HYDRAULICALLY DESIGNED AUTOMATIC

FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM
NODAL ANALYSIS
by
ABNER V. PAHILANGA
bsee , bsme, pee, mba

IS THE STUDY OF A FLUID FLOW CHARACTERISTIC OF A PIPING NETWORK.IN A COMPLEX PIPING NETWORK OF AN AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM. USING THE PRINCIPLES OF LOOP AND NODE SOLUTIONS OF AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS. ANALOGY VOLTAGE CURRENT TO TO PRESSURE DISCHARGE .NODAL ANALYSIS . IT IS SIMILAR TO AN ANALYSIS OF A LOOP AND NODE OF A KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW OR OF KIRCHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW .

85 1. 1.85 P = [ Q / 357 ] p = [ Q / 2068 ] For RISER PIPE – D’ ARCHY-WEISBACH FORMULA 1.52 Q / c d c = roughness factor = 120 d – in inches ASTM std Q – discharge in gpm p – pressure drop psi / ft 1 in dia.98 ] 1 ¼ in dia.85 2 1/2 in dia. 1.85 4 in dia.6L Q / h x 1000 ] ( fairly smooth pipe )  .85 4.85 P = [ Q / 185 ] p = [ Q / 1008 ] 2 in dia. 1. 1.85 P = [ Q / 123.97 d = [ 1. 1.4 ] p = [ Q / 563 ] 1 ½ in dia.85 P = [ Q / 59.87 PIPE IS STEEL P = 4.FORMULA USED:  HAZEN – WILLIAMS FORMULA 1.86 1 / 4.85 3 in dia 1. 1.

5 Q = k [p] Q in gpm p in psi TABLE OF k VALUES of sprinklers Nominal Orifice Size k factor 5 /16” 1.6 – 2.2.4 1 /2” 5.5 SOURCE : NFPA 13 .FORMULA USED: FOR THE SPRINKLER NOZLE DISCHARGE 0.1989 .8 .4 – 8.0 – 4.3 – 5.9 7/16” 4.2 5/8” 11 – 11.0 3/8” 2.8 ( standard ) 17/32” 7.

RESIDUAL PRESSURE TO THE APPLIED AREA -----3.0. 3. RESIDUAL AT THE BASE OF THE RISER ------ .1300 SF DESIGNED IN THE OPERATION --------. DISCHARGE GPM -----2. DENSITY AREA OF DISCHARGE NO OF SPRINKLERS -----------.130 SF SYSTEM DEMAND : 1.HYDRAULICALLY DESIGNED FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM    PROJECT : LOCATION: TOTAL NO OF SPRINKLERS : BASIS OF DESIGNED :  1.16 GPM / SF -----------.              2. DISCHARGE AREA PER SPRINKLER ------------.13 pcs 4.

 NODAL ANALYSIS A B I1  I1 = I2 + I3 I2 I3 AMPS AMPS Q1 Q1 = Q2 + Q3 A B Q2 Q3 GPM GPM .

 NODAL ANALYSIS p = pressure drop Q = gpm discharge v = voltage drop I = current (amp)    V1 VT V3 A B I1 I3 V2 V4 I2 I4 P4 P1 P3 Q1 Q3 P2 Q2 Q4 .

f S S 1” 8’ 2.5 Q = k [ p] 2 2 P1 = [ Q / 4 ] = [ 20.16 gpm/sq. 1.5 in dia. Discharge density = 0.8 gpm 0. 2. what is the pressure and the demand gpm at the junction T.8 / 4 ] = 27 psi .16 x 130 = 20.ft .demand area / sprinkler is 130 s. what is the pressure at junction S of the cross main and branch line . Using k = 4 for a 7/16” nozzle of a sprinkler on a light hazard area . EXAMPLE: A branch line of designated size of pipe is connected to a cross main of 2. Q1 = 0.5” T 9’ A 1” 1” 7’ Q2 8’ B 1” 5” Q1 Solve for the discharge of the farthest sprinkler .

