Grammar : The Units of English English grammar is here understood as the body of rules describing the properties of the

English language. A language is such that its elements must be combined according to certain patterns. This article is concerned with (and restricted to) morphology, the building blocks of language, and syntax, the construction of meaningful phrases, clauses and sentences with the use of morphemes and words.
Let us start with the Units of English.What is called a UNIT? A Unit is a basic part, many of which bring out the whole. Units make a word or a sentence complete.

There are FIVE UNITS. 1. Letter 2. Word 3. Phrase 4.Clause 5.Sencente

1.Letter: There are twenty six letters in English language: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z . These letters have been written in Capital forms. The same letters can also be written in Small forms: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y and z. All these twenty-six letters are collectively called ALPHABET. So the alphabet of English language has twenty-six letters. These twenty-six letters can be classified into two groups. They are: I. Consonants b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y and z. are called CONSONANTS. That means there are 21 consonants. II. Vowels a, e, i. o and u are called VOWELS. That means there are five vowels. 2.Word: A word converts the group of letters into a meaningful one. A word plays a pivotal role in the Units of English. A word is a group of letters with a meaning. Ball, nation, ocean, boy, courage, install, save and organization are words. 3.Phrase: This is another important Unit in the Units of English. A phrase is a group of words without a subject and a predicate but with a meaning. Let us see few phrases.
1.The leader of the group. 2.The red ball. 3.Your class-mates.

If the most important word in a phrase is a noun, it is called a Nominal phrase or a Noun phrase. In the examples given above, the first six phrases have nouns as the most important words. “The leader of the group” has the noun “leader” as the most important word in that phrase. “The red ball” has the noun “ball” as the most important word in that phrase. So they are called Nominal phrase or Noun phrase. Few more examples for Nominal phrases: 1.All the admitted students. 2.Tax-payers from that state. 3.Only English teachers . If the most important word in the phrase is verb, that phrase is called Verbal phrase. Few more examples for Verbal phrases: 1.To cultivate the . 2.To study into night. 3.To go around the city. 4.Clause: A clause is a group of words, with a subject and a predicate having a meaning.

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Note: A phrase does not have a subject and a predicate. But a clause has both. 1.You are my best friend. 2.It is not possible for him to do that now.

3. As the election is declared. If clause is conveying the complete meaning, it is called Main clause. The clause You are my best friend conveys the complete meaning. So it is called the Main clause. Few more examples for main clauses: 1.His letter is full of eulogies. 2.The magicians have not yet come. 3.Red-colored cars have very good demand. If the meaning of the clause is incomplete, then that clause is called subordinate clause. The clause mentioned above “if you are qualified” does not have a complete meaning. So that clause is called subordinate clause
Few more examples for subordinate clauses:

1.It is possible only when. 2.Unless you score high marks. 3.Since your age is below 21. Subordinate clauses begin with words such as: Who, whom, whose, which, that, unless, as, because, when,
how, where, what, since, etc..

Note: A. There can not be a sentence without a Main clause. B. In few sentences, the subordinate clause may occur between two parts of a main clause.
5.Sentence:

A sentence is a group of clauses, conveying a complete meaning. A sentence is the form which carries all the five Units of English by remaining one of the five Units of English. Examples: 1.It is possible only when all the members support this project. ( 1 main clause and 1 subordinate clause). 2.When you come to my house, please, bring that book. (1 main clause and 1 subordinate clause). 3.He is intelligent but he is lazy. (2 main clauses). Grammar : Parts of Speech
The words constitute the Parts of Speech. The words used to the functions carried out by those words in a sentence. Those EIGHT PARTS are: 1. Noun 2. Verb 3. Adjective 4. Adverb in English are divided into eight parts according 5.Pronoun 6.Preposition 7.Conjunction 8.Interjection

1.Noun
A noun is a word used as a name of a person, place, thing, state, quality, activity, action etc... Examples: • Mr. John is our English teacher. In this sentence the words “Mr. John” and “teacher” are nouns. • Harvard University is the oldest University. In this sentence the words “Harvard” and “University” are nouns. • He is my best friend. In this sentence, the words “He” and “friend” are nouns. Nouns can be classified into four Noun-Types. I.Proper noun: A proper noun is the name given to a particular person:Mr.Peter, Hemingway, Kennedy, London, Italy, Mango and California . Examples: • Italy is a developed country. In this sentence, Italy is a Proper Noun. • Mr. Clinton is good administrator. In this sentence, Mr. Clinton is a proper noun. • Ford is a car producing company. In this sentence, the word Ford is a proper noun. II.Common noun:
A common noun is a name given in common to persons and things belonging to the same species. Examples:

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• Laughter heals many deceases. Neuter gender: A noun is said to be in the neuter gender if it refers to a member of a species which is neither a male nor a female.• Italy is a developed country. In this sentence the word country is a common noun which could be used for other countries like India. Few other collective nouns are police.Mare 2. youth. truth. girl. slowness. Fleet means a group of ships. • Stars are not visible in the day-time.Bee 10. pencil and computer are few of the neuter nouns which We use regularly. • A fleet of ships is sailing deep along the western coast. tree. In this sentence. member. vacancy. hotel. Feminine gender: A noun is said to be in the feminine gender if it refers to a female member of a species: woman. woman. • A Parliamentarian should have command over his language. Italy is a proper noun. 4. Example: • Computer has brought about drastic changes in our lives. are abstract nouns which we could only understand but could not see or touch. • Books are our best friend. Normally nouns referring to lifeless objects are in neuter nouns.Collective noun: A collective noun is the name given to a collection or group of persons or things taken as a single group or entity. humility. Example: • A child is playing in the play-ground. goodness. empress. Wizard----. wisdom. Dog----. servant.Spinster 6. galaxy. England.Heiress 3 . Bachelor----. lion. candidate.Heifer 8. • Sleep regenerates our energy-system. 1. Masculine gender: A noun is said to be in the Masculine gender if it refers to a male character a species: man. lioness.Maid 7. Common gender: A noun is said to be in Common gender if it refers to a member of species which can be a male or a female:child. the words kindness. Brazil etc… Man. mountain. car. . book. Table. horse and actor are nouns of masculine gender. Examples: • A herd of cows is crossing the road. city. friend. III. cow and actress are few of the feminine-gender nouns that we use. Examples: • Kindness is expected of everyone. there are FOUR GENDERS. applicant. fleet and army are collective nouns. novelty. • A developed country has more responsibilities. king. hero. river. or member of Example: • A boy is playing in the play-ground. Horse----. sanity. Example: • A girl is playing in the play-ground. family. tree. country. student. justness. Germany. niece. Another type in Noun-Types is Common Noun. • Heroine of the movie is not a native of this country. star. mare. 2. Bachelor----. pride. movement. street. Bullock----. Herd means a group of cattle. gang. mountain are common nouns which we use in our day-to-day lives. Drone-----. Nephew----. boy. Heir----. beauty.Bitch 9. paper.Niece 3. fruit.Witch 5.Jewess 4. 3. sleep. laughter. mercy. • Hero of the movie is not a native of this country. • Army is called to rescue the boy caught in the flood. length. etc In Grammar-Nouns. team etc… IV. Abstract noun: An abstract noun is the name given to a quality or action or state which we can understand but we can not touch and see. In these sentences the words herd. depth. Jew----. book. Masculine genders-----Feminine genders 1. parliamentarian and leader are few of the common-gender nouns. Other abstract nouns are quality. In these sentences.

