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Traffic Statistics Analysis
Issue 2.0

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Reference
 31160978-BSC Traffic Statistic

Manual Volume I
 31033203-BSS Troubleshooting

Manual

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 Upon completion of this course, you will be

able to:  Know the traffic statistics system structure  Understand some often-used traffic measurement items  Locate some problems through the traffic statistics system

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LTD.. All rights reserved Page 4 .Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Main Structure of Traffic Statistics System
BM1

Call process data
BM data Hardware data

BM

Signaling data

AM/CM
BAM HUB WS1
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M2000 Server WSn
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Menu Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics
 Task list management

 BSC traffic statistics platform provides the function of registering a new task, deleting a registered task and refreshing the task list.
 Task management

 BSC traffic statistics platform provides the function of modifying task name, modifying statistic period of permanent task, hanging up task, activating task, querying task information, querying task result and querying task running state.

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Menu Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics
 Template management

 Template management provides the function of defining item template, object template, time template, user-defined statistic items and refreshing all templates.

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LTD.Menu Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics  Limitations  The traffic measurement task is registered using the BSC traffic statistics console. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  One task can only include 60 original items.  The maximum number of subtasks in each BM module is 3000.  Items regarding to maximum/minimum value can not be repeatedly registered in all tasks. the maximum number of tasks of each BM module is 200.. All rights reserved Page 8 .

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH Congestion Rate (excluding handover) = (TCH seizure failures for call + TCH seizure failures for very early assignment) / (attempted TCH seizures + attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 9 .. LTD.

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH congestion rate (including handover)= (TCH seizure failures for call + TCH seizure failures for very early assignment + TCH seizure failures for intra BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) + TCH seizure failures for inter BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) ) / (attempted TCH seizures (all) + attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment + attempted TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover + attempted TCH seizures for interBSC incoming cell handover) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 10 .. LTD.

LTD. All rights reserved Page 11 .Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH congestion rate (TCH overflow) = Attempted TCH seizures meeting a TCH blocked state / Attempted TCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)= times of attempted seizures meeting an SDCCH blocked state / attempted SDCCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 12 .. LTD.

. LTD.Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  TCH Call Drop Rate  TCH Call Drop Rate = TCH Call Drops / Successful TCH Seizures (all) *100%  SDCCH Call Drop Rate  SDCCH Call Drop Rate = SDCCH call drops / successful SDCCH seizures (all) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 13 .

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  Handover Success Rate  Inter cell handover success rate= (Successful incoming internal inter cell handovers + Successful incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) / (Attempted incoming internal inter cell handovers+ Attempted incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 14 .

Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item  Handover Success Rate  Inter cell radio handover success rate= (Successful incoming internal inter cell handovers + Successful incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) / (Incoming internal inter cell handovers + Inter BSC incoming cell handovers + Outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Inter BSC outgoing cell handovers) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 15 .

Exercise  Write down the key items of the network  Answer: The most important items for the network are: call drop rate. outgoing and incoming handover success rate. LTD.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. traffic volume etc. TCH congestion rate. All rights reserved Page 16 . SDCCH congestion rate.

.Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item MTP Measurement Function Cell Measurement Function Power control Measurement Call Drop Measurement BSC Measurement Function SCCP Measurement Function A-interface Operation and management statistic A-interface Equipment Site Initialization Measurement Function BSC Cell Broadcast Maintenance statistic A-interface Trunk Board Measurement Function message statistic CPU Measurement Function HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 17 . LTD.

All rights reserved Page 18 .Brief Introduction to BSC Traffic Statistics Item Defined Adjacent Cell BTS Initial Measurement Cell Broadcast Statistic Outgoing Inter cell handover Measurement Function Receiving Quality Measurement Receiving Level Measurement Measurement Function Incoming Inter cell handover Function Up-Down Link Balance Measurement Function Undefined Adjacent Cell Measurement Function LAPD Link Measurement Measurement Function GPRS Related Measurement Function Cell Frequency Scan Function HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

All rights reserved Page 19 .Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

All rights reserved Page 20 . LTD.  Relativity  Relationship between various kinds of traffic statistics items HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Systematical logic  From whole system to specific cell  Integrality  Observe the change trend of the items for more than one week and the changing trend of each day.

