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Introduction

Systems are sets of components, physical or otherwise, which are connected in such a manner as to form and act as entire units. Control is the effort to make systems act as desired. A process is the action of a system or alternatively, a system in action. Humans have created control systems as technical innovations to enhance the quality and comfort of their lives. Human engineered control systems are part of automation, which is a feature of our modern life. They are applied in several aspects of our daily life- in heating and air conditioning to control our living environment and in many of our household appliances. They significantly relieve us from the burden of operation of complex systems and processes and enable us to achieve control with desired precision. Control systems enable accurate positioning and control of machine tools in metal cutting operations and automate manufacturing processes. They automatically guide and control space vehicles, aircraft, large sea going vessels, and highspeed ground transportation systems. Modern automation of a plant involves components such as sensors, instruments, computers and application of techniques of data processing and control. The principles and techniques of automatic control may be applied in a wide variety of systems in order to enhance the quality of their performance. Control systems are not human inventions; they have naturally evolved in the earth’s living system. The action of automatic control regulates the conditions necessary for life in almost all living things. They possess sensing and controlling systems and counter disturbances. An automatic temperature control system, for example, makes it possible to maintain the temperature of the human body constant at the right value despite varying ambient conditions. The human body is a very sophisticated biochemical processing plant in which the consumed food is processed and glands automatically release the required quantities of chemical substances as and when necessary in the process. The stability of the human body and its ability to move as desired are due to some very effective motion control systems. A bird in flight, a fish swimming in water or an animal on the run- all are under the influence of some very efficient control systems that have evolved in them. The field of automatic control is very well developed. The established techniques in this field can be applied to the control of a wide range of systems - engineering systems such as machines and complex plants, natural systems

such as biological and ecological systems, and non-physical systems such as economic and sociological systems following the understanding of the similarity of the underlying problems. Understanding a system for its properties is prerequisite to the creation of a control system for it. Before attempting to control a system, it is essential to know how it generally behaves and responds to external stimuli. Such an understanding is possible with the help of a model. The process of developing a model is known as modeling.

Physical systems are modeled by applying the phenomenological laws that govern their behavior. For example, mechanical systems are described by Newton’s laws and electrical systems by Ohm’s, Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws. These laws form the basis for the constitutive properties of the elements in a system. Consider an automobile's cruise control, which is a device designed to maintain a constant vehicle speed; the desired or reference speed, provided by the driver. The system in this case is the vehicle. The system output is the vehicle speed, and the control variable is the engine's throttle position which influences engine torque output. OPEN LOOP & CLOSED LOOP: A primitive way to implement cruise control is simply to lock the throttle position when the driver engages cruise control. However, on mountain terrain, the vehicle will slow down going uphill and accelerate going downhill. In fact, any parameter different than what was assumed at design time will translate into a proportional error in the output velocity, including exact mass of the vehicle, wind resistance, and tire pressure. This type of controller is called an open-loop controller because there is no direct connection between the output of the system (the vehicle's speed) and the actual conditions encountered; that is to say, the system does not and can not compensate for unexpected forces. In a closed-loop control system, a sensor monitors the output (the vehicle's speed) and feeds the data to a computer which continuously adjusts the control input (the throttle) as necessary to keep the control error to a minimum (that is, to maintain the desired speed). Feedback on how the system is actually performing allows the controller (vehicle's on board computer) to dynamically compensate for disturbances to the system, such as changes in slope of the ground or wind speed. An ideal feedback control system cancels

out all errors. BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION TECHNIQUE Rule:1 Rule: 2 (Associative and Commutative Properties) Rule: 3 (Distributive Property) Rule: 4 (Blocks in Parallel) . effectively mitigating the effects of any forces that may or may not arise during operation and producing a response in the system that perfectly matches the user's wishes.

Rule: 5 (Positive Feedback Loop) Rule: 6 (Negative Feedback loop) .

Equivalent: 1 .