11. “You” is in vocative case.NOUN-CASES is another topic which comes under NOUN. We_________________us____________________our 4 . Lion----. There should not be a preposition before the indirect object because in that case it will be the object of that preposition. “Your sister” is in objective case.Shepherdess 14. (“Your” is in possessive case. Emperor----. • The book is on the table. A noun or pronoun in the possessive case is governed by the noun that follows it. Vocative case: A noun or a pronoun is said to be in Vocative case if it is used to call (or to get the attention of) a person or persons.Duchess 2. Monk----. Ox----. Examples: • The Postman brought me a letter. Ram is an intelligent boy. Host----. Examples: • You there.Cow 23. • Get him a pen. Duck----. The painter is a common noun in Nominative case. 5. “Brother” is in vocative case.Poetess 13. all the letters are posted two days ago. Ram is a proper noun in Nominative case. “Me” is in dative case. • It is our idea.Aunt 28. • Nominative case • Objective case (or Accusative case) • Dative case • Possessive case (or Genitive case) • Vocative case 1. “Mangoes” is in objective case.Objective case (or Accusative case): Nouns or pronouns are said to be in Objective cases if they are the direct objects of verbs or if they are the objects of preposition. “Him” is in dative case. I __________________ me__________________ my 2. 4. Gentleman----.Actress 26. Shepherd----. Nominative case ________Objective case_________ Possessive case 1. Benefactor----. if it denotes possession or ownership.Lioness 21. Possessive case (Genitive case): A noun is said to be in possessive case. • Brother. The CASE of a noun tells us about the position of that noun in a sentence. Poet----.Empress 18. Examples: • This is your pencil. “Table” is in objective case. (Indirect object of the verb is the noun for whom or for which the action of the verb is carried out). Manager----. “I” is a pronoun in Nominative case. Negro----. Uncle----. a letter for you. Traitor----. The nouns do not change their forms in the Nominative and Objective cases. Bull----. “John’s” is in possessive case. • John’s sister has been hospitalized. 3. Tiger----.Nun 29. (Direct object is the person or the thing upon whom or upon which the action of the verb is carried out). “Chairman” is in vocative case.Princess 20. Mr.Mayoress 24.Traitress 19. Nominative case: A noun is said to be in the Nominative case if it is the subject of a verb.Lady 30. Actor----. “Our” is in possessive case. • I am buying vegetables for my family. • The vendors sell mangoes.Negress 17. In English there are FIVE CASES.Manageress 12. Examples: • I met your sister. stand up. Hunter----.Benefactress 15. 2. • The painter paints the portraits. Mayor----. Dative case:A noun is said to be in dative case if it is the Indirect object of the verb.Tigress 25. (SUBJECT is the person or the thing who or which carries out the action of the verb in the sentence) Examples: • Mr. • Chairman.Cow 22.Huntress 16. But few pronouns change their forms between Nominative and Objective cases. Prince----.Hostress 27.

Plural: When we speak about more than one person and one thing. the words men. Plural means many. These chairs are made of plastic. the nouns man. By suffixing en to the singular. Children and knives are plural-nouns.By suffixing es to the singular-noun Examples: • Glass-glasses • Bench-benches • Bush-bushes • Church-churches • Watch-watches • Potato-potatoes 3. A group of cows is called Herd. we use the noun in singular form. Examples: • Man-men • Woman-women • Foot-feet 5. group. By changing the last letter y into ies. groups. Examples: a. How to form plural from singular? 1. The groups of cows. 5. In these sentences. Examples: • • • • • Thief-thieves Life-lives Wife-wives Calf-calves Wolf-wolves • Leaf-leaves • Shelf-shelves • Tooth-teeth • Goose-geese 5 . b. church and chair are in singular forms. By suffixing s to the singular-noun. 4. 1. A man is smoking within the premises. c. we use the noun in plural form. Examples: • Baby-babies • Lady-ladies • Story-stories • Momento-momentos • Dynamo-dynamos • Piano-pianos • • • • Buffalo-buffaloes Negro-negroes Hero-heroes Echo-eches • City-cities • Army-armies 4. 6. joy. Examples: a. You________________ You___________________your He_________________ him____________________his She_________________her_____________________her It___________________it_______________________its They_________________them______________________their Noun-Number There are two numbers in Noun-Number: Singular and Plural. 2.3. By changing f or fe into ves. 7. chairs. coming back to their sheds. b. Examples: • Joy-joys • Run-runs • Chair-chairs • Radio-radios • Canto-cantos 2. Joy is what we want in our lives. By changing the inside vowel of the singular. Singular: When we speak about one person and one thing. c. Few men are standing in the foyer. are not milch cows. Single means one. In these sentences. Examples: • Ox-oxen • Child-children 6.