All rights reserved Page 21 . if any important items (such as call drop rate or handover success rate) are abnormal.. we shall do further detailed analysis for the corresponding items. LTD.  During analyzing. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Analysis process  First we shall analyze and compare the item of BSC measurement function to have a rough idea for the whole network.

handover failure and so on). handover failure and so on). congestion. congestion. All rights reserved Page 22 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis Analysis process Check the cell that has abnormal items (call drop. Base on whole percentage and absolute times (call drop. decide whether some further analysis should be considered or not. LTD.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. All rights reserved Page 23 . LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Circuit paging (A-interface) successful rate  Immediate assignment successful rate  TCH call drop rate  TCH and SDCCH congestion rate  Handover success rate  Interference band HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

coverage area and random access performance.  Relate to the paging re-send mechanism implemented by BSS or MSC..Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Circuit paging (A-interface) success rate  Relate to “ATT ”. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 24 .

At the same time. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. BSC will send immediate assignment rejected message which indicates the failure of immediate assignment. BTS will apply a channel from BSC. LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Immediate assignment success rate  When BTS receives a Random Access message from MS.. All rights reserved Page 25 .  The interference and collision of random access will affect immediate assignment successful rate. If there is no channel available. MS’s access will be bared for some time.

− Call drop during handover HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH call drop rate  Possible causes can be − TCH lost radio connections (Connection failure). − TCH lost radio connections (Error indication).. All rights reserved Page 26 . − Ground link disconnection when TCH seized (Abis).

. All rights reserved Page 27 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH call drop formula and measurement point  TCH Call Drop Rate = TCH Call Drop / Successful TCH Seizures (all) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  RF lost rate  TCH RF Lost Rate = (times of radio link disconnection when TCH seized (connection failure) + times of radio link disconnection when TCH seized (error indication)) / successful TCH seizures (all) * 100%  SDCCH RF Lost Rate = (times of radio link disconnection when SDCCH seized (connection failure) + times of radio link disconnection when SDCCH seized (error indication)) / successful SDCCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 28 ..

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  When the load of the cell overruns the system limitation. LTD..Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH congestion rate (TCH overflow)  It is a key item used to estimate the cell load. All rights reserved Page 29 . try to distribute some traffic to adjacent cells.

LTD..Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Causes of TCH congestion ( TCH seizure failure )  Assignment failure  Equipment fault  Invalid ground resource  Ground resource already allocated  Illegal message contents  Radio interface failure and return to original channel  No channel available HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 30 .

All rights reserved Page 31 .Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH Congestion Rate  TCH congestion rate (including handover)= (TCH seizure failures for call + TCH seizure failures for very early assignment + TCH seizure failures for intra BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) + TCH seizure failures for inter BSC incoming cell handover (no radio resource) ) / (attempted TCH seizures (all) + attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment + attempted TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover + attempted TCH seizures for interBSC incoming cell handover) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

. All rights reserved Page 32 . LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)  SDCCH congestion rate (SDCCH overflow)= times of attempted seizures meeting an SDCCH blocked state / attempted SDCCH seizures (all) * 100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved Page 33 .  Incoming intraBSC inter cell and intra-cell handover and the handover type is SDCCH handover.  Incoming interBSC inter cell handover and the handover type is SDCCH handover.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  SDCCH congestion measurement point  Attempted SDCCH seizure meeting a SDCCH blocked state is counted when there is a SDCCH seizure but no SDCCH available.  Attempted SDCCH seizures (all)  Receive CH_REQ and the channel type is SDCCH.

there are different items. All rights reserved Page 34 . inter-cell/intra-cell handover and so on. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. incoming/outgoing. LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Handover measurement point  For different objects such as BSC.  By analyzing different items.. band (900/1800). the problems can be located more rapidly.

.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Handover Success Rate  Inter cell handover success rate= (Successful incoming internal inter cell handovers + Successful incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) / (Attempted incoming internal inter cell handovers+ Attempted incoming interBSC inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing internal inter cell handovers + Attempted outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers) *100% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 35 .

. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  Causes of handover  Power budget  Poor uplink signal quality  Poor downlink signal quality  Low uplink signal strength  Low downlink signal strength  Too large TA value  Other reasons  Note: Handover types and times with all adjacent cells are listed in outgoing and incoming inter cell handover measurement function. All rights reserved Page 36 . LTD.

. LTD.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis Handover failure reasons No available channel Illegal frequency Timer timeout Illegal channel Illegal TA Other reasons HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 37 .

LTD.  In urban and suburb area. because of different density of base station and the frequency reuse pattern. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. which reflects the average interference level. the acceptable interference level is different.Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis  TCH interference band measurement  The result in each TCH interference band shows the average number of idle TCH within this interference band in the statistic period.. All rights reserved Page 38 .

Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis
 Cell frequency scan

 Shows the signal strength received by main antenna and diversity antenna.  Reflects the interference level for specific frequency.

 The difference between the measurement results of main and diversity antenna reflects the difference between the two antennas such as direction, gain, path loss and so on. It is an important way to know the diversity receiving performance.

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Often-used Traffic Statistics Items Analysis
 Receiving level measurement

 Receiving level measurement is based on TRX.
 The receiving level is divided into 6 bands

 Band 0 : -110~-100dBm

 Band1 : -100~-95dBm
 Band 2 : -95~-90dBm  Band 3 : -90~-80dBm  Band 4 : -80~-70dBm  Band 5 : > -70dBm

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Exercise
 List the often-used traffic statistics tasks that we use to locate and

analyze the problem.
 Answer: the often-used traffic statistics tasks are

 BSC measurement function  TCH and SDCCH measurement function  Inter-cell and intra-cell handover measurement function  Outgoing and incoming inter cell handover measurement function  Up-down link balance measurement function  Call drop measurement function

 Cell frequency scan, etc.
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. All rights reserved Page 42 .Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

Traffic Statistics Analysis General method for traffic analysis BSC Measurement Function High call drop rate High congestion rate Low handover success rate SDCCH performance Outgoing handover Incoming handover TCH performance TCH performance TCH performance Link Balance Link balance Link balance HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. Alarm data Alarm data Alarm data Call drops All rights reserved Page 43 .

All rights reserved Page 44 .  Analyze objects  Coverage  Quality  Handover  Signaling  Others HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Traffic Statistics Analysis  Combine traffic statistics analysis with other optimization method  Drive test: simulate common subscriber’s behavior.. LTD.

Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  TCH call drop analysis Cell with high call drop rate Alarm and hardware fault Cell performance statistics Call drop measurement Handover measurement Call drop times Average uplink level at TCH call drops Average down link level at TCH call drop Average uplink quality at TCH call drop Average downlink quality at TCH call drop Average TA value at TCH call drop Outgoing inter cell handover success rate Incoming inter cell handover success rate Interference band Causes of call drop Handover failure and re-establish failure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 45 .

 Short distance call drop: low receiving signal strength and small TA.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Call drop types  Edge call drop: low receiving signaling strength. All rights reserved Page 46 ..  Sudden call drop: before call drop.  BQ call drop: high receiving signal strength and poor quality. the call is normal then call drop happened suddenly. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. large TA.

. All rights reserved Page 47 ..Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Edge call drop  Causes − MS is out of cell’s effective coverage area. − Add the necessary neighbor. use high gain antenna − Modify some parameters: “SACCH multi-frames”.  Solutions − Add new site to guarantee the effective continuous coverage. “handover statistic time”. etc. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. “Radio link timeout counter”. “handover threshold”. − “Island” phenomenon caused by over shooting or missing neighbor. − Adjust antenna height and antenna downtilt. LTD. − Isolated site.

. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − Adjust antenna direction and downtilt. All rights reserved Page 48 . LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Short distance call drop  Causes − Poor coverage caused by complicated terrain or high dense building. − Adjust parameters related to call drop. make the main lobe point to high traffic area.  Solutions − Increase EIRP.

