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NotesOnFluidFilmJournalBearing Overview

NotesOnFluidFilmJournalBearing Overview

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An overview presentation on Fluid film Journal bearing.
An overview presentation on Fluid film Journal bearing.

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NOTES ON FLUID FILM JOURNAL BEARINGOVERVIEW

Pranabesh De Choudhury, Ph.D., P.E. Pran RDA Consulting Inc. Greensburg, PA 15601

OUTLINE • Role of Fluid Film Bearing in Rotating Machinery • Basics • Newton’s Law of Friction • Plane Slider Bearing • Basic Parameters • Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Short Journal Bearing • Stability Map of a Short Journal Bearing • Hydrodynamic Instability • Finite Difference Method • Type of Bearings • Modeling Bearings © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

OUTLINE (continued) • Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing – Load on Pad Vs. Load Between Pads • Tilting-Pad Bearings Vs. Fixed Geometry Bearings • Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing at minimum, average, and maximum clearances • Performance Test Results of Five Shoe Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing • Effect of Slow Roll – Boundary Lubrication • References

© Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

Role of Fluid Film Bearing in Rotating Machinery • Provides a fluid film for the rotating shaft from the bearing due to hydrodynamic action of the lubricant • Enables the turbo-machinry to operate with low friction loss • Prevents rotor damage • Hydrodynamic action of the fluid film results in fluid film stiffness and damping. . influencing the location of critical speeds. • Influences the rotor-bearing stability © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

Fluid pressure is independent throughout the film thickness. • Shaft and bearing are rigid with perfectly smooth surfaces in perfect alignment. © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. • Viscosity of the lubricant is constant throughout the film and is independent of temperatures within the film.BASICS • Newton’s law holds for the lubricant. • Curvature of the film with respect to thickness can be neglected. • Lubricant is incompressible. . • Inertia effects of the moving oil can be neglected.

.Newton’s Law of Friction Y F Velocity U y h Stationary u FIGURE 1 F = µ A U/h Where. µ = Coefficient of viscosity A = Area swept U = Velocity h = Oil film thickness τ = F/A = µ U/h = µ u/y τ = µ du/dy > Newtonian Fluid © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

MOVING U STATIONARY P δP/δX=0 X=0 X=L x FIGURE 1A © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .

PLANE SLIDER BEARING (see Figure 2) ∂h ∂ ∂ ⎡ h3 ∂P ⎤ ∂ ⎡ h3 ∂P ⎤ 12 ( V V ) 6 ( U U ) 6 h (U1 + U 2 ) = − + − + + 2 1 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂x ∂x ∂x ⎣ 6µ ∂x ⎦ ∂z ⎣ µ ∂z ⎦ (1) First term on right hand side represents the squeeze. equation 1 reduces to ∂h ∂h ∂ ⎡ h3 ∂P ⎤ +2 ⎢ ⎥ =ω ∂t ∂z ⎣ 6µ ∂z ⎦ ∂θ (2) Film thickness h is h = c − x cosθ − y sin θ This is valid for a journal bearing with no axial misalignment Applying the boundary conditions related to the pressure distribution P (3) P(θ . the second the wedge. L) = 0 (4) © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. and the third the stretch effect in the bearing. Relating this to the geometry of the journal bearing in fixed Cartesian coordinate system for a short journal bearing (see figure 3).0) = P(θ . .

The following equation results P (θ . If X=x/c. 6. Y=y/c. . z ) = ∂h 3 µz ( z − L ) ∂h ω ( + 2 ) ∂t ∂θ h3 (5) From equation 3 and ∂h = x sin θ − y cosθ ∂θ ∂h & cosθ − y & sin θ = −x ∂t (6) (7) From equations 5. X=x/ωc. and 7 the following could be obtained Fx = Fy = µRL3 2 2π & cos θ + y & sin θ ) ω ( x sin θ − y cos θ ) − 2( x cos θdθ 3 ∫ ( c x cos θ y sin θ ) − − 0 2π (8) (9) (10) µRL3 2 & cos θ + y & sin θ ) ω ( x sin θ − y cos θ ) − 2( x sin θdθ 3 ∫ ( c x cos θ y sin θ ) − − 0 . . . Y=y/ ωc © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .

δFy = -(Kyyδy+Cyyδy+Kyxδx+Cyxδx)@ x=x0 and y=y0 where ∂Fx µRL3ω Kxx = − =− ∂X 2c 3 2π ∫ 0 sin θ cos θH 0 + 3 cos 2 θ ( X 0 sin θ − Y0 cos θ )dθ H0 4 ∂Fy µRL3ω 2π [3 sin 2 θ ( X 0 sin θ − Y0 cos θ ) − sin θ cos θH 0 ]dθ Kyy = − =− 4 ∂Y 2c 3 ∫ H0 0 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .Equations 8 and 9 takes the following form & − 2Y & ) sin θ − (Y & + 2X & ) cos θ µRL3ω 2π ( X Fx = cos θdθ 2 3 ∫ 2c (1 − X cos θ − Y sin θ ) 0 & − 2Y & ) sin θ − (Y & + 2X & ) cos θ µRL3ω 2π ( X Fy = sin θdθ 2 3 ∫ 2c (1 − X cos θ − Y sin θ ) 0 (11) (12) Assuming small displacements from the equilibrium position represented by x0. δFx = -(Kxxδx+Cxxδx+Kxyδy+Cxyδy)@ x=x0 and y=y0 and . . y0 the incremental hydrodynamic forces in x and y directions can be written as . .

5 0 Ф0 = Attitude angle = tan [ ] 4ε -1 © 0 Pran Rda Consulting Inc.εocos Ф0 εo = Equilibrium eccentricity π (1− ε )0. .∂Fx µRL3 = Cxx = − & ∂X 2c 3 2π ∫ 0 2 cos3 θdθ H0 3 ∂Fy µRL3 = Cyy = − & 2c 3 ∂Y 2π ∫ 0 2 sin 3 θdθ H0 2π 3 ∂Fx µRL3ω [3 sin θ cosθ ( X 0 sin θ − Y0 cosθ ) − H 0 cos2 θ ]dθ Kxy = − =− 4 2c 3 ∫ ∂Y H0 0 ∂Fy µRL3ω =− Kyx = − ∂X 2c 3 ∂Fx µRL3 = Cxy = − & ∂Y 2c 3 ∂Fx µRL3 = Cyx = − & ∂X 2c 3 2π 2π ∫ 0 [3 sin θ cos θ ( X 0 sin θ − Y0 cos θ ) + Ho sin 2 θ ]dθ H0 H0 H0 3 4 ∫ 0 0 2 sin θ cosθdθ 2 sin θ cosθdθ 3 2π ∫ Where Ho = 1 – Xo cosθ Yo sinθ Xo = εosinФ0 Yo= .

finite element.. . finite difference.g. e. Kxx = Bearing stiffness coefficient in X direction Kxy = Cross coupled stiffness coefficient for force in X direction from Y displacement Kyx = Cross coupled stiffness coefficient for force in Y direction from X displacement Kyy = Bearing stiffness coefficient in Y direction Cxx = Bearing damping coefficient in X direction Cxy = Cross coupled damping coefficient for force in X direction from Y displacement Cyx = Cross coupled damping coefficient for force in Y direction from X displacement Cyy = Bearing damping coefficient in Y direction Figures 4 and 5 show plots of the nondmensional bearing characteristics as a function of the equilibrium eccentricity ε0. © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. These fluid film bearing coefficients are essential components in rotor dynamic analysis. Bearings having more complicated geometries are analyzed using numerical methods. .Where. or.

Basic Parameters S = µ Ns (R/C)2 / P Sommerfeld Number ⎤ 4 ⎡ (1 − ε 2 ) 2 Ss = Modified S ⎢ 2 2 2 2⎥ πε ⎣π (1 − ε ) + 16ε ⎦ 0. .5 -1 π (1− ε ) Ф = Attitude angle = tan [ ] 4ε µ = Viscosity in reyns Ns = Revolutions per second R = Journal Radius C = Bearing Radial Clearance ε = Eccentricity ratio P = Bearing unit load = W/(LD) ϕ = Attitude angle © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

1 0.01 0.Eccentricity Ratio Vs.2 0.0001 Eccentricity Ratio © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. 100 10 1 Sommerfeld No. Sommerfeld No.9 1 0. .8 0.3 0.1 0.6 0. 0 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.001 0.

