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# MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES

## There are two systems used for the measurement of angles.

Sexagesimal system:
Here a right angle is divided into 90 equal parts known as degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts
called minutes and each minute is further divided into 60 equal parts called seconds.
60 seconds (or 60) = 1 minute (or 1)
60 minutes (or 60') = 1 degree (or 1)
90 degrees (or 90) = 1 right angle
Circular Measurement:
In this system a unit called Radian is defined as follows:
c
) =
) r ( circle of Radius
' r ' magnitude of length arc
i.e. one radian corresponds to the angle subtended by arc of length r
at the centre of the circle.
Since the ratio is independent of the size of a circle it follows that radian is a
constant quantity. The circumference of a circle is always equal to t times its
diameter or 2t times its radius.
1
c
A
B
C
D
O r
r
Fig.1
For a general angle, e.g. ZAOD =
r
Remember that angles at the centre of a circle are in proportion to the arc.
i.e.
t
=
t
= =
Z
Z 2
2
r
r
AC arc
AB arc
AOC
AOB
where ZAOB = 1
c
=
t

=
t
=
t
Z 180 ) angle right ( 2 AOC 2
Note:
t is a real number whereas t
c
stands for 180.
Remember the relation radians = 180 = 200
g
t
2
a right angle =
t
0
180
= 180
0
0.3183098862.. = 57.2957795
0
= 57
0
17'44.8'' nearly.
Illustration 1:
(i). Express 45 20' 10 in radian system
(ii). The interior angles of a polygon are in A.P. and the smallest angle is 120 and common
difference 5. Find the number of sides of the polygon.
(iii). Reduce 94
g
22'87 to sexagesimal measure.
Solution:
(i) 0.7
C
(ii) n = 9 (iii) 84
0
48'53.388
Trigonometric Functions
In a right angled triangle ABC, ZCAB = A and ZBCA = 90 = t/2. AC is the base, BC the altitude and AB is the
hypotenuse. We refer to the base as the adjacent side and to the altitude as the opposite side. There are six
trigonometric ratios, also called trigonometric functions or circular functions. With reference to angle A, the
six ratios are:
BC opposite side
= .
AB hypotenuse
is called sine of A, and written as sin A
= .
AB hypotenuse
is called the cosine of A, and written as cos A
BC opposite side
=
is called the tangent of A, and written as tan A.
B
C
A Fig. 2
Obviously,
sinA
tan A =
cosA
. The reciprocals of sine, cosine and tangent are called the cosecant, secant and
cotangent of A respectively. We write these as cosec A, sec A, cot A respectively.
Important Notes:
Since the hypotenuse is the greatest side in a right angle triangle, sin A and cos A can never be
greater than unity and cosec A and sec A can never be less than unity. Hence |sin A|s 1, |cos A|s
1,|cosec A|> 1, |sec A|>1, while tan A and cot A may have any numerical value lying between -
to + .
All the six trigonometric functions have got a very important property in common that is periodicity.
Remember that the trigonometrical ratios are real numbers and remain same so long as the angle
remains same.
SOME BASIC RESULTS
cos
2
A + sin
2
A = 1 cos
2
A = 1 - sin
2
A or sin
2
A = 1 - cos
2
A
1 + tan
2
A = sec
2
A sec
2
A - tan
2
A = 1
cot
2
A + 1 = cosec
2
A cosec
2
A - cot
2
A = 1

sinA cosA
tanA = and cotA =
cosA sinA
Fundamental inequalities: For 0 < A <
t
2
, 0 < cosA <
sinA
A
<
1
cosA
.
It is possible to express trigonometrical ratios in terms of any one of them
e.g.
2 2
1 cot 1
sin = , cos = , tan =
cot
1+cos 1+cot
2
2
1+cot
cosec = 1+cot , sec =
cot
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF ANY ANGLE
Consider the system of rectangular co-ordinate axes dividing the plane into four quadrants. A line OP makes
angle u with the positive x-axis. The angle u is said to be positive if measured in counter clockwise direction
from the positive x-axis and is negative if measured in clockwise direction. The positive values of the
trigonometric ratios in the various quadrants are shown, the signs of the other ratios may be derived. Note
that Zxoy = t/2, Zxox' = t , Zxoy' = 3t/2
O
x
x'
y'
y
P
1
Q1
u
P
4 P
3
P
2
Q2
Q3 Q4
O
x
x'
y'
y
All ratio + ve
cosu, secu + ve
sinu, cosecu + ve
tanu, cotu + ve
P
i
Q
i
is positive if above the x-axis, negative if below the x-axis, OP
i
is always taken positive. OQ
i
is positive if
along positive x-axis, negative if in opposite direction.
i
i i
i i
OP
Q P
OP Q sin = Z
i
i
i i
OP
OQ
OP Q cos = Z
i
i i
i i
OQ
Q P
OP Q tan = Z (Where i = 1, 2, 3, 4 )
Thus depending on signs of OQ
i
and P
i
Q
i
the various trigonometrical ratios will have different signs.
TABLE
equals sin cos tan cot Sec cosec
sinu cosu tanu cotu secu cosec u
90 cosu sinu cotu tanu cosecu secu
90 + cosu sinu cotu tanu cosecu secu
180 sinu cosu tanu cotu secu cosecu
180+ sinu cosu tanu cotu secu cosecu
360 sinu cosu tanu cotu secu cosecu
360+ sinu cosu tanu cotu secu cosecu
Note:
- Angle u and 90u are complementary angles, u and 180u are supplementary angles
- sin(nt + (1)
n
u) = sinu, n e I
- cos(2nt u) = cosu, n e I
- tan(nt + u) = tanu, n e I
i.e. sine of general angle of the form nt + (1)
n
u will have same sign as that of sine of angle u and so on. The
same is true for the respective reciprocal functions also.
BASIC FORMULAE
TABLE 1
sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos (A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
cos (A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

, )
tanA + tanB
tan A +B =
1- tanAtanB

, )
tanA - tanB
tan A - B =
1+ tanAtanB
sin (A + B) sin (A B) = sin
2
A sin
2
B = cos
2
B cos
2
A.
cos (A + B) cos (A B) = cos
2
A sin
2
B = cos
2
B sin
2
A.
sin2A = 2sinA cosA =
2
2tanA
1+ tan A
cos2A = cos
2
A - sin
2
A = 1-2 sin
2
A = 2cos
2
A-1 =
2
2
1- tan A
1+ tan A
tan2A =
2
2tanA
1- tan A
sin3A = 3sinA - 4sin
3
A = 4sin(60 - A) sinAsin(60 + A)
cos3A = 4cos
3
A - 3cosA = 4cos(60 - A) cosAcos(60+A)

, ) , )
3
o o
2
3tanA - tan A
tan3A = = tan 60 - A tanAtan 60 + A
1- 3tan A
TABLE 2

A +B A - B
sinA +sinB = 2sin cos
2 2

A - B A +B
sinA - sinB = 2sin cos
2 2

A - B A +B
cosA +cosB = 2cos cos
2 2

B- A A +B
cosA - cosB = 2sin sin
2 2
(Here notice (B A)!)
tanA + tanB =
, ) sin A +B
cosA.cosB
2sinAcosB = sin(A + B) + sin (A - B)
2cosAsinB = sin(A + B) - sin (A - B)
2cosAcosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A - B)
2sinAsinB = cos(A - B) - cos (A + B)
Illustration 2: If in a AABC, cos
3
A + cos
3
B + cos
3
C = 3cosA cosB cosC, then prove that the triangle is
equilateral.
Solution: Given that cos
3
A + cos
3
B + cos
3
C 3cosA cosB cosC = 0
(cosA + cosB + cosC) (cos
2
A + cos
2
B + cos
2
C cosAcosB cosB cosC cosCcosA) = 0
cos
2
A + cos
2
B + cos
2
C cosAcosB cosBcosC cosCcosA = 0
(as cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + 4 sinA/2 sinB/2 sinC/2 = 0)
(cosA cosB)
2
+ (cosB cosC)
2
+ (cosC cosA)
2
= 0
cosA = cosB = cosC
A = B = C, 0 < A, B, C < t.
AABC is equilatral.
Illustration 3: If
, ) , )
3 3
sin cos
=
sin 2 + cos 2 + o o
, prove that tan2u = 2tan(3u + o).
Solution:
, ) , )
3 3
si n cos
=
si n 2+ cos 2+
= k