▪ Interference caused by improper frequency planning. − Optimize frequency planning.  Solutions − Try to find the external interference source. − Uplink or downlink interference. ▪ Interference caused by radar or other similar equipment. avoid “island”.. − Adjust antenna system. All rights reserved Page 49 . ▪ Self-interference caused by BTS. LTD. ▪ Interference caused by repeater.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  BQ call drop( high signal strength)  Causes − High transmission bit error rate (BER). − Solve the problem of transmission quality. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

 Analyze the cells’ traffic load and total call drop times. LTD.  Check the interference band.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Overall process for call drop analysis  Find out cells with high call drop rate.  Classify the call drop according to the character. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. we shall know the type of the call drop. All rights reserved Page 50 .  Analyze the call drop measurement function.  First of all..

 Improper parameter settings ( RLT and SACCH multiframes).  Poor coverage (coverage hole and island). All rights reserved Page 51 .. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Unbalanced up-down link (TMA. antenna direction). power amplifier.  Equipment problem (TRX.  Improper handover (neighbor planning and handover parameter setting). and TMA). LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  The main causes for call drop  Interference (internal and external). power amplifier.

antenna inter-modulation).  Dispose equipment fault (such as: TRX self-oscillation.  Through drive test. LTD.  Calculate the handover caused by poor quality and check the average receiving quality level for each TRX.  In call drop measurement function. check the interference and signal quality. check the average signal strength and quality of call drops.  Use spectrum analyzer to find the interference source..Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Interference analysis process  Analyze the appearance period of the interference. All rights reserved Page 52 .  Block TRX in turn and monitor the interference measurement results. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

− In inter-cell handover measurement function. LTD. All rights reserved Page 53 . a lot of low signal strength records can be found. the signal strength is too low when call drop happens. the average uplink or downlink signal strength is too low. − In receiving level measurement function. the potential neighbor cells with high average signal strength can be find.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Coverage problem analysis  Traffic items − In power control measurement function. − In undefined adjacent cell measurement function. the average receiving signal strength is too low when handover is triggered.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. or the TA value is abnormal. − In call drop measurement.

▪ check the number of unsuccessful handover with unsuccessful reversion (call drop caused by handover). ▪ Check whether the maximum distance between MS and BTS is abnormal in several continuous periods. All rights reserved Page 54 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Coverage problem analysis  Judgment method − In Power Control measurement ▪ Check whether the average distance between MS and BTS comply with design. − In outgoing inter-cell handover measurement function ▪ check whether the handover successful rate to some cells is low. LTD.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. − Adjust the following parameters based on the drive test results ▪ BTS transmitting power ▪ Antenna downtilt and height ▪ RXLEVEL_ACCESS_MIN − Add site to ensure the continuous coverage. All rights reserved Page 55 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Coverage problem analysis  Disposing method − Drive test in the suspected poor coverage area. LTD.

check whether there are many unsuccessful outgoing cell handovers with unsuccessful reversions. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Improper handover (neighbor planning and handover parameters)  Disposing method − Check the handover parameters to see whether there are improper parameter settings. All rights reserved Page 56 . LTD.. − In undefined adjacent cell measurement function. check whether the signal strength and the number of measurement reports for the undefined neighbor cell are high. − In inter-cell handover measurement function.

LTD. power amplifier. analyze the average receiving signal strength for both the uplink and downlink. analyze the average receiving signal strength and quality for both the uplink and downlink. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 57 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Imbalanced up-down link (tower amplifier.. − In call drop measurement function. and antenna directions)  Disposing method − Analyze “up-down link balance measurement function” statistics result and confirm whether the uplink and downlink are balanced. − In power control measurement function.

. it means uplink is better than downlink HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. it means downlink is better than uplink If D<0.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop Balance between uplink and downlink Link balance rank 1 2 Range of D ≤ -15 -14 ~ -10 Let D= (downlink receiving level − uplink receiving level) − (MS sensitivity − BTS sensitivity). it means uplink and downlink are balanced If D>0. Usually the MS sensitivity is 102 dBm and the BTS sensitivity is 108dBm. LTD. The formula can be simplified as − D= downlink receiving level − uplink receiving level – 6dB If D=0. All rights reserved 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Page 58 -9 ~ -6 -5 ~ -3 -2 ~ 0 0 1~2 3~5 6~9 10 ~ 14 ≥15 .

