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Introduction to digestive system of a frog The digestive system of frog consists of digestive tract and the accessory organs which help to process the food consumed into small molecules (nutrients) which then can be easily absorbed and then utilized by the cells of the body. Parts of the digestive system of a frog include:
Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Cloaca Accessory organs
Mechanism of Digestion in Digestive System of a Frog
The digestive system of a frog starts with the mouth. Mouth helps in consumption of food. This process is known as ingestion. Frog feeds on flies or insects. As the teeth’s present in frog is very week, they are not useful to catch the agile prey. Frogs catch their food (such as insects and flies) with the help of its stick tongue and mixes it with the saliva. The teeth’s present in the upper jaw are called the maxillary teeth, it helps in grinding the ingested food before it is swallowed. The saliva produced and secreted by the salivary glands helps in conversion of starch to sugar and adds liquid to the ingested food. The food mixed with saliva then moves from mouth into the pharynx, and then into the oesophagus. It pushes the food further into the sac like structure stomach. This movement is food into the stomach is known as deglutition or swallowing. Food particles in the stomach mix thoroughly with enzymes and other fluids due to contraction of smooth muscles present in the stomach. Peristaltic movement propels the food particles into the digestive tract and the pyloric sphincter valve is involved in preventing the movement of food backward from the stomach. The food which is partially digested in stomach then proceeds in to the small intestine, where most part of the digestion occurs. It is divisible into duodenum and ileum. Pancreatic juice is secreted from the pancreas and bile through the gallbladder from the liver to the small intestine, which helps in completion of digestion. Absorption of the digested nutrients in digestive system of a frog occurs in small intestine. Absorption unabsorbed nutrients and reabsorption of water takes place in the large intestine. Liquid wastes are in frog is passed to the urinary bladder, while solids are routed to the
Both humans and frogs have the same kinds of organs and systems of organs. From here the frog is able to flick out the tongue very fast to catch its prey. and genus and species Rana pipens. A frogs habitat is usually spent on land for most of its adult life. Solid wastes from the large intestine go into the cloaca. While in the stomach. Some adaptations frogs have that aid in their survival are having thin skin that contains mucus-secreting glands. The digestive system in humans is much more complicated. Both the liquid and solid wastes leave the body through the cloaca. Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. Fat is digested with bile. Both liquid and solid wastes in frog are expelled out through cloaca which is a slit that opens out finally in digestive system of a frog The two organisms discussed I this report are humans and Frogs. The tongue is also very sticky. In humans digestion beings in the mouth. the liver and the pancreas. Liquid wastes from the kidneys go through the ureters to the urinary bladder. phylum chordate. Also they have two pairs of limbs. phylum. This is where most of the digestion takes place. jumping or walking. family. Then the food goes down through the esophagus to the stomach. The Taxonomy of an organism includes kingdom. Frogs are classified as kingdom animalia. they are basically useless. Here enzymes from the pancreas complete the chemical part of digestion. and species. class mammalia. which are attached by ducts. phylum chordate. Whatever is left of the food. Chemical digestion continues when acid and enzymes are secreted into the stomach cavity. Although the frog has teeth. family hominidae.cloaca. and species homo sapiens. enters the large intestine. The frogs tongue however is very important. Here . contractions of the muscular wall continue to break down food mechanically. Once food enters the mouth chewing and saliva starts to break it up and make it easier to swallow. mostly liquid. genus homo. Most of the time the tongue is folded back toward the throat. Then the food passes through the small intestine. class. However frogs reproduction and development must take place in water or in a moist place. There are large digestive glands. order. which can be used for swimming. genus. From there the food moves into the small intestine. Humans are classified by the kingdom animalia. order primates. The anatomy of a frog is very similar to the anatomy of humans. Digestion in a frog begins in the mouth. From the frogs mouth food passes into the stomach by the esophagus.
