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The PEST analysis is a framework that strategy consultants use to scan the external macro-environment in which a firm operates. PEST is an acronym for the following factors: • Political • Economic • Social • Technological
Political Factors(incl. Legal)
• Environmental regulations and protection:
As the menace of coal smoke receded the society changed its name (to the National Society for Clean Air) and its focus, and in the 1970s began to campaign vigorously on air pollution from industry and, increasingly, transport. During this period membership was mainly (although far from exclusively) drawn from local authorities, with some industrial membership. Perhaps the main achievement of the Society after the Clean Air Acts was the development of the concept of Local Air Quality Management and the incorporation of this in the Environment Act 1995. The original Environment Bill was intended to deal with issues such as the establishment of the Environment Agency, contaminated land, National Parks and waste topics.
• Tax policies
Britain is becoming a less attractive place to invest and work in because of government tax plans, trade and investment minister Digby Jones said on Friday, the latest non-political appointee to question policy. The ruling Labor party has come under pressure to match opposition plans to raise more tax from wealthy foreigners living and working in Britain. It has proposed to end tax breaks which mean rich residents who are non-domiciled for fiscal purposes pay no UK tax.
• International trade regulations and restrictions
Import Tariffs Customs duty is assessed on the fair market value of imported goods at the time they are landed in the UK. Import prices for products entering the UK from nonEU states generally consist of: Cost, Insurance, Freight and Duty, with VAT of 15% levied on the aggregate value. This sum is the exporter’s “landed cost, duty paid.”The commercial invoice value is usually accepted as the normal price, but if a preferential arrangement has been established between the overseas supplier and the importer, or an unrealistic value has been declared, HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) reserves the right to assess a fair market value for duty purposes. The duty is payable at the time the goods are imported, but established importers can defer payment for an average of 30 days. In addition to customs duties on imported goods, an excise tax is levied on in-country sales of alcohol, tobacco, and road vehicles, and on sales of oil and petroleum products.
Trade Barriers The UK has no significant trade or investment barriers and no restrictions on the transfer of capital or repatriation of profits. The very few barriers that exist are almost all attributable to UK implementation of EU Directives and regulations. Import Requirements and Documentation A limited range of goods requires import licenses, which are issued by the UK Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform’s Import Licensing Branch. These include firearms and explosives, nuclear materials, controlled drugs and certain items of military equipment. U.S. Export Controls U.S. exports to the UK are subject to the normal U.S. export control regulations, administered by the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) for dual-use items and the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) for military end-use items. In June 2007, President Bush and Prime Minister Blair announced a forthcoming bilateral Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty, intended to greatly reduce licensing requirements arising from government-to government defense programs. At the time of writing, the Treaty is under review by the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee. In addition to International Trafficking in Arms Regulations (ITAR), reexports from the UK and the activities of UK-based subsidiaries, are subject to UK export controls. These are managed by the Export Control Organization (ECO), an office of the UK Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR). U.S. companies supplying certain restricted items appearing on the UK Military List, including missile and long-range UAV technology, are encouraged to consult guidance available from the ECO website on the trafficking and brokering provisions contained in the UK Export Control Act 2002. Temporary Entry Raw materials, temporarily imported for incorporation into products for export, may be admitted without payment of duties and taxes. The importer must provide a bank or insurance company guarantee or indemnity for the applicable duties and taxes. Goods intended for unaltered re-export may also be imported free of duty for a period of up to six months by prior arrangement with Her Majesty’s Revenue & Custom (HMRC). Temporary entries and goods imported for technical examination and testing are subject to a VAT deposit scheme with VAT refunded following the re-export of the goods. Products imported for repair, calibration, or incorporation are admitted with conditional relief from duty and VAT pending correct disposal of goods, usually re-export from the European Community. Professional and demonstration equipment may be temporarily imported into the UK free of duty and tax under the Customs Convention on the Temporary Importation of Professional Equipment. Additionally, these goods may also be imported under the above-mentioned VAT deposit scheme for temporary entries. Labeling and Marking Requirements In the UK, origin, weight and dimension, chemical composition and appropriate hazard warnings are required for consumer protection purposes on any product offered for retail sale. If the product cannot be labeled or marked, the data may be included on any packaging, accompanying printed material, or product literature. European and British clothing and shoe sizes are differently marked, and special provision may have to be made for apparel retail labeling. Dual labeling is strongly supported by the UK, which uses the practice as a cost-saving measure in its exports to North America.
