24 ᎏᎏ = 0. 14.280 25 24 ᎏᎏ = 0. 10. 30.–1) (–2.727 0.75 4 4 ᎏ ᎏ = 0. 31. 16.1 7. y Lesson 20 1. 26.280 24 ᎏᎏ ≈ 3. 3. 20. 8. 15. –2 2 –5 (2. 18. 7. 19.8 5 3 ᎏ ᎏ = 0.4 205 . 23.309 0.2 8.

33. 46. 48. 50. d Lesson 13 13. 26. c Lesson 14 14. 47. d Lesson 10 10. 32. 25. 31. b Lesson 5 5. b Lesson 17 17. c Lesson 9 9. b Lesson 6 6. d Lesson 19 19. 44. 37. 30. 40. 27. c Lesson 12 12. c d b c a b d c a d b b d c c b b c d c b b c a a a b Lesson 4 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 14 Lesson 13 Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 15 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 20 Lesson 18 206 . 28. 35. c Lesson 20 20. b Lesson 8 8. you can ﬁnd help in the lesson shown to the right of the answer. 38. 45. b Lesson 7 7. a Lesson 15 15. a Lesson 2 3. a Lesson 11 11. 39. b Lesson 2 24. 43. d Lesson 16 16. 42. 49. 1. c Lesson 2 23.–ANSWER KEY– Posttest If you miss any of the answers. c Lesson 18 18. d Lesson 1 21. 29. 41. a Lesson 4 4. 36. 34. d Lesson 3 22. c Lesson 1 2.

the third side is called the base of the isosceles triangle. Every point in the coordinate plane can be named by a pair of numbers. Circle: All points in a plane that are the same distance from some point called the center. Angle: A ﬁgure formed by two rays or two segments with a common endpoint.GLOSSARY Acute angle: An angle that measures between 0° and 90°. Coplanar points: Points that lie on a plane. Coordinate plane: A plane that contains a horizontal number line (the x-axis) and a vertical number line (the y-axis). Collinear points: Points that lie on a line. Corresponding parts: Any pair of sides or angles in congruent or similar polygons having the same relative position. Base of an isosceles triangle: In an isosceles triangle with two congruent sides. Diagonal of a polygon: A segment that joins two nonconsecutive vertices of the polygon. Complementary angles: Two angles whose measures total 90°. Acute triangle: A triangle with three acute angles. Area is expressed in square units. Base of a cone: Its circular face. Area: The amount of surface in a region. Coordinates (x. Circumference: The distance around a circle. Congruent (≅): Being the same or equal to. Cube: A rectangular prism in which all faces are congruent squares. 207 . Cosine (cos): The ratio of the length of the leg adjacent to an acute angle of a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse. Base of a trapezoid: Either of the parallel sides. Diameter of a circle: A segment that joins two points on the circle and passes through the center.y): An ordered pair of numbers used to name (locate) a point in a plane. Base angles of an isosceles triangle: The two angles that have the base as part of one side.