Nodes represent variables. and are joined by branches that have assigned directions (indicated by arrows) and gains.Equivalent: 2 Examples of Block Diagram Reduction SIGNAL-FLOW GRAPH A signal-flow graph (SFG) is a special type of block diagram[1]—and directed graph—constrained by rigid mathematical rules. that is a graphical means of showing the relations among the variables of a set of linear algebraic relations. . A signal can transmit only in the direction of the arrow.

The initial state of zero is assumed by default. how accurately the system performs is important. Certainly. a standard measure of performance is widely used. Plot time domain initial response of a system represented in state space. The step or impulse response plots the system response with respect to time when the system input is a step or impulse function. STEADY STATE ERROR Control systems are used to control some physical variable. respectively. Whatever the variable. The simulation response plots the system response to any input and initial state specified by the user. If it is desired to have the variable under control take on a particular value. the attitude of an aircraft or a frequency in a communication system. If you are designing a control system. Plot impulse response of a system in time domain. The initial response plots the system response to the initial state x0 with zero-input. That variable may be a temperature somewhere. Function Step response Impulse response Initial response Simulation response Description Plot step response of a system in time domain.UNIT-2 TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS TIME-DOMAIN RESPONSE ANALYSIS The time-domain approach is a unified method for analyzing and designing systems modeled by either modern or classical approach. Time-domain response analysis functions below can be used to study the output behavior of a linear time-invariant system driven by system inputs and initial states. it is important to control the variable accurately. you will want to measure how accurately you can control the variable. you will want the variable to get as close to the desired value as possible. To be able to measure and predict accuracy in a control system. That measure of . Beyond that you will want to be able to predict how accurately you can control the variable. Simulate system response to an arbitrary input.

Next. we'll look at a closed loop system and determine precisely what is meant by SSE. the test input is a step function of time. .and the output . Goals For This Lesson Given our statements above. particularly step input signals.and steady state error is a concept that assumes the following: The system under test is stimulated with some standard input. it should be clear what you are about in this lesson. The system comes to a steady state. The system to be controlled has a transfer function G(s).performance is steady state error . In this lesson. Be able to compute the SSE for standard inputs. In this lesson.the actual response is referred to as the error. Given a linear feedback control system. There is a controller with a transfer function Kp(s) . we will examine steady state error .in closed loop control systems. Be able to specify the SSE in a system with integral control. we will examine steady state error .SSE . What Is SSE? We need a precise definition of SSE if we are going to be able to predict a value for SSE in a closed loop control system. but it can also be a ramp or other polynomial kinds of inputs.SSE . Be able to compute the gain that will produce a prescribed level of SSE in the system.which may be a constant gain.SSE . The difference between the input . The closed loop system we will examine is shown below. The closed loop system we will examine is shown below. There is a sensor with a transfer function Ks.in closed loop control systems. Typically.the desired response . Here are your goals. and the difference between the input and the output is measured.

The signal. then we want the output to settle out to that value. The difference between the measured constant output and the input constitutes a steady state error. E(s).takes place inside a computer. is referred to as the error signal. If the system is well behaved. The output is measured with a sensor. The error signal is a measure of how well the system is performing at any instant. It helps to get a feel for how things go. In other words. That system is the same block diagram we considered above. is called a proportional controller. The system to be controlled has a transfer function G(s). E(s) . There is a controller with a transfer function Kp(s). steady state value. The error signal is the difference between the desired input and the measured input. and the processing . A step input is really a request for the output to change to a new. where the control effort to the plant is proportional to the error. the measured output does not match the desired output very well. constant value.to generate the error. A step input is often used as a test input for several reasons. When the error signal is large. . or SSE. So. There is a sensor with a transfer function Ks. the input is what we want the output to be. If the input is a step. o A controller like this. Often the gain of the sensor is one. That is especially true in computer controlled systems where the output value . In our system.is converted into a digital representation.an analog signal . the output will settle out to a constant. below we'll examine a system that has a step input and a steady state error. we note the following: The input is often the desired output.

