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Project Communications Management
According to the PMBOK® Guide, “Project Communications
Management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information”
A large proportion of the Project Managers time is spent in
communicating with team members and other project stakeholders
Communications Management Processes Include:
Identify Stakeholders Plan Communications Distribute Information Manage Stakeholder Expectations, and Report Performance
Project Communications Management cont…
Dimensions of Communication activity include the
Internal (within the project) and External (customer, media, the
public, other projects),
Formal (reports, briefings, memos) and Informal (ad-hoc discussions,
Vertical (up and down the organization) and horizontal (with peers), Official (newsletters, annual report) and unofficial (off the record
Written and Oral, and Verbal and non-verbal (Voice inflections, body language)
Project Communications Management cont…
Required Communication Skills include:
Questioning, probing ideas and situations to foster better understanding, Listening actively and effectively, Fact-finding to identify or confirm information, Educating to increase team’s knowledge Setting and managing expectations, Negotiating to achieve mutually acceptable agreements between parties, Persuading a person or organization to perform an action, Resolving conflict to prevent disruptive impacts, and Summarizing, recapping, and identifying the next steps
Identify Stakeholders This is the process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project. Inputs •CLICK HERE TO VIEW INPUTS 5 . involvement. and documenting relevant information regarding their interest. and impact on the project success.
Identify Stakeholders Cont… Tools and Techniques •Stakeholder Analysis •Expert Judgment 6 .
Identify Stakeholders Cont… Outputs •Stakeholder Register •Stakeholder Management Strategy 7 .
Plan Communications This is the process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach. Inputs •Stakeholder Register •Stakeholder Management Strategy •Enterprise Environmental Factors •Organizational Process Assets 8 .
Plan Communications Cont… Tool and Techniques •Communication Requirements Analysis •Communication Technology •Communication Model •Communication Methods 9 .
Plan Communications Cont… Outputs •Communications Management Plan •Project Documents Updates 10 .
Work Session You are managing a project with five people on the team. Draw in all the lines of communication on this picture. how many lines will you add if 2 more team members and 2 more stakeholders join? See Work Session Solution. 11 . plus one additional stakeholder – the sponsor. Using the formula n(n-1)/2.
• Inputs •CLICK HERE TO VIEW INPUTS 12 .Distribute Information • Distribute information – the process of making information available to project stakeholders as planned.
Distribute Information Cont… Tools and Techniques •CLICK HERE TO VIEW TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 13 .
Distribute Information Cont… Outputs •ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS UPDATES 14 .
Inputs •Stakeholder Register •Stakeholder Management Strategy •Project Management Plan •…view other inputs 15 .Manage Stakeholder Expectations The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.
Manage Stakeholder Expectations Cont… Tools and Techniques •CLICK HERE TO VIEW TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 16 .
Manage Stakeholder Expectations Cont… Outputs •CLICK HERE TO VIEW OUTPUTS 17 .
Report Performance This is the process of collecting and distributing performance information. progress measurements. including status reports. Inputs •Project Management Plan •Work Performance Information •…view remaining inputs 18 . and forecasts.
Report Performance Cont… Tools and Techniques •Variance Analysis •Forecasting Methods •…view remaining Tools & Techniques 19 .
Report Performance Cont… Outputs •Performance Reports •…view sample report •…view remaining Outputs 20 .
Review Questions 21 .
Inputs Project Charter . Lessons learned from past projects. and Governmental or Industry Standards. e.g. and stakeholder register from past projects.Identify Stakeholders . sponsor. stakeholder register templates.. etc. 22 . Organizational Culture and Structure. Organizational Process Assets – process assets that can influence this process are. Procurement Documents – parties involved in projects that result from procurement activity or contract are key project stakeholders. this includes suppliers and sub-contractors. Enterprise Environmental Factors – factors that can influence this process include. customers. team members.this can provide information about internal and external stakeholders involved in and affected by the project.
and classify them Other Classification Models include: •Power/Interest grid .based on ability to impose their will and urgency (need for immediate attention) Power/Interest Grid with Stakeholders Step 3: Assess possible key stakeholders reaction or response in various situations. knowledge levels. Stakeholder Analysis involves the following Steps: Step 1: Identify project stakeholders and relevant information. roles. and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interest should be considered during the project. departments. 23 . and influence (other stakeholders could be identified through interviewing) so as to define an approach strategy. Step 2: identify the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate. in order to plan how to influence them to enhance their support.Identify Stakeholders – Tools & Techniques Stakeholder Analysis – this is a process of methodically gathering. e. interests.g.based on authority and interest •Power/Influence grid – based on authority and influence •Influence/Impact grid – based on active involvement and impact •Salience Model .. expectations.
