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A Cross-cultural Theory Of Urban Social Movements
Professor of city and Regional Planning University of California
THE THEORY OF A GOOD CITY AND A GOOD THEORY OF A CITY
The City And The Grassroots is a major study of the people and urbanization, and of the relationship between citizen and cities. The ties between the two are most evident when people mobilize to change their city. Three core themes of modern urban social movements: 1. Collective consumption, 2. Defense of cultural-territorial identity 3. Local government as a target for political mobilization.
Part 1 A historical overview, an investigation of how people have combined to influence and
change cities. The selection of cases follows a clear sequence of social evolution, beginning with transaction from feudalism to an absolutist state, through to the new urban problems of the post industrial society. Part 2 Castells then turns to contemporary urban protest movement with an analysis of urban demands in the Grand Ensembles of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s. Part 3 He questions the relationship between culture and space on the basis of the experience in San Francisco. Part 4 He then examines the effects of subordination of urban movements to the political systems by summarizing the existing evidence of squatter communities in Latin America. Part 5 He finally studies the link between consumption, culture, and politics by focusing on the citizens movement of Madrid in 1970s. Part 6 A Cross-cultural Theory Of Urban Social change.
ALTHOUGH OWNING 1/5 OF THE LAND IN FRANCE – COULD NOT BE TRIED IN CIVIL LAW COURTS SECOND ESTATE: NOBILITY – 110. ALTHOUGH OWNED 1/5 OF THE LAND THIRD ESTATE: BOURGEOISIE. DEATHS. PROFESSIONALS. – EXEMPTIONS PAID NO TAXES. PEASANTS – 24.000 MEMBERS – PRIVILEGES: NONE – EXEMPTIONS: NONE (THE BURDEN OF TAXATION FELL UPON THIS CLASS) .CLASS STRUCTURE OF FRANCE FIRST ESTATE: CLERGY – 130.000 MEMBERS – PRIVILEGES • COLLECTED CHURCH TAX (TITHE) • SUPERVISED EDUCATION • REGISTERED BIRTHS.000 MEMBERS – PRIVILEGES • COLLECTED TAXES (FEUDAL DUES) • MONOPOLIZED APPOINTMENTS IN STATE AND MILITARY SERVICE – EXEMPTIONS PAID NO TAXES. MARRIAGES.750. WORKERS.
and public buildings were constructed • Over 4. 000 trees were planted. . • He also introduced introduced gas lights for Paris streets making streets safer and ‘night life’ possible.HAUSSMAN • Prefect of the Seine department (1853 – 70) • During his administration 71 miles of new roads. • Haussmann spent a total of 2. 115. and housing. 100.5 billion in today's currency. and 320 miles of sewers were added to Paris. 400 miles of pavement. 000.000 acres of parks were created. bridges. the equivalent of $1. 000 francs.
PARIS PRE.HAUSSMANN PARIS POST.HAUSSMANN .
to create expansive parks and green spaces. Haussmann took advantage of what was to be the most authoritarian period in Napoleon III's rule transforming the heart of Paris by clearing a gigantic crossing in its centre. . Cleaning up living areas implied not only a better air circulation but also better provision of water and better evacuation of waste. Haussmann's future successor. Parisians were surprised by its width of 13 meters .Napoléon III hired engineer Jean-Charles Alphand. THE NORTH-SOUTH AND EAST-WEST OPENINGS Between 1854 and 1858.HAUSSMAN’S PLAN A NETWORK OF LARGE AVENUES When Rambuteau cleared the way for the first time in the city's history for a large avenue in the centre of Paris. He widened the Grands Boulevards and designed and built new axes of great size such as the Boulevard Richard-Lenoir. But Haussmann made the Rue Rambuteau a moderate-sized street after creating new avenues up to 30 meters wide. THE SQUARES AT THE CROSSROADS The connection between the great boulevards required the creation of squares on the same scale The works of Haussmann converted other great squares at crossing points across the whole city THE RAILWAY STATIONS MONUMENTS MODERN PUBLIC FACILITIES The renovation of Paris was meant to be total. GREEN SPACES Green spaces in Paris were rare. THE RINGS OF BOULEVARDS ARE COMPLETED Haussmann carried on the work of Louis XIV.
OLD PARIS STREETS .