annals. thanks.physics (a branch of science) • Wood (portion of tree)……woods (a grove of trees) 11. So Ramu is a noun. gentry etc… c. Few collective nouns. he could not attend the meeting meant only for the members. are used in plural forms.Few nouns have different meanings in the singular and in the plural: Examples: • Advice (counsel)…………. living places & directions) Effect (result)…………………………...He is a pronoun. • So. Cattle. Examples: Trousers.. Examples: • Commander-in-chief……. innings etc… b.man-servants 9..Pronoun A pronoun is a word that is used to represent a noun. Few nouns have two different forms in plural. swine. drawers.effects (results & property) 12..Few nouns have one meaning in singular but two or more meanings in plural. deer. But the two forms have different meanings.Indexes (tables of contents) Indices (signs used in algebra) 10. Sri Lanka is a noun. numbers and other symbols form their plural by adding an apostrophe and s. 2.In this sentence the word he represents Ramu. a. Example-1: • Ramu is not a member of this organization. cod etc… d. politics. Few nouns which end in s are used in singular form. Singular-nouns from foreign languages retain their original plural. tidings etc… e.Brothers (sons of same parents) Brethren (members of a society) • Cloth…………..Exceptions: • Chief-chiefs Safe-s • Roof-roofs • Proof-proofs • Gulf-gulfs • Hoof-hoofs 7. It is a 6 .. When we write about the same person in the following sentence. billiards.In these sentences. Example-2: Sri Lanka is a big island.. Special cases. Few nouns are used only in the plural forms. Examples: Custom (habit)…………………………customs (habits & taxes collected on imports Quarter (one fourth & a direction)………quarters (fourth parts. Physics. It has many tourist-attractions.advices (information) • Good (morally correct)……goods (merchandise) • Force (strength)…………. spectacles.passers-by • Man-servant……………..Cloths (pieces of cloth) Clothes (items of cloth) • Fish………………Fish (more than one of same variety) Fishes (of different varieties) • Genius……………Geniuses (persons of great talent) Genii (spirits) • Index……………. Examples: News. Examples:Poultry.. Examples: • Erratum-errata • Memorandum-memoranda • Index-indices • Terminus-termini (or terminuses) • Radius-radii • Hypothesis-hypotheses • Formula-formulae (or formulas) • Cherub-cherubim (or cherubs) • Axis-axes • Parenthesis-parentheses • Basis-bases • Criterion-criteria 8.. draughts. Few nouns have the same forms both in singular and plural forms. scissors. though they are in singular forms. • Add two 8’s and six 4’s. People. By suffixing s to the main word in a compound word. Mathematics.forces (troops) • Physic (medicine)…………. Examples: • Write your i’s and l’s clearly.Pronoun means for-a-noun. Examples: Sheep..maid-servants • Passer-by………………. we use the word He. Examples: • Brother………….Letters.commanders-in-chief • Son-in-law………………sons-in-law • Step-son…………………step-sons • Maid-servant…………….In this sentence the word Ramu is the name of a person.

Clinton herself came forward to contest the election to the post of Presidency of this association. and these are the demonstrative pronouns. The singular form of the pronoun you has its reflexive form yourself. • You yourselves can organize a meeting to seek the opinions of all the students. yourselves. Reflexive 6. Examples: • Mr. • Mrs. yours(you) and theirs(they). PLURAL PRONOUNS:We. Relative 3. • I motivated myself. you have to be assembled at the Lawtey hall by 11pm. him(he). We and I. hers(she). Gandhi. Me( I ). Interrogative 4. It and You. • The Dean warned all of them. Personal 5. themselves. Indefinite : 7 . You. that. Personal : There are only seven personal pronouns.They are He. herself. The plural form of the pronoun you has its reflexive form yourselves. Distributive 2. • That train is not the one for which we are waiting. The pronoun you. which denotes the person or persons spoken to. • That is the college of ours. • The presents are meant for you and her. Indefinite 1. its(it). • That house of hers is beautiful. which denote the person or persons speaking. There are seven types of pronouns. us(we). Gandhi (singular). are said to be Personal Pronouns of the FIRST PERSON. All these seven Personal Pronouns have their own Possessive forms of Personal Pronouns. It. is said to be a Personal Pronoun of SECOND PERSON. They and You. he. those. • These people are not qualified to attend the training program.They are: 1. her(she). you(you). She. Examples: • He gave a book to me. She. why not you seek his help? Here the word you is used to indicate only Mr. The pronouns I and we. • This book is his. it. it(it) and them(they). • Students. 3. ours(we). his(he). Examples: • This book is not mine. Demonstrative : This.Himself. are said to be Personal Pronouns of THIRD PERSON.pronoun.Here the word you has been used to indicate the students (plural). • He gave us his house to stay for ten days as he went to Tokyo. yourself. SINGULAR PRONOUNS:I.. All these seven Personal Pronouns have their own Accusative forms of Personal Pronouns. 4. Examples:. itself. Reflexive (or Emphatic pronouns): The pronouns which are used to reflect upon the person or persons or thing or things which the pronouns represent are called reflexive pronouns. He. 2. and they which denotes the person or persons spoken of. Demonstrative 7. Examples: • I want only this book. she. The pronouns. They. Mine( I ). See another sentence. ourselves and myself are the reflexive pronouns.

• Either of you can take the matter to the chairman. 3. • Mr. 3. few. Kodak whom we are searching for is a native of Japan.One. someone. may. An intransitive verb is a verb which does not take an object. that. nobody. 7. Goosd whose son is studying in Harvard has been hospitalized. • Anybody can do that. arise bear beat behold 5. what and that are interrogative pronouns. build burn carry catch 8 . Examples:. • Nobody came forward to assume responsibilities. 4. others. would. Intransitive verb. should. • The university disqualified him. will. many. begin 10. 6. which. • The Students write their examination in the Lawtey hall.These pronouns refer to persons or things in general. 5. Here. bind 12. the word “write” is the verb. whose. 2. all. 16. Examples: • The University which gave me admission is a very good University. For your kind attention. • A grove of trees that is at the outskirts of the city is for sales.Distributive Examples: • Everyone. Examples: • Mr. present here.Verbs Verbs are the word denoting actions or states. which and where are relative pronouns. what. some. A transitive verb is the verb which takes an object. 3. should take their dinner. could. can. 8. Every sentence will have a noun and a verb(predicate as well). 6. For you attention please: For you attention please: The list of verbs is long one. Here. the word “disqualified” is the verb. Modal verbs: The following verbs are called Modal verbs:. • Mrs. become 11.Who.Whom. Kobe who is a native of London is not the owner of this car. • Neither of you is qualified to attend the final. voice or mood is called an Auxiliary verb. 1. Interrogative : The interrogative forms of the pronouns are used here. Examples: • Somebody crossed the road. 2. 15. 14. bid bite blow break 9. bleed 13.• What you did is my problem. Transitive verbs. 4. few verbs have been given below. ought and dare are called modal verbs. somebody. 1. must. might. 7. Relative : The pronouns which are used as conjunctions are called relative pronouns. Auxiliary verb: A verb which helps another verb to form its tense. everybody etc… are the indefinite pronouns. Shall. many.