Identify Stakeholders – Tools & Techniques Expert Judgment .judgment and expertise should be sought from groups or individuals with specialized training or knowledge on subjects areas like: Identified key stakeholders Senior management Project managers who have experience on similar project areas Subject matter experts Professional and technical associations Industry groups and consultants Other units with the organization 24 .
Supporter/Neutral/Resistor. Contact Information Assessment– Major Requirements. Expectations. Location. Role in project. 25 . etc. Likely Influence in the project Stakeholder Classification – Internal/External.Identify Stakeholders – Outputs Stakeholder Register – this is the main output of the process and it contains the following: Identification Information – Name. Position.
It can be represented by a stakeholder analysis matrix.Identify Stakeholders – Outputs Stakeholder Management Strategy – this defines an approach to increase support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholders throughout the project life cycle. Stakeholder Stakeholder Interest Assessment of Impact Strategies for Gaining Support/Reducing Obstacles 26 .
27 .Input Enterprise Environmental Factors – Communication must be adapted to the project environment. hence. all environmental factors are relevant inputs to the process. as they provide insight into past project decisions. enterprise Organizational Process Assets – Lessons learned and historical information are very crucial inputs to this process.Plan Communications .
Communication Channels is n(n-1)/2. by combining the type and format of information needed and the value of the information. e.Plan Communications – Tools & Techniques Communication Requirements Analysis – this determines the information needs of the project stakeholders.g. The Project Manager also determines the number of potential communication channels or paths as an indicator of the complexity of a projects communications. a project with 10 stakeholders has 10(10-1)/2 =45 potential channels. 28 .. where n is the number of stakeholders.
written documents (schedules and online databases etc) Factors that affect project are : Urgency of the need for information – availability of frequently updated information Availability of Technology – do the intended stakeholders have access to a selected communications technology Expected Project Staffing – compatibility of communication systems with project participants expertise Duration of the Project – is the available technology likely to change before the project is over? Project Environment – are team member meetings and operations face-to-face or virtual? 29 . extended meetings.. brief conversations.g. e.Plan Communications – Tools & Techniques Communication Technology – this is the method used among stakeholders to transfer information.
e. unfamiliar technology.Plan Communications – Tools & Techniques Communication Models – basic model of communication that shows how information is sent and received between two parties (sender and receiver). Components of the model are: Encode – translation of others. thoughts or ideas into a language understood by Message and Feedback-message – the output of encoding. Medium – method used to convey the message. distance. 30 . etc.) Decode – translation of message back into meaningful thoughts and ideas..g. Noise – interference with transmission and comprehension of the message.
Plan Communications – Tools & Techniques Communication Methods – communication methods can be broadly classified into: Interactive Communication – between two or more parties performing a multidirectional exchange of information. faxes. and knowledge repositories etc. or for very large audiences. emails. voice mails. reports. memos. 31 . e-learning. it includes letters. press releases etc. Pull Communication – for very large volume of information. Push Communication – sent to specific recipients who need to know the information. intranet sites. the method includes.
Person responsible for communicating the information. Project Document Updates – project schedule. Methods for updating plan. Glossary of common terminology Flow charts of the information flow in the project. Stakeholder communication requirement. regulations. technology. Time frame and frequency of distribution. and stakeholder management strategy are documents that may be updated. Escalation process. Person responsible for authorizing release of confidential information. and organizational policies. Person or group who will receive information Technologies or methods of conveying information Resources allocated for communication activities. stakeholder register. and Communication constraints. e.Plan Communications – Output Communications Management Plan – is a subsidiary of the project management plan.. 32 . highly detailed or broadly framed. can be formal or informal. Reasons for the information distribution. The Communications Management Plan includes the following: Information to be communicated.g.
Work Session Solution Lines for 7 people = 7 x (7 – 1)/2 = (7 x 6)/2 = 21 If 2 more team members and 2 more stakeholders join: Lines for 11 people = 11 x (11 – 1)/2 = (11 x 10)/2 = 55 The number of lines added = lines for 11 people – lines for 7 people = 55 -21 = 34 33 .
– contains the Performance Reports – are used to distribute project performance and status information.Distribute Information . and Historical Information and lessons learned 34 . procedures. Organizational Process Assets – include: policies. and guidelines pertaining to information distribution Templates. They should be current and precise.Inputs Project Management Plan communications management plan.
like video and audio conferences. video and web conferencing. like telephone. and Electronic communication and conferencing tools. collaborative work management tools. and shared-access electronic databases Electronic tools like web interfaces. scheduling and PM software. computer chats. websites and web publishing tools. fax. 35 . press releases. portals. virtual office support software. voice mail.Distribute Information – Tools & techniques Communication Methods. individual and group meetings etc. e-mail. Information Distribution Tools – including the following: Manual filing system. hard-copy document distribution.