4 0.3 0.5 Eccentricity Ratio 0.Eccentricity Ratio Vs.2 0.6 0.9 1 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.7 0. Attitude Angle 100 90 80 Attitude Angle (degrees) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.1 0. .8 0.

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HYDRODYNAMIC INSTABILITY • Hydrodynamic instability in a fluid film journal bearing is caused by hydrodynamic forces generated in the fluid film relative to the shaft displacement causing the shaft in whirling motion. • Concept of Half Frequency Whirl Center of Bearing U Vcc Path of Journal Center 2a U c-a d c+a © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .

The bearing geometries In order of increasing stability threshold speed could be ƒ Plain liner bearing ƒ Pressure dam bearing ƒ Elliptical bearing ƒ Offset half bearing ƒ Lobed bearing (Three Lobes. common) © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. • Hydrodynamic instability in general. . This form of vibration is referred to as resonant whip. when the rotational speed is about two times the first critical speed the system builds up a vibration at the first critical speed and gets locked in at that frequency. • The threshold of instability could be different for different types of fixed geometry bearings. is caused by cross coupling stiffness in a fixed geometry journal bearing.Vc =2πafw Rate of increase of area in lower half of bearing = Vcd=2πafwd Oil transported into lower half = ½ U(c+a) Oil transported out of lower half = ½ U(c-a) Net amount transported into lower half Ua = πdnsa = 2πafwd fw = ½ns ns = Journal rotational speed in revolutions per second and fw = Whirl frequency • Resonant Whip: At low eccentricity ratios (low load).

• The bearing geometries of different fixed geometry bearings could be optimized for a certain application to increase the hydrodynamic stability threshold. • Stability threshold in a fixed geometry bearing is dependent on the eccentricity ratio. The lower the eccentricity ratio, the lower the stability threshold. • The stability threshold in a fixed geometry bearing is related to the attitude angle. In general, the higher the attitude angle, the lower the stability threshold. • The tilting-pad journal bearing has low attitude angle (close to zero). Hence, in general, does not cause hydrodynamic instability.

© Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD (References 1 through 4)
• The content of this section is a brief summary of analysis presented in references 1 through 4. • The land mark pad assembly method developed by Jorgen W. Lund formed the basis of obtaining the rotor dynamic coefficients of tilting-pad journal bearing essential for rotor dynamic analysis of rotating machinery.

Lund’s work has formed the basis of extensive research associated with such bearings.

REYNOLDS EQUATION

∂ ⎡ h ∂P ⎤ ∂ ⎡ h ∂P ⎤ ∂h + = 6 U ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂X ⎢ ∂X ⎣ µ ∂X ⎦ ∂Z ⎣ µ ∂Z ⎦
3 3

(FDM1)

Z (Axial)

Pi,j

Pi+1,j

X (Circumferential)

hi+1/2,j hi,j-1/2 Pi,j-1 Pi,j hi-1/2,j Pi-1,j hi,j+1/2 Pi,j+1

j +1 / 2 h 3 ii +1 / 2 . j −1 / 2 −h ∆X i . j +i 2 3 i . j 3 i −1 / 2 . j +1 3 i . . j h i . j i −1 / 2 . j i . j −h ∆X ∆X i .j 6π P = i. j −1 (FDM2) ⎡ ∂P ⎤ = h ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ∂Z ⎦ 3 i . j −1 / 2 . j −1 / 2 (FDM4) Solving for Pi. j −1 / 2 P ∆X i . . j +1 / 2 (FDM5) D ⎡ + ( ) ⎢h L ⎣ D h ( ) L 2 3 2 i +1 / 2 . j i. j (FDM3) ∂h h = ∂X −h ∆X i . j +1 / 2 P +h ∆X i . j 3 i +1 / 2 . j i −1 . j +1 / 2 2 2 3 i . j P P ⎤ +h +h ⎥ ∆Z ∆Z ⎦ +h +h h + ∆Z ∆X i +1 . j −1 / 2 Pi. j 2 2 3 3 3 i −1 / 2 . j − P ∆X i . j 3 i −1 . j +1 / 2 P − Pi.∂ ∂X ∂ ∂Z ⎡ ∂P ⎤ = h ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ∂X ⎦ 3 h 3 i . j −1 2 i . j P −P ∆Z i. j P −P −h ∆Z ∆Z i +1 .