In this simulation. Here is a simulation you can run to check how this works. the system being controlled (the plant) and the sensor have the parameters shwon above. You can adjust the gain up or down by 5% using the "arrow" buttons at bottom right. then click the red button to see the response for the gain you enter. The magnitude axis of the Bode plot is usually expressed as decibels of power. With the magnitude gain being logarithmic. The input is always 1. You can also enter your own gain in the text box. It is usually a combination of a Bode magnitude plot (usually expressed as dB of gain) and a Bode phase plot (the phase is the imaginary part of the complex logarithm of the complex transfer function). plotted with a log-frequency axis. the controlled system . to show the system's frequency response. Gdc = 1 t=1 Ks = 1. time-invariant system versus frequency. The actual open loop gain is shown in the text box above the red button. Bode plots make . UNIT – 3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS BODE PLOT A Bode plot is a graph of the logarithm of the transfer function of a linear. that is by the 20 log rule: 20 times the common logarithm of the amplitude gain. Kp can be set to various values in the range of 0 to 10.often referred to as the plant is a first order system with a transfer function: G(s) = Gdc/(st + 1) We will consider a system with the following parameters.For the example system.

Phase can also be added directly from the graphical values.multiplication of magnitudes a simple matter of adding distances on the graph (in decibels). a fact that is mathematically clear when phase is seen as the imaginary part of the complex logarithm of a complex gain. For minimum-phase systems the phase and amplitude characteristics can be obtained from each other with the use of the Hilbert transform. since A Bode phase plot is a graph of phase versus frequency. the magnitude of this function is while the phase is: Care must be taken that the inverse tangent is set up to return degrees. then the Bode plot can be approximated with straight lines. If the transfer function is a rational function with real poles and zeros. decibels are used. f1 = 100 Hz in the figure. For example a signal described by: Asin(ωt) may be attenuated but also phase-shifted. The magnitude and phase Bode plots can seldom be changed independently of each other — changing the amplitude response of the system will most likely change the phase characteristics and vice versa. In Figure 1(a). and f1 is the pole position in Hz. also plotted on a logfrequency axis. the Bode plots are shown for the one-pole lowpass filter function: Also shown in Figure 1(a) and 1(b) are the straight-line approximations to the Bode plots that are used in hand analysis. and the plotted magnitude is: In Figure 1(b). If the system attenuates it by a factor x and phase shifts it by −Φ the signal out of the system will be (A/x) sin(ωt − Φ). and described later. to evaluate how much a signal will be phase-shifted. Using the rules for complex numbers. The phase shift Φ is generally a function of frequency. On the Bode magnitude plot. the Bode plots are shown for the one-pole highpass filter function: where f is the frequency in Hz. usually used in conjunction with the magnitude plot. not radians. These asymptotic .

POLAR PLOT The polar plot is created using the Radar chart. inverse polar plot and the nichols plot. Simple plots can even be predicted without drawing them. The approximation can be taken further by correcting the value at each cutoff frequency. and the adjustments required and provides stability information for systems containing time delays. The nyquist open loop polar plot indicates the degree of stability.without powerful computing facilities. they can be difficult to generate at a detailed level and they do not directly yield frequency values. to + ) It is very easy to produce nyquist plots by hand or by using proprietary software . Polar plots are not used exclusively because. The plot is then called a corrected Bode plot.approximations are called straight line Bode plots or uncorrected Bode plots and are useful because they can be drawn by hand following a few simple rules. The Nyquist plot is obtained by simply plotting a locus of imaginary(G(j ω)) versus Real(G(j ω)) at the full range of frequencies from ( . NYQUIST PLOT Polar graphs There are a number of polar graph options for studying control systems including the nyquist.

The nyquist plot fundamentals are shown below. Velocity Feedback control Basic Rules for constructing Nyquist plots In control systems a transfer function to be assessed is often of the form This transfer function is modified for frequency response analysis by replacing the s with jω . The plots below have been produced in minutes using Mathcad.packages such as Matlab... Links below show how bode and nyquist plots can be produced using Excel and using Mathcad...