34...It was six o’clock.They are social workers.There were many people. 57.. 3. It takes the following forms in the Principal forms.were... 39. 41..... 61.. 7.......... 58....... 28..... In this sentence. 55.. cling come deal creep do draw drink eat fall feed feel fight find fling flee 32............. 46... Examples: • I am in London. 18.Been Am. Present tense …………………….... 21. 2...She has been the secretary for two years.. 25. 43.... Is........ 26. (main verb) • He was sent out of the meeting hall for his ill-behaviors.. Are...... 71...... am... 68.. i. • I am a qualified candidate.. 45........ 50........ Be kind to others... 67. 56. 73.. 48... “been”....was. So. Be careful.Whereas the main verb is “qualify”. “are” and “were” are the only different forms of the verb “be”... 6. 51. the verb “am” has been used as a main verb.....I am the secretary of the association.In this sentence..was. 1. 24. 49...... the verb 'am' has been used as an auxiliart verb.. 4. “is”... “was”. 4. 54... 60. was. 63.. The Verb Be can be used as a main verb as well as an “auxiliary verb.......... 65.The women were working in the field.The child is very cute. Examples: Many forms of the Verb-Be have beed used here. 3.Past tense……………….......The train was running late....17.......They are the people whom we are looking after. 66.. are and were. 2...... 33. It has other forms when it is used as an indicator of tense of the verb:Is. 75.......Past Participle Be. 31. 29...You are not a member of this organization. lend lie loose make mean meet pay read rid ride ring run rise see set 62. 64...... Note: Unlike the other verbs... Examples: • He is a teacher.. 9 .... Main verb: Examples: 1.The books were available. Auxiliary verb: Examples: The Verb Be is used as auxiliary verb as follows.He is a kind man.. Note: The Verb Be can be used as a main verb and as an “auxiliary verb. 69.... 2. 74. 53..... 59.......... 19. 37. 30..I am working here..... 40. the verb “be” can not be split in the interrogative and negatve forms of sentences. We use it as follows...... “be”. 35. 20... 23.. 3. ( was” is auxiliary verb and the main verb is “send”) The Verb Be is a very important but peculiar verb in English... 22..... 5... 36... 42.... 52.. 27.. 44.. 38..... 1... 70... forbid forget forsake freeze get give grind have hold kneel know lay lead learn leave 47. 72..She was a good companion...... shoot sling slit speak slay shake shed slide spin split spring stand wed write The Verb Be The Verb Be is a very important but peculiar verb in English.

4. five. 1. honest. three.He was not responsible for the accident. Antonio is an honest policeman. 3. four. • Their excellent presentation bagged them the first prize.He does his work rather carelessly.I have seen this film. • America is a rich country.They had a solution to this problem. enough etc… Examples : • I know little about music.Where is the building? 2. 2. • Nile is a long river. six.A plan has been prepared.Those words which tell us about the quality of the nouns (which might have been used either as the subject or the object) are called adjectives.I am not your enemy. • Our Chairman is an old man. 2. Definitive numeral adjectives: One. Adjectives of quality: Good. two. Main verb: Examples: 1. Adjectives of quantity: Little. old. It will not come before a verb 1. • She is a beautiful student.How was the film? 3.. 3. Examples : 10 . 3. 4. (“Beautiful” is an adjective) An adjective will come before a noun.Were all the materials available? Interrogative: Examples: Note: The verbs “do” and “have” can be used as main verb and auxiliary verb.She has no compassion for others.Adjective An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun. Auxiliary verb: Examples: 1. 3.She does not love him. 4.The people were not excited. 2.(“long” is an adjective) • She is a student.I do not know anybody here. some. 2.I do a lot of exercises.Negative: Examples: 1. • Mr. seven etc. big etc… Examples : • Their good performance in their final examinations gave them what they expected. • Adding some sugar will make the coffee tastier. A noun may have many attributes. (“rich” is an adjective) • Nile is a river. • We have enough study-materials for the forth-coming examinations. • America is a country. much.

7. Examples : • Nehru was a statesman whom everyone responded. In the following sentences. Adjectival Clause: Often a full-clause may add meaning to a noun in which case it is known as an adjectival clause. Very often this adjectival phrase appears after the noun that it qualifies. either. 6. the adjectival phrases are colored blue. before. 4. • These flowers are not for sales. frequently. (The word “quite” is an adverb which modifies the adverb “clearly”) • I write slowly. Adverbs may indicate frequency. • John is the boy who broke the window. • A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. In the following sentences the adjectival clauses are colored blue. Demonstrative adjectives: This. • The house which caught fire is in the street. Examples : • The chief lived in house built-of-stone. twice. when etc… Examples : • What happened after I came out of the house is not known to me. (The word “fast” is an adverb which modifies the verb “run”) • Philips speaks quite clearly. never. whose. no. In that case the phrase is called adjectival phrase. several etc… Examples : • All the employees have to be here by 10am tomorrow. again. Interrogative adjectives : What. formerly etc… 2. .Adverb An Adverb will modify the meaning of a verb. where. • A friend in need is a friend indeed. 5. Examples: Now. and why. many. neither etc… Examples : • Each one of you should support this cause. such etc… Examples : • This dog is ours. 5. • Whose child is this is a mystery. that. Distributive numeral adjectives: Each. • That gentleman donated his fortunes to a charitable trust. (The adverb “slowly” modifies the verb “write”) The most common adverbs are those which answer the questions when. • He was a student of great promise. 8. how. 1. 9. Adverbs may indicate time. Examples: Often. every. soon. Adjectival Phrase: Sometimes a phrase may be used as an adjective. these. those. • Either of you should take care of your child. seldom etc… 11 . Indefinite numeral adjectives: All. • Two children make a perfect family. which. yesterday. • Few birds have become extinct. few. Examples: • The deer runs very fast.• One student came forward to become a leader of this class. an adjective or another adverb. • I mean that every employee has stake in the growth of this company.