which then are divided into capillaries. The right and left atria then empty blood into the ventricle. The two upper. bile. Blood that leaved the ventricle enters a large blood vessel that branches into two atriaâ€™s. bacteria. which is stored there temporarily. The two lower. thick-walled chambers are the ventricles. This circulation helps to maintain the balance of glucose in the blood. Like . The right and left pulmonary veins carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium. The frog only has one lower chamber while a human has two. carries blood between the heart and the lungs. As this material. The circulatory system consists of two major pathways. These then divide into many smaller arteries. a spinal cord. Hepatic-Portal Circulation is also a branch of systemic circulation. and nerves. Pulmonary circulation removes carbon dioxide from the blood and adds oxygen.most of the fluid is absorbed. Some parts of the frogsâ€™ nervous system are the same as those in the humanâ€™s nervous system. unlike a human. The only arteries that are able to carry oxygen-poor blood are the pulmonary arteries. Another type of circulation is Renal Circulation. The rectum is where the fecal matter is stored. It is periodically eliminated through the anus. As you can see circulation in the human is much more complex than the circulation in the frog. The frog has one muscular ventricle and two thin-walled atria. The large intestine also absorbs vitamins that are produced by bacteria that normally live in the large intestine. the right and left ventricle. Blood form the sac enters the right atrium. So therefore blood that is pumped out by the ventricle is a mixture of oxygenated blood that is from the left atrium and deoxygenated blood that is from the right atrium. Urine is formed from wastes that are filtered from the blood. The large intestine is also in charge of the elimination or excretion of undigested and indigestible materials from the digestive track. which is the first pathway. Capillaries are then formed when the arteries divide. As the frog breaths using air with its lungs the blood is oxygenated. Veins are used to return blood from the capillaries to the heart. Circulation in humans is a bit different. and mucus. The kidneys excrete other metabolic wastes that are produced by the frog. travels through the intestine it becomes feces. Systemic circulation. The frog. Renal circulation is a branch of systemic circulation that carries blood to and from the kidneys. leading to the liver. HepaticPortal Circulation carries blood from the digestive track to the liver. which branches of going into the heart muscle. The frogsâ€™ nervous system consists of a brain. Whatever is not absorbed is passed out of the body through the anus. Coronary circulation is a branch of systemic circulation. Carbon dioxide that is produced by the frog is excreted through its skin. Blood from the liver reenters the systemic circulation through the inferior vena cava. The reabsorption into the capillaries of the large intestine helps the body conserve water. Pulmonary circulation. Coronary circulation supplies blood to the muscle of the heart. which is the second pathway. the urine passes into the cloaca and out of the body. From the bladder. has only a three chambered heart. The coronary arteries come down both sides of the heart. excretion takes place in the large intestine. One of the main functions of the large intestine is the reabsorption of water from food. Capillaries and veins carrying nutrient-rich blood from the digestive organs come together to form the portal vein. Blood from all the other parts of the body is brought back through three large veins into a thin-walled sac. Humans have a four chambered heart. carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body. The urine from each kidney is carried by the ureters to the bladder. Most blood is then drained in to the right atrium. In the human. Systemic circulation supplies blood to the liver. The Excretory system of the frog is rather simple. which consists of cellulose. think-walled chambers are the atria.
The respiratory system of the frog includes the lungs. Its eyelids do not move. Just like in humans air enters the body through two nostrils. The trachea divides to enter each of the two lungs.humans. And the chest muscles that the frog does have are not involved in breathing. When the frog is in water all its respiration takes place through the skin. Semicircular canals help to maintain body balance in the frog. The frogs skin is composed of two layers. and peristalsis. The nervous system. There are a lot of body functions that are controlled by reflexes. and the blood releases carbon dioxide into the air spaces to be exhaled. The frogâ€™s eye is a fixed lens. The human ear has two sensory functions. Oxygen from the air then enters the blood through capillaries in the walls of these air spaces. Light enters the eye through the cornea. The human middle ear contains three bones. The frog doesnâ€™t just breath through its skin. To close its eye the frog brings the organ into its socket. frogs have a central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system. This is much bigger than the frogs. and thirst. so it cannot change its focus. This controls many of the involuntary activities including breathing. entering directly into the blood. In the human respiratory system takes in oxygen from air. body temperature. The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. Unlike the eye of a frog. The frogâ€™s sense of smell is made by olfactory lobes. the middle ear. blood flow. The cerebrum is divided in half from front to back by a deep grove. In the frog. The medulla is made mainly of nerve fibers that connect the spinal cord to other parts of the brain. There is only one bone in the frogâ€™s middle ear. The