OLD PARIS HOUSING .
bearing walls • Second "noble" floor having one or two balconies. third and fourth floor in the same style but a less elaborate stonework around the windows • Fifth floor with a unique continuous undecorated balcony • Eaves angled at 45º .NEW HOUSING • The regulations and constraints imposed by the authorities favoured a typology that brings the classical evolution of the Parisian building to its term in the facade typical of the Haussmann era: • Ground floor and 'between floors' with thick. usually street-lateral.
which would have discouraged potential customers from frequenting the shops which line the street on either side. Haussmann destroyed streets like this one. and better ventilated streets which would encourage upper bourgeois strolling. and dirty. as well as to survey the city and mark areas to be renovated. which has made the street impassible. in favor of wider. In the background. . 1870. Napoleon III fired Haussmann on January 5.HAUSSMANN THE HERO The images was taken for Haussmann's City Council Permanent Subcommittee on Historic Works. Haussmann was also criticized for the immense cost of his project. Many Parisians were troubled by the destruction of old roots. one can see more refuse. It is narrow. HAUSSMANN THE DESTROYER Because of Haussmannization. in order to increase the approval ratings of the regime. The purpose of this committee was to record Old Paris for the city archives. damp. The street in the photograph is the Rue Estienne. the 1860's was a time of intense upheaval in Paris. There are no sidewalks.
The districts started inward. and spiraled outwards.THE DECISION TO DIVIDE PARIS INTO THESE NEW DISTRICTS 1853 • The plan “implied the destruction of the old. but in 1860. on the banks of the Seine. heterogeneous quarters in the city center and the creation of large new quarters implicitly dividing the population by economic status” • The original plan called for twelve districts. . Paris annexed surrounding communities and was divided into twenty districts.
OUTCOMES OF RENOVATION OF PARIS • • • • THE WIDENING OF STREETS: A WEAPON FOR AN AUTHORITARIAN REGIME THE RUPTURE OF A SOCIAL BALANCE FINANCIAL CRISIS HOUSING CRISIS .
1871 • The commune of Paris is generally considered to be the first major political insurrection in the modern time period. It demonstrated the possibility of mobilization of politically orientated working class.Cities and revolution: the Commune of Paris. • Commune. . in this perspective could be considered as the point of contact between the urban contradictions prevalent in the society and the emerging labour movement .
lawyers. in combat with the army.THE Social Profile of COMMUNARDS • In almost every case the communard was a salaried person. doctors. and journalist) represents a clear minority among the insurgents. was that of the Construction Workers. it clearly holds a majority among the elected officials of the Commune as well as the National Guard. • While Petty Bourgeoisie ( clerks. teachers. accountants. Occupational activity Metallurgy Construction Labourers Textile /Garment/Shoe Industry Artisans and printers Population of Paris (%) 8 10 20 8 10 People Insurged (%) 12 17 14 9 10 People Deported (%) 12 18 15 9 9 .and the most over represented in relationship to the active Parisian population as a whole. • Women played an important role in the mobilization of the people. in neighborhood meetings and in street demonstration. • Among the insurgents the most important .
it was essential to crush its police. Priests The controller of everyday life. the accountants of the old morality. Police To supersede a centralized state. The ugly merchants .THE Adversary of COMMUNE Urban landlords and their janitors The unpaid rents of the Commune period were brutally punished with tenants denounced as ‘communards’ and exposed to imprisonment or possible execution.
In this way they could articulate grass root democracy and representative democracy to reorganize the nation. A Municipal Revolution Commune aimed at radically transforming the political institutions that represented the local society.A REVOLUTION AT THREE LEVELS A movement in opposition to the entire rural society The mobilization was defined as Parisian. The Landlords took advantage of such a situation by packing people together in tiny apartments and charging very high rents. Such neighbourhoods became the birthplaces of the Commune. It was a revolt of a local society whose economic and social development required a larger autonomy in relationship to the existing political order. . It was revolt to uplift the urban society A reaction to curb the speculation associated with the housing crisis Provincial immigration into Paris compounded by massive displacement of Parisian due Haussmann’s gigantic restructuring of Paris resulted in a housing crisis within the city. both in their internal organization and in their relationship to the central state. They advocated the permanent participation of citizens in the municipal government by means of decentralization of power towards ward committees. an urban movement.
ITS EFFECTS…. . It could regain its autonomy in 1977. The Politics And Ideology Of Twentieth Century The Commune left a very important trace on the world.. Lack of autonomy in Parisian municipal institutes ensured that they were clueless against the real estate speculation and functional arrangements required to fulfill the needs of industrial and financial capital. The City The defeat of the commune had a lasting effect on the city of Paris. Paris enjoys the most permanent housing crisis of all Western capitals. Parisians lost all political autonomy as government tightened its control on the city. As a result. It inspired Marxist-Leninist theory of the state and that of federalism-an unlikely combination.
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