switchblade knives. namely those which do and don't give rise to a legal duty.S. this is simply a way of distinguishing between two types of promise. law in export controls. • Contract enforcement law A contract is a promise or a set of promises for the breach of which the law gives a remedy. certain types of pornography and hormone-treated beef.g. the Australia Group (AG) for the control of chemical and biological weapons. when required. for what is it used. whilst the person to whom the statement is made (the promisee) is under no obligation to run in the first place.S. or meeting of minds. special certificates of origin. b. A clear description of goods should satisfy three basic questions as to what the product is. packing list. Prohibited and Restricted Imports Prohibited imports include AM citizens band radios. meaning that a clear description of the goods is essential and should be worded in such a way as to describe the goods to an individual who may not necessarily have an understanding of a particular industry or article. This may be seen as giving three interconnected elements: a.S. Although sensitive to the extraterritorial application of U. It is worth noting that imprecise descriptions are a common reason for goods being held without customs clearance. A promise In the context of English law. whilst the buyer has an obligation to pay the price. sanitation. devices that project toxic. but all of the details needed to establish the true value of the goods should be given. or the performance of which the law in some way recognizes as a duty. A copy of the commercial invoice should accompany the shipment to avoid delays in customs clearance. a promise to meet one's other half for dinner at 7pm gives rise to no legal obligation . noxious or harmful substances (e. 3 . A bilateral contract gives rise to obligations on both sides.-origin to unauthorized destinations. and of what it is made. bill of lading or airway bill. Consular documents are not required for shipments to the UK.it is a "mere" promise . by contrast. Thus. A unilateral contract. No special form of invoice is required. insurance documents. A legal duty arising from that promise Here. ownership. when the enforcement action is based on multilateral controls. tear gas). In fact. h. the seller has an obligation to transfer title in the thing sold to the buyer. The UK participates in the Wassenaar Arrangement for the control of dual-use exports.whereas a promise to sell someone a car for £5000 gives rise to legal obligation. and the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (NSG) for nuclear-related goods.g. Thus "I will give you £100 if you run a marathon" gives rise to a legal duty on the maker of the statement (the promisor) to pay the money if the race is run. It is often (rightly) stated that English law will not give effect to a mere promise and that an agreement.. and. is required. preventing the export of restricted goods and technology to countries of proliferation concern. At least two additional copies of the invoice should be sent to the consignees to facilitate customs clearance. Customs Regulations and Contact Information The documents required for shipments include the commercial invoice. a reference to a promise here may be seen as misleading. etc. counterfeit coins and currency. English contract doctrine distinguishes between bilateral and unilateral contracts. Thus in a contract of sale. The UK also supports United Nations’ sanctions restricting exports to certain other destinations. in preventing the re-export of sensitive goods and technology of U. gives rise to obligations on one side only. the UK authorities cooperate with the U.
was called "the common law". how their grievances are handled. The Office of Fair Trading  also acts as the UK's official consumer and competition watchdog. Complaints need to be made to Consumer Direct who will provide legal advice to complainants. One. contract. with a remit to make markets work well for consumers. with the influence of EU law. Many of the consumer protection laws e. although they remain separate sets of doctrine. A remedy for breach of that duty In considering the development of remedies. or re-direct the individual complaint to Trading Standards for investigation. Since the Judicature Acts of the nineteenth century the two systems have been administered by the same courts. In very rare cases. restitution or even criminal law. e. time off for 4 . the matter judicially treated as tort.c. In many circumstances. the other. impose an injunction or take the matter to litigation. although other equitable rules which have application to contracts will be discussed as they arise. Consumer complaints against companies are not published. consumers cannot directly complain to the OFT.via a super complaint. f. however. • Employment laws The law has given employees – and in many cases other workers who might not count as employees – rights and entitlements in relation to how they are disciplined and dismissed. where domestic law is in question. wages. administered by the courts of common pleas and King’s Bench. The OFT rarely prosecute companies. municipal level by Trading Standards departments. Distance Selling Regulations 2000 or Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Act 1997 are actually UK implementations of EU directives.g. However. Most important for our current purposes is that the two systems developed different sets of remedies for breach of contract. preferring a light touch regulation approach. undertakings and enforcements are located at . individual complainants are unable to be told whether their case is being investigated or not. each of which had different rules. g. and at a local. Domestic (UK) laws originated within the ambit of contract and tort but. absence from work and sickness. General consumer advice can be obtained from Consumer Direct or via a local branch of the Citizen's Advice Bureau. h. • Consumer protection The United Kingdom. The Office of Fair Trading will then investigate. Consumer Direct may direct a very large number of complaints to the OFT to be considered as a systemic complaint.g. it is emerging as an independent area of law. The OFT is one of the bodies responsible for enforcing these rules. For much of its history. as member state of the European Union. Consumer Protection issues are dealt with when complaints are made to the Director-General of Fair Trade. This leads to a problem in that these examples of legislation are clearly designed to deal with individual complaints but the OFT will only deal with systemic complaints and will ignore individual complainants redirecting them back to Consumer Direct. Due to restrictions within the Enterprise Act 2002. but investigation work. The OFT can also be engaged by consumer groups e.Consumer Focus . England had two separate systems of law working side by side. a fundamental distinction in English law between common law (often just abbreviated to law) and equity must be understood. is bound by the consumer protection directives of the EU. The Consumers Association or the statutory consumer protection body . work breaks and working hours. holidays. Proof of promise: Objective intention Form of promise: Offer & acceptance Form of promise: Certainty Validity of promise: Intention to create legal relations Validity of promise: Consideration d. presided over by the Lord Chancellor in the court of chancery was "equity".
In unfair dismissal cases employers can be ordered to pay compensation of more than £76. This is despite their own failure to secure a majority of seats in the new House of Commons. or approved subject to "remedies" such as an obligation to divest part of the merged business or to offer licenses’ or access to facilities to enable other businesses to continue competing. and in fact he said.000. Banning abusive behavior by a firm dominating a market. Like all competition law. There was a year on year increase in Employment Tribunal claims of 56 per cent last year (2009-10) bringing the number of claims received to their highest level ever at 236. or anti-competitive practices that tend to lead to such a dominant position. Staff who feel they have been denied their rights have redress by taking their employers to an Employment Tribunal. including some joint ventures. • Political Stability Some form of cross party collaboration is essential if market confidence in sterling and the UK governments triple A credit rating is to be retained. • Government organization / attitude I believe USA and UK knew the truth that no one tried communist system by its strict definition…. Transactions that are considered to threaten the competitive process can be prohibited altogether. redundancy and retirement. Supervising the mergers and acquisitions of large corporations. All workers have the right not to be discriminated against in relation to their gender or orientation. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown remains in office until he resigns (as Prime Minister). c. and nuclear holocaust is indeed a real threat on society built on greed and mistrust… These two nations are definitely contemplating on such system… • Competition regulation The section 59 of the Competition Act 1998 provides that UK rules are to be applied in line with European jurisprudence.100 claims (source: Tribunals Service). China is a State Capitalist while Russia is a totalitarian government that is breaking up into small capitalist states… Karl Marx’ vision has never been achieved yet. disabilities. Nick Robinson. it will be a last form of government system globally and it will require complete transformation….family emergencies. maternity and paternity leave. This includes in particular the repression of cartels. Practices controlled in this way may include predatory pricing. tying. The leadership of the Labor Party is a separate issue. race. just like those religious icons.And it is beginning to become evident as climate change is beginning to be so evident as well. b. age. now that we know that no political party in the new UK Parliament has a majority of seats. Prohibiting agreements or practices that restrict free trading and competition between business entities. That is true on his 5 . The chances of this happening have increased three-fold for employers in the past decade or so. "Been rejected by the electorate" are the words used by the BBC's political editor. price gouging. that in the UK has three main tasks. refusal to deal and many others. Their spin continues to emphasis their view that Brown has lost a mandate to govern. or religion and beliefs. the right to apply for flexible working. In discrimination cases compensation awards are theoretically unlimited and six-figure payouts are not uncommon. a. Conservative commentators continue to insist that their electoral result gives them the right to govern.