Clearly. • I shall get my air ticket to USA as soon as I receive the visa. I spoke to your brother.or. Adverbs may indicate manner. a retired University of London professor. you will fail in the test. • A big-lorry in blue color as well as a car in white color went into this village one by one. we shall stay at home. there. • You could find clean air not in the city but in the village. bring me some water. up. soundly. 3. 6. • J.only. 2. • Unless you work hard. conducted a thorough economic assessment of British nuclear plants and concluded that nuclear plant is considerably more expensive than coal-fired power. slowly.Jeffrey. • If it rains. Coordinating conjunctions: 12 . sadly etc… Note-1: If the work of the adverb is performed by a phrase. but it was the 1979-increase that reversed it. Examples: Here. • Before you go. • I stood on the bridge at midnight.as. Adverbs may indicate place.while. 4. that adverb (phrase) is called adverbial phrase. • I will not attend mobile-phone calls while driving my car. Note-2: A full-clause may also do the job of an adverb. A preposition may connect two main clauses: Examples: • The 1973 oil-price adjustment checked the runaway consumption trend. A preposition may connect a main and a subordinate clause: Examples: • If our generation persists in mining the soil so that we may eat. • Since you were not there.till… Examples: • You and he should attend the function. A preposition may connect two phrases: Examples: • The police have to find out not only who committed this crime but also how this crime was executed in this day-light.if. Examples: • He lived in this house for nearly twenty years. Examples: • When you finish the work. you may go home.either….because.3.W.Conjunction Conjunction is word or a phrase which connects two words or two phrases or two clauses or two sentences. 5. The Conjuctionsare:and.also. • They sat for a while on the bench.when. (The word “and” is connecting two other words you & he) • He and I are good friends. • We bought a book as well as a pen.neither… nor. (The word “and” is connecting two other words HE& I) • Pay the fees or you will not be admitted.or. • They offer not only coffee but also tea. hard. (The word “or” is connecting two sentences “Pay the fees” & “You will not be admitted) 1.for. everywhere.but. backward etc… 4.so…that. A preposition may connect two words: Examples: • Jack and Jill come up the hill.after. many of our children and their children may go hungry as a result. In that case such a clause is called adverbial clause.

Preposition Preposition is a word that is used with a noun or a pronoun or a verb to explain their relation with another noun or pronoun.nor. around. The following conjunctions are called subordinating conjunctions: 1. from. through. away from. in order that 2. before 9. 3.but. with. 2. about. because 3. 4. Simple prepositions:Examples: 1. inside. 6. 7. among. John and Mr. The man was standing under the tree. Compound conjunctions: There will be few words in every conjunction of this type. before. if 4. in favor of. provided that as though in as much as as well as 7. • You can not get a new telephone connection before 1st of next month. I have to go to London to meet him. how 14. Examples: • Mr. the simple ones are colored red. Few others are:By. though 6. while 13. 7. so that 6. in honor of. agreeable to. • Her boy-friend postponed her marriage-proposal till he started his own business. along with. amidst.across. in.below. outside. behind. even if 5. • They have scored low marks in English because she did not study well. Rams are the only invitees to meet the Prime Minister. as 11. According to. I am fond of music. on condition that 4. between. of. with reference to. above. • Your father has got you a motor-bike that is eight-year-old. that 5. without.after 2. unless 10.only. off. beside. in addition to.or. after. within. A bird is on the tree. although 7. 1. 8.for. The following conjunctions are called Coordinating conjunctions: and. in order to. etc… 2. 9. on.in spite of. He runs after money.There are two types. in order to 3.also. till 8. In the above sentences. • The whole country is waiting for the results of this international-tournament. • He was not admitted to that college though he has scored very high marks in the entrance.The conjunctions which coordinate two words are called coordinating conjunctions.in course of. when 12. Subordinating conjunctions: A word introducing a subordinate clause is called subordinating clause. Phrasal prepositions:A phrasal verb is formed by combining a verb with a preposition. up. with regard etc… 13 . until Examples: • You can come to the function after you finished your work.till…. 5. • We have to be here in London till we are acquainted by the court. 1.

the preposition is written before the noun that governs it. Endow with 3. 27. You would yourself be using such phrases in your writings and speeches without your even being aware of them. 4. 28. “IN” is used before large places such as a country. Participate in 4. When I entered the room. Acquaintance with 12.Few are followed by or preceded by a certain words to provide a fixed meaning. Underneath the table’s In sentences such as mentioned above. 21. but there are conventions about their usages. Alliance with 11. In India 14 . Examples: 1. 24. 25. Distrust of 13. 17. adjectives and participles are often combined withprepositions such as Noun + Preposition. Verb + Preposition. Each combination has a separate meaning. 18. Confine to 6. and Participle + Preposition. Examples: 1. Divide into 5. adjective or adverb.There are two ways.According to. With his friend 4. Rajeev Gandhi started his Prime Ministership with abundance of goodwill of Indians. 20. Opposition to 16. 19. three-words. sometimes totally different from the meaning of the main verb.The first is as in the following phrases: Examples: 1. 26. That is why it is called pre-position. NOTE: One can give thousands of examples. At the post office 6. In the year 3. 'at'. state or city. 30. Result of 14. Every citizen should abide by the laws of his country. four-words. 29.Nouns. Go after 2. Conform to 8. Pity towards 10. Examples: 1. Why were you absent from class yester day? 5. Incidental to Deficient in Acquainted with Delighted with Accused of Fond of Anxious about Grateful for Tantamount to Sympathy for Sure of Surrender to Suspect of Stick to Ready for 'In'. Access to 15.The second way in which a preposition is used is after a verb. 22. Between the books 7. On the table 2. There is no grammatical rule to describe why a particular preposition is used along with a particular word to convey a particular meaning.Adjective + Preposition. verbs. Abstain from 7. I found my grandfather absorbed in deep thought. a preposition can be used. Affection for 9. 2. and 'on' have similar meanings. From the village 5. 3. 23. This lake abounds in fish.Few prepositions are in the forms of two-words. in addition to.

Examples: 1. In Texas 3. Between Stephen and his sister. Examples: 1. Among all the students in this class. The problem between Jack and Jill was solved by their parents. plane. “IN” is used before the year and month. This train is playing between New York and Chicago. The correct phrasal forms to denote specific times of the day are: Examples: 1. That accident happened at 7. Examples: 1. “AT” is used before actual time. There is not a good understanding among the Parliamentarians of the ruling party. 3. At dusk 6. 2.Articles Three words are used as articles. the indefinite-articles are used to indicate not any specific object or subject in the sentence.2. 2. “ON” is used before the day and date. Indefinite articles: Examples: • A man is standing at the corner of the road. At the door 2. 15 . In New York “ON” is used before middle sized places such as a road.Because. a and an are indefinite articles. 8. train. an 3. Despite the road block. On Parliament road 3.30pm on 7th March in 1989. 1. other Europeans had already reached the New York. 3. At In At In dawn the morning noon the afternoon 5. the correct preposition to be used is “among”. There are three conventional uses of these three ones in regard to time also. Buttercups are avoided by the grazing animals because of the bitter juices. 2. 4. On the East coast “AT” is used to denote an exact spot. When more than two things or persons are involved. On Mount road 2. By the time Columbus arrived at America in 1492. John is the most intelligent. ship etc… Examples: 1.They are: 1. 4. the Of these. the latter is the taller one. “The” is the only definite article.The definite article is used to indicate a specific object or subject in the sentence. Examples: 1. a 2.43 on Anderson Street in Boston on East coast in Massachusetts State in USA. At night The preposition “between” must be used when referring to two things or persons. At 7 O’clock “IN” is also used to denote a very small place I was staying in a room at Door No. the police allowed us to enter the restricted area to search for our friends. 2. He dose not show partiality among his three children 3.

