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Christian Abella May 17, 2013 6-7 Spartan Input

GOVERNMENT Sparta was an oligarchy ruled by a Council of Elders. The council consisted of 2 Kings and 28 elders (Age 60+). Elections were basically a shooting match. The loudest support meant victory!

ECONOMY Spartans relied on slaves (Helots) and noncitizens (Perikoi) to farm the land, sculpt pottery, sew clothing, and repair weapons. They also relied on trade with other countries. Spartans would purchase their goods with heavy iron bars instead of using coins.

EDUCATION Boys and girls were expected to be disciplined and strong. Babies were left to die if they seemed to be weak. At the age of 7, boys were sent to the barracks to begin their military training. They were taught to suffer immense pain without any complaint; to steal without being caught; to fight and intimidate others. At age 20 they had to pass a physical and strategic exam before they could become a true Spartan soldier and citizen. WOMEN Girls were also expected to be tough. They trained in archery and gymnastics. Spartan women had more rights than most Greeks. They looked after their husbands property during times of war. Spartan women were also free to speak with other men, even marry a second husband if her first husband was gone from battle too long.

Christian Abella May 17, 2013 6-7 Spartan Input

Use the previous pages and the British Museums Sparta Website to complete the following. Write complete sentences with specific details and analytical explanations from the texts. DO NOT PLAGARIZE. PARAPHRASE USING YOUR OWN VOCABULARY. Be thorough in your answers. Input Charts are the primary source for Unit Exams (30% HISTORY category), use as study guide. PROMPT 1.) What type of government did the Spartans use? What does this reveal about Spartan society? 2.) Who was expected to farm, sculpt, and metalworking in Spartan society? What does this reveal about the role of citizens in Spartan society? 3.) Describe the steps a Sparta male had to endure to become a full soldier and citizen. What does this reveal about the expectations of masculinity in Spartan culture. YOUR ANSWER The type of government that the Spartans used was oligarchy. This reveals that that the Spartans were ruled by a few people. Spartans relied on slaves to farm, sculpt, and metalwork in the Spartan Society. This shows that the role of citizens in Spartan Society were very low. At age seven boys would be sent to barracks to begin their military training. They were trained to endure pain, steal, and have an ability to scare their enemies. At age 20 they had to pass a test to become a soldier and a citizen. This shows that only the strongest made it through to become an actual citizen of Sparta. 4.) How were Spartan women different from Spartan women were different than other Greek most Greek women? (Be specific) What does women because they had more rights and had to this reveal about the expectations of be tough like the men. In Spartan culture women femininity in Spartan culture? were important in the Spartan culture. 5.) On the website, click the link for Story, read One example of why Sparta became a military city the story and provide the one possible reason is as Sparta developed, it wanted more land. They that Sparta transformed from a place of conquered many fertile places until the slaves craftsmanship into a military-oriented city. fought back. After that they trained to be a strong community. 6.) On the website, click the link for Explore, Water from a hydria would be mixed with wine. select the drawer for Food and Feasting. They thought that barbarians drank it neatly. Explore each of the 5 objects and explain the There were occasions that were called syssitia. All important insights indicated about Greek culture members of the occasions had to bring some food through food and feasting. from their own lands. The usual food included a black soup, but wealthier members of the mess were supposed to contribute meats from hunting or bread to the meal. From the third item it showed Aristaios, which was a minor god who was believed to have discovered how to make olive oil. The Kylix was decorated with a scene of

Christian Abella May 17, 2013 6-7 Spartan Input people at a feast. On it a musician played a flute. To the right of the table is a boy with a cup and drinking horn. For the fifth one, the Skyphos, men drank wine wit h, most meals. Wine was drunk by wealthy and poor alike, but usually not by women.

7.) On the website, click the link for Explore, select the drawer for Religion. Explore each of the 8 objects and explain the important insights indicated about Greek culture through religion.

Miniature vases were left as offerings to the goddess Artemis Orthia. People think children might have worn the miniature masks during special rituals that marked their move from childhood to adulthood. The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia would not have been used for worship, but would have housed the statue of the goddess. Also It was rebuilt during the early 6th century. The Ivory lion was used to be an offering to the goddess Artemis Orthia. A bronze pot was also an offering to the goddess. Offerings for a god would be left to ensure that they are helping with something. Aristaios was a plaque that was thought to come from an important sanctuary where the goddess Artemis was worshipped. The bronze dog was also left as an offering to the goddess Artemis. The figure of Athena was a small figurine of the goddess Athena that was an offering to her.

8.) On the website, click the link for Challenge, complete the challenge steps, and then reflect on your learning and questions stemming from the experience.

I learned that it is challenging for men to become soldiers and citizens. My question is why did they need to dance at their training?

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