, ) , )
4 4
si n cos
= =k
si n
si n 2 + coscos 2+
=
, ) , )
4 4
cos
- si n
cos
cos 2 + - si nsi n 2+
=
, )
cos2
cos 3+
Again
, ) , )
3 3
si n cos cos si n
= =k
si n 2+ cos cos 2 + si n
, ) , )
3 3
si n cos +cos si n
=
si n 2+ cos +cos 2+ si n
=
, ) , ) o + u
u
=
o + u
u u
3 sin 2
2 sin
3 sin
cos sin

, ) , ) o + u
u
=
o + u
u
3 sin 2
2 sin
3 cos
2 cos
tan2u = 2 tan(3u + o).
Illustration 4: For any real u , find the maximum value of cos
2
( cosu) + sin
2
(sinu) .
Solution: The maximum value of cos
2
( cosu) is 1 and that of sin
2
( sinu) is sin
2
1, both exists
for u = t/2. Hence maximum value is 1+ sin
2
1.
Illustration 5: If
t an3 si n3
t an si n
= 4,then find the value of .
Solution:
t an3
=4
t an
tan
2
u = 1/11
now,
sin3
sin
= 3 4 sin
2
u = 3 - 4
|
|
\ .
2
1 8
=
1+cot 3
Illustration 6: If A, B,C and D are angles of a quadrilateral and sin
A
2
sin
B
2
. sin
C
2
. sin
D
2
=
1
4
, prove
that A = B = C = D = t /2.
Solution: Given
A B C D
2sin .sin . 2sin .sin 1
2 2 2 2
| |
=
| |
\ . \ .
A B A B C D C D
cos cos cos cos 1
2 2 2 2
+ + | | | |
=
` `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . ) )
Since, A + B = 2 t - (C + D), the above equation becomes,

A B A B C D A B
cos cos cos cos
2 2 2 2
+ + | |
+
| |
\ .\ .
= 1

2
A B A B A B C D
cos cos cos cos 1
2 2 2 2
+ + | | | |
+
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . )
A B C D
cos cos
2 2
| |

| |
\ . \ .
= 0.
This is quadratic equation in cos which has real roots.

2
A B C D A B C D
cos cos 4 1 cos .cos
2 2 2 2
| | | |
>
` `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . ) )
0

2
A B C D
cos cos
2 2
|
+ >
|
\ .
4

A B C D
cos cos 2,
2 2

+ > Now both cos
A B
2

and cos
C D
2

s 1

A B C D
cos 1 cos
2 2

= =
A B C D
0
2 2

= =
A = B, C = D.
Similarly, A = C, B = D A = B = C = D = t/2.
Illustration 7: If A, B and C are angles of a triangle, prove that
B C C A A B
cos cos cos
2 2 2
E 6
B C C A A B
cos cos cos
2 2 2
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
= + + >
+ + + | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
Solution: Since A + B + C = t
B C C A A B
cos cos cos
2 2 2
E
B C C A A B
cos cos cos
2 2 2
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
= + +
+ + + | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
B C C A A B
cos cos cos
2 2 2
A B C
sin sin sin
2 2 2
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
= + +
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
=
B C A C A B
A B C
2cos cos 2sin cos
2cos cos
2 2 2 2
2 2
sinA sinB sinC
| |

| |
\ . \ .
+ +
=
sinB sinC sinC sinA sinA sinB
sinA sinB sinC
+ + + | | |
+ +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
=
sinB sinA sinC sinB sinA sinC
sinA sinB sinB sinC sinC sinA
| | |
+ + + + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
as A, B, C are angles of A 0 < A, B, C < t
sin A, sin B, sin C > 0
E > 2 + 2 + 2
1
as x 2, if x 0
x

+ > >
`
)
E > 6
Illustration 8: If cos(A + B) sin (C + D) = cos(A B) sin(C D),
prove that cotA cotB cotC = cotD.
Solution: We have cos (A + B) sin(C + D) = cos(A B) sin(C D)
i.e.
cos(A B) sin(C D)
cos(A B) sin(C D)
+
=
+

## cos(A B) cos(A B) sin(C D) sin(C D)

cos(A B) cos(A B) sin(C D) sin(C D)
+ + + +
=
+ +
or
2cosAcosB 2sinCcosD
2sinAsinB 2cosCsinD
=
cotA cotB = tanC cotD
or cotA cotB cotC = cotD.
Illustration 9: Show that
2 3 4 5 1
cos cos cos cos cos =
11 11 11 11 11 32
t t t t t
Solution:
2 3 4 5 1
cos cos cos cos cos =
11 11 11 11 11 32
t t t t t
LHS =
2 3 4 5
cos cos cos cos cos
11 11 11 11 11
t t t t t
Let
11
t
= o
= cos o cos 2o cos 3o cos 4o cos 5o
= cos o cos 2o cos 4o cos 8o cos 5o
= cos 2
0
o cos 2
1
o cos 2
2
o cos 2
3
o cos 5o
=
4
4
sin2
2 sino
cos 5o =
16 5
sin cos
11 11
16sin
11
t t
t
=
5 5
2sin cos
1
11 11
=
32
32sin
11
t t
t
.
Illustration 10: Prove that cot 7
0
1
2
= 2 + 3 + 4 + 6
Solution: Let u = 7
0
1
2
2u = 15
0
Now cot u =
0
0
1+cos2 1+cos15
=
sin2 sin15
=
3 +1
1+
2 2 + 3 +1
2 2
=
3 - 1 3 - 1
2 2
= 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 .
Illustration 11: If 2tan
2
o tan
2
| tan
2
+ tan
2
o tan
2
| + tan
2
| tan
2
+ tan
2
tan
2
o = 1, prove that sin
2
o
+ sin
2
| + sin
2
= 1.
Solution: We have, 2tan
2
o tan
2
|tan
2
+ tan
2
otan
2
| + tan
2
|tan
2
+ tan
2
tan
2
o = 1
2 + cot
2
+ cot
2
o + cot
2
| = cot
2
o cot
2
| cot
2

cosec
2
o + cosec
2
| + cosec
2
1
= (cosec
2
o 1) (cosec
2
| 1) (cosec
2
1)
cosec
2
o + cosec
2
| + cosec
2
1
= 1 + cosec
2
o + cosec
2
| + cosec
2
(cosec
2
o cosec
2
| + cosec
2
| cosec
2
+
cosec
2
cosec
2
o + cosec
2
o cosec
2
| cosec
2

cosec
2
o cosec
2
| + cosec
2
| cosec
2
+ cosec
2
cosec
2
o
= cosec
2
o cosec
2
| cosec
2
sin
2
o + sin
2
| + sin
2
= 1
IDENTITIES
A trigonometric equation is an identity if it is true for all values of the angle or angles involved. A given
identity may be established by reducing either side to the other one, or reducing each side to the same
expression, or any convenient modification of these.
For any angles A, B, C
- sin (A + B +C) = sinA cosB cosC + cosA sinB cosC + cosA cosB sinC - sinA sinB sinC
- cos (A + B +C) = cosA cosB cosC- cosA sinB sinC - sinA cosB sinC - sinA sinB cosC
-
tanA + tanB+ tanC- tanA tanB tanC
tan (A +B+C) =
1- tanA tanB- tan BtanC- tanA tanC
;
-
cotAcotBcotC- cotA - cotB- cotC
cot (A +B+C) =
cotA cotB+cot BcotC+cotA cotC- 1
If A, B, C are angles of a triangle (or A + B + C = ):
- sinA cosB cosC + cosA sinB cosC + cosA cosB sinC = sinA sinB sinC
- cosA sinB sinC + sinA cosB sinC + sinA sinB cosC = 1 + cosA cosB cosC
- tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC
- cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1
- 1 =
2
B
tan
2
A
tan +
2
A
tan
2
C
tan +
2
C
tan
2
B
tan
-
2
C
cot
2
B
cot
2
A
cot
2
C
cot
2
B
cot
2
A
cot = + +
- sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC
- cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = -1-4cosA cosB cosC
- cos
2
A + cos
2
B + cos
2
C = 1 - 2cosA cosB cosC
-
2
C
cos
2
B
cos
2
A
cos 4 C sin B sin A sin = + +
-
2
C
sin
2
B
sin
2
A
sin 4 1 C cos B cos A cos + = + +
Illustration 12: If x + y + y = xyz, Prove that
2 2 2 2 2 2
x y z 4xyz
+ + = .
1- x 1- y 1- z (1- x )(1- y )(1- z )
Solution: Let x = tanA, y = tanB, z = tanC
tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA. tanB. tanC.
A + B + C = t tan(2A + 2B) = tan(2 t 2C)
or tan(2A + 2B) = -tan2C
or tan2A + tan2B + tan2C = tan2A.tan2B.tan2C
or
2 2 2 2 2 2
2x 2y 2z 8xyz
1 x 1 y 1 z (1 x )(1 y )(1 z )
+ + =