Examples: • An hour is a long time for the students who take this examination. VII. To refer to proper noun. Ram is an honest man. • A hole in the boat will endanger its safety. IV. Examples: • Mr. You can not find such a man. Uses of the Indefinite articles: I. Examples: • He gave me an onion. Examples: • A cow is a useful animal. “A” is used in expression like: Examples: • A few students came forward to organize this function. Definite articles: Examples: • The lion is a majestic animal. “A” is used before a word beginning with a consonant. • A little sugar should be added to this coffee. the indefinite article is used after ‘such’. Such a blunder is rare to find in our lives. VI. Examples: • New Delhi is the capital of India. • An ass is leaping into your field. (Not “The Nile”) 16 . VIII. 2. • He confused everybody with his witty talk. (A vowel sound) • It is difficult to find an honest policeman. I. V. The omission of articles: The uses of articles should be avoided in few sentences to make the sentences meaningful. (Not “The New Delhi”) • Nile is one of the longest rivers. “An” is used before a word beginning with a vowel (or a vowel sound). • The government decided to set a university in this area of the country. Examples: • We want to construct a house for us. • An honor of this type is what everybody dreams to get. When the word ‘such’ is applied to countable things.• An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Examples: • A European is better placed to reach the Oxford University than an Asian. The indefinite article is used when a singular noun stands for a whole group or species. The indefinite articles are used before a singular countable noun. • A boy was born to the couples two days back. III. • We need a man to safeguard our car. Examples: • A cat is running behind the rat. • A ball costs only few cents. • A dog is a faithful animal. II. • The boy who is standing there is my nephew. • A certain number of books have been sold off by the authorities of this library. • What he needed was an umbrella. “An” is used before the word beginning with ‘h’ in case the ‘h’ is silent in pronunciation. • The Andamans belong to India. “A” is used before the words beginning with a vowel which is pronounced like the ‘y’ in young.

• They speak Hindi at home. Examples: Truth always triumphs. 2. • Daughter-in-law is nothing but a daughter.Those nouns are called “verbal nouns”.The word “smoking” is formed from the verb smoke by adding –ing. • He has planned to study French. “Smoked” is the past-tense form of the verb “smoke”. Before languages: Examples: • We are learning English.II. Read this sentence.That is called Gerund. A gerund is used as an object of a verb. The other verbal noun is “Infinitive”. (Not “The Suspicion”) Honesty is the best policy.We have seen the “Infinitive” in another section. Smoking is prohibited here. Before plural countable nouns when they are used in general sense. Examples: • Smoking is prohibited here. Examples: o Children prefer playtimes. 3. Before Abstract nouns when they are used in a general sense. • Reading improves your knowledge. A gerund is used as the subject of a verb. Examples: Silver is not as costly as Gold. it is a Verb-Noun. GERUND is the “continuous form of a verb”. (Not “The Cotton”) IV. “Smoking” is the continuous form of the verb “smoke”. “Smoke” is the simple present-tense form. A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in –ing and has the force of a noun and a verb. Before names of relations: Examples: • Father is the head a family. “GERUND” is one of the two verbal nouns. • I like going for a walk. • They prefer buying online rather offline. Examples: • Begin reading the book. (Not “The Truth”) Suspicion should be based on evidence. Let us see “Gerund” now. V. Examples: 17 . You can see that here in this sentence. 1. VI. Those continuous forms of many verbs can be used as nouns. o Cars are sold like hot-cakes. So. (Not “The Silver”) Cotton is grown in several parts of India. Virtue is its own reward III. You can easily see that the subjects in all these sentences are in gerund forms. Object of a preposition. Before material nouns. • Son should shoulder the responsibility of the family. On many occasions the “continuous form of the verb” can be used as a noun. the word “smoking” does the function of a subject (Noun). • Walking alone is what he likes the most.

practice. 18 . to cry and to laugh are few of the "full-infinitive" forms. • She felt an insect going up her leg. to read. • He did not mind waiting. pretend. to get. Examples: To swim is good for health. prove. dare. • I could not help admiring the picture. All of you begin to work. 3. go. imagine.There is another type of verbal-noun. write. to walk. cry and laugh are few of the verbs in the "infinitive" forms. It can be used as the subject of the verb. to smile. finish. drop. • Have you ever heard a bird talking? Infinitive Eat. refuse. 7. walk. excuse. Examples: • What I detest the most is drinking alcohol. Examples: • I saw him doing that work. To eat. • We used to do a lot of writing when we were at school. come. smile. arrange. 6. The doctor has come to check you up for blood-pressure. seem. get.It can be used as the object of the verb. 5.This type of the noun is called verbal-noun. Confess. care. happen. appear. The following verbs take only the infinitive as the object. To read means to grow. mind etc… Examples: • Stop talking nonsense. To eat too much makes one fat. please remove your foot-wear. speak. promise. read. 1. Afford. trouble. hurry. • Seeing is not believing. offer. wish etc… Examples: I can not afford to pay so much. forgive. When the preposition “to” is placed before such a verb. determine. manage. 4. mean. Complement of a verb. to speak. prevent. to write. that verb is called “full infinitive”.• My neighbor is good at breeding dogs • I am fond of eating sweets. Examples: I forget to tell you an important matter. • Before entering the room. stop. fail. A gerund is used in the following construction. chance. Examples: • Nehru did a lot of reading. hinder. to go. Only a gerund is used after the following verbs. Few verbs of sensation take the gerund-forms if the action of the verb is in progress. 2. That type is called “Gerund” which we have seen in another section. An “infinitive” can be used differently. undertake. decide. This verbal-noun is called “Infinitive” which has the features of both a verb and a noun.