All rights reserved Page 59 . SACCH multi-frames)  Judgment method − In system information data. check the radio link timeout − In cell property data. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Improper radio parameter setting (Radio Link timeout. LTD. check SACCH multi-frames. and the timer for radio link connection (T3105).

power amplifier. − In TCH measurement function. tower amplifier. etc. many TCH seizure failures due to A interface problem. TRX alarm). All rights reserved Page 60 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..)  Judgment method − In TCH measure function. there are many call drops due to ground links. there are many TCH seizure failures due to equipment failure.  Disposing method − Monitor transmission and board alarms (FTC board failure. LAPD link disconnected. A interface PCM synchronization alarm. analyze whether transmission is disconnected or some boards are faulty.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Call Drop  Equipment problem (TRX. − In call drop measurement function. LTD.

LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Call Drop SDCCH call drop Refer to TCH call drop analysis. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. The cause and mechanism of SDCCH call drop are almost the same as TCH.. All rights reserved Page 61 .

Timer out 5. LTD.Illegal Carrier 3.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover Handover analysis Low Handover Success Rate Alarm (Clock).Illegal Channels 2. Hardware Fault Handover Measurement Function TCH Measurement Function Incoming Inter Cell Failure Outgoing Inter Cell Failure Cause of Failure in BSC Incoming Inter cell Handover Measurement Function Outgoing Inter cell Handover Measurement Function 1.No available channel 6. All rights reserved Page 62 .Illegal TA 4..Others HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

external clock) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − Hardware fault (TRX board fault). − Congestion − Interference − Coverage − Clock fault (Internal clock. All rights reserved Page 63 .. LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Handover failure analysis  Causes of handover failure − Improper handover parameters.

. − Register the task to measure the incoming cell handover and outgoing cell handover. − Compare the incoming cell handover failures and outgoing cell handover failures. LTD. − Find out handover failure relation (failure to all the neighbor cells or part of the neighbor cells). − Find the out the cells with high handover failures. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Handover failure analysis  Disposing method − Find out the cells with low handover success rate. All rights reserved Page 64 .

it indicates the edge handover threshold is too low. LTD. Check the parameter settings and adjust them (layer setting. layer handover hysteresis. − Check whether the average signal strength is low when the handover happens. PBGT threshold. If handover times divided by call times is larger than 3.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Improper parameter settings  Disposing method − Check whether the handover threshold such as TA. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. then it indicates that there may be ping-pong handover. inter cell handover hysteresis. BQ and handover function switch are suitable or not..). All rights reserved Page 65 . − Check whether the successful TCH seizures for handover are much more than successful TCH seizures for call. etc. If so.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − TCH availability is abnormal.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Hardware fault  Problem description − The target cell has idle channels but when applying for the channels CH_ACT_NACK or TIMEOUT message appears. LTD. the equipment may have some fault.. − If the call drop rate and congestion rate are both high. All rights reserved Page 66 .

TRX alarm). HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. A interface PCM sync alarm. − Check whether there is clock alarm. LAPD link disconnected.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Hardware fault  Disposing process − Monitor transmission and board alarms (FTC board failure. − Analyze whether the transmission is disconnected or the boards have some fault (for example: the TRX is damaged).. LTD. All rights reserved Page 67 .

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. check the cell’s traffic .  Locating the problem − In incoming inter cell handover measurement function. All rights reserved Page 68 . LTD. − Neighbor of the cell with low incoming handover success rate.. − For low incoming handover success rate.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Congestion  Objects needed to be analyzed − Cells with low incoming handover success rate. check the neighbor cell’s traffic. − For low outgoing handover success rate. check whether many handover failures are caused by congestion.