particularly banking. as Leader of the Labour Party. The Health and Safety Executive is responsible for enforcing the Act and a number of other Acts and Statutory Instruments relevant to the working environment. Services.50 percent in March of 1974. From 1955 until 2010 The United Kingdom's average quarterly GDP Growth was 0.own. there is the Greek lesson. escape and rescue from mines. Looking a little further out into the future. account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while industry continues to decline in importance. ionizing radiation and working at height. Brown to my mind has won the right to see that work through. two favoured a quarter-point rise. Having taken the UK economy through the worst recession in 80 years. These cover a wide range of subjects. • Safety regulations Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974: The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 also referred to as HASAW or HSW is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in the United Kingdom.59 percent reaching an historical high of 5. The most critical issue facing the country is the state of the economy. Evidence that a double-dip recession has been managed away will come in the next twelve months. told an audience of business people: "The risk of delaying interest rate rises too long is that this gradual approach may cease to be an option in the future. Economical Factors • Economic growth The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the United Kingdom expanded 0. or a more considered reflection of the constitutional realities. • Interest rates & monetary policies Sentance. 6 . and economic and social necessities to give the UK a new government by early next week. Public unrest in Greece has been a salutary and tragically lethal reminder of the consequences of imposed austerity. But it doesn't mean that he doesn't have a mandate to take a leading role in a coalition. and Labor and the Lib-Dems do not. from control of asbestos at work. insurance. So as we await the latest dispositions from Tory leader David Cameron and Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg. What we know is that Tories plan cuts this year. Statutory instruments are the secondary types of legislation made under specific Acts of Parliament. Part of the price of any political understandings will be how their interests are going to be addressed in public spending plans for the future are a consideration.30 percent in March of 1973 and a record low of -2."Minutes of the MPC this week revealed a four-way split. diving. of which a referendum on electoral reform is Labor Party policy. who voted for a half-point increase in rates at the last Bank of England monetary policy committee (MPC) meeting. The United Kingdom is among the world's most developed economies. and business services. the question arises are we going to have more assertions that Brown has lost any right to govern. Five members were content to keep rates on hold. and in person. Over the past two decades the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. We have heard from the leaders of the nationalist parties about their concerns concerning funding from the UK Exchequer. The other part of a government programme that addresses widespread public concerns is political reform. The election campaign was littered with uncertainty about the detail of necessary public expenditure cuts. Sentance opted for double that and one member argued for further monetary easing.50 percent in the first quarter of 2011 over the previous quarter.
which should be allowed to rise.Higher VAT bills. Less spare capacity than some economists estimate.estimated outturn in HM Treasury 2010 budget e .20 b g g g g Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 GDP 1474 1539 1620 1710 1803 Legend: b . Stronger underlying UK demand and growth than many economists believe. While the CBI finding of rising retail prices appeared to support Sentance's view. A confidence scorecard rose from -29 to -28. h. Artificially low interest rates. e.co.90 681. This lackluster performance by retailers and dire consumer confidence figures are expected to fuel concerns that a rate rise will tip the economy into recession."guesstimated" projection by ukpublicspending.estimate in HM Treasury 2010 budget g . g.00 724. Its monthly snapshot of the retail sector shows a balance of 6% of shops reported higher sales this month. Consumer confidence remained at historically low levels in February. Retailers expect sales to grind to a halt in March. but the time had come to increase them.42 701.Sentence said 10 reasons for an interest rate rise were: a. which is fuelling inflation. rising inflation and an uncertain economic outlook were blamed for the failure to reverse the survey's worst-ever poll readings in January. j. compared with 37% in January. according to a survey by GfK NOP. Global demand. c. An artificially depressed currency.uk • Unemployment policy policies to reduce unemployment 7 . b. Sentance said the decision to cut rates in the recession was "right and proper". Global inflationary pressures. revealing that consumers continued to be worried about spending their earnings. i. Consumer accounts for about 65% of the economy and is a key indicator of the likely growth in GDP this year. Gradual tightening needs to start now to be effective. • Government spending Total Spending Fiscal Years 2010 to 2014 Total Spending -total £ billion 660. A loss of credibility with the markets if inflation persists.80 713. d. which is double the 2% Bank of England target. the employer’s organization also pointed to the weakest level of high street sales growth since last June. f. UK inflation. Companies exploiting high inflation by raising prices further.
this requires that aggregate demand is sufficiently high for businesses to be looking to expand their workforces Improving skills and reducing occupational immobility Policies should provide the unemployed with the skills they need to find re-employment and improve the incentives to find work.so that the unemployed have the right skills to take up the available job opportunities.improvements in education and training will increase the human capital of these workers. Structural unemployment is the result of workers being occupationally immobile . Because of the increase in demand for output.leading to an increase in total employment. the demand for labour at each wage rate will grow . Policies should focus on improving the occupational mobility of labour An improvement in the incentives for people to search and then accept paid work . Reflating Aggregate Demand The government can also use macro-economic policies to increase the level of aggregate demand. In the diagram below we see an increase in aggregate demand leading to an expansion of aggregate supply. It might also encourage foreign investment into the economy from foreign multinational companies. These policies might involve lower interest rates or lower direct taxes.In the long term. 8 . effective policies to reduce the total level of unemployment need to encourage An improvement in the employability of the labour supply . and therefore give them a better chance of taking the new jobs that become available in the economy.this may require some reforms of the tax and benefits system A sustained period of economic growth so that new jobs are being created .