by an iteration procedure. or. j i. j m n k <∆ (FDM6) Where k is the number of iterations performed. j k −1 ∑ ∑ (P ) j =1 i =1 i.m+1 full journal Pi. of course.The boundary conditions are: i= 1 i = n+1 j=1 j = n+1 i.m+1 = Poutlet partial arc = Pi.j Pi. If the later is used. differ from iteration to iteration by an amount larger than ∆. to obtain good accuracy.j = 0 Pn+2.j P1. The error is defined by ∑ ∑ (P ) − (P ) m n k j =1 i =1 i. the iterative process is repeated until an error smaller than the prescribed value ∆ is reached. . The allowable error has to be kept to very small values. The individual pressures can.1 = Pinlet partial arc = Pi.1 full journal If (Pi.j = Pcavitation For n x m points in the mesh there will be n x m simultaneous equations which can be solved either in matrix form. in the order of small fractions of 1 per cent.j)calculated < Pcavitation Æ Pi.j = Pn.

FIGURE F1 Reference: NASA Contractor Report. 1967. . NASA CR-732. April.

Φ.C’/C ЄcosФ = Є0 cos(180-Ψ+Φ0) + 1 .C’/C . . R = Journal radius C’ = Assembled radial clearance C = Machined radial clearance Ono = Center of curvature of pad with no tilting Projecting OJOn on OnoP results in ecosΦ = e0cos(180-Ψ+Φ0)+C-C’ Dividing throughout by C e/C cosФ = e0/C cos(180-Ψ+Φ0) + 1 . Φ is the corresponding pad attitude angle.Refer to the preceding figure: OB = Center of tilting pad bearing Ψ = Angle of pivot point P located from vertical load line OJ = Steady state position of the journal OBOJ = e0 = C’Є0 Location of journal center OJ with respect to bearing center OB Φ0 = Attitude angle On = Steady state position of pad center OnOJ = e = CЄ Location of pad center On with respect to journal center OJ. Є0 is the independent variable. and Ф0 .Є0 cos(Ψ-Φ0) This contains three unknowns. Є. which establishes relationship between Є and Ф. Second equation is derived from the requirement that the force on the pad passes through the pivot point.C’/C ЄcosФ = 1 .

C’/C. the journal center has the eccentricity ratio Є and attitude angle Ф with respect to pad center. and Ψ are known. In order to determine the spring and damping coefficients for the complete tilting pad bearing it is necessary to know the forces and their derivatives for each pad as if the pad was fixed. The zero point determines the desired value of Ф0. Since the pad force F then is uniquely determined by Є cosФ. • For a particular case. .The third relationship is the requirement that the total horizontal force component summed over all the pads is zero. • Determine the pad forces F from available pad data. The procedure is tedious. Plot Σ F sin Ψ as function of Ф0. Under steady state conditions. when the pivot points are located symmetrically with respect to the vertical load line through the bearing center OB then Ф0 = 0 A further simplification arises when the pivot point is in the center of the pad. It becomes very complicated if the pivot point is not in the center of the pad in which case the pad force F can be multi valued function of ЄcosФ. However. The analysis requires only that Є and Ф are known for each pad. calculate Є cosФ for each pad. • For several assumed values of Ф0. Є0. Σ F sin Ψ = 0 All pads This condition is used to determine Ф0 by trial and error.