In a system with no OL zeros. 1.he Nyquist plot will have the following characteristics. the Nyquist plot approaches the origin at an asymptotic angle of -(n-m) /2. This will also be true for large enough ω even in the presence of zeros. The plot will cross the imaginary axis when Real G(jω) =0 and will cross the real axis when Imaginary G(jω) = 0.m > 1. The values are generally identified by use of Bode plots The phase margin is clearly illustrated below . the plot of G(jω) will decrease monotonically as ω rises above the level of the largest imaginary part of the poles. ( for crossing of the negative real axis use Arg.. The degree of gain margin is indicated as the amount the gain is less than unity when the plot crosses the 180 o axis (Phase crossover).G(jω)= ) Relative stability assessments Using the Nyquist Plot As identified in the page on frequency response Frequency response The nyquist plots are based on using open loop performance to test for closed loop stability.Assuming the function is proper and n > m. 2. Assuming G(s) = K(s)/s k. The phase margin is the angle the phase is less than 180 o when the gain is unity..(Ref plot 1 below). Crude plots to be may be produced relatively easily using these characteristics. 4. Asymptotic behavior. For k poles at zero.. Two relative stability indicators "Gain Margin" and "Phase Margin" may be determined from the suitable Nyquist Plots. the Nyquist plot comes in from infinity at an angle of -(n-m) /2 3.. For n . The system will be unstable if the locus has unity value at a phase o crossover of 180 ( ).

or the zeros of the denominatior ( 1 + GH(s)) of the closed loop tranfer function. must lie in the (LHP).. N = -Po ≤ 0 .NyquistStabilityCriterion: In the nyquist plots below the area covered to the right of the locus(shaded) is the Right Hand Plane (RHP) A closed loop control system is absolutely stable if the roots of the characteristic equation have negative real parts. The closed loop control system whose open loop transfer function is GH(s) is stable only if. The nyquist stability criterion establishes the number of zeros of (1 + GH(s) in the RHP directly from the Nyquist stability plot of GH(s) as indicated below. This means the poles of the closed loop transfer function.

0) point does not lie in the shaded region.0) point is enclosed in the RHP and therefore N > 0 (N= 1). There are Z o = N + P o zeros of 1+GH in the RHP. The poles are at s =0. The (-1. Considering the RH plot above of 1/s(s-1). Nyquist Plots A number of typical nyquist plots are shown below to illustrate the various shapes... Considering the LH plot above of 1/s(s+1). That is if and only if the (-1..0) point is not enclosed by the nyquist plot. and s=-1. 1 /(s + 2) 1 /(s + 2) . o N .. both outside of the RHP and therefore P = 0.0) point is not in the RHP therefore N<= 0.0) in the G(s) plane.P o Indicating that this system is unstable. S= +1 is in the RHP and therefore P = 1. The poles of GH are at s= 0 and s = +1 . Plot 1. If N > 0 the number of zeros (Z o) in the RHP is determined by Z o = N + P o If N ≤ 0 the (-1.where 1) P o = the number of G(s) poles in the RHP 0 2) N = total number of CW encirclements of the (-1.. If N ≤ and P 0 then the system is absolutely stable only if N = 0. The (-1. o Thus N = -P o = 0 and the system is therefore stable..

......Note that G(i0) = 0.5 and as ω increases to the plot approaches zero along the negative locus.s 2 +3...(s+1) /[(s+2)(s+3)] .1 /(s 2 + 2s + 2) 1 /(s 2 + 2s + 2) The zero-frequency G(j ) The asymptotic angle is = -180 o Plot 3.5 as ω to 0 G(j ) = 0 o The asymptotic angle approaching 0 is = -90 and Plot 2.s(s+1) /(s 3 + 5.5 0 s(s+1) /(s 3 + 5... G(jω) moves from 0 to 0..s 2 +3..s + 4 ) behaviour = is:G(j0) =0.s +4 ) Plot 4.

More generally. some calculations using only the coefficients of that polynomial can lead to the conclusion that it is not stable.. For the discrete case. an unstable regime UNIT 4 STABILITY ANALYSIS Routh-Hurwitz Criterion The Routh–Hurwitz stability criterion is a necessary (and frequently sufficient) method to establish the stability of a single-input. given a polynomial..1 /s(s-1).. that is ..((s+1) /[(s+2)(s+3)] Plot 5. linear time invariant (LTI) control system.. see the Jury test equivalent. single-output (SISO). The criterion establishes a systematic way to show that the linearized equations of motion of a system have only stable solutions exp(pt).