The endpoint is named ﬁrst. Polyhedron: A three-dimensional ﬁgure in which each surface is a polygon. Right angle: An angle that measures 90°. Ray (→): Part of a line with one endpoint. A square is a special type of rhombus.14. rhombuses. Protractor: An instrument used to measure angles. If b ≠ ᎏ 0. Face: A part of a plane forming a side of a three-dimensional ﬁgure. segments. or a to b. or rays that intersect to form right angles. Quadrilateral: A polygon with four sides. Pi (π): The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. Means: The second and third terms of a proportion. Obtuse triangle: A triangle with one obtuse angle. Extremes: The ﬁrst and fourth terms of a proportion. and squares are special types of parallelograms. Quadrant: One of the four regions. Postulate: A statement that is accepted without proof. Isosceles triangle: A triangle with two congruent sides. Point: An undeﬁned term for a ﬁgure that indicates a deﬁnite location. 208 . the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs. two-dimensional figure formed only by line segments that meet at points called vertices. into which the coordinate axes divide a coordinate plane. Parallelogram (ٕ): A quadrilateral with two pairs of opposite sides parallel.–GLOSSARY– Edge: A segment formed by the intersection of two faces of a three-dimensional ﬁgure. Line (↔): A line is an undeﬁned term for a set of points that extend indeﬁnitely in two directions. Rectangle: A parallelogram with four right angles. Parallel lines ( ͰͰ ): Coplanar lines that do not intersect. closed. Graph of an equation: The geometric ﬁgure that contains all the points whose coordinates make the equation a true statement. Perpendicular (⊥): Lines. Equilateral triangle: A triangle with all sides equal. Rhombus: A parallelogram with four congruent sides. Linear equation: An equation whose graph is a line. Measure of an angle: The number of degrees of an angle. Polygon: A simple. Hexagon: A polygon with six sides. Perimeter: The distance around a two-dimensional ﬁgure. Proportion: A statement that two ratios are equal. Pythagorean theorem: For any right triangle. the ratio of a to b is denoted by ᎏa b . Octagon: A polygon with eight sides. Radius of a sphere: A segment joining the center of the sphere to any point on the sphere. a:b. Legs of a right triangle: Sides that determine the right angle. Shown by the notation m∠ABC. Rise: The vertical distance from a given point to a second given point. Hypotenuse: The side opposite the right angle of a right triangle. Intersecting lines: Lines that meet in one point. A square is a special type of rectangle. Regular polygon: A polygon in which all sides are congruent and all angles are congruent. Noncoplanar points: A set of points through which a plane cannot be drawn. Pentagon: A polygon with ﬁve sides. Radius of a circle: A segment joining the center of the circle to any point on the circle. labeled I–IV. Right triangle: A triangle that contains one right angle. Rectangles. The most commonly used approxima22 ᎏ tions for π are ᎏ 7 and 3. Plane: An undeﬁned term for a ﬂat surface that extends indeﬁnitely in all directions. Ratio: A comparison of two numbers by division. Obtuse angle: An angle that measures between 90° and 180°. It extends indeﬁnitely in one direction. Equiangular triangle: A triangle with all angles equal. Noncollinear points: A set of points through which a line cannot be drawn. A ray is named by its endpoint and any other point on the ray. Opposite rays: Two rays that have a common endpoint and form a line.

Also. The square root of 25 is 5 because 5 × 5 = 25.y2). Sine (sin): The ratio of the length of the leg opposite an acute angle of a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse. Supplementary angles: Two angles that together measure 180°. Volume is expressed in cubic units. Vertex: The intersection of two sides of a polygon. Theorem: A statement that can be proved. Volume: The amount of space in a solid. A segment is named by its endpoints. Vertical angles: Two angles with sides forming two pairs of opposite rays. Vertical angles are congruent. Trigonometry: Mathematical principles based on the properties of similar right triangles. Skew lines: Two lines that are not coplanar and do not intersect. This point is called the center. Sphere: A ﬁgure in space whose points are the same distance from a particular point. Triangle: A polygon with three sides. Trapezoid: A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of opposite sides parallel. Segment: Part of a line with two endpoints. y –y Square root (͙ෆෆෆ): The positive number which when multiplied by itself gives the original number as a product.–GLOSSARY– Run: The horizontal distance from a given point to a second given point. Scalene triangle: A triangle with no sides equal. Square: A parallelogram with four right angles and four congruent sides. 209 . then the slope of 2 1 ᎏ the line is ᎏ x 2 – x1 . It is also the ratio of rise to run.x 2) and (y1. provided x 1 ≠ x 2. if a line contains points (x1. Square of a number (n 2): A number multiplied by itself. Tangent (tan): The ratio of the length of the leg opposite an acute angle of a right triangle to the adjacent leg. Sides of an angle: The rays that meet to form an angle. A square can also be deﬁned as a parallelogram that is both a rectangle and a rhombus. Transversal: A line that intersects two or more coplanar lines at different points. Slope of a line: The measure of the steepness of a line. Straight angle: An angle that measures 180°.