2
2tanA
tan2A
1 tan A
1
=
(

or,
2 2 2 2 2 2
x y z 4xyz
.
1 x 1 y 1 z (1 x )(1 y )(1 z )
+ + =

Illustration 13: If A + B + C = 180
0
, prove that
sin (B + C A) + sin (C + A B) + sin (A + B C) = 4 sin A sin B sin C.
Solution: sin (B + C A) + sin (C + A B) + sin (A + B C) = 4 sin A sin B sin C
LHS = sin (B + C A) + sin (C + A B) + sin (A + B C)
= sin (t A A) + sin (t B B) + sin (t C C) (A + B + C = t)
= sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C
= 4 sin A sin B sin C
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES
If we have a cosine series in its product form where the angles are in G.P. with common ratio 2 then multiply
both numerator and denominator by 2 sin (least angle).
Illustration 14: Simplify the product cosA cos2Acos2
2
A . Cos2
n1
A.
Solution: cosA cos2A.cos2
n1
A =
A sin 2
1
(sin2Acos2A)cos2A.cos2
n1
A
= ) A 2 cos A 2 (sin
A sin 2
1
cos2
n1
A = ) A 2 cos A 2 (sin
A sin 2
1
2
cos2
n1
A
Continue like this, finally we have =
A sin 2
A 2 sin
n
n
Note:
-
A sin 2
A 2 sin
A 2 cos
n
n 1 n
0 r
r
=
[

=
where [denotes products .
- If we have a cosine series or a sine series in its sum form where the angles are in A.P. then multiply
both numerator and denominator with 2sin |
.
|

2
difference common
.
Illustration 15: Prove that cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
6t
= 1/2.
Solution: cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
6t
=
7
sin 2
7
sin 2
t
t
|
.
|

\
t t t
7
6
cos +
7
4
cos +
7
2
cos
=
2
1
7
sin 2
7
5
sin sin
7
3
sin
7
5
sin
7
sin
7
3
sin
=
t
t
t +
t

t
+
t

t
.
Note:
- , )
2
B
sin
2
nB
sin B
2
1 n
A sin
B 1 r A sin
n
1 r
|
.
|

\

+
= +

=
- , )
2
B
sin
2
nB
sin B
2
1 n
A cos
B 1 r A cos
n
1 r
|
.
|

\

+
= +

=
. Where denotes summation.
Illustration 16: Sum to nterms of the series
sino sin(
+
) + sin(
+ 2
) sin(
+ 3
)+
Solution: sin( t + u ) = sinu and sin(2 t + u ) = sinu
sin( o + | ) = sin( t + o + | )
sin( 2 o + |) = sin(2 t + 2 o + |) sin( 3 o + |) = sin(3 t + 3 o + |) and so on. Using
these results, required sum is
S=sino+sin( t + o + | )+sin(2 t + 2 o + |) +sin(3 t + 3 o + |)+ to n terms
= sino + sin ( o + t + | ) + sin( o + 2 t + | ) + sin( o + 3 t + | )+... to n terms
=
sinn.
2
.sin n 1.
2
sin
2
t + |
t + | 1
o +
(
t + |
]
n
sin
n 1
2
sin sin( ) sin( 2 ) .....tonterms sin
2
sin
2
| 1
| (

o + o + | + o + | + = o + |
| (
|
\ .
(
]

TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
An equation involving one or more trigonometrical ratios of unknown angle is called a trigonometric
equation e.g. cos
2
x 4 sin x = 1
It is to be noted that a trigonometrical identity is satisfied for every value of the unknown angle where as
trigonometric equation is satisfied only for some values (finite or infinite) of unknown angle.
e.g. sec
2
x tan
2
x = 1 is a trigonometrical identity as it is satisfied for every value of x e R.
SOLUTION OF A TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATION
A value of the unknown angle which satisfies the given equation is called a solution of the equation e.g. sin
u = u = t/6 .
General Solution
Since trigonometrical functions are periodic functions, solutions of trigonometric equations can be generalized
with the help of the periodicity of the trigonometrical functions. The solution consisting of all possible solutions of
a trigonometric equation is called its general solution.
We use the following formulae for solving the trigonometric equations:
- sin u = 0 u = nt,
- cos u = 0 u = (2n + 1)
2
t
,
- tan u = 0 u = nt,
- sin u = sin o u = nt + (1)
n
o, where o e [t/2, t/2]
- cos u = cos o u = 2nt o, where o e [ 0, t]
- tan u = tan o u = nt + o, where o e ( t/2, t/2)
- sin
2
u = sin
2
o , cos
2
u = cos
2
o, tan
2
u = tan
2
o u = nt o,
- sin u = 1 u = (4n + 1)
2
t
,
- cos u = 1 u = 2nt ,
- cos u = 1 u = (2n + 1)t,
- sin u = sin o and cos u = cos o u = 2nt + o.
Note:
- Everywhere in this chapter n is taken as an integer, If not stated otherwise.
- The general solution should be given unless the solution is required in a specified interval.
- o is taken as the principal value of the angle. Numerically least angle is called the principal value.
Method for finding principal value
Suppose we have to find the principal value of u satisfying the equation sinu =
1
2
.
Since sinu is negative, u will be in 3rd or 4th quadrant. We can approach 3rd or 4th
quadrant from two directions. If we take anticlockwise direction the numerical value
of the angle will be greater than t. If we approach it in clockwise direction the angle
will be numerically less than t. For principal value, we have to take numerically
smallest angle.
So for principal value :
1. If the angle is in 1 st or 2nd quadrant we must select anticlockwise direction and if the angle if the
angle is in 3rd or 4th quadrant, we must select clockwise direction.
2. Principal value is never numerically greater than t.
3. Principal value always lies in the first circle (i.e. in first rotation)
On the above criteria u will be
6
t
or
5
6
t
. Among these two
6
t |

|
\ .
has the least numerical value.
Hence
6
t
is the principal value of u satisfying the equation sinu =
1
2
.
Algorithm to find the principle argument:
Step 1: First draw a trigonometric circle and mark the quadrant, in which the angle may lie.
Step 2: Select anticlockwise direction for 1st and 2nd quadrants and select clockwise direction for
Step 3: Find the angle in the first rotation.
Step 4: Select the numerically least angle among these two values. The angle thus found will be the
principal value.
Step 5: In case, two angles one with positive sign and the other with negative sign qualify for the
numerically least angle, then it is the convention to select the angle with positive sign as
principal value.
Example 1: If tanu = 1, thenu will lie in 2nd or 4th quadrant.
/ 6 t
/ 6 t
Y
Y'
X'
X