Compute the polynomials P0(y) and P1(y) such that f(iy) = P0(y) + iP1(y) where y is a real number. then the polynomial f is not stable. Compute each principal minor of that matrix. we have where: p is the number of roots of the polynomial f(z) located in the left halfplane. It can be performed using either polynomial divisions or determinant calculus. 5. q is the number of roots of the polynomial f(z) located in the right halfplane (let us remind ourselves that f is supposed to have no roots lying on the imaginary line). If at least one of the minors is negative (or zero). Using the Routh– Hurwitz theorem. for an f with no roots on the imaginary line. 2. ROOT LOCUS TECHNIQUES: Introduction A root loci plot is simply a plot of the s zero values and the s poles on a graph with real and imaginary coordinates. p+q=n). Rearrange each row in such a way that an odd row and the following one have the same number of leading zeros. Using matrices Let f(z) be a complex polynomial. Indeed. Using Euclid's algorithm The criterion is related to Routh–Hurwitz theorem. each polynomial of degree n must have n roots in the complex plane (i. we have the condition that f is a (Hurwitz) stable polynomial if and only if p-q=n (the proof is given below).e. The root locus is a curve of the . we can replace the condition on p and q by a condition on the generalized Sturm chain. Thus. By the fundamental theorem of algebra. which will give in turn a condition on the coefficients of f.. 3. w(x) is the number of variations of the generalized Sturm chain obtained from P0(y) and P1(y) (by successive Euclidean divisions) where f(iy) = P0(y) + iP1(y) for a real y. 4. Compute the Sylvester matrix associated to P0(y) and P1(y).where all p have negative real parts. from the statement of that theorem. The process is as follows: 1.

p 2.. Normally n > m....p n.These values of s are called poles..The locus of the roots of the characteristic equation of the closed loop system as the gain varies from zero to infinity gives the name of the method. Below is shown a root loci plot with a zero of -2 and a pole of (-2 + 2 j ω ). in some systems simple gain adjustment can move the closed loop poles to the desired locations. sketching of the root loci becomes a simple matter.z 2. Such a plot shows clearly the contribution of each open loop pole or zero to the locations of the closed loop poles. F(s) = 0 when s = z 1. Open and Closed Loop Transfer Functions A control system is often developed into an equation as shown below D(s) = (s -p 1)....These values of s are called zeros F(s) = infinity when s = p 1. From the design viewpoint. A normal interpretation of improving stability is when the real part of a pole is further left of the imaginary axis. The closed loop poles are the roots of the characteristic equation of the system.(s -p 2). z n.location of the poles of a transfer function as some parameter (generally the gain K)isvaried. This method is very powerful graphical technique for investigating the effects of the variation of a system parameter on the locations of the closed loop poles.. General rules for constructing the root locus exist and if the designer follows them.. (s -p n) is the characteristic equation for the system .. Root loci are completed to select the best parameter value for stability.. In practice one complex pole /zero always comes with a second one mirrored around the real axis .

|z 2 |.|z 1 / z 2 | = |z 1 | / |z 2 | A typical feedback system is shown below The open-loop transfer function between the forcing input R(s) and the measured output Y1(s) = T1(s) = K.G(s)H(s) The closed-loop transfer function = K is the value of the 1+ KG(s)H(s) is the characteristic equation open loop gain> A closed loop pole (when T(s) = infinity) must satisfy ..&.z 2 |= |z 1 |. The complex numbers in polar form have the following elementary properties...The Transfer function F(s) can also be written in polar form using vectors(modulus-argument. |z 1 .