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A A P P E N D I X POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Postulates Lesson 1 ■ ■ Two points determine exactly one line. then mЄAOB + mЄBOC = mЄAOC. (see page 41 for diagram) If ЄAOC is a straight line. then corresponding angles are congruent. Lesson 4 ■ ■ If point B is in the interior of ЄAOC. then the two triangles are congruent (SSS postulate). (see page 41 for diagram) Lesson 7 ■ If three sides of one triangle are congruent with three sides of another triangle. then mЄAOB + mЄBOC = 180°. Three noncollinear points determine exactly one plane. Lesson 3 ■ If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. 211 .

then alternate interior angles are congruent. If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to corresponding parts of another triangle. If the square of the length of the longest side is greater than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two shorter sides. (see page 74 for diagram) If the square of the length of the longest side is less than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two other sides. the triangles are congruent (ASA postulate). then the triangles are congruent (SAS postulate). The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular. Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent. Diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. Lesson 13 Lesson 5 ■ ■ Vertical angles are congruent. If the lengths of the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional. then the triangle is a right triangle. then the triangle is acute (c2 > a2 + b2). then the triangles are similar (SAS postulate). 212 . triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two shorter sides. If a convex polygon has n sides. Lesson 10 ■ ■ Theorems Lesson 3 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. The sum of exterior angles of a convex polygon is always 360°. If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal.–POSTULATES AND THEOREMS– ■ ■ If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle. then the triangles are similar (SSS postulate). Converse of the Pythagorean theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side of a ■ ■ The area (A) of a rectangle is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h): A = bh. then same-side interior angles are supplementary. then the triangle is obtuse (c2 > a2 + b2). The area (A) of any triangle is half the product of ᎏ its base length (b) and its height (h): A = ᎏ1 2 bh. the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse (a2 + b2 = c2). then its angle sum is given by the formula S = 180(n – 2). (see page 74 for diagram) Lesson 9 ■ ■ ■ The sum of interior angles of a triangle is 180°. Consecutive angles of a parallelogram are supplementary. ■ Lesson 8 ■ ■ Pythagorean theorem: In a right triangle. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent. The area of a trapezoid is half the product of the height and the sum of the base lengths (b1 + b2): ᎏ A = ᎏ1 2 bh(b1 + b2). The area of a parallelogram (A) is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h): A = bh. and they bisect the angles of the rhombus. If the lengths of two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the corresponding included angles are congruent. ■ ■ Lesson 11 ■ ■ ■ If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. then the triangles are similar (AA postulate).

= 6e2. The surface area of a cube is six times the edge (e) squared: S. = 2(lw + wh + lh).A.y2) is d = ͙( 213 .A.y1) ෆ x2 – x1ෆ )2 + (y2 ෆ – y1)2 . multiply the length (l) by the width (w) and by the height (h): V = lwh. ■ ■ The circumference of any circle is the product of its diameter and π: C = πd or C = 2πr. The volume (V) of a cylinder is the product of the area of the base (B) and the height (h): V = Bh or V = πr2h.–POSTULATES AND THEOREMS– Lesson 14 ■ Lesson 16 ■ ■ The surface area (S. and the length (l) times the height (h): S. the width (w) times the height (h). To ﬁnd the volume (V) of any prism. Lesson 17 ■ The distance d between any two points A(x1.A. The surface area (S. The volume (V) of a sphere is determined by the 4 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 3 product of ᎏ4 3 π times the radius cubed: V = 3 πr . ■ ■ Lesson 15 ■ ■ ■ ■ To ﬁnd the volume (V) of a rectangular prism.A. The surface area (S. The area (A) of a circle is the product of and the square of the radius (r): A = πr2.) formula for a sphere is four times π times the radius squared: S. and B(x2. The volume of a cube is determined by cubing the length of the edge: V = e3.A.) of a rectangular prism is twice the sum of the length (l) times the width (w).A. multiply the area of the base (B) by the height (h): V = Bh. = 2πr2 + 2πrh.) of a cylinder is determined by ﬁnding the sum of the area of the bases and the product of the circumference times the height: S. = 4πr2.A.

.

A high school math teacher might assist you if you asked for help with a lesson. or suggest a tutor for you. You may also be able to borrow a textbook from your local high school. Colleges are also a valuable resource. 215 . your local bookstore or library has books that can help you. If you would like to continue working geometry problems on your own. provide you with practice sets of problems on a lesson that proved difﬁcult for you. Your local high school is a valuable resource.B A P P E N D I X ADDITIONAL RESOURCES M any resources are available to help you if you need additional practice with geometry. You could also check the classiﬁed ads in your local newspaper or the yellow pages to search for a tutor. To ﬁnd out what is available in your community. Check your local bookstore or library for availability. They often have learning centers or tutor programs available. call your local college’s math department or learning center.

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