B
A
/ 4 t
3 / 4 t
Y
Y'
X' X

+
+
For 2nd quadrant we will select anticlockwise and for 4th quadrant. we will select
clockwise direction.
In the first circle two values
4
t
and
3
4
t
are obtained.
Among these two,
4
t
is numerically least angle. Hence principal value is
4
t
.
Example 2: If cos u =
1
2
, then u will lie in 1
st
or 4
th
/ 3 t
Y
Y'
X' X
/ 3 t
O
For 1st quadrant, we will select anticlockwise direction and for 4th quadrant, we will
select clockwise direction.
In the first circle two values
3
t
and
3
t
are thus found.
Both
3
t
and
3
t
have the same numerical value. In such case
3
t
will be selected as
principal value.
Illustration 17: Solve cot (sinx + 3) = 1.
Solution: sinx + 3 =
4
n
t
t 4
4
n 2 s
t
t s n = 1 sinx = 3
4

t
t
x = , ) |
.
|

t
+ t

3
4
5
sin 1 n
1 n
or , ) |
.
|

t
+ t

3
4
3
sin 1 n
1 n
Illustration 18: If sin 5x + sin 3x + sin x = 0, then find the value of x other than zero, lying between 0 s x
s
2
t
.
Solution: sin 5x + sin 3x + sin x = 0 (sin 5x + sin x) + sin 3x = 0
2 sin 3x cos 2x + sin 3x = 0 sin 3x(2 cos 2x + 1) = 0
sin 3x = 0; cos 2x =
2
1
3x = nt, 2x = 2nt
3
2t
The required value of x is
3
t
.
Illustration 19: Find all acute angle o such that cos o cos 2o cos 4o =
8
1
.
Solution: It is given that coso cos2o cos4o =
8
1
2sino coso cos2o cos4o =
4
sino
2sin2o cos2o cos4o =
2
sino
2sin4o cos4o = sino sin8o sino = 0
2sin
7
2
o
cos
2
9o
= 0
Either sin
2
7o
= 0 t =
o
n
2
7
o =
7
n 2 t
For n = 0 o = 0 which is not a solution.
o =
7
n 2 t
n = 1, i.e. o =
7
2t
or cos 0
2
9
=
o

2
9o
= (2n + 1)
2
t
o= (2n + 1)
9
t
o =
3
,
9
t t
Hence o =
3
,
9
,
7
2 t t t
.
Illustration 20: Solve for x: 0 ) 2 ( log ) 2 ( log 2 ) 2 ( log ) 2 ( log
x cos x sin x cos sin
2 2 2
x
2 .
Solution: 0
x cos log x sin log
2
x cos log
1
x sin log
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

+ +
0
x cos log x sin log
2 x sin log x cos log
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

+ +
, ) 2 x cos . x sin log
2 2
2
=
2
2
x 2 sin
log
2
2
= |
.
|

4
1
2
x 2 sin
2
= |
.
|

2
1
2
x 2 sin
=
sin2x = 1 2x = (2n + 1)
2
t
x = (2n+1)
4
t
, n e I
OBJECTIVE ASSIGNMENT
1: The general value of u satisfying both
2
1
sin

u and
3
1
tan = is :
(A) 2nt (B) 2nt + 7t/6
(C) nt + t/4 (D) 2nt + t/4
Solution: Let us first find out u lying between 0 and 360.
Since
2
1
sin

= u u = 210 or 330
and
3
1
tan = u u = 30 or 210
Hence u = 210 or
6
7t
is the value satisfying both.
The general value of I c |
.
|

\
t
+ t = u n ,
6
7
n 2
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
2: \3 cosec20 - sec20 =
(A) 1 (B) 2
(C) 3 (D) 4
Solution: Given =

=

20 cos 20 sin
20 sin 20 cos 3
20 cos
1
20 sin
3

40 sin
20 sin 60 cos 20 cos 60 sin
. 4
20 cos 20 sin 2
20 sin
2
1
20 cos
2
3
. 4

=

|
|
.
|

=
=
sin 40
4 4
sin 40

## Hence (D) is the correct answer.

3: tan A + 2 tan 2A + 4 tan 4A + 8 cot 8A =
(A) Cot A (B) tan 6A
(C) cot 4A (D) None of these
Solution: tan A + 2 tan 2A + 4 tan 4A + 8 cot 8A
= tanA + 2tan2A + 4tan4A + 8
, )
A 4 tan 2
A 4 tan 1
2

## 4 A 2 tan 2 A tan A 4 cot 4 A 2 tan 2 A tan + + = + + =

, )
A 2 tan 2
A 2 tan 1
2

A tan
A tan 1
A tan A 2 cot 2 A tan
2

+ = + = = cot A
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
4: The value of sin 12. sin48.sin54 =
(A) 1/8 (B) 1/6
(C) 1/4 (D) 1/2
Solution: sin 12. sin48.sin54 =

(
]
1

=

54 sin
2
1
54 sin 36 cos
2
1
54 sin 60 cos 36 cos
2
1
= + = 54 sin 18 sin 90 sin
4
1
54 sin 54 sin 36 cos 2
4
1
= , )

36 cos 18 sin 2 1
4
1
18 sin 54 sin 1
4
1
=
=
(
]
1

=
(
]
1

18 cos
36 cos 36 sin
1
4
1
36 cos 18 cos
18 cos
18 sin 2
1
4
1
=
1 2sin36 cos36 1 sin 72 1 1 1
1 1 1
4 2cos18 4 2sin 72 4 2 8

- = - = - =

Alternative Method
Let u = 12
sin 12. sin48.sin54 =

## 54 sin 72 sin 48 sin 12 sin

72 sin
1
, )

36 cos 8
36 cos
36 cos 36 sin 8
54 sin 36 sin
72 sin
54 sin 12 3 sin
4
1
= =

= =
1
8
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
5: The smallest positive value of x (in degrees) for which
tan(x + 100) = tan(x + 50) tan x tan(x - 50) is :
(A) 30 (B) 45
(C) 60 (D) 90
Solution: The relation may be written as
, )
, )
, ) x tan 50 x tan
50 x tan
100 x tan

+ =

, ) , )
, ) , )
, )
, ) x cos 50 x cos
x sin 50 x sin
100 x cos 50 x sin
50 x cos 100 x sin
+
+
=
+
+

, ) , )
, ) , )
, ) , )
, ) , ) + +
+
=
+
+ +
50 x 2 cos 50 cos
50 x 2 cos 50 cos
150 sin 50 x 2 sin
150 sin 50 x 2 sin

, )
, ) +

=

+
50 x 2 cos
50 cos
150 sin
50 x 2 sin
cos50+ 2sin(2x + 50) cos(2x + 50) = 0
cos50+ sin (4x + 100) = 0 cos50 + cos(4x + 10) = 0
cos(2x + 30) cos(2x 20) = 0 x = 30, 55
The smallest value of x = 30
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
6. The most general value of u satisfying 3 2cosu 4sinu cos2u + sin2u =0:
(A) 2nt (B) 2nt + t/2
(C) 4nt (D) 2nt + t/4
Solution: 3 2cos u 4 sin u cos 2u + sin 2u = 0
3 2cos u 4 sin u 1 + 2sin
2
u + 2sin u cos u = 0
2sin
2
u 2cosu 4sin u + 2sin u cos u + 2 = 0
(sin
2
u 2sin u + 1) + cos u(sinu 1) = 0
(sin u 1)[sin u 1 + cos u] = 0
either sin u = 1
u = 2nt + t/2 where n e I
or, sin u + cos u =1
cos( u t/4) = cos(t/4) u t/4 = 2nt t/4
u = 2nt, 2nt + t/2 where n e I
Hence u = 2nt, 2nt + t/2.
Hence (A, B) is the correct answer.
7: If sinu = 3sin(u + 2o), then the value of tan (u + o) + 2tano is:
(A) 0 (B) 2
(C) 4 (D) 1
Solution: Given sin u = 3sin (u + 2o)
sin (u + o o) = 3sin (u + o + o)
sin (u + o) coso cos(u + o) sino
= 3sin (u + o) coso + 3cos (u + o) sino
2sin (u + o) coso = 4cos (u + o) sino