All rights reserved Page 69 .. and the antenna downtilt and height). RXLEVEL_ACCESS_MIN. − Expand or adjust TRX configuration between high and low traffic cells. LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-Handover  Congestion  Disposing process − Adjust the cell’s coverage (adjust BTS transmitting power. RACH access threshold. − Adjust parameters (CRO. load handover parameters. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. cell priority and handover parameters).

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 70 . Please write down the possible reasons that can cause the low radio handover success rate between BSCs. LTD.. The handovers are counted when sending or receiving HO_CMD or HO_REQ_RSP in the handover process.Question The item “radio handover success rate” is the ratio of successful handovers to handovers.

Then MS will send access request to a wrong cell. LTD. Thus the handover fails  If the target cell is a wrong cell which has the same BCCH and BSIC as the expected target cell.  The possible reasons are list as following. It has the same effect as the above one. MS will send access request to a wrong cell. the MS cannot access the target cell. Then MS cannot access.  If the CGI is wrong. One is intra-BSC handover.Answer  There are two kinds of outgoing handovers. All rights reserved Page 71 . MSC will send the handover request with wrong CGI. For inter-BSC handover:  If the uplink signal strength of the target cell is low. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Thus the handover fails. and the other is inter-BSC handover.

LTD. All rights reserved Page 72 ..Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  TCH congestion  Main causes − Insufficient system capacity − Interference − Coverage − Antenna and feeder problems − Improper parameter setting (system information parameters) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

cell priorities. LTD. Rx_Lev_Access_Min. etc.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Insufficient system capacity or traffic imbalanced  Judgment method − The traffic is high and is imbalanced between cells. height. − Incoming handover measurement shows that there are too many unsuccessful incoming cell handovers (congestion). All rights reserved Page 73 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. − There are many channel request rejections due to channel busy.). − Adjust parameters (CRO. load handover parameters.. antenna direction. handover parameters). downtilt.  Disposing process − Expand or adjust the configuration between high and low traffic cells − Adjust coverage (adjust BTS transmitting power.

. then MS reselects to another cell with low signal strength. LTD. − If TCH seizure failures (including handover) minus attempted TCH seizures meeting TCH overflow is large.  Disposing process − Refer to TCH call drop caused by interference. All rights reserved Page 74 . − Downlink Interference makes MS’s DSC decrease to 0.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Interference (external and internal interference)  Problem description − Interference brings unacceptable BER which affects the assignment process. and this is a potential reason for TCH seizure failure. then there may be some interference. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

− In Up-down link balance measurement function.Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Antenna and feeder problem  Disposing process − In cell frequency scan measurement function. check the measurement report numbers in each rank. LTD.. − Check antenna direction. check the measurement results got from main receiving antenna and diversity receiving antenna. downtilt and connection. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 75 .

handover threshold etc. All rights reserved Page 76 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Improper parameter settings  Check the relevant parameters such as RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. BTS transmitting power. LTD. CRO..

Traffic Statistics Analysis-TCH Congestion  Coverage  Refer to coverage analysis for TCH call drop rate. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 77 ..

. LTD. All rights reserved Page 78 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  SDCCH congestion  Main causes − Improper parameter settings (system information) − Insufficient system capacity − Improper LAC planning − Interference HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

T3212). MS Max Retrans. − Adjust the location update related parameters (dual-band network parameters such as CRO. It indicate whether there are some improper parameters in the system information. All rights reserved Page 79 . cell reselection hysteresis. Tx-integer). − The above formula shows the ratio between number of EST_IND messages that MS sends to BSC and the immediate assignment commands that BSC sends to BTS. RACH minimum access level.Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Improper parameter settings  Judgment method − Successful immediate assignments / immediate assignment transmissions >85%.  Disposing process − Adjust the access parameters (Random access error threshold. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Insufficient system capacity  Problem description − Many location updates happen at the border of different location areas. LTD. All rights reserved Page 80 . − Massive location updates happen simultaneously.  Disposing method − Properly plan the location area − Configure more SDCCHs − Use SDCCH dynamic allocation − Add more TRX HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 81 .Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Improper LAC planning  The border of different location area is the street.  The border of different location area is at the high traffic area. LTD.