F = Fr cosФ . Therefore.. it can be shown that the single pad coefficients converted to X. Fξ = . 4 principal and 4 cross coupling terms. The force is resolved along the radial and the tangential directions with the components Fr and Ft respectively.The fluid film pad force has the components Fξ and Fη and under steady state conditions the resultant force passes through the pivot point i. and Fη = 0 Thus F denotes the load on the pad. See figure F1.Fr sinФ + Ft cosФ The spring and damping coefficients of the single pad in ξ and η coordinate system could be determined. Y system. Kxx = Kξξ cos2 Ψ ωCxx = ωCξξ cos2 Ψ Kxy = Kyx = Kξξ cos Ψ sin Ψ ωCxy = ωCyx = ωCξξ cos Ψ sin Ψ Kyy = Kξξ sin2 Ψ ωCyy = ωCξξ sin2 Ψ .Ft sinФ Fη = 0 = . Neglecting pad inertia..e. Y system gives.F. These can then be converted to X. There will be 8 coefficients in total. Fξ = .

single pad data is generated for the required L/D ratio. . common) For analyzing tilting-pad journal bearings. The finite difference method can be used for analyzing ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Plain liner bearing Pressure dam bearing Elliptical bearing Offset half bearing Lobed bearing (Three Lobes.• Summation over all the pads making up the bearing gives the bearing spring and damping coefficients. this data then is used to assemble for particular number of pads. the cross coupling terms disappear. • For symmetry around the X-axis and no pad inertia. load position. and preload per requirement.

TYPE OF BEARINGS .

χ θp Pad Clearance Circle Pivot Ob Oj R W Rp Rb FIVE SHOE TILT PAD BEARING – LOAD BETWEEN PADS – NO PRELOAD – CENTER PIVOT © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .

χ θp Pad Clearance Circle Pivot Rp Ob Oj R W Rb Preload = 1 – Cb/Cp = 1 . .(Rb-R)/(Rp-R) FIVE SHOE TILT PAD BEARINGS – LOAD BETWEEN PADS – WITH PRELOAD – CENTER PIVOT © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

.– Rp Ob Oj R W Pivot Clearance Circle Rb Pad θp χ FIVE SHOE TILTING PAD BEARING – LOAD ON PAD – WITH PRELOAD – CENTER PIVOT © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

χ θp Pad Clearance Circle Pivot Rp Ob Oj R W Rb FIVE SHOE TILTING PAD BEARING – LOAD BETWEEN PADS – WITH PRELOAD – OFFSET PIVOT © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .

API 684 2nd Edition .PRESSURE DAM BEARING Ref.

API 684 2nd Edition .ELLIPTICAL BEARING Ref.

API 684 2nd Edition .OFFSET HALF BEARING Ref.

API 684 2nd Edition .PRELOADED MULTI LOBE BEARING Ref.

Lobed Bearings) • Four Dynamic Coefficients for Tilting Pad Journal Bearings – No Cross Coupled Coefficients • Tilt Pad Bearing Coefficients are dependent on – Load Orientation – Bearing Preload – Pivot Offset • Bearing Coefficients are Dependent on Sommerfeld Number • Sommerfeld Number is Function of: – Load – Shaft Diameter – Bearing Clearance (Range) – Shaft Speed – Oil Viscosity S= {(µ•N•L•D)/W}•(R/C)2 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .Modeling Bearings • Bearings are Modeled Using Stiffness and Damping Characteristics • Eight Dynamic Coefficients for Fixed Geometry Bearings (Plain Liner.

00E+06 Kxx AvgC S T IF F N E S S ( L B ./IN .THRUST END 1.) 8.00E+05 0. .BEARING STIFFNESS VS.00E+05 Kxx MaxC Kyy AvgC Kxx MinC 6.00E+05 2. SPEED AND CLEARANCE .00E+05 Kyy MaxC 4.20E+06 Kyy MinC 1.00E+00 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 SPEED (RPM) 10000 12000 14000 16000 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

For lightly loaded bearing it will not cause problem. Particularly at slow roll. but for heavily loaded bearings it will. LOAD BETWEEN PADS • Stiffness in the vertical direction is considerably different from horizontal direction for load on pad configuration. Two distinct peaks may cause problem meeting required margins. • For load on pad configuration the pad thickness may have to be increased to reduce pad deflection due to heavy load application relative to load between pads configuration. • For load between pads configuration the stiffness in the vertical and horizontal directions are closer to each other. © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. . Chances of having distinct peaks are less. • In load on pad configuration the bottom pad carries most of the load.FIVE SHOE TILTING PAD JOURNAL BEARINGS LOAD ON PAD Vs.