-si n ( + ) 2si n
=
cos ( + ) cos
tan(u+o) + 2tano = 0
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
8: The minimum value of 3tan
2
u + 12 cot
2
u is:
(A) 6 (B) 8
(C) 10 (D) None of these
Solution: A.M. > G.M
1
2
(3tan
2
u +12 cot
2
u ) > 6
3 tan
2
u +12cot
2
u has minimum value 12.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
9: If A + B + C =
o
180
then the value of tanA + tanB + tanC is :
(A) > 3 3 (B) > 2 3
(C) > 3 3 (D) > 2 3
Solution: tan(A + B) = tan(180

C)
or,
tanA tanB
1 tanAtanB
+

= tanC
or, tanA + tanB + tanC = tana tanB tanC
3
tanA tanB tanC
tanAtanBtanC
3
+ +
> [since A.M. > G.M.]
or, tanA tanB tanC >
3
tanAtanBtanC
or,
2
tan A
2
tan B
2
tan C > 27 [cubing both sides]
or tanA tanB tanC > 3 3
tanA + tanB + tanC > 3 3 .
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
10: Let 0 < A, B <
2
t
satisfying the equalities 3
2
sin A + 2
2
sin B = 1 and 3sin2A 2sin2B = 0.
Then A + 2B = :
(A)
p
4
(B)
p
3
(C)
2
t
(D) None of these.
Solution: From the second equation, we have
sin2B =
3
2
sin2A (1)
and from the first equality
3
2
sin A = 1 2
2
sin B = cos2B (2)
Now cos (A + 2B) = cosA. cos2B sinA . sin2B
= 3 cosA .
2
sin A
3
2
. sinA . sin2A
= 3cosA.
2
sin A 3
2
sin A . cosA = 0
A + 2B =
2
t
or
3
2
t
Given that 0 < A <
2
t
and 0 < B <
2
t
0 < A + 2B < t +
2
t
Hence A + 2B =
2
t
.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
11: If a cos
3
u + 3a cos u sin
2
u = x and a sin
3
u + 3a cos
2
u sin u = y, then (x + y)
2/3
+ (x y)
2/3
=
(A) 2a
2/3
(B) a
2/3
(C) 3a
2/3
(D) 2a
1/3
Solution: a cos
3
u + 3a cos u sin
2
u = x
a sin
3
u + 3a cos
2
u sin u = y
x + y = a[sin
3
u + cos
3
u + 3 sin u cos u(sin u + cos u)] = a(sinu + cosu)
3
3 / 1
a
y x
|
.
|

\
+
= sin u + cos u (1)
x y = a[cos
3
u sin
3
u + 3 cosu sin
2
u 3 cos
2
u sin u] = a[cosu sinu]
3
3 / 1
a
y x
|
.
|

\

= cos u sin u (2)
(sin u + cos u)
2
+ (cos u sin u)
2
=
3 / 2
3 / 2 3 / 2
a
) y x ( ) y x ( + +
2 (sin
2
u + cos
2
u) =
3 / 2
3 / 2 3 / 2
a
) y x ( ) y x ( + +
(x + y)
2/3
+ (x y)
2/3
= 2a
2/3
.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
12: If
, )
1+ 1+ a t an = 1 + 1- a
, then sin4o =
(A) a/2 (B) a
(C) a
2/3
(D) 2a
Solution: Let a = sin 4u 1+a = cos 2u + sin 2u and 1- a = cos 2u sin 2u
(1 + 1+a ) tan o = (1 + 1- a )
(1 + cos 2u + sin 2u) tan o = 1 + cos 2u sin 2u

, )
, )
2cos cos +sin
2cos cos - sin
= cot o

cos+sin
cos- sin
= cot o
1+tan
= -cot
1- tan
tan +
4
t |
|
\ .
= tan +
2
t |
o
|
\ .
u = -
4
t |
o
|
\ .
a = sin 4u = sin (t 4o) = sin 4 o
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
13: If cos
2
u =
, )
2
1
a - 1
3
and tan
2

2
= tan
2/3
o, then cos
2/3
o + sin
2/3
o =
(A) 2a
2/3
(B)
|
|
\ .
2/3
2
a
(C)

1/3
2
a
(D) 2a
1/3
Solution: cos
2
u =
3
1 a
2

, tan
2
2
u
= tan
2/3
o
tan
3
2
u
= tan o
o
o
=
u
u
cos
sin
2
cos
2
sin
3
3
o
u
=
o
u
cos
2
cos
sin
2
sin
3 3
= k
sin
3
2
u
= k sin o (1)
cos
3
2
u
= k cos o (2)
k
2/3
sin
2/3
o + k
2/3
cos o = 1
sin
2/3
o + cos
2/3
o =
3 / 2
k
1
Squaring and adding (1) and (2)
k
2
(sin
2
o + cos
2
o) = sin
6
2
u
+ cos
6
2
u
=
|
.
|

\
u u u u
|
.
|

\
u
+
u
2
cos
2
sin
2
cos
2
sin 3
2
cos
2
sin
2 2 2 2
3
2 2
k
2
= 1
4
3
sin
2
u = 1
4
3
+
4
3
cos
2
u
k
2
=
4
a
2
k =
2
a
sin
2/3
o + cos
2/3
o =
3 / 2
a
2
|
.
|

.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
14: If 3 sin
2
o + 2 sin
2
| = 1 and 3 sin 2o 2 sin 2| = 0, where o, | are positive acute angles, then
o + 2| =
(A)
2
t
(B)
3
p
(C)
4
p
(D)
6
p
Solution: 3 sin
2
o + 2 sin
2
| = 1 (1)
3 sin 2o = 2 sin 2| (2)
3 sin
2
o = 1 2 sin
2
| = cos 2|
3 sin o sin o = cos 2| (3)
from equation (2)
3 . 2 sin o cos o = 2 sin 2|
3 sin o =
o
|
cos
2 sin
fromequation (3)
sin o
o
|
cos
2 sin
= cos 2|
cos o cos 2| sin o sin 2| = 0
cos (o + 2|) = 0
o + 2| =
2
t
.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
15: The value of ( )
5
1
cos 2 1
11
r
r
p
=
-

is :
(A)
1
2
(B)
1
3
(C)
1
4
(D)
1
6
Solution: , )

=
t

5
1 r
11
1 r 2 cos
11
9
cos
11
7
cos
11
5
cos
11
3
cos
11
cos
t
+
t
+
t
+
t
+
t
= |
.
|

\
t
+
t
+
t
+
t
+
t
t
t
11
9
cos
11
7
cos
11
5
cos
11
3
cos
11
cos
11
sin 2
11
sin 2
=
11
sin 2
11
8
sin
11
10
sin
11
6
sin
11
8
sin
11
4
sin
11
6
sin
11
2
sin
11
4
sin
11
2
sin
t
|
.
|

\
t

t
+
t

t
+
t

t
+
t

t
+
t
=
2
1
11
sin 2
11
sin
11
sin 2
11
10
sin
=
t
|
.
|

\
t
t
=
t
t
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
16: The number of solutions of sin
3
x cos x + sin
2
x cos
2
x + sin x cos
3
x = 1 in [0, 2t] is
(A) 4 (B) 2
(C) 1 (D) 0
Solution: sin x cos x [sin
2
x + sin x cos x + cos
2
x] = 1
sin x cos x + (sin x cos x)
2
= 1
sin
2
2x + 2 sin 2x 4 = 0 sin 2x = 5 1
2
16 4 2
=
+
, which is not possible.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
17: The number of solutions of the equation x
3
+2x
2
+5x + 2cosx = 0 in
[0, 2t] is:
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) 3
Solution: Let f(x) = x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 5x +2 cosx
f'(x) = 3x
2
+4x + 5 2 sinx
= 3 x sin 2
3
11
3
2
x
2
+ |
.
|

+
Now 0 x sin 2
3
11
> x ( as -1 s sinx s 1)
f'(x) > 0 x
f(x) is an increasing function.
Now f(0) = 2
f(x) = 0 has no solution in [ 0, 2t] .
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
18: The value of
-1 -1
cos[ tan (sin(tan x)) ]
x

li m
is equal to
(A) -1 (B) 2
(C)
1
-
2
(D)
1
2
Solution:
2
1
x 2 1
x 1
lim
2
2
x
=
|
|
.
|

+
+

.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
19: sinnx=
n
r 0 =

r
r
a .sin , where n is an odd natural number, then:
(A)
0
a = 1,
1
a = 2n (B)
0
a = 1,
1
a = n
(C)
0
a = 0,
1
a = n (D)
0
a = 0,
1
a = -n
Solution: sin nx = Im(e
in x
) = Im ((cosx + i sinx)
n
)
n n 1 n n 3 3 n n 5 5
1 3 5
C cos x .sinx C cos sin x C cos x.sin x

= + + ..
Since n is odd, let n = 2 + 1
sin nx =
n 2
1
C (cos x) sinx

n 2 1 3
3
C (cos x) sin

+ .
=
n 2
1
C (1 sin x) sinx

n 2 1 3
3
C (1 sin x) .sin

+
n 2 2 5
5
C (1 sin x) .sin x

+ .
=
n n n 3
1 1 1 3
C sinx ( C . C C )sin x ...