They are to be married next week. beg. The full infinitive is used with the “be” verb to indicate commands or agreements or plans. Is the road safe enough for the driver to take the bus on it? 9. request.After few verbs (let. dare). Examples: • You need not come to the function. 6. persuade. there are three types of Participles. Subject + verb + object + infinitive Examples: My sister likes my mother to sing. The infinitive without “to” is used after the verbs “make” and “let”. Examples: • You had better leave now. cause. Participle is a word used to add extra meaning to the sentence. The following verbs take only an infinitive as an object. 5. The following verbs take only the verb + object + infinitive construction.It is used in the place of clauses. Note-1 The word ‘to’ is frequently used with an infinitive. press. wish etc… a. like. How dare you do it? 4. He was tempted to take sweets every day. Nobody is to touch these things without permission.For + object + infinitive Examples: It is not for me to advice you. encourage. 7. 'had rather'.Ask. make. intent. expect. b. oblige. My father wished me to succeed in the competition. hate.The thief managed to escape.but also are used in the ways as given below. love. invite. instruct. tempt. I warned him not to take up that job. But ‘to’ is not the essential part or sign of an infinitive verb. She chose to stay away from the program. • They would rather leave the show than see the dull-movie. 'sooner than' and 'rather than'. So. I like to view few television shows. Examples: Tell him what to do? She does not know who to approach? So in these ways the infinitives can be used as nouns in the sentences. order. Allow. hear. want. • I had rather walk than take rest. need. Examples: Everybody is to wear a full suit. Make them do the job very well. 'would rather'. Past Participle 19 . Subject + verb + infinitive Examples: My sister loves to sing. teach. • I did not see him do that.It is used in the following construction. compel. choose. permit. warn etc… Examples: Do not allow him to interfere with his work. They begged me to help him. Present Participle B. force. • I have not heard a bird sing. mean. tell. A. Note-2 The word ‘to’ need not be added after 'had better'. bid. • They will not let you go out. Examples: Let him go. 8. we use the infinitive without ‘to’. see. advice.

I was fatigued. When we express an idea giving importance to the doer.But in the example-II. the sentence is written in the active form. (Active voice) In the example-I. 2. 2. I am treated very well by him. (Active voice) • The story was told by them. • A letter was written by him. (Passive voice) • My mother prepares delicious foods. Examples: I. (Active voice) • I am invited by them.Active voice. They treat me very well. B. So the verb (treats) is used in accordance with that.Passive voice.That means that the ‘doer of the action’ is not active but passive. • BHEL exports boilers.Perfect Participle: Examples: • Having failed in the first attempt. Grammar : Voice There are TWO TYPES of Voices in English language.Present Participle: Examples: • Going up the stairs. he made no further attempts. 1. • They invite me. the subject is in singular form (he). • The boys pluck flowers. So the verb (treat) is used in accordance with that. He treats me very well. They are:1. (Passive voice) 20 . When we express an idea giving importance to the action rather than to the doer. • Not knowing my way. Examples: I.Past Participle: Examples: • Encouraged by his wife. Passive voice. • We saw few trees laden with fruits. (Active voice) • He was taken seriously by us. the verbs are modified only by the singular Pronoun “I”. he persevered. the boy fell down. • Having lost my certificates. not by the subjects of the sentences. (Active voice) • Delicious foods were prepared by my mother. the sentence is written in the passive form. In both these sentences. (Passive voice) • He helps us. Examples: • They tell the story. the subject is in plural form (they). (Active voice) II. I am treated very well by them. II. • He wrote a letter. (Active voice) • We are helped by him. • Working all day. we lost our way.Active voice. (Passive voice) • We take him seriously. I asked the Policeman. I applied for the duplicates.. C.C. • Blinded by smog. Examples: • He helped them in their studies. That means that the ‘doer of the action’ is active. (Passive voice) Let us see the passive voices of the sentences given under the active voice section above. Perfect Participle A.

They are: 1. Only transitive verbs (verbs which take objects) can be put in the passive voice. (Active voice) • You are expected by us. 3. • It is not known who murdered the local politician. • This flower is beautiful. • The ship was wrecked. This house is bigger than that one.When we speak about only one person or thing.Because. 2. We use the Positive degree.There are three Degrees of Comparison in English.• We expect you. • Clanton killed his friend. Examples: c.Superlative degree: When we compare more than two persons or things with one another. (His friend was killed by Clanton)Because the verb (kill) is transitive a verb.Both these sentences convey the same meaning. We have seen all the three Degrees of Comparison. 21 .Positive degree.When we compare two persons or two things with each other.Comparative degree. This sentence has its passive voice form. 1. (Comparative degree) This house is not as big as that one. We use both the Positive degree and Comparative degree. (Superlative) He is more intelligent than other boys in the class. He is the most intelligent in this class.In this sentence only one noun “The house” is talked about. 2. Examples: • He laughed. Examples: • The local politician has been murdered. (Positive degree) The term “bigger” is comparative version of the term “big”. • He is a tall student. Superlative degree. (Passive voice) Passive voice is also used when the doer of an action is unknown or is very obviously known. Comparative and Superlative degrees. Degrees of Comparison Degrees of Comparison are used when we compare one person or one thing with another. This is the best hotel in this area. No other hotel is as better as this on in this area. Positive degree. Examples: • This house is big. (Positive) The term “most intelligent” is superlative version of the term “intelligent”. This sentence does not have its passive voice form. Examples: a. the verb (laugh) is only an intransitive verb. We use all the three Positive. • It is obvious that the ship can be wrecked only by wind or water.Comparative degree 3. (Comparative) No other boy is as intelligent as this boy. Model -1: “The best”: Examples: 1.

more effective………most effective Effectively………more effectively……….more different…………most different Honest………..shorter………………..more honest…………...biggest Tall…………….. Model-3: “Not the best”: Examples: I.most effectively Enjoyable…………. Examples: Beautiful..most useful Different………. II. Model-2: “One of the best”: Examples: 1..shortest Costly…………………costlier……………costliest Simple………………….bigger…………….simplest Interjection An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotions..most honest Qualified…………more qualified…………most qualified Few adjectives and adverbs get their Comparative forms by simply getting “er” after them and their superlative terms.hardest Big……………….more enjoyable……….most enjoyable Useful……………….more beautiful... This is not the best solution to the problem. Examples: • Hello! What are you doing here? 22 .most beautiful Effective………... III.simpler………….... Very few cities in India are as large as Calcutta.No other hotel is as good as this one in this area...harder……………. Calcutta is large than most other cities in India. Other solutions to this problem are not as good as this one.. Examples: Hard…………….. This is not better than few other solutions to this problem.more useful………...taller……………tallest Long………………longer………………longest Short……………..... Calcutta is one of the largest cities in India.. by getting “est” after them.