More for load between pads configuration. . • Temperature rise – More for load between pads configuration. • Minimum film thickness . One may be better than other for particular application.Less for load between pads configuration. • Power loss – More for load between pads configuration.FIVE SHOE TILTING PAD JOURNAL BEARINGS LOAD ON PAD Vs. LOAD BETWEEN PADS (Continued) • Stability considerations – Depends on the rotor/bearing configuration and the destabilizing effect of aerodynamic cross coupling. • Eccentricity ratio . © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

• Freedom of pad motion designed in a tilting pad journal bearing provides misalignment capability not readily available in a fixed geometry bearing. • Destabilizing influences due to oil seals. Fixed Geometry Bearings • Fluid film cross coupling terms present in a fixed geometry bearing causes instability beyond a certain speed for a given rotor-bearing system. as a result it is inherently stable. The five shoe tilting pad journal bearing does not have the cross coupling terms.Tilting Pad Journal Bearings Vs. can be better controlled by a five shoe tilting pad journal bearing than a fixed geometry bearing. . • In tilting pad journal bearing the freedom of pad motion and deep recesses between pads give an effective safeguard against foreign particle damage to the pad surface. aerodynamic cross coupling effects etc. © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

TILTING PAD JOURNAL BEARING TEST RESULTS PERFORMANCE DATA .

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. • Bearing torque increases as the bearing load is increased at the same speed. and 20 rpm at a flow rate of 4 GPM. 10. large steam turbines are placed on turning gears in order to let the rotor cool uniformly.) is presented as a function of bearing load (psi) at three different speeds 5. • Bearing torque is more with decrease in speed for the same bearing load. • The turbine is usually driven at 9 to 15 RPM. • Bearing torque (lb. • Experimental results obtained from a series of tests conducted on five shoe tilting-pad journal bearings are shown here which could be useful in general.EFFECT OF SLOW ROLL – BOUNDARY LUBRICATION • During shutdown.in. • Friction coefficient increases with increase in Sommerfeld Number. • Friction coefficient is presented as a function of Sommerfeld Number. • Any compressor coupled to a turbine during shutdown will also be turning at these slow speeds. • Results could be different with different type of bearings. © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

Bearing Torque Vs. .in.) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 Bearing Load (psi) 150 200 250 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. Bearing Load @ 4 GPM and 5 RPM 500 450 400 350 Bearing Torque (lb.

Bearing Load @ 4 GPM and 10 RPM 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Bearing Load (psi) Bearing Torque (lb.Bearing Torque Vs.) © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. .in.

Bearing Torque Vs. Bearing Load @ 4 GPM and 20 RPM 250 200 Bearing Torque (lb. .in.) 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Bearing Load (psi) © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

) 50 100 150 Bearing Load (psi) 200 250 300 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. Bearing Load @ 4 GPM 500 AT 5 RPM 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 AT 10 RPM AT 20 RPM Bearing Torque (lb.in.Bearing Torque Vs. .

14 0.04 0.09 0 0.17 0.13 0. .1 0.12 0.12 0.Friction Coefficient Vs.16 0.11 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.14 Sommerfeld Number x 10E-2 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. Sommerfeld Number @ 4 GPM and 5 RPM 0.02 0.15 Friction coefficient 0.

075 0.1 Friction Coefficient 0. Sommerfeld Number @ 4 GPM and 10 RPM 0.Friction Coefficient Vs.15 Sommerfeld Number x 10E-2 0. .07 0 0.25 0.085 0.1 0.3 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.105 0.05 0.095 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.2 0.