cerebellum controls all voluntary movements and some involuntary movements. In the frog the medulla regulates automatic functions such as digestion and respiration. the human nervous system is divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. heart rate. The white part of the eye is called the sclera. Some examples of these are blinking. Also like the frog. and the other is helping to keep balance. Also. hunger. The major parts of the brain are the cerebrum. The eardrums and tympanic membranes are exposed. and the inner ear. coughing. The cerebrum is very small in the frog. just like in humans. cerebellum. The eye is one of the human sense receptors. A reflex is an involuntary. Air enters the nose and mouth and travels through the larynx and trachea. Humans have 12. This helps to give the eye shape and projects the inner parts of the eye. nostrils are made up of two simple holes. In the frog there are no ribs or diaphragm. Blood vessels run throughout the frogâ€™s skin. Oxygen can be obtained right from the water. heartbeat. The frog does not have an external ear. which is able to focus the light on the back of the innermost layer. heartbeat. Oxygen can pass through the skin. which separates the cerebrum into the right and left cerebral hemispheres. and the skin. and coughing. which is called the retina. and the medulla. and nerves. through very much like that of the frogs. and chest muscles. think surfaces and blood vessels. is more complex. The Frog has 10 cranial nerves that originate in the frog's brain. an outer epidermis and an inner epidermis. a human eye has a lens. Humans have 30 pairs. There are complex valves. The receptors for smell are the olfactory cells. A third eyelid or nictitating membrane may be drawn over the pulled in eyeball. the diaphragm. In humans the cerebrum is very large. it has paired lungs. and then divides more than 20 times to form a very large number of small air sacs. passes through the windpipe. but no long nasal passages like in humans. and is received by the lungs. automatic response to a given stimulus. One is hearing. the lining of the mouth. and excretes carbon dioxide and water vapor. . the humansâ€™ nervous system consists of the brain. sneezing. the frog has only 10 pairs of spinal nerves. spinal cord. A reflex arc is the pathway over which the nerve impulses travel in a reflex. breathing movements. Like the frog. The three parts of the ear are the outer ear. The cerebellum controls body posture and coordination. All of these have moist. The difference in the way the frog breathes from the way humans breath is that in humans breathing is aided by ribs. The lower parts of the brain control basic functions such as breathing.
Insulin is the hormone that is secreted from this gland. The anterior pituitary gland is a growth hormone. From the kidneys. They are webbed together because they often have to get around through the water. Each testis made up of small. The human reproductive system is also different in the male and female. the immature sperm pass through the epididymis. The reproductive system in the frog is different in the male and the female. Usually by hopping. Sperm are the male gametes. Frogs use jointed appendages. If it is over secreted its effects can include Cushingâ€™s disease. From there. and Cowperâ€™s glands mix with sperm to form semen. Another gland is the adrenal cortex gland. Hyperthyroidism can result if this hormone is over secreted. The male gonads are the testes. In the female. If it is under secreted its effects can include dwarfism. The eggs are stored in the sacs at the base of the oviducts. Fertilization may occur when the follicle breaks and the egg is released into the oviduct. Unlike the human. Another gland is the Thyroid gland. In the male. They are stored there until they are released from the body through the cloaca. coiled tubes called the somniferous tubules. The hormone secreted from this gland is thyroxin. like in the frog. In adults effects include acromegaly. the testes are small. If this hormone is under excreted Addisonâ€™s disease can result. Another gland is the pancreas. the ovaries are located along the back. Sperm is produced in the testes and then pass to the kidneys through microscopic tubules. The two vas deferens empty into the urethra. The frogâ€™s legs are extremely muscular are sometimes compared to human arms. their legs. a frog only has four fingers. cortisol hormone. There are a large numbers of eggs. bean shaped. The vas deferens is a tube that leads upward from each testis into the lower part of the abdomen. The female reproductive system is somewhat like that of the frogs. prostate gland. Locomotion in the frog is similar to that of locomotion in humans. The testes make sperm. The webbed feature allows for easy swimming. In the ovaries eggs mature in the follicles. Fluid produced by the seminal vesicles. yellowish organs that are also just above the kidneys. Diabetic shock can occur if this hormone is over secreted. If it is over secreted its effects can include giantism in children. . which are coiled tubes. In the female reproductive system the ovaries produce the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. which is a storage area on the upper rear part of each testis. Diabetes can occur if insulin is under secreted. A frog uses all four appendages to get around. If this hormone is under secreted cretinism can occur. the sperm are carried by the ureters to the cloaca. The sperm are discharged from the male through the cloaca during mating.The Human endocrine system consists of many endocrine glands. A human only uses two. The testes also make the male sex hormone testosterone. which are webbed together. This gland is an aldosterone. which are produced by the ovaries that enter the oviducts.
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