V(s) + K. or analog. sampled-data control systems are also used to control processes. but for some applications the sampling may be aperiodic or random. A process refers to a system of operations such as a batch reactor for the production of a particular chemical. such as a robotic arm or an engine. The output of the plant which is to be controlled is called the controlled variable. or an airplane turboprop engine at a constant speed) or the process at a constant value (for example. Sampling refers to the process of converting an analog signal from a continuously valued range of amplitude values to one of a finite set of possible numerical values. the robotic arm at a particular position. This sampling typically occurs at a regular sampling rate.G(s).K. or the operation of a nation's economy.V(s)= 0 The corresponding characteristic equation for the closed loop system = P(s).H(s) = -1 This is can be interpreted using vectors If G(s) = Q(s)/P(s) and H(s) = W(s)/V(s) Then the characteristic equation for the open loop transfer function = P(s). the . and its purpose is to maintain the controlled variable at a preset value (for example. The term plant refers to machines or mechanical devices which can usually be mathematically modeled by an analysis of their kinematics.Q(s)W(s) = 0 Unit 5 Sampled Data control systems A type of digital control system in which one or more of the input or output signals is a continuous. A regulator is one type of sampled-data control system. While the device to be controlled is usually referred to as the plant. signal that has been sampled. There are two aspects of a sampled signal: sampling in time and quantization in amplitude.

Since a digital controller computes the control signal used to drive the plant. to actuate the plant through the digital-to-analog converter. This input is called the reference or setpoint. CONTROLLABILITY A system with internal state vector x is called controllable if and only if the system states can be changed by changing the system input. A state x0 is controllable at time t0 if for some finite time t1 there exists an input u(t) that transfers the state x(t) from x0 to the origin at time t1. A compensator is used to modify the feedback signals in such a way that the dynamic performance of the plant is improved relative to some performance index. Digital-toanalog converter. Examples of servomechanisms are a robotic arm used to paint automobiles which may be required to move through a predefined path in threedimensional space while holding the sprayer at varying angles. Process control. Digital computer. a chemical process that may require the pH of a batch process to change at a specified rate. The digital compensator in the typical sampled-data control system takes the digitized values of the analog feedback signals and combines them with the setpoint or desired trajectory signals to compute a digital control signal. a digital-to-analog converter must be used to change this binary number to an analog voltage.concentration of an acid. The second type of sampled-data control system is a servomechanism. The analog-to-digital converter changes the sampled signal into a binary number so that it can be used in calculations by the digital compensator. or the inflation rate of an economy). whose purpose is to make the controlled variable follow an input variable. and an economy's growth rate which is to be changed by altering the money supply. A system is called controllable at time t0 if every state x0 in the statespace is controllable. Regulator. an automobile engine which is expected to follow the input commands of the driver. See also Control systems. See also Analog-to-digital converter. . Digital control. Servomechanism.

by only observing the outside performance of the system (input and output)? We can provide the following formal definition of mathematical observability: OBSERVABILITY A system with an initial state. and the output history of the system from the starting time. using only the input/output relation of the system. for instance). we must ask whether or not it is possible to determine what the inside of the system (the internal system states) is like. x(t0) is observable if and only if the value of the initial state can be determined from the system output y(t) that has been observed through the time interval t0 < t < tf.OBSERVABILITY The state-variables of a system might not be able to be measured for any of the following reasons: 1. We can use this concept to define the term state-observability. If a system is observable. A system state xi is unobservable at a given time ti if the zero-input response of the system is zero for all time t. the system is unobservable. then the only state that produces a zero output for all time is the zero state. The state-variable is a derived "dummy" variable that has no physical meaning. If things cannot be directly observed. In other words. C) is observable at t0 if the only state that is unobservable at t0 is the zero state x = 0. The location of the particular state variable might not be physically accessible (a capacitor or a spring. There are no appropriate instruments to measure the state variable. 3. . Systems that fail this criteria are said to be unobservable. STATE-OBSERVABILITY A system is completely state-observable at time t0 or the pair (A. If the initial state cannot be so determined. 2. or the state-variable might be measured in units for which there does not exist any measurement device. it can be necessary to calculate or estimate the values of the internal state variables. for any of the reasons above. Complete Observability A system is said to be completely observable if all the possible initial states of the system can be observed.

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