+ +
0 1
a 0, a n = =
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
20: If tanx = n. tany, n R
+
e , then maximum value of
2
sec (x y) is equal to:
(A)
2
(n+1)
2n
(B)
2
(n+1)
n
(C)
2
(n+1)
2
(D)
2
(n+1)
4n
Solution: tanx = n tany, cos(x y)
= cosx. cosy + sinx.siny.
cos(x y) = cosx.cosy(1 + tanx.tany)
= cosx. cosy (1 + n tan
2
y)
2 2
2
2 2
sec xsec y
sec (x y)
(1 n tan y )
=
+
2 2
2 2
(1 tan x)(1 tan y)
(1 ntan y)
+ +
=
+
2 2 2
2 2
(1 n tan y)(1 tan y)
(1 ntan y)
+ +
=
+
2 2
2 2
(n 1) t an y
1
(1 ntan y)

= +
+
Now,
2
2
2
1 ntan y
ntan y.
2
| +
>
|
\ .
2
2 2
t an y 1
(1 ntan y) 4n
s
+
2 2
2
(n 1) (n 1)
sec (x y) 1
4n 4n
+
s + =
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
21: If 3sinu + 5cosu = 5, then the value of 5sinu 3cosu is equal to
(A) 5 (B) 3
(C) 4 (D) none of these
Solution: 3sinu = 5(1 cosu) = 5 2sin
2
u/2 tanu/2 = 3/5
5sinu 3cosu =
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
3
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
5
2
2
2
u
+
|
.
|

\
u

u
+
u
= 3
25
9
1
25
9
1 3
25
9
1
5
3
2
5 =
+
|
.
|

## Hence (B) is the correct answer.

22: In a AABC, if cotA cotB cotC > 0, then the A is
(A) acute angled (B) right angled
(C) obtuse angled (D) does not exist
Solution: Since cotA cotB cotC > 0
cotA, cotB, cotC are positive A is acute angled
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
23: If t < 2u <
2
3t
, then u 4 cos 2 2 2 equals to
(A) 2cosu (B) 2sinu
(C) 2cosu (D) 2sinu
Solution: | 2 cos | 2 2 ) 4 cos 1 ( 2 2 u + = u + + = ) 2 cos 1 ( 2 u
= 2 | sinu | = 2sinu as
4
3
2
t
< u <
t
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
24: If tanu = n for some non-square natural number n, then sec2u is
(A) a rational number (B) an irrational number
(C) a positive number (D) none of these
Solution:
n 1
n 1
tan 1
tan 1
2 sec
2
2

+
=
u
u +
= u
where n is a non-square natural number so 1 n = 0.
sec2u is a rational number.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
25: The minimum value of cos(cosx) is
(A) 0 (B) cos1
(C) cos1 (D) 1
Solution: cos x varies from1 to 1 for all real x.
Thus cos(cosx) varies from cos1 to cos0 minimum value of cos(cosx) is cos1.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
26: If sin x cos y = 1/4 and 3 tan x = 4 tan y, then find the value of sin (x + y).
(A) 1/16 (B) 7/16
(C) 5/16(D) none of these
Solution: 3 tan x = 4 tan y 3 sin x cos y = 4 cos x sin y
3/4 = 4 cos x sin y cos x sin y = 3/16
sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y =
16
7
16
3
4
1
= + .
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
27: The maximum value of 4sin
2
x + 3cos
2
x +
2
x
cos
2
x
sin is
(A) 2 4 (B) 2 3
(C) 9 (D) 4
Solution: Maximum value of 4sin
2
x + 3cos
2
x i.e. sin
2
x + 3 is 4 and that of sin
2
x
+ cos
2
x
is
2
1
2
1
+ =
2 , both attained at x = t/2. Hence the given function has maximum value 2 4 +
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
28: If o and | are solutions of sin
2
x + a sin x + b = 0 as well as that of cos
2
x + c cos x + d = 0, then
sin(o + |) is equal to
(A)
2 2
d b
bd 2

(B)
ac 2
c a
2 2

(C)
bd 2
d b
2 2

(D)
2 2
c a
ac 2

Solution: According to the given condition, sino+sin| = a and coso +cos|= -c.
c
2
cos
2
cos 2 & a
2
cos
2
sin 2 =
| o | + o
=
| o | + o

c
a
2
tan =
| + o

2 2
2 c a
ac 2
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
) sin(
+
=
| + o
+
| + o
= | + o
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
29: If sino, sin| and coso are in G.P, then roots of the equation x
2
+ 2x cot |+ 1 = 0 are always.
(A) equal (B) real
(C) imaginary (D) greater than 1
Solution: sino, sin|, coso are in G.P.
sin
2
| = sino coso cos2| = 1 sin2| > 0
Now, the discriminant of the given equation is
4cot
2
| 4 = 4 cos2| cosec
2
| > 0 Roots are always real.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
30: If ,
n
) 1 n (
cos
n
2
cos
n
cos S
2 2 2
t t t
then S equals
(A) ) 1 n (
2
n
(B) ) 1 n (
2
1

(C) ) 2 n (
2
1
(D)
2
n
Solution:
n
) 1 n ( cos
n
2
cos
n
cos S
2 2 2
t
+ +
t
+
t
=
=
(
]
1

t
+ + +
t
+ +
t
+ +
t
+
n
) 1 n ( 2 cos 1
n
6
cos 1
n
4
cos 1
n
2
cos 1
2
1

=
(
]
1

t
+

=
n
k 2
cos 1 n
2
1
1 n
1 k
= , ) 2 n
2
1
1 1 n
2
1
=
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
31: If in a AABC, ZC =90, then the maximum value of sin A sin B is
(A)
2
1
(B) 1
(C) 2 (D) None
Solution: sinA sinB = B sin A sin 2
2
1

= ) B A cos( ) B A cos(
2
1
+ = 90 cos ) B A cos(
2
1
= ) B A cos(
2
1
s
2
1
Maximum value of sinA sinB =
2
1
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
32: If in a AABC, sin
2
A + sin
2
B + sin
2
C = 2, then the triangle is always
(A) isosceles triangle (B) right angled
(C) acute angled (D) obtuse angled
Solution: sin
2
A + sin
2
B + sin
2
C = 2 2 cos A cos B cos C = 0
either A = 90
o
or B = 90
o
or C = 90
o
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
33. Maximum value of the expression 2sinx + 4cosx + 3 is
(A) 2 5 + 3 (B) 2 5 - 3
(C) 5 + 3 (D) none of these
Solution: Maximum value of 2sinx + 4cosx = 2 5 .
Hence the maximum value of 2sinx + 4cosx +3 is 3 5 2
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
34: If sinu = 3sin(u + 2o), then the value of tan (u + o) + 2tano is
(A) 3 (B) 2
(C) 1 (D) 0
Solution: Given sin u = 3sin (u + 2o)
sin (u + o o) = 3sin (u + o + o)
sin (u + o) coso cos(u + o) sino
=3sin (u + o) coso + 3cos (u + o) sino
2sin (u + o) coso = 4cos (u + o) sino

o
o
=
o + u
o + u
cos
sin 2
) cos(
) sin(
tan(u+o) + 2tano = 0
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
35: If cos u =
| o
| o
cos cos 1
cos cos