83 ] = 21.88 gpm Pressure @ junction T .85 P = [ 21.78 ] = 21.08 gpm Q total = Q1 + Q2 = 20.98] x 13 = 0.85 Pa-b-s = [ Q / 59.5 0.85 1.046 psi Pressure @ spklr = 28.                  Pressure drop P a-b.5 Q of spklr = k [ p ] = 4 x [ 27.1495 psi / ft P a-s = 7 x 0.83 – 1.spklr 1.1495 = 1.83 as 1st trial 0.5 Q=k[p] = 4 x[ 28.046 = 27.83 = 28.14 x 13 = 1.83 psi Pressure @ A pA = P + Pabs = 27 + 1.78 psi 0.98 ] x 13 = [ 20.83 psi Discharge Q2 Assume p = 28.4 / 60 ] = 0.8 + 21.08 = 41.5 0.4 gpm 1.8 /59.

62 = 28.45 psi  2.83 + 4.45 psi 2.008 psi / ft P t = 8 x 0.064 = 33.88 / 60 ] = 0.514 = 4.88 gpm . Pressure and demand gpm @ junction T 2.62 = 33. Pressure @ junction T 1’ dia pipe 1.5” dia pipe                1.1 P@T = 33.008 = 0.62 psi P @ junction S = Pa + 4.514 psi 2.45 + 0.514 psi / ft Pt= 9 x 0.2 demand gpm = 41.85 P = [ Qt / 60 ] = [ 41.514 psi SUMMARY OF RESULTS: 1.85 1.5” pipe P @T = 33.064 psi Pressure @ junction T = pS + p drop 2. Pressure @ junction S = 33.88 / 563 ] = 0.85 P = [ Qt / 563 ] = [ 41.85 1.

3 7 2.9 9 2.5 265 80.1 18 5.7 3.1 15 4.1 24 7.6 135 41.9 2 50 55 16.4 40 12.7 12 1.8 88 26.Table 2 .3 2.8 25 7.2 5 130 140 42.8 165 50.9 0.7 1 0.7 20 6.8 6 1.9 180 54.6 130 39.6 58 17.9 25 7.6 13 4 120 36.1 24 7.3 8 2.4 1 25 29 8.5 12 300 320 97.8 0.6 58 17.3 10 3 same as 1 1/4 32 38 11.6 3 80 84 25.1 60 18./2 12 18 5.2 41 12.4 9 2.5 1.8 2.2 5 1. / 8 10 17 5 8 2.8 0.7 200 61 24 600 610 186 320 97.2 55 10.6 0.1 7 2.9 85 25.7 80 24.2 1 30 9.8 0.1 85 25.5 18 5.6 14 350 360 110 185 56.5 1.8 50 15.5 165 50.4 155 47.1 35 10.7 35 10.5 41 12.2 155 47.2 15 4.7 71 21.7 0.1 115 35.9 17 5 150 45.2 .1 2 1/2 60 69 21 35 10.6 240 73.2 6 150 170 51.8 3.5 9 2.6 20 6.7 9 2.6 235 71.5 14 4.3 130 39.5 50 15.1 8 200 220 67.1 145 44.3 globe valve 1 1/2 40 43 13.7 4 100 120 36.1 0.5 235 71.5 16 4.6 43 13.3 47 14.6 1.1 0.7 7 2.3 24 7.7 6 1.6 12 3.7 0.2 105 32 105 32 12 3.6 22 6./4 20 22 6.7 58 17.7 47 14.6 15 4.1 16 400 410 125 210 64 180 54.7 18 450 460 140 240 73.5 1.2 200 61 200 61 19 5.5 0.2 6 1.8 70 21.8 30 9. globe valve 60deg wye valve 45deg wye valve angle valve gate valve swing check valve lift check valve in mm ft m ft m ft m ft m ft m ft m spring loaded 3.7 29 8.7 11 3.8 265 80.5 4 1.8 15 4.3 4.3 20 500 520 159 275 83.4 6 1.1 3 1/2 90 100 30.7 100 30.4 10 250 280 85.8 29 8. Valve Losses in Equivalent Meters of pipe source : Mechanical Engineer's Handbook nominal pipe dia.3 70 21.