Lessons Learned Documentation – including causes of issues. Project Reports – formal and informal project reports describing status. issue logs. Project Records – including memos. Feedback from Stakeholders – concerning project operations can be used to modify or improve future project performance. and general project status. correspondences. Project Presentations – formal or informal presentation of information to stakeholders. lessons learned. etc.Distribute Information – Output Organizational Process Assets Updates – include: Stakeholder Notifications – stakeholders receive information about approved changes. meeting minutes. reasoning behind corrective actions taken. and other document describing the project. and outputs from knowledge areas. resolved issues. closure reports. 36 .
cost. Issues are stated and categorized based on urgency and potential impact.Manage Stakeholder Expectations – Inputs Issue Log or Action Log . and Historical information about past projects. 37 . must be communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Organizational Process Assets – include the following: Issue management procedure. and risk. The changes and their impact to the project in terms of time.is used to document and monitor the resolution of issues. Organizational communication requirements. Change control procedures. Change Log – is used to document change that occurs during a project.
Interpersonal Skills – examples include: Resolving Conflict. Presentation skills. Public speaking. and Overcoming resistance to change and are utilized during Management Skills – include the following: Negotiating. Active listening.Manage Stakeholder Expectations – Tools & Techniques Communications Methods – identified for each stakeholder in the communications management plan. and Writing skills 38 . stakeholder management. Building trust.
Project Document Updates – include updates to: Stakeholder Management Strategy Stakeholder Register Issue Log 39 .Manage Stakeholder Expectations – Outputs Organizational Process Assets Updates – include the following: Reasoning behind corrective actions. Causes of issues. this may also include corrective or preventive actions. and Lessons learned from managing stakeholder expectations Change requests – may result to the product or project due to this process. Project Management Plan Updates – include communications management plan.
to which project execution is compared.Inputs Project Management Plan – provides information on project baselines.Report Performance . Performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for project work. and Costs incurred. Work Performance Information – from project activities is collected on performance results like: Schedule Progress Deliverable status. 40 . and deviations are measured for management control.
These include the following: planned versus actual schedule performance Planned versus actual cost performance. and Defined variance limits. as well as estimates for the completion of total project work. Policies and procedures defining measures to be used. Organizational Process Assets – for Report Performance process include: Report Templates. Budget Forecast – information from the Control Cost process gives information on additional funds required for the remaining work.Inputs Work Performance Measurements – used to generate project activity metrics to evaluate actual progress compared to planned progress.Report Performance . 41 . and Planned versus actual technical performance.
42 . consistent with past data and credible for comparison Determine variances. comparing the actual information with the project baseline and noting all differences Determine the impact of the variances in the project cost and schedule as well as in other project areas. Typical steps of Variance Analysis are: Verify the quality of information collected to ensure it is complete.Report Performance – Tools & Techniques Variance Analysis – is an after-the-fact evaluation of what caused a difference between the baseline and the actual performance.
and forecast by analogy. extrapolation. probability estimates. e. e. Judgmental methods – incorporate intuitive judgments. and opinions. sales of umbrella might be associated with weather conditions. surveys. Other methods – are simulation. and ensemble forecasting. Delphi method. trend estimation. earned value. Causal/econometric methods – assumption that it is possible to identify the underlying factor influencing a variable. e. Categories of forecasting: Time series methods – historical data is used as the basis for estimating future outcomes.g. moving average.. scenario building. linear prediction.g... 43 . technology forecasting.Report Performance – Tools & Techniques Forecasting Methods – is the process of predicting future project performance based on the actual performance to date.g. and growth curve.
Report Performance – Tools & Techniques Communication Methods – like status review meetings can be used to evaluate information about project performance and progress. 44 . and performance. and distribute information to stakeholders about schedule progress. cost. Reporting Systems – provide a standard tool for the project manager to capture. store.
Report Performance – Outputs Performance Reports – organize and summarize information gathered. and present the results of any analysis as compared to the performance measurement baseline. and Other relevant information 45 . Reports may include: Current status of risks and issues Analysis of past performance Work completed during reporting period Work to be completed during the next reporting period Summary of changes approved in the period Results of variance analysis Forecasted project completion.
Performance Report Sample 46 .
47 . Change Requests – may be generated. and Recommended preventive actions can reduce probability of incurring future negative performance. reasoning behind corrective actions taken etc). and they are processed through Perform Integrated Change Control process as follows: Recommended corrective actions are changes that bring expected future performance in alignment with project management plan.Report Performance – Outputs Organizational Process Assets Updates – include report formats and lessons learned documentation (causes of issues.
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