3. • Hurrah! We have own the game. Your goodness etc… The tense of a verb indicates the time of an action or event. 2. (We are writing a letter) 3. Present continuous tense. Past perfect tense. (We wrote letter) 2. Future perfect tense. 5. Past perfect continuous tense. (We will write a letter) 2. Alas. Using the verb “write” and the pronoun “we”. Past continuous tense. the following words are used. grief. 7. (We had been writing a letter) The four forms of future tense are: 1. There are four forms of tenses in each one of the three tenses. 11. 4.We write a letter now.• Alas! He is dead. Future continuous tense. 3. Future perfect tense. Past perfect tense. Present continuous tense. We will write a letter tomorrow. Such words Hello. We are writing a letter now. Ah. (We write a letter now) 2. Present perfect continuous tense. Present perfect tense. 10. 2. Simple Present tense. 6. Hurrah. Oh and Hush are used to express the emotions or sudden feelings. Present perfect tense. Oh my god etc… • In case of Surprise. Future perfect continuous tense. We wrote a letter yesterday. 9. 1. (We will have been writing a letter) Tense That means that there are twelve tenses in total. (We will have written a letter) 4.Alas. surprise or approval. the following words are used. 6.They are: 1.Hurrah. Simple past tense. Future perfect continuous tense.(We were writing a letter) 3. 12. • In case of Joy the following words are used. 8. (We have been writing a letter) The four forms of past tense are: 1.Ha. Simple future tense. 4. The four forms of present tense are: 1. The words of Interjection may be used to express joy. Simple future tense. Past prefect continuous tense. Present continuous tense. Huzza etc… • In case of Grief. Future continuous tense. What etc… • In case of Approval. let us form all these twelve tenses.Bravo. Simple past tense. 5. (We will be writing a letter) 3. 23 . The following sentences can be related one by one as per the order mentioned in the above-stated sentences. (We have written a letter) 4. We will be writing a letter tomorrow. the following words are used. Simple present tense. Past continuous tense. (We had written a letter) 4. • Ah! Have they gone? • Oh! I got such a fright.The word “tense” comes from Latin word tempus which means time. We were writing a letter yesterday.

• Bible says.Present Continuous Tense:The Present Continuous Tense is used I. Examples: • She is writing a letter. Examples: • The match starts at 10am.Simple Present Tense: The Simple Present Tense is used I. 3. 11.They are: 1. 9. We had been writing a letter yesterday. Present Continuous Tense. • Two twos give four. We have written a letter now. Present Perfect Tense. Examples: • He drinks tea every morning. • They have earned goodwill. Present Perfect Continuous Tense: This Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used for an action which began at some time in the 24 . the Present Tense is used when the verb refers to the present time. ‘A thing of beauty is joy for ever’. We have been writing a letter. • When does this shop reopen? IV. 1. • My father gets up at 6am everyday. Simple Present Tense. Let us see one by one. We will have written a letter tomorrow. 4. 3. 2. To express a future event that is part of a fixed timetable. For an action going on at the time of speaking. To indicate activities that completed in the near past. III. We had written a letter yesterday. Examples: • Keats says. 4. Present Tense As we have seen already. Examples: • The Sun rises in the east.Present Perfect Tense:The Present Perfect Tense is used I. To introduce a quotation. Examples: • He has just gone out. 12. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. ‘To forgive is divine’.7. II. 10. We will have been writing a letter tomorrow. To express general truth.There are four forms in the Present Tense. 2.To indicate a habitual action. • He is walking along the road. 8.

ten-years back. • They gave me this clock. To indicate an action completed in the past.Past Perfect Tense: I.Past Continuous Tense:This Past Continuous Tense is used to denote an action going on at some time in the past. 3.Simple Past Tense:This Simple Past Tense is used I. • He had always two cars with him. Past Perfect Continuous Tense. Simple Past Tense. • I posted the letter last week.Yesterday. the train had left. 2. We had known each other last ten years before. last year. • He has been working in this company for a long time. • He was a fan of this musician. it was getting darker. 3. the Past Tense is used when the verb refers to the past time. Let us see one by one. To indicate an action completed in the past. Examples: • When I was a student. few days ago. This Past Perfect Tense is used to describe an action completed before a certain moment in the past. • The light went out when I was reading. Examples: • They have been building this bridge for the last seven months. (Without the adverb of past time) Examples: • I went to the post office. Examples: • He met me in Tokyo in 1989. Examples: • The College reopened yesterday.They are: 1. To indicate the past habits. Past Continuous Tense.There are four forms in the Past Tense. I carried a bag with me. II. • My friends left few minutes back. 25 . Past Perfect Tense. Past Tense As we have seen already. Examples: • When I reached the station. Past Perfect Tense should be used to indicate the action which happened earlier. a week ago etc… are adverbs or adverb phrases of past time. • I had played Tennis for ten years before 1999. Examples: • When I reached the city. 4. 1. • The train left the station. It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time.past and is still continuing. When two actions happened in the past. III. II. 2. • He was playing chess when I saw him.

the Future Tense is used when the verb refers to the Future time.Past Perfect Continuous Tense: This Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to indicate an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued up to that time. 3.Future Perfect Continuous Tense This Tense is used to indicate action which will be in progress over a period of future time and will end in the future.Future Perfect Tense This Tense is used to indicate an action which might have completed by a certain time in the future. your parents will be waiting for you. II. I will be writing my annual examinations. 1. Examples: • I met him on 7th June 1998. 2. • It will be Christmas in a week. the deadline had gone. • By the end of this year. At that time we had been working on another project. Examples • I will go to USA for my higher education. • We believe that he will score the highest marks. the train will arrive in time. 3.Simple Future Tense I. This Simple Future Tense is used to talk about things which we can not control. III. Examples • I think India will win the match.Future Continuous Tense This Future Continuous Tense is used to talk about action which will be in progress at a time in the future. Future Tense As we have seen already. 4. Simple Future Tense. At that time he had been writing a novel. Future Perfect Tense. Examples: • By this October. 26 . This Tense is very rarely used. We prepared this project in 2005. Examples • When I get home. I will have worked in this company for twenty long years. my dog will be waiting for me at gate. 4. 4. There are four forms in this Tense. I will have been living in this house for twenty-five years. • The train might have reached Chicago by 11pm. This Tense can be used to indicate what we have planned to do in the future. • Probably. Let us see one by one. Examples: • I might have completed my studies by 2010. • Since it is raining. Future Continuous Tense. • She will stay back at her home. This Simple Future Tense can be used to talk about what we believe will happen in the future.• When I prepared all the materials for the application. • This day next year. I will take an umbrella. • When you come here tomorrow. • You may know your exam-results in month. Future Perfect Continuous Tense. Examples • He will be sixty this December. 1. 2.

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