46 4 1.83 1. 90deg std elbow 45deg std elbow 90deg side tee coupling or straight run tee in mm ft m ft m ft m ft m 3.52 3 0.22 0.5 0.5 0.52 12 3.27 1 1/4 32 4 1.4 0.4 4 1.6 1.26 8 2.66 7 2.37 1 1/2 40 5 1.6 0.9 0.46 2 50 7 2.18 10 3 25 7.37 3 0.2 2.91 3 1/2 90 12 3.8 0.65 30 9.83 .52 6 150 20 6 12 3.18 3.5 0.2 0.61 2 1/2 60 8 2.46 0.44 21 6.2 0.73 6 1.13 18 5.52 0.8 0.13 4 1.24 1 25 3 0.83 15 4.55 5 1.1 4 100 14 4.48 3.3 0.6 0.5 0.44 5 1.9 0.13 1.9 1.66 2.3 0.9 1./2 12 2 0.7 1.Table 3 Equivalent Length of Pipe Fittings Losses Source : Mechanical Engineer's Handbook nominal pipe dia.76 3 80 10 3 6 1.57 3 0.62 5 1.1 6 1. /8 10 1 0.18 1.91 7 2.6 1.5 0./4 20 2.22 10 3 2 0.22 5 130 17 5.

1989 Orifice Type small small small small standard large extra large K Factor 1.4.3 50 75 100 140 200 .5 % of Nominal 1 / 2 in discharge 25 33.8 SPRINKLER DESIGN GUIDELINES PART A : Sprinkler Heads Discharge Characteristics Nominal Orifice size ( in ) ¼ 5/16 3/8 7/16 ½ 17/32 5/8 Source : NFPA 13 .2 11.5 1.TABLE 13.9 4.4 5.6 – 2.3 – 5.8 – 2.8 7.0 – 11.3 – 1.4 – 8.0 .0 2.

of sprinkler above and below a ceiling 1 1 1 2 2 “ ¼ “ ½“ “ ½“ STEEL 2 sprinkler 4 “ 7 “ 15 “ 50 “ COPPER 1“ 1¼ “ 1½ “ 2“ 2½“ 2 sprinkler 4 “ 7 “ 18 “ 50 “ .8 SPRINKLER DESIGN GUIDELINES Part D Sprinkler Pipe Sizes Light Hazard : Branch Lines shall not exceed 8 sprinkler on either side of cross main No.TABLE 13. of sprinkler at ceiling STEEL COPPER 1 2 2 3 3 4 “ pipe “ 1/2 “ “ ½ “ “ 2 sprinkler 1½ 5 sprinkler 10 “ 2“ 12 “ 30 “ 2½“ 40 “ 60 “ 3“ 65 “ 100 “ 3½ “ 115 “ ( this size do not apply to systems that are hydraulically designed ) No.

8 Sprinkler Design Guidelines Ordinary Hazard: Branch Lines shall not exceed 8 sprinklers on either side of the cross main No. of sprinkler above and below a ceiling STEEL 1 1 1 2 2 3 “ ¼“ ½“ “ ½“ “ COPPER 2 sprinklers 4 “ 7 “ 15 “ 30 “ 60 “ 1“ 1¼“ 1½“ 2“ 2½“ 3“ 2 sprinklers 4 “ 7 “ 18 “ 40 “ 65 “ . of sprinkler at ceiling STEEL COPPER 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 8 “ PIPE ¼“ ½ “ “ ½“ “ ½“ “ “ “ “ 2 sprinkler 1 “ tube 2 sprinkler 3 “ 1¼“ 3 “ 5 “ 1½“ 5 “ 10 “ 2“ 12 “ 20 2½“ 25 “ 40 “ 3“ 45 “ 65 “ 3½“ 75 “ 100 “ 4“ 115 “ 160 “ 5“ 180 “ 275 “ 6“ 300 “ ( this sizes do not apply to system that are hydraulically designed ) No.TABLE 13.

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