, then one of the values of tan
2
u
is
(A) tan
2
o
cot
2
|
(B) tan
2
|
cot
2
o
(C) sin
2
o
sin
2
|
(D) none of these
Solution: tan
2
2
u
=
u +
u
cos 1
cos 1
=
| o
| o
+
| o
| o

cos cos 1
cos cos
1
cos cos 1
cos cos
1
=
| o + | o
| + o | o
cos cos cos cos 1
cos cos cos cos 1
=
) cos 1 ( cos ) cos 1 (
) cos 1 ( cos ) cos 1 (
o + | o +
o | + o
=
) cos 1 )( cos 1 (
) cos 1 )( cos 1 (
| o +
| + o
= tan
2
2
o
cot
2
2
|
.
tan
2
u
= tan
2
o
cot
2
|
.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
36. If tan 2u. tan u = 1, then u is equal to
(A) n
6
p
p + (B) n
6
p
p
(C) 2n
6
p
p (D) None of these.
Solution: tan 2u . tan u = 1
2
2
2
2tan 1
1 tan
1 tan 3
q
= q =
- q
2 2
tan tan n
6 6
p p
q = q = p .
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
37. If o is the root of 25
2
cos 5cos 12 0, / 2 q + q - = p < a < p , then sin 2o is equal to
(A)
24
25
(B)
24
25
-
(C)
13
18
(D)
13
18
-
Solution: Since, o is the root of
2
25cos 5cos 12 0 q + q - =
2
25cos 5cos 12 0 \ a + a - =
5 25 1200 5 35
cos cos
50 35
- + - -
\ a = a =
4 24 5 35
cos sin2 2sin cos cos
5 25 35
- - - -
a = \ a = a a = a = .
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
38. The equation k sinx cos2x 2k 7 + = - possesses a solution if
(A) k > 6 (B) 2 k 6
(C) k > 2 (D) None of these.
Solution: We have k
2
sinx (1 2sin x) 2k 7 + - = -
2
2sin x k sinx 2 (k 4) 0 - + - =
2
k k 16k 64
sinx
4
- +
=
k (k 8) 1
(k 4), 2
4 2
-
= = -
But sin 2 , therefore,
1
sinx (k 4)
2
= -
Now,
k 4
1 sinx 1 1 1 2 k 6
2
-
- -
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
39. The general solution of the equation tan 3x = tan 5x is
(A) x = nt/2, n e Z (B) x = nt, n e Z
(C) x = (2n + 1) t, n e Z (D) None of these.
Solution: We have tan 3x = tan 5x
5x n 3x, n Z x n / 2, n Z = p + = p
if n is odd, then x = nt/2, gives the extraneous solutions. Thus, the solution of the given
equation will be given by x = nt/2, where n is even say n = 2 m, m e Z. Hence, the required
solution is x = m t, m e Z.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
40. The equation
4 2 2
sin x 2cos x a 0 - + = is solvable if
(A) 3 a 3 - (B) 2 a 2 -
(C) 1 a 1 - (D) None of these.
Solution: We have
4 2 2
sin x 2cos x a 0 - + =
2 2
y 2(1 y) a 0 - - + = where
2
sin x y =
2 2
y 2y a 2 0 + + - =
2
y 1 3 a = - -
for y to be real.
Discriminant
2 2
0 4 4(a 2) 0 a 3 - - . . . (1)
But
2
sin x y = , therefore 0 y 1
2 2
0 1 3 a 1 1 3 a 2 - + - -
2 2 2
1 3 a 4 2 a 0 a 2 - - . . . (2)
From (1) and (2),
2
a 2 2 a 2 - .
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
41. The set of values of x for which
tan3x tan2x
1
1 tan3x tan2x
-
=
+
is
(A) | (B) t/4
(C) n ; n 1, 2, 3 .....
4
p
p + =

(D) 2n ; n 1, 2, 3 .....
4
p
p + =
Solution: tan(3x 2x) tanx 1 - = =
x n ( / 4) \ = p + p but this value does not satisfy the given equation as
tan2x tan( / 2) = p = and it reduces to indeterminate form.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
42. If tan sec 3; 0 q + q = < q < p , then u is equal to
(A) t/3 (B) 2t/3
(C) t/6 (D) 5t/8
Solution: 3 cos sin 1 q - q =
or
3 1 1
cos sin
2 2 2
q - q =
cos cos
6 3
p p
\ q + =

6 3 6
p p p
\ q + = \ q = .
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
43. The value of the expression
1 4sin10 sin 70
2sin10
-

is
(A) 1/2 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) None of these.
Solution: Given expression is
1
1 2 cos80
1 2[cos 60 cos80 ] 2
2sin10 2sin10

- -

- -

= =

2cos80 cos(90 10 ) sin10
1
2sin10 sin10 sin10
-
= = = =

.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
44. If cos 3 sin 2 q + q = , then u (only principal value) is
(A) t/3 (B) 2t/3
(C) 4t/3 (D) 5t/3
Solution: cos 1 cos0
3 3
p p
q - = = \ q =

.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
45. Number of solutions of
2 2
5cos 3sin 6sin cos 7 q - q + q q = in the interval [0, 2t] is
(A) 2 (B) 4
(C) 0 (D) None of these.
Solution:
2 2
5cos 3sin 6sin cos 7 q - q + q q =
1 cos2 1 cos2
5 3 3sin2 7
2 2
+ q - q
- + q =

4cos2 3sin2 6 q + q = ,
but
2 2
4cos2 3sin2 4 3 5 q + q + =
Solution does not exist.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
46. If sin cos 2cos q + q = q , then general solution for u is
(A) 2n
8
p
p (B) n
8
p
p +
(C)
n
n ( 1)
8
p
p + - (D) None of these.
Solution: sin cos 2cos tan 2 1 q + q = q q = -
n
8 8
p p
q = p + .
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
47. Number of solutions of 11 sin x = x is
(A) 4 (B) 6
(C) 8 (D) None of these.
Solution: 11 sin x = x
. . . (1)
On replacing n by , we have 11 sin (x) = x
11sinx x =
So for every positive solution, we have negative solution also and x = 0 is satisfying (1), so
number of solution will always be odd. Therefore, (d0 is appropriate choice.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
48. If
2
2 19
3 sin x cos x x x
3 9
p + p = - + , then x is equal to
(A)
1
3
- (B)
1
3
(C)
2
3
(D) None of these.
Solution: L.H.S. 3 sin x cos x 2sin x 2
6
p
= p + p = p +

and equality holds for
1
x
3
=
and R.H.S.
2
2
2 19 1
x x x 2 2
3 9 3

= - + = - +

equality olds if
1
x
3
= .
Thus L.H.S. = R.H.S. for
1
x
3
= only.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
49. General solution for u if
5
sin 2 cos 2
6 6
p p
q + + q + =

, is
(A)
7
2n
6
p
p + (B) 2n
6
p
p +
(C)
7
2n
6
p
p - (D) None of these.
Solution:
5
sin 2 cos 2
6 6
p p
q + + q + =

