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The student may have already been introduced to them in the form of current sources at a node. Current injections may be either positive (into the bus) or negative (out of the bus). Unlike current flowing through a branch (and thus is a branch quantity), a current injection is a nodal quantity. The admittance matrix, a fundamental network analysis tool that we shall use heavily, relates current injections at a bus to the bus voltages. Thus, the admittance matrix relates nodal quantities. We motivate these ideas by introducing a simple example. Figure 1 shows a network represented in a hybrid fashion using one-line diagram representation for the nodes (buses 1-4) and

1

1 Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) requires that each of the current injections be equal to the sum of the currents flowing out of the bus 2 . The branches connecting the nodes represent lines. All branches are denoted with their admittance values yij for a branch connecting bus i to bus j and y i for a shunt element at bus i. The branches to ground represent any shunt elements at the buses. 1 y13 2 3 4 I1 y12 y1 y2 I2 y34 y23 y3 I3 I4 y4 Fig. including the charging capacitance at either end of the line. The current injections at each bus i are denoted by Ii.circuit representation for the branches connecting the nodes and the branches to ground.

we have: I1=(V1-V2)y12 + (V1-V3)y13 + (V1-V4)y14 + V1y1 (2) Note that the current contribution of the term containing y14 is zero since y14 is zero. or to the ground. which implies that the corresponding admittance y14 is zero. we have: 3 . Rearranging eq. I=V/z=Vy. (2). The advantage to doing this is that it allows us to consider that bus 1 could be connected to any bus in the network. Therefore. Then. the current injected into bus 1 may be written as: I1=(V1-V2)y12 + (V1-V3)y13 + V1y1 (1) To be complete. recalling Ohm’s Law.and into the lines connecting the bus to other buses. we may also consider that bus 1 is “connected” to bus 4 through an infinite impedance.

.e. yki=yik From eqs. (3-6). 3.I1= V1( y1 + y12 + y13 + y14) + V2(-y12)+ V3(-y13) + V4(-y14) (3) Similarly. we may write these equations in a more compact form using matrices according to: 4 . and 4 as: I2= V1(-y21) + V2( y2 + y21 + y23 + y24) + V3(-y23) + V4(-y24) I3= V1(-y31)+ V2(-y32) + V3( y3 + y31 + y32 + y34) + V4(-y34) I4= V1(-y41)+ V2(-y42) + V3(-y34) + V4( y4 + y41 + y42 + y43) (4) (5) (6) where we recognize that the admittance of the circuit from bus k to bus i is the same as the admittance from bus i to bus k. i. we may develop the current injections at buses 2. Therefore. we see that the current injections are linear functions of the nodal voltages.

we rewrite eq. also known as the Y-bus. (8) as: Y11 Y Y = 21 Y31 Y41 Y12 Y22 Y32 Y42 Y13 Y23 Y33 Y43 Y14 Y24 Y34 Y44 (9) 5 . (7) is the admittance matrix. I 1 y1 + y12 + y13 + y14 I − y 21 2 = I3 − y 31 − y 41 I4 − y12 y 2 + y 21 + y 23 + y 24 − y 32 − y 42 − y13 − y 23 y 3 + y 31 + y 32 + y 34 − y 43 V1 V 2 V3 − y 34 y 4 + y 41 + y 42 + y 43 V4 − y14 − y 24 (7) The matrix containing the network admittances in eq. column j. as Yij. and denoted as: y1 + y12 + y13 + y14 − y 21 Y= − y 31 − y 41 − y12 y 2 + y 21 + y 23 + y 24 − y 32 − y 42 − y13 − y 23 y 3 + y 31 + y 32 + y 34 − y 43 − y14 − y 24 − y 34 y 4 + y 41 + y 42 + y 43 (8) Denoting the element in row i.

where the terms Yij are not admittances but rather elements of the admittance matrix.. eq. 1. The matrix is symmetric. These observations hold true for any linear network of any size. i. 2. we may write eq. (10) and (11). A diagonal element Yii is obtained as the sum of admittances for all branches connected to bus i. Therefore. Yij=Yji. (7) becomes: I 1 Y11 I Y 2 = 21 I 3 Y31 I 4 Y41 Y12 Y22 Y32 Y42 Y13 Y23 Y33 Y43 Y14 V1 Y24 V 2 Y34 V3 Y44 V 4 (10) By defining the vectors V and I.e. (10) in compact form according to: V1 V V = 2 . including the shunt 6 . V3 V4 I1 I I = 2 I3 I4 ⇒ I =Y V (11) We make several observations about the admittance matrix given in eqs.

e.e. 2. These observations enable us to formulate the admittance matrix very quickly from the network based on visual inspection. where the numbers indicate admittances. The off-diagonal elements are the negative of the admittances connecting buses i and j.. branch. k ≠i ik N Example: Consider the network given in Fig.. Yii = y i + k =1. 3.∑y . i. where we emphasize once again that yik is non-zero only when there exists a physical connection between buses i and k. 7 . i. Yij=-yji. The following example will clarify.

4 2-j5 j0.3 j0.8 − 2 + j 5 Y34 − 1 + j 4 − 2 + j 5 5 − j11.1 1-j4 2 2-j4 3 2-j3 4 I1 I2 j0.6 0 0 by Y14 3 − j 7.2 I4 j0. 2 The admittance inspection as: Y11 Y Y = 21 Y31 Y41 Y12 Y22 Y32 Y42 Y13 Y23 Y33 Y43 matrix is given − 2 + j 3 2 − j 2 .1 I3 Fig.9 − 2 + j 4 − 1 + j 4 Y24 = − 2 + j 4 4 − j8.7 Y44 0 0 − 2 + j3 8 .

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