Benefit and Tax Reforms Reducing the real value of unemployment benefits might increase the incentive to take a job . businesses may decide to increase production by making greater use of capital inputs (machinery and technology). the number of people in work has fallen 9 . Economic Growth and Unemployment A growing economy creates jobs for people entering the labor market for the first time.particularly if the real worth of unemployment benefits is well below the national minimum wage rate. And. Targeted measures are designed to help the long-term unemployed find re-employment (including the Government's "Welfare to Work Schemes" . And. Employment subsidies may also be available for overseas firms locating in the UK. Each year we expect to see a rise in labor productivity (more output per worker employed). it provides employment opportunities for people currently unemployed and looking for work The chart above shows the level of real national output (GDP) and total employment in the economy since 1980.Not every increase in demand and production has to be met by using more labor. In both of the last two recessions (1980-81 and 1990-92).see New Deal Employment Subsidies Government subsidies for those firms that take on the long-term unemployed will create an incentive for firms to increase the size of their workforce.
13 Pounds to South African Rands 9 5.sharply.9 per cent of GDP approximately £600 billion (using 2008 nominal GDP measured in dollars. This has helped reduce the official measures of unemployment to a level not seen for over twenty-five years. National Insurance contributions.5 Pounds to Yen 7 11.522 Pounds to Australian Dollars 1 1. employment in the British economy was at record levels. with net taxes and National Insurance contributions standing at 36. Local government revenues come primarily from grants from central government funds. value added tax. business rates in England and Wales. Council Tax and increasingly from fees and charges such as those from on-street parking. • Taxation Taxation in the United Kingdom may involve payments to a minimum of two different levels of government: The central government (HM Revenue and Customs) and local government.569 Pounds to Canadian Dollars 5 132. • Exchange rates GBP EUR GBP USD GBP NZD GBP AUD GBP CAD GBP JPY GBP ZAR GBP AED GBP INR 1.134 Pounds to Euros 1.67 Pounds to Rupees 9 10 . corporation tax and fuel duty.623 Pounds to Dollars 4 2. Central government revenues come primarily from income tax. Indeed by the summer of 2001. total government revenue was 39.957 Pounds to Dirhams 7 72. But a period of sustained economic growth (as experienced by the UK from 1993-2001) has led to a significant increase in employment levels. In the fiscal year 2007-08.051 Pounds to New Zealand Dollars 5 1. and converting using 2009 conversion rate).2 per cent of GDP.
varying in frequency. The main downward pressures to annual inflation came from petrol and diesel. enjoyed rapid growth in emerging markets.5 percent in April of 2011. researchers said. the average inflation rate in United Kingdom was 2.72 percent reaching an historical high of 8. The timing of Easter 2011 had a significant impact on these data. managing director at GfK NOP Social Research. it is affected by the changes in the business cycle from boom to recession and back again. up from 4. confidence has only slumped this much on six occasions. people have cut back on holidays. so the need for hotel linen services has reduced. Air transport. Just like any other business. business cycles were thought to be extremely regular. For example. The cycle involves shifts over time between periods of relatively rapid growth of output (recovery and prosperity). alternating with periods of relative stagnation or decline (contraction or recession).50 percent in May of 2000. recession (contraction). will make talk of a double-dip recession unavoidable. the last being in the midst of the 1992 recession. Annual inflation as recorded by the retail prices index (RPI) stands at 5. magnitude and duration Activity within the economy fluctuates over time. miscellaneous goods and services. Like hotels.50 percent in April of 1991 and a record low of 0.5% IN APRIL • Inflation rates United Kingdom CPI annual inflation stands at 4. From 1989 until 2010. which measures inflation in the whole of the domestic economy. clothing and footwear and communication. the magazine publishing industry was expecting a decline in subscribers during recent difficult economic times because this is a 'nice to have' item rather than a necessity.5 per cent. The Davis Service Group provides textile maintenance. The recurring and fluctuating levels of economic activity that an economy experiences over a long period of time. and the GDP deflator. when the UK was mired deep in the last recession. The business cycle or economic cycle refers to the periodic fluctuations of economic activity about its long term growth trend. This is called the business cycle.2 per cent in April. trough and recovery.UNITED KINGDOM INFLATION RATE The inflation rate in United Kingdom was last reported at 4." The eight-point plunge in optimism took the barometer's headline reading to -29. such as the Czech Republic. • Stages of the business cycle The most closely-watched barometer of consumer confidence revealed an "astonishing collapse" in January as the VAT rise took effect. peak. But today business cycles are widely known to be irregular .0 per cent in March. Throughout the business cycle it has to respond to the economic challenges it faces. UK INFLATION RATE RAISES TO 4. when combined with the bleak economic forecast.3 per cent in March. Davis Service Group has been able to invest in the business where necessary to be ready for recovery. hotel laundry and washroom services in the UK and Europe. At one time. according to market research group GfK NOP. • Consumer confidence 11 . the lowest since March 2009. alcohol and tobacco and gas were the most significant drivers behind the increase in annual inflation between March and April. The most well known measures of Inflation are the CPI which measures consumer prices. By balancing resources to meet customers' needs. The five stages of the business cycle are growth (expansion). "Today's figures. Davis has however. down from 5. "In the 35 years since the index began. Inflation rate refers to a general rise in prices measured against a standard level of purchasing power. with predictable durations." said Nick Moon. The first taste of the fiscal tightening to have a widespread impact on consumers appeared to have hit sentiment hard. which are at different stages of the business cycle. even before the full impact of the public spending cuts is felt.