All rights reserved Page 82 . − Interference in the system. which will bring a lot of illusory SDCCH channel requests. LTD.Traffic Statistics Analysis-SDCCH Congestion  Interference  Problem description − RACH minimum access level is low.  Disposing process − Properly set the RACH minimum access level − Eliminate the interference HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

.Chapter 1 Brief introduction to BSC traffic statistics Chapter 2 Often-used traffic statistics items analysis Chapter 3 Locate problem through traffic analysis Chapter 4 Case study for traffic statistics HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved Page 83 .

 Refer to busy hour traffic statistics of 3rd. The busy hour handover success rate does not get improved after expansion.Case Study-One (Handover)  Problem description  Handover success rate is always very low because of the congestion (about 70%)  In the evening of 3rd. Sometimes handover success rate is lower than before. lots of subscribers complain about the network quality. LTD. site D located in urban is expanded from “S2/2/2” to “S3/3/3”. At the same time. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 84 .. Dec. Dec.

Nov Cell Handover success rate Radio handover success rate Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (no channel available) Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (others) TCH congestion D_1 D_2 D_3 C_3 A_2 A_3 F_2 E_1 E_2 E_3 B_3 53.44% 91. LTD.06% 91.33% 0 0 0..22% 92.75% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Case Study-One (Handover) Traffic statistics for 24th.67% 61.36% 88.91% 95.67% 89.53% 397 389 314 502 0 0 0 26 0 0 0 All rights reserved 18 2 51 25 33 20 12 63 2 6 5 Page 85 47.80% 76. .73% 83.31% 40.07% 93.23% 48.02% 93.48% 90.25% 83.10% 94.98% 90.25% 78.36% 66.61% 0 0 0 5.14% 76.41% 49.82% 57.53% 67.40% 77.

3% 78.95% 58.71% 68.77% 50.56% 0.00% 0.56% 66.06% 0..3% 71.3% 82.Dec Cell Handover success rate Radio handover success rate Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (no channel available) Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (others) TCH congestion D_1 D_2 D_3 C_3 A_2 A_3 F_2 E_1 49.02% 60. LTD.58% 22.92% 60.00% 0.Case Study-One (Handover) Traffic statistics for 13th.27% 0. .60% 62.00% 0.69% 50.08% 17 1 0 113 0 0 0 1 246 161 86 166 0 0 13 55 5.75% 56.61% 63% 52.48% 65.61% 64.08% 66.00% 1.55% 68.95% 60.34% HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.45% 0 0 0 All rights reserved 20 0 11 Page 86 0.58% 70.00% E_2 E_3 B_3 61.37% 0.

LTD..Case Study-One (Handover) Site location HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved Page 87 .

Case Study-One (Handover)  Analysis  Analyzing the traffic statistics before expansion and after expansion.. Therefore we can suspect that the handover problem may be caused by site D. we find lots of cells’ radio handover success rate are low and these cells have handover relationship with site D. we find that before the expansion the handover failure is caused by congestion and the radio handover success rate is normal. All rights reserved Page 88 . In Urban area many cells’ radio handover success rate decreased after expansion.  Analyzing the urban site location diagram. therefore we conclude that the cause of handover failure after expansion has been changed. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

. the high call drop rate is caused by handover failures. Finally we affirm the low handover success rate is caused by the wrong setting of switches in TMU board. Thus the problem is solved.Case Study-One (Handover)  Analysis  After checking the hardware of site D through maintenance console. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the busy hour handover success rate is higher than 90%.  Refer to busy hour traffic statistics of 17th. LTD.  The day after processing. Dec. All rights reserved Page 89 . For sure. we find the state of TMU board is abnormal and clock is unstable.