2 0.06 0.05 0 0.07 Friction Coefficient 0. Sommerfeld Number @ 4 GPM and 20 RPM 0.055 0.Friction Coefficient Vs. .075 0.065 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.3 Sommerfeld Number x 10E-2 0.6 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.

08 0.6 Sommerfeld Number x 10E-02 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc.06 0.16 AT 10 RPM AT 20 RPM 0.3 0.04 0 0.12 0. . Sommerfeld Number @ 4 GPM 0.Friction Coefficient Vs.1 0.1 0.18 AT 5 RPM 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.14 Friction Coefficient 0.

University of Virginia. K.. 1967. . October. “Steady-State and Dynamic Properties of Journal Bearings in Laminar and Superlaminar Flow Regimes – Tilting-Pad Bearings”. “Spring and Damping Coefficients for the Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing”.. Technical Report AFAPL-TR-65-45 Part VII. Part VII: The Three Lobe Bearing and F.. June. “A Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of Pressure Dam and Tilting-Pad Bearings”. Air Force Aero Propulsion Lab. Ng. J.. October 1. and Sternlicht.. et. 2. 1964. January 1981. “A Comparison of Film Temperatures and Oil Discharge Temperature for a Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing”. Journal of Lubrication Technology. pp. 342-352. B. “Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Design Technology. pp 61-66 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. C. “Lubrication Analysis in Turbulent Regime”. Orcutt. ASLE Transactions. 3. Trans. Vohr. F. J. 4. Vol. ASME. S. Technical Report AFAPL-TR-65-45. NASA Contractor Report. Lund. Pranabesh . Cheng.. WPAFB. Journal of Lubrication Technology. C. Pan... OH. No. W. WPAFB.K.. W.. 8. Vol. Vol. Nicholas. et.. 392-404. NASA CR54195. February.K. OH.. “Performance Tests of Five Shoe Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing”. Part III: Design Handbook for Fluid Film Type Bearings”. No. B. W. April.al. J. University of Virginia. 1977 9. Arwas E. E. F. B. 5.al.. De Choudhury. 6. 7. Ph. Air Force Aero Propulsion Lab. ASLE. Virginia. Arwas. 103 10. Lund. C. J. Charlottesville. Ph.oating Ring Bearing”. July. Pranabesh ... 1967. De Choudhury. T. F. pp. Ng.REFERENCES 1.D. “Dynamic Stability of Flexible Rotor-Bearing Systems”. “Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Design Technology. H. 1968. J. Orcutt. NASA CR-732. May.. Pranabesh . Dissertation. May. Series F. “The Steady State and Dynamic Characteristics of the Tilting Pad Journal Bearing in Laminar . Dissertation. 7. W. Orcutt. 3. 1964. Lund. 1971.. W. H. 1965. 89. and Turbulent Flow Regimes”. 27. C.D. De Choudhury. Vol. 4. H.

.. “Test Results of Key and Spherical Pivot Five-Shoe Tilt Pad Journal Bearings – Part 1: Performance Measurements”. 57-64 15. “Rotordynamic Tests of a Flexible Rotor on Flexure Pivot Journal Bearings and Stability Correlation with Frequency Dependent Characteristics”. pp. pp. Tribology Transactions.. “Slow Roll Tests on a Five-Shoe Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing”. Pranabesh . 541-547 13. 198-202 12. September 2002. January 2003. et. “A Flexible Pad Bearing System for a High Speed Centrifugal Compressor”. Vol. 39-47 16. Pranabesh . et. et. “Rotordynamic and Bearing Upgrade of a High-Speed Turbocharger”.al. Pranabesh .11. De Choudhury. De Choudhury.al.al..al. 675-680 14. Vol. “Test Results of Key and Spherical Pivot Five-Shoe Tilt Pad Journal Bearings – Part 2: Dynamic Measurements”. 42 (1999) 3. 28. Tribology Transactions. pp. Vol.. Vol. 125 © Pran Rda Consulting Inc. Pranabesh . ASLE Transactions. et. 42 (1999) 3. De Choudhury. De Choudhury. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. September 1992. Proceedings of the 21st Turbomachinery Symposium. Proceedings of the 31st Turbomachinery Symposium.

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