This report tabulates sources of income as a percentage of total income. Other Other Employme Disabili Social Self Investme Workin State Occupatio Incom nt ty Securit Region Employ nt g tax Pensio nal e (Salaries Benefit y ed Income credit ns Pensions Source & Wages) s Benefit s s UK 64% 11% 2% 1% 6% 7% 2% 5% 2% Norther n 60% Ireland 11% 1% 2% 7% 5% 4% 7% 3% Scotlan 66% d 7% 2% 2% 7% 7% 3% 5% 2% Wales 60% 8% 2% 2% 8% 8% 4% 6% 1% England 64% 11% 2% 1% 6% 7% 2% 5% 2% North East 64% England 5% 2% 2% 8% 6% 4% 7% 2% North West 59% England 13% 2% 2% 7% 7% 3% 6% 2% 12 . This details income amongst a representative sample of the British population.Their findings will prompt more questions as to whether the Coalition risks tipping the economy back into recession through its programme of tax rises and spending cuts to reduce the budget deficit Social Factors • Income distribution Sources of income: The Family Resources Survey is a document produced by the Department for Work and Pensions. The 2005-2006 report can be found here.
Yorkshir 64% e 7% 2% 2% 7% 7% 2% 5% 3% East Midland 65% s 9% 2% 1% 7% 6% 2% 5% 3% West Midland 62% s 8% 3% 2% 8% 6% 2% 5% 3% Eastern 56% England 22% 2% 1% 5% 7% 1% 3% 2% London 71% 10% 2% 1% 4% 4% 1% 5% 3% South East 66% 9% 4% 1% 7% 8% 1% 4% 2% South West 60% England 9% 4% 1% 7% 10% 2% 4% 2% • Demographics.97 (higher than Germany .144 Female: 126.96.36.199. estimates of the population of England for dates prior to the first census in 1801 vary considerably. and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanization.831 Male: 23.922. Due to the lack of authoritative contemporary sources.687 Total: 100 Total Fertility Rate: 1. Population The population at the time of the 2001 census was 49. Age distribution The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census.02) Age 13 . Population growth rates. lower than France 2.1.38 & Italy .40.
751.32 15 623. In 2001.693 18.25 18 .19 1.17 1.26 60 .27 16 .231.127.861 2.767 1.266 2.60 0.20 25 .29 3.24 2. and the median age was 37.571 2.841 8.238 5.830 4.279.701 1.60.89 637.57 1.20 20 .65 1.660 6. Ages attained (years) Population % of total population % per year of age band 0-4 2.268.229.96 1.61 1.88 1.51 45 .511 22.00.40 1.391.323 0.177.27 1.56 85 .14 3.84 2.97 65 .65 1.64 - 14 .74 1.59 9.135 5.33 30 .952.283.31 10 .838.719 6.102.35 0.64 2.87 0.19 5-7 1.The data below is based on the 2001 census.047 6.26 90+ 316.01 1.74 4.926.51 1.44 11.84 75 .30 0.668 3.25 8-9 1. the mean age of England's population was 38.
Despite this formal opportunity for social mobility. a larger farming sector. upward mobility is practically nonexistent. there can also be relative downward mobility. by controlling that inclination. Work satisfaction is high. the individual's family background is more predictive of social position today than it was in 1850 • Lifestyle changes (Reuters) . and economic mechanisms that permit them to fortify their advantages. for the enslaved individuals. Second most popular activity was switching off electrical appliances rather than leaving them on standby. However. said Russ Lid stone of Euro RSCG London. but it is a two-sided phenomenon . there was social mobility of different degrees existing between the two countries during different historical periods. In the United States in the mid-19th century inequality was low and social mobility was high.a booming source of climate changing carbon emissions. In the late 19th century. as well as higher geographic mobility in the United States. the difference between the social nobilities of the two countries has narrowed. followed by switching over to low energy light bulbs and turning the central heating thermostat down slightly and using less water. Only small proportions (usually less than 10 percent) tell 15 . Highlights of recently conducted polls show: • Work/career/leisure attitudes & entrepreneurial spirit a.or local councils prompting them into action. But the reasons given were mostly connected with council schemes and punishments rather than altruism. it can also change over time.Britons are starting to change their lifestyles in response to global warming. Top of the list of environmental activities is recycling.as has been the case in Western Europe. Social mobility is normally discussed as "upward only". "While people from all walks of life now see climate change as one of the key challenges that they face. educational. But when it comes to the tougher lifestyle choices. These authors state that "the idea of the US as ‘the land of opportunity’ persists. with 90 percent of the people surveyed saying they were doing it more than a year ago. and clearly seems misplaced. In other words. according to a new survey. it is possible in a growing economy for there to be greater upward mobility than downward . the U.Not only does social mobility vary across types of countries. according to the survey by advertising firm Euro RSCG. Official or legally recognized class designations do not exist in modern western democracies and it is considered possible for individuals to move from poverty to wealth or political prominence within one generation.• Labor / social mobility Societies which use slavery are an example of low social mobility because. recent research suggests that Britain and particularly the United States have less social mobility than the Nordic countries and Canada. and some people can manage a relative upward shift in their social status. due to the common school movement and open public school system. then some people can also move downward relative to others. and for their owners. Only 33 percent said they were driving their cars less than a year ago and half that number had decided to take fewer international flights -. Comparing the United States to the United Kingdom. action was far less popular. had much higher social mobility than in the UK. during the latter half of the 20th and early 21st centuries. but particularly in the United States. but few are making the tough choices and in many cases the motivation is fear of punishment. legal. However. as social inequality has grown in both countries. If merit and fortune play a larger role in life chances than the luck of birth.where there is upward mobility. for many the motivation to reduce their environmental impact is directly related to cost savings .S. This is the risk that motivates people in power to increasingly devise and commission political. downward mobility is practically outlawed.