80% Radio handover success rate 95. All rights reserved Page 90 .00% 0.47% 93.90% 96.92% D_1 D_2 D_3 C_3 A_2 A_3 F_2 E_1 E_2 E_3 B_3 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Case Study-One (Handover) Traffic statistics for 17th.Dec Cell Handover success rate 86.56% 98.40% 0.59% 93.00% 18..89% Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (no channel available) 47 10 0 80 1 0 0 1 0 0 10 Intra-BSC incoming handover failures (others) 10 15 10 7 21 6 1 6 2 1 1 TCH congestion 13.12% 89.94% 91. LTD.48% 0.84% 88.44% 0.55% 97.45% 96.57% 86.51% 94.00% 0.55% 97.58% 93.43% 92.00% 1.40% 91.26% 0.79% 95.47% 95.88% 96.00% 7.00% 3.09% 95.69% 93.

Case Study-One (Handover)  Conclusion and suggestion  Pay attention to the difference between radio handover success rate and handover success rate because it can help us to locate handover problem efficiently. All rights reserved Page 91 . it is an important clew for locating and solving problems. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..  Handover problem sometimes is accompanied with call drops and others. LTD.

.Case Study-Two (Call drop)  Fault description  When we analyze the traffic statistics.  In cell call drop measurement function. Result of rank 1 is 0. High call drop rate is caused by imbalance between uplink and downlink. we find that a cell’s call drop rate in busy hour is large than 2%. we find that the average uplink level of call drop is 1 (-109dBm). It means the downlink is better than uplink. LTD. while that of rank 11 is 5833. while the downlink level is 26 (-84dbm). but there may be some problem with the other one. All rights reserved Page 92 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  In up-down link balance measurement function: we find one TRX is normal.

the problem is solved. Therefore we think that the problem may be caused by the uplink channel of TRX or CDU. All rights reserved Page 93 . LTD.Case Study-Two (Call drop)  Analysis  We can exclude the problem of antenna and feeder because only one of the two TRXs is abnormal. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..  After we change the CDU.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. interference.  DT also is a effective method to find call drop problem. coverage etc.) and then register more detailed traffic measurement tasks. LTD. we can locate the cause of the call drop (handover.Case Study-Two (Call drop)  Conclusion and suggestion  To find the cause of call drop. All rights reserved Page 94 . we should register the following useful traffic statistics: − TCH measurement function − Call drop measurement function − Inter cell handover measurement function − Up-down link balance measurement function  By analyzing the result of the above traffic statistics.

All rights reserved Page 95 . LTD.Case Study-three (SDCCH congestion)  Fault description  In the network. Normally. After analyzing the traffic statistics. the radio link connection success rate is low. we find that it caused by SDCCH congestion and the congestion only exists in a few sites. The configuration of all the related BTSs is S1/1/1. attempted SDCCH seizures are from 300 to 400 in a certain hour. it can deal with 300-400 SDCCH seizures.  Analyzing traffic statistics we find that in the congested cell. But it is very strange that there are dozens of SDCCH congestions in busy hour.. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Each cell has one SDCCH/8 channel.

we find that the congested BTSs are located at the border of two location areas along the railway. When the trains pass by. All rights reserved Page 96 . After we analyze the site distribution. So we can conclude that SDCCH congestion shall be caused by massive location updates. We find that most of the SDCCH seizures are used for location update.. the problem is solved. a large amount of location updates happen simultaneously. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  After adding more fixed SDCCHs and switching on “Dynamic SDCCH allocation” function. we find that most of the location update happened in a specific 5 minutes. we find that 4 or 5 trains passed by in this period.Case Study-three (SDCCH congestion)  Analysis  Register “SDCCH measurement function” and analyze the result.  In SDCCH measurement function. After checking the train timetable. LTD.

 Set the parameter and plan the location area properly to decrease the SDCCH congestion.Case Study-three (SDCCH blocking)  Conclusion and suggestion  For SDCCH congestion. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Adding SDCCH channels or enabling dynamic SDCCH allocation function can solve the congestion caused by insufficient capacity. interference. location area planning etc. LTD. and then analyze the traffic statistics to find the cause of the problem (Location update.. call setup etc. SDCCH handover. firstly we should register SDCCH measurement function.. All rights reserved Page 97 .). to do further analysis.  Then check the parameter settings.

Summary Summary  Traffic statistics system basics  Key traffic measurement items  Traffic statistics analysis method  Some cases HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved Page 98 .

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