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Tourism is an attractive tool for economic development, specifically in the developing world. Viewed as an export industry of three Gs -- "get them in, get their money, and get them out" – tourism has assisted many developing countries to move away from a dependency on agriculture and manufacturing (Tooman, 1997). One of the most significant economic, social and cultural phenomena of the past fifty years has been the strong and sustained rise of tourism. The World Tourism Organization international (WTO) estimates that tourism has grown annually in arrivals by 7% and expenditure by 11% over the period 1950-2000 (WTO, 2002). Income generation through the development of and
diversification of local economies has always been one of the primary focuses of governments for their countries. One of the most commonly used methods for income generation has been tourism. Tourism allows the country the unique opportunity to sell a product for which they need minimal investment and have the potential for massive financial returns. Tourism is in essence the easiest way to make money. Tourism can be domestic, regional, or international. Domestic tourism would be defined as tourism in which the visitor is a resident visiting sites and attractions in their home country. Regional tourism is as the name implies tourism in which the visitors to a particular country are from the neighboring countries. Lastly, international tourism most typically refers to people who travel to countries that are further away than their neighboring countries.
Tourism is one of the largest industries in many countries. however if it is to be implemented in a large enough way that it can bring in substantial income for the host country these are all required. legislation that makes . Tourism helps bring in people to the country who will then shop. The government is responsible for the zoning regulations. and tourism related legislation. These are the roads and highways to access tourism destinations. electricity). and patronize local tour companies and charter companies. Tourism is a very integrated industry in the sense that it is one of the main supports for many local businesses and industries as well as because without the local industries and businesses it would not survive. especially in Belize. These are not all necessarily required for tourism to take place. basic public utilities (running water. For this reason tourism cannot survive without the local businesses and presents the unique opportunity for the development of new businesses and niches for business such as ecotourism and marine tourism as well as many other forms.One of the key things to look at is the way in which tourism works. and eat at local stores and restaurants and bars. The government has one of the most important roles in the development and expansion of tourism in its country. The host country’s tourism superstructure and infrastructure must be in place before tourism can be attempted with a high rate of success. The government also can adopt the role of a promoter by creating a sector dedicated to the advancement and development of marketing strategies and tourism development plans. bars. policy making. as well as stay at hotels. as well as public transportation and private charter transports. and hotels. The government would also need to adopt more responsibilities such as maintenance of public roads. local restaurants.
The government thereby relieves itself of most of the work and allows people to start up businesses and create jobs for other locals. How can domestic growth be attained? The obvious answer is that we can achieve the growth we need by creating more revenue. restaurants. In addition to this. in order to increase tourism traffic in the countries. or roads in order for accessibility to be maximized. Firstly the tourism destinations whether they are the country or the sites within the country need to be connected via air. Once the tourism industry starts to grow and international tourism becomes a new occurrence the job of the government would be to create a quasi-governmental body. Domestic economic growth refers simply to the enhancement of the local economy of any given country. The best way would be to do so through the development of the tourism industry since the onus for hotel and restaurant and bar and tourism related services to be developed would be on the local residents. International tourism can be developed in two main ways. there would need to be the development of enough hotels. Some basic necessities for tourists in towns would include. rail. This can be done through the creation of jobs which is usually one of the harder things for a government to do. banking facilities etcetera. basic public utilities. and other amenities by the local entrepreneurs. Secondly the government of the host country should promote tourism in other countries of the world . which in the case of Belize would be the Belize Tourism Board (BTB). and beautification of local cities and towns just as a few examples. telephones.public utilities available to the areas where tourism assets are located.