(Gallup/Harris/Roper/National Opinion Research Center) Solid majorities of workers tell pollsters they would take the same job again "without hesitation. separately. About 90 percent are not worried that their company will move jobs overseas (Gallup. hypes 16 . self-confident. In Gallup's latest question. a quarter of workers say their job "never" requires them to be in an office.aired on Indus Vision between the 16 to 19 of May 2011 at 6:00 p. As for today's economy. ruff and aggressive people. Some people say when they hear the word Jamaican they think of loud. A UK postgraduate education will give you an edge over the competition. around 20 percent of workers fear being laid off "in the near future. of Michigan/Harris) Huge majorities (85 percent/Gallup. places to visit – the list is endless. e. wages. most workers tell the pollsters they are satisfied. This has changed little in the last decade. Today. Twenty-six percent say their employer has laid off someone in the past six months. (Gallup/Roper/NBC. • Education UK life is an incredible mix of international cultures and contemporary thinking. More than 80 percent of workers are not worried that their hours or. Stress is over-stressed.WSJ) They are least happy with the amount of money they earn.m. held together by a strong sense of identity and tradition. celebrations. When you see them all up in the video light is not to make up noise no its to big up their hard work and what they have achieve in life and giving praise to the man upstairs for life and family. Smaller." (Univ. When Jamaicans go out they don’t just go out they dress to impress from head to toe. Get a head start in your career with a UK postgraduate degree. and 63 percent a bad time (Gallup.m. Workers are happiest with their coworkers. 79 percent are satisfied with the amount they have. There has been little change in these responses over the past quarter century. g. in most polls. 2004) say they have a strong sense of loyalty to the company they work for. 40 percent say it "always" does. 2004).music. Twenty-seven percent of workers are completely satisfied with "the amount of on the job stress." and 37 percent are somewhat satisfied (2004). i. The UK is a world-leader in innovation and many university facilities are state-of-the-art. At a young age Jamaicans are taught to have pride in their appearance no matter where they are going. people to meet. pollsters they are very dissatisfied with their jobs. and 17 percent dissatisfied (2004). but still robust majorities say the company they work for has a strong sense of loyalty to them (67 percent). Many UK education institutions work with local agents/representatives in Pakistan. to 6: 30 p. college or school enters into an agreement with an agent to represent their institution to students in Pakistan who are considering an overseas education. 2004) A third say it's a good time to find a quality job. c. As for the work load. As for vacation time. Yes at times it may me a little much for some or SHOCKING but hey at the end of the day the outfit caught your eye right. h. 2004).b. Education UK. The university. accents. British Council Pakistan has produced a TV programme which is a series of four talk shows that will be re . d." Around 80 percent do not. f. Study in the UK and you’ll find an array of exciting experiences to discover . 86 percent of workers are satisfied with the amount of work required of them and 19 percent are dissatisfied. With a UK degree you can specialize in the subject that interests you. in a country renowned for the quality of its research and the reputation of its academics. Want to see for yourself you say not a problem watch and enjoy the JAMAICAN flavor in the UK… • Fashion. As the UK is such a cosmopolitan society you’ll find that many UK customs are already familiar to you – so you’ll settle in faster than you think. hard-working and over comers. will be cut (Gallup. We are all obligated to our opinions but rest ah sure Jamaicans are always a couple of things which is fashionable.
” (Damon. 17 . compensatory damages. Currency The unit of currency in Britain is the pound sterling (?). A 1998 NIOSH study concluded that the role of training in developing and maintaining effective hazard control activities is a proven and successful method of intervention. and? 1 coin. United Kingdom. many organizations would not act upon their implied moral obligations. 2008. Police If you have to register with the police you must register within seven days of your arrival in the UK. hands-on. pg. Banknotes are issued in? 5. divided into 100 pence (p). and? 50 denominations. It is important that new employees be properly trained and embrace the importance of workplace safety as it is easy for seasoned workers to negatively influence the new hires. workers' compensation claims. fines. illnesses. lost goodwill from the workforce. and give recommendations on avoiding accidents to management and employees in an organization. 50p. 2p. Nadia. Safety training classes help establish a safety culture in which employees themselves help promote proper safety procedures while on the job. Legal . International students who are in the UK and intend to study for more than twelve months are obliged to obtain a UK license by taking a driving test. from customers and from the wider community). set suitable safety controls in place. A safety training program can also help a trainer keep the required OSHA-mandated safety training courses organized and up-to-date. When you move to a new address or you return to your country. The vehicle you drive must be registered. • Living conditions Embassy You have to register at your country's embassy. Australia and the USA. feelings on safety The event of an incident at work (such as legal fees. But it could involve much more than you think. 20p. lost production. “Like it or not. you are required to inform the embassy.Occupational requirements may be reinforced in civil law and/or criminal law. They recognize hazards and measure health and safety risks. organizations have a duty to provide health and safety training. This paper looks at the main tasks undertaken by OHS practitioners in Europe. To register you will need your passport and two passport-size photos of yourself. 20. it is accepted that without the extra "encouragement" of potential regulatory action or litigation. Driving You must hold a valid driving license. 10p. insured. There are 1p. The application forms for tax and vehicle registration can be obtained from a post office. legal liability. giving your address. ‘Reducing The Risks’.OH!!! • Health consciousness & welfare. innovative effective safety training which will ultimately lead to an effective safety culture. property damage. 10. Check in your passport to find out if this is necessary. taxed and if it is over three years old it must have an MOT certificate.14)An effective training program can reduce the number of injuries and deaths. and the main knowledge and skills that are required of them. investigation time. Occupational health and safety officers promote health and safety procedures in an organization. and missed time from work. can be purged with the establishment of new. 5p. Training and Coaching Today. That negative influence however.