. . . (1)
sin 2 1
6
p
q +

and
5
cos 1
6
p
q +

\ (1) may holds true iff sin 2
6
p
q +

and
5
cos
6
p
q +

both equal to 1 simultaneously.
First common value of u is
7
6
p
for which
5
sin 2 sin sin 1
6 2 2
p p p
q + = = =

and
5 7 5
cos cos cos2 1
6 6 6
p p p
q + = + = p =

and since periodicity of sin 2
6
p
q +

is t
and periodicity of
5
cos
6
p
q +

is 2t, therefore, periodicity of
5
sin 2 cos
6 6
p p
q + + q +

is 2t. Therefore, general solution is
7
2n
6
p
q = p + .
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
50. If tan o and tan | are the roots of
2
x 3x 1 0 - - = , then value of tan (o + |) is
(A)
1
2
(B) 1
(C)
3
2
(D) None of these.
Solution: tan , tan a b are the roots of
2
x 3x 1 0 - - =
tan tan 3 \ a + b = and tan tan 1 \ a + b = - .
tan tan 3
tan ( )
1 tan tan 2
a + b
\ a +b = =
- a b
.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
51. Number of solutions of the equation tan x = sec x = 2 cos x lying in the interval [0, 2t] is
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) 3
Solution: The given equation can be written as
2
sinx 1 2cos x + =
2
sinx 1 2(1 sin x) + = -
2
2sin x sinx 1 0 + - =
1 1 8 1 3 1
sinx
4 4 2
- + -
= = = or 1
5
x ,
6 6
p p
=
Hence, the required number of solutions is 2.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
52. If tan mu + cot n u = 0, then the general value of u is
(A)
(2r 1)
2(m n)
+ p
-
(B)
(2r 1)
2(m n)
+ p
+
(C)
r
m n
p
+
(D)
r
m n
p
-
Solution: The given equation can be written as
tan m cot n tan( / 2 n ) q = - q = p + q
m r n , r
2
p
\ q = p + + q I

or
1
(m n) (2r 1) , r
2
- q = + p I
(2r 1)
, r
2(m n)
+ p
\ q = I
-
.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
53. The general solution of the equation ( 3 1)sin ( 3 1)cos 2 - q + + q = is
(A)
n
n ( 1)
4 12
p p
p + - - (B) 2n
4 12
p p
p -
(C)
n
n ( 1)
4 12
p p
p + - + (D) 2n
4 12
p p
p +
Solution: Let 3 1 r cos , 3 1 r sin + = a - = a
2 2 2
r ( 3 1) ( 3 1) 8 \ = + + - = or r 2 2 =
and
1
1
3 1
3
tan
1
3 1
1
3
-
-
a = =
+
+
or tan tan(45 30 ) tan15 a = - =
15
12
p
\ a = =
Using these in the given equation, we get
r cos( ) 2 q - a =
or
2 2 1
cos cos
12 r 4
2 2 2
p p
q - = = =

2n
12 4
p p
\ q - = p or 2n , n
12
p
q = p I .
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
54. One solution of the equation
2 2
4cos sin 2sin 3sin q q - q = q is
(A)
n
3
x n ( 1)
10
- p
= p + -

(B)
n
3
x n ( 1)
10
p
= p + -

(C) x 2n
6
p
= p (D) None of these.
Solution: The given equation can be written as
2
sin [4(1 sin ) 2sin 3] 0 q - q - q - =
or
2
sin [1 2sin 4sin ] 0 q - q - q =
or
2
sin [4sin 2sin 1] 0 q q + q - =
\ Either sin u = 0 which gives u = n t
or
2
4sin 2sin 1 0 q + q - = which gives
2 4 16 2 2 5 1 5
sin
2 4 8 4
- + - -
q = = =

1 5 1 5
,
4 4
- + - -
=
Now,
1
sin ( 5 1) sin18 sin
4 10
p
q = - = =

n
n ( 1)
10
p
\ q = p -

Again
1
sin ( 5 1) cos36
4
q = - - = -
cos(90 54 ) sin54 = - - = -
3
sin( 54 ) sin
10
- p
= - =

n
3
n ( 1)
10
p
\ q = p + - -

Thus, one solution of given equation is
n
3
n ( 1)
10
p
q = p + - -

.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
55. Solve for x and y, the equations:
x
3
cos y + 3x cosy.
2
sin y = 14
x
3
sin y + 3x.
2
cos y siny = 13
(A) y =
1
1
tan , x 5 5
2

2
t
(B) y =
1
1
tan , x 5 5
2

## = where 2nt + t < y < 2nt +

3
2
t
(C) both
(D) None of these
Solution: Clearly, x = 0 dividing the equations, we get
3 2
3 2
cos y 3cosysin y 14
sin y 3cos ysiny 13
+
=
+
by componendo and dividenodo, we get
3
3
(cosy siny) 14 13
(cosy siny) 14 13
+ +
=

or,
3
cosy siny
cosy siny
| +
|

\ .
= 27 =
3
(3)
or, =
cosy siny 3
cosy siny 1
+
=

## dividing numerator and denominator by cosy, we get

1 tany 3
1 tany 1
+
=

or,
2tany 2
2 4
= .
siny =
1
5
, cosy =
2
5
(when y is in 1st quadrant)
and siny = -
1
5
and cosy = -
2
5
(when y is in 3rd quadrant)
When y is in first quadrant.
8 2 1
x 3 , 14, x 5 5
5
5 5 5
1
+ = =
(
]
When y is in 3rd quadrant.
8 2 1
x 3 . 14 x 5 5
5
5 5 5
1 |
+ = =
( |
\ . ]
Hence y =
1
1
tan , x 5 5
2

2
t
and y =
1
1
tan , x 5 5
2

## = where 2nt + t < y < 2n t +

3
2
t
56. The solution of sinx + 3 cosx = 2 is :
(A) 2nt +
12
5t
(B) 2nt -
12
t
(C) 2
4
n
p
p (D) None of these
Solution: Given, 3 cosx + sinx = 2

2
3
cos x +
2
1
sinx =
2
2
cos
4
cos
6
x
t
= |
.
|

\
t

4
n 2
6
x
t
t =
t

x = 2nt
6 4
t
+
t
.
x = 2nt +
12
5t
, 2nt -
12
t
where n e I.
Hence (A, B) is the correct answer.
57. The solution of the equation tan u . tan 2u = 1 is :
(A) nt +
12
5t
(B) nt -
12
t
(C) 2
4
n
p
p (D) nt
6
t
Solution: Given tan u. tan 2u = 1
u
u
2
2
tan 1
tan 2
= 1
2 tan
2
u = 1 tan
2
u 3 tan
2
u = 1
tan u =
3
1
u = nt
6
t
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
58. Find the general solution of the equation
sin x 3 sin 2x + sin 3x = cos x 3 cos 2x + cos 3x:
(A)
5
2 12
np p
+ (B) nt -
12
t
(C)
8 2
n t
+
t
(D) nt
8
p
Solution: Given sin x 3 sin 2x + sin 3x = cos x 3 cos 2x + cos 3x
2 sin 2x cos x 3 sin 2x = 2 cos x cos 2x 3 cos 2x
sin 2x (2 cos x 3) = cos 2x (2 cos x 3) sin 2x = cos 2x
(
cos x = 3/2)
tan 2x = 1 2x = nt +
4
t
x =
8 2
n t
+
t
, n e I.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
59. Solve for x, the equation sin
3
x + sin x cos x + cos
3
x = 1:
(A) 2mt (B) (4n + 1)
2
t
(C) Both (D) None of these
Solution: The given equation is sin
3
x + cos
3
x + sin x cos x = 1
(sin x + cos x) (sin
2
x sin x cos x + cos
2
x ) + sin x cos x 1 = 0
(1 sin x cos x)[sin x + cos x 1] = 0
Either 1 sin x cos x = 0 sin 2 x = 2 which is not possible
Or, sin x + cos x 1 = 0 cos (x t/4) =
2
1
t =
t
m 2
4
x
4
t
x = 2mt and x = (4n + 1)
2
t
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
60. The equation e
sinx
e
sinx
4 = 0 has:
(A) no real solution (B) one real solution
(C) two real solutions (D) can't be determined
Solution: The given equation can be written as
e
2 sin x
4e
sin x
1 = 0 e
sin x
=
2
4 16 4 +
= 2 + 5
sin x = ln (2 + 5 ) (ln (2 5 ) not defined as (2 5 ) is negative)
Now, 2 + 5 > e ln (2 + 5 ) > 1 sin x > 1
Which is not possible. Hence no real solution.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
61. If tan (t cos x) = cot (t sin x), then cos
4
x
p
-

is
(A)
1
2
(B)
1
2 2
(C) 0 (D) None of these.
Solution: Given that tan (t cos x) = cos (t sin x)
or tan ( cos ) tan sin
2
x x
p
p p

= -

cos sin
2
x x
p
p p = -
1
cos sin
2
x x + =
1 1 1
cos sin
2 2 2 2
x x + =
1
cos
4 2 2
x
p
- =

.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.