these negative effects could be controlled and . we need to consider the disadvantages. etc.using print and electronic media such as television. and the internet. Lastly. and telephone and internet services which would help to generate income and create jobs for the locals. Some of the benefits that tourism presents are increased employment in the host countries (Belize currently has 25% of its population working in the tourism industry) and the development of infrastructure which include roads. Without proper management there would be irreversible destruction to the environment as areas would be destroyed for building of hotels. Now that we have a good idea of what tourism can do to benefit the host country. electricity. This can encourage the development of handicraft and local products and businesses. International tourism also helps to pump a lot of new money into the nation’s economy that wasn’t there before since tourism is the only export that never leaves the country. radio. however with proper management and zoning legislation. foreign exchange will begin which would help to generate resources to import pharmaceuticals. to attract international visitors. Tourism like any industry has its pros and cons. technology. golf courses. International tourism will also encourage the protection of the local environment which can be used to attract and entertain tourists. beaches. and other consumer goods that may be otherwise unavailable. Many argue that people would lose their cultures which could be prevented if efforts were made to preserve it and capitalize on them. International tourism can also help in the preservation of cultures which can be used as marketing gimmicks and unique attractions to the country. water.
minimized. The problem with cruise tourism is that the people on cruises typically eat and sleep on board the ships so the economic benefits in the host countries are minimal whereas the potential ecological damage is endless. One of the negative aspects of international tourism that could affect countries is cruise tourism. If the visitors were act in ways that would support cultural diversity in the host countries it would aid in the protection of cultures. regional as well as international events. In order for the host country to maximize the benefits of tourism and minimize the detrimental effects. The development of illegal or dangerous industries would occur such as poaching for endangered species and drug related markets could emerge. Training tour guides on local culture . however the disadvantages if addressed properly could be easily turned into beneficial aspects. Another one of the drawbacks would be the fact that the employment for the people could be seasonal depending on how the tourism industry develops in a country. the government could support the local cultures and aid in preservation of such cultures. Another drawback of tourism would be the fact that the market would be quite unstable since it would be affected by local. One more thing the visitors could do to help the host countries would be to patronize the local businesses rather than the foreign owned corporations or franchises. Some countries can manage to do well all year round however smaller countries that are extremely dependent on tourism have low seasons and high seasons. such as Belize. and engaged in the activities that are beneficial to the communities it would aid greatly in the development of the industry. Every benefit if applied in the wrong way could potentially transform into a disadvantage. and if they refrained from illegal activities.
it is an invisible product. The problem with this idea is that many developing countries do not have the products available locally and so they are dependent on the imported goods. Another way in which the economic benefits could be maximized would be to encourage import substitutions.and history and other important information would help by ensuring all guides are equipped with the same basic knowledge. One last way in which governments of countries seeking benefits of international tourism could . The perfect example for Belize would be peanut butter. styles of business. The transport cost of this export is nothing since the customers have to come to the host country to use the product. Tourism is in essence a service industry rather than an industry that produces goods such as manufacturing or agriculture. The most effective way in which countries can maximize the economic benefits from international tourism would be to devise a way in which more tourists can be attracted and leakage of the foreign exchange. and customs. Locals can also help by refraining from the illegal activities in the country as well as patronizing the local businesses and buying local products. It requires more than analyzing numbers and looking at the projections for growth. Import substitutions simply refer to selecting local quality products and services rather that the imported versions. because although peanut butter is produced locally people still can go to store and choose from 5 other types of imported peanut butter. attractions. Deciding on whether tourism is a good choice for economic development in any country is different since each country has its own needs.
Some of these incentives could include tax deferrals. educational. . design. non refundable grants. its legislation. if the government and people as well as the tourists do not respect the country. Others could include low interest loans. business. However.e. and counter with the argument that the foreign investors should have to pay for the privilege of developing in their countries. creation of jobs. and fiscal gain for the government through taxes. as well as improvement in the quality of the infrastructure. eco. tax reductions. the tourism industry which depends on the wellbeing of the destination. The tourism industry is an expanding industry with potentially endless profits. however there are many who disagree with this. materials. Through the implementation of incentives governments can stimulate and influence the amount of local products used in the development of the tourism product. adventure.maximize their profits would be to consider implementation of incentive programs to local investors as well as foreigners to promote the utilization of local architecture. or its culture. reduction of tariffs. employees. In terms of diversifying the economy the tourism industry opens up the possibility for creation of a vast amount of niches (i. and cruise tourism). The use of tourism as a tool for the domestic economic diversity would be ideal. There is much potential in the tourism industry as it opens up gateways for the development of new businesses. would crumble. and products. and land donation. medical.
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