gardening. All British universities have a wide range of clubs and societies like cinema. opened in 1994. During the autumn. September to November. Other popular activities are reading.you are expected to pay the price marked on the goods. Transport People travel on average about 200 km (125 miles) a week. and going out for meals. supermarkets and street markets are the cheapest places to buy food. There has also been a shift towards ready-made meals. Bargaining is not customary . The temperature rises through the spring months of march to may. as a student in Britain you benefit from subsidized entry to many venues like theatres and cinemas as well as having the opportunity to benefit from reduced price travel. And. Climate Britain is warmed by the Gulf Stream. Travel by car has grown a lot. poultry. Pubs serve both alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. There are many international associations for you to join. A huge variety of cuisine's are available in Britain and there is usually a type of restaurant to suit everybody's taste and budget. One of the most popular socializing activities in Britain is eating out or visiting a local public house . There are about 80 seaports. and yoga. To buy alcohol in Britain you must be over eighteen years of age. large supermarkets. Shops and shopping Shops are usually open from 0900 until 1800 except local shops which may have their own more specific opening hours. skimmed milk and fast foods are the popular courses for many people. The Channel Tunnel. Most shops are closed on Sundays except those in big cities. Food Fresh fruit. The winter months from December to February are the coldest. has improved links to the European mainland. There are libraries. and red meat. and other convenience made products.600 mm (over 60 inches) in the highland areas of the west and north. sports facilities and cafes as well as plenty of entertainment. frozen foods. The British have cut back on butter. cycling. potatoes. 18 . fish. Entertainment The main leisure activity in Britain is watching television. but less than 800 mm (30 inches) over the more fertile lowlands of the south and east. Also British Airways is one of the world’s leading airlines. Some of the most popular are swimming. The average annual rainfall is more than 1.known as a 'Pub'. eggs. careers advice centers. or the cinema. Unless you want to pay a large fine or spend some time in prison. Heathrow airport is the world's busiest airport for international passengers. In general. music. do not do it. with the shortest hours of daylight. an ocean current that flows from the Gulf of Mexico to Europe. Over half of the population takes part in some kind of sport. and is highest throughout the summer months from June to August.Drunken driving laws are very strict and rigorously enforced. you are also expected to stand in line for services if a shop is busy. street markets are particularly good for fresh fruit and vegetables. home improvements. temperatures gradually fall again. drama and more. The climate is changeable through the seasonal cycle. Small traditional shops have had to close their doors because people are now buying from new.
You will also have to share a bathroom with the other people living in the same house/block. in which you will have to live and sleep. but some institutions may provide one in each room. Halls of residence usually provide breakfast and an evening meal. Bathrooms and other facilities are usually shared. · Bedsits: This is a single room. · Lodgings: This is a rented room in a private house. The house/block will be divided into several bedsits which will be rented by other people who may not be students. Institution Accommodations Accommodation provided by the institution might be the most suitable type if you are coming to the UK for the first time. either alone or sharing with another student. These are the questions you should ask your institution about accommodations: · What types of accommodation do you have? · Will I be offered accommodation each year? · Will I have to leave my accommodation during the vacations? · Will I have to provide my own linen and kitchen utensils? · How much will the accommodation cost? · Will accommodation be available for my family? *Do not travel to Britain with your family unless you have accommodation in advance. Make sure that you follow the college's application procedures. Private Accommodations: · Hostels: This is the best alternative if you are unable to get a place in a hall of residence or you are coming to Britain for the first time. you will have to share them. situated on the premises of the institution. Staying in a hostel can give you the opportunity to become familiar with the area where you are studying and this is an advantage if you want to find private accommodation later. This is usually. but you can buy and prepare your own food. Your booking will only be secure after you have paid a deposit. Bedsits vary in size and quality so you should never take a room without 19 . · Self-catering halls: This accommodation is similar to halls of residence. do your own laundry and provide your own bed-linen and towels. perhaps with their family. Residents live in study bedrooms. · private accommodation. which you will have to find and arrange either by yourself or with the help of advice and suggestions from the accommodation office at the institution. Meals may be provided or you may be able to use the kitchen to cook your own food. Cooking facilities may be in the bedsit or elsewhere in the building. Some hostels provide rooms for both single and married students. Applying for Accommodations In most cases accommodation provided by the institution has to be arranged before you come to Britain. and in particular. There are two main types of accommodation: · accommodation owned. The landlord/landlady will also live in the house. Some institutions have a small number of self-catering flats for students with families. but the food may be basic. Telephones are normally provided on each floor. Halls can be single sex (male or female only) or mixed (taking both male and female students). There are two main types: · Halls of residence: These are large buildings occupied by many students. you will usually be asked if you would like your institution to provide accommodation or to arrange alternative private accommodation for you. *Apply in advance. so start making arrangements as soon as you have been accepted on your course. in which case. that you meet deadlines for booking accommodation. They usually provide some meals or have cooking facilities and allow students to prepare their own food.Accommodations In many areas of the UK there is a shortage of student accommodation. You will have to clean your own room. but not always. managed and provided by your institution. When you are offered a place on your course.
published 26 January 2009 is based on companies' reported performance up to June 2008 . each with 6% share. Technological Factors • Government research spending The UK R&D Scoreboard The UK Government's annual R&D Scoreboard. Because of the Industrial Revolution.7% reduction for unlisted companies. It gives R&D intensity for companies listed by value added • New inventions and development The Industrial Revolution. ripe for change.400 global investors of R&D. and the strength of the economy of Britain.8% compared with a 2. The biggest UK sector by spend remains pharmaceuticals and biotechnology (37%). spending an average of 29% of their sales on R&D. increased their R&D investment by 10. the figures reported by the Scoreboard do not either.400 companies. 20 . and political stance of the country.a rise of 6. reflecting the tendency for smaller firms to be in R&D intensive sectors. the power of the British nation amongst others of the world. and its system of national banks holding tight to its financial security. as well as brought lasting effects in Britain in each of these areas. 79% of this expenditure was by companies based in the USA. social. Japan. and fixed line telecommunications the next biggest. With its fast growing monopoly on ocean trade.6 billion on R&D . In the UK 850. Globally. The remaining UK companies outside the top 88 grew their R&D by just 1.2% . The 1. software. The top 88 UK companies. with larger firms with larger absolute values of R&D spend being in less-intensive sectors. This is significantly more than the larger UK firms. Note that as company accounts do not distinguish between expenditure in the UK and outside the UK. occurred because of the stable economic.400 companies in the world most active in R&D.4% to £274 billion. automobiles and parts. pharmaceuticals and fixed line telecommunications.before the current recession. Germany. Britain was. the five biggest sectors were pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. The latest scoreboard. 338 companies have sales of less than £50M. France and the UK. It was the great historical epoch we call the Industrial Revolution which would forever change city life. reports on the patterns and trends of the 850 largest corporate spenders of R&D in the UK and the 1. with aerospace and defence. and electronics.a faster rate than the rest of the top 1. the 2008 DIUS R&D Scoreboard. at the time of the Industrial Revolution. the production of machinery. based on R&D expenditure reported in company accounts. Listed companies (ie those with shareholders) increased their R&D by 9. The Scoreboard reports that the 850 top-spending UK firms spent £21. automobiles and parts. who also rank in the top 1. its renewed interest in scientific discovery. banking. technology hardware. software.4 per cent on the previous scoreboard.400 companies in the world that spent the most on R&D increased their expenditure by 9. The Government also publishes the 2007 DTI Value Added Scoreboard lists the top 800 UK companies and the top 750 global companies by Value Added .3% . one of the most vital periods of change in Great Britain. The UK sectors that increased their R&D expenditure the most were oil and gas. social class structure.a fall in real terms. which is endorsed by the R&D Society.the amount of wealth created by a company in a year.
The improved cultivation of healthier fruits. Alongside new inventions came exciting discoveries in medicine. vegetables. and stale bread. sugar. adding to Britain’s strong labor force in cities. As city populations grew due to the advancement of industry. electricity was used. as well as people’s lungs. citizens were able to move up the rungs of the social class ladder in British society. Thus. factories. and thus they could afford only to eat rancid meats. Factories subjected men. however. Britain’s national banking system provided it with capital from investments and a surplus of finances for which to use in commerce on the international scale. Along with construction improvements in cities. and the strongest economically. along with the introduction of mechanical reapers and threshers. which aided a greater production of more durable metals.never again would the British have to suffer the results of no changes regarding the inequalities of the working world. an influx of unemployed farm workers was created. and unprotected work around dangerous machinery. the new use of electric engines in cars improved the rate of transportation in British cities. which included a sewer and provided for running water in individuals’ homes. its domination of the seas via a strong military force gave it control of ocean transportation and trade. The improvement of steel production specifically helped cities to construct sturdier buildings which had fewer fire and other safety hazards. This increased the efficiency of streetlight in Britain. The Industrial Revolution was a positive era to have occurred in Britain. In fact. which contributed to the extreme malnutrition and sickness in the cities. promoting the growth and trade of the country. the Industrial Revolution appeared to bring no benefits at all to the country. New inventions of the time included John Kay’s "flying shuttle" weaving device and George Stephenson’s "Rocket" railway train. all largely dealing with the exchange of new and improved industrial machinery. now made cheaper to produce. along with innovations such as Abraham Darby’s thought to use coal instead of charcoal in order to create fuel. providing for better treatments of diseases and thus promoting the overall health of British society. The tremendous use of coal in industrial production polluted the atmosphere. tea. An increase in the number of workers in industry meant that factories could run more efficiently and produce more goods than ever before. so that all British citizens. Similar improvements included the expansion of public services such as a fire department and police force. instead of gas power. thus improving their financial and educational statuses. Britain’s American colonies played an important role in providing the country with such vital raw materials. Britain obtained much capital from its many new international trading ventures with major nations. as well as decreased the pollution level formerly heightened by older engines. Ongoing British trade of tobacco. It was this expanded variety of mechanical tools that would fuel the continuation of the Industrial Revolution. As Britain’s incoming finances grew and increased. steam ships. Great Britain was the leading figure in the Industrial Revolution. Living conditions in cities became unsanitary. These and other devices greatly increased farm production in Britain. Great Britain was also rich in natural resources such as water and coal. which had created many fumes. and other foods grown on British farms using the new inventions bettered the health and growth of the population. However. which enabled farmers to plant seeds in straight rows. as well as lessened the fire hazard gas lamps had proposed. such as stronger steel. women. Great Britain grew to become the most powerful manufacturing nation. to light city street lamps. nor doubt the strength of their country. as well as Henry Bessemer's renovation of steel production. Other new developments included a seed drill. fatty fried foods. Secondly. in all of Europe. Due to its sturdy financial and economic conditions. the positive outcomes of the Industrial Revolution rivaled the damage of its more negative effects. Scientific advancements of the time included new metalproduction techniques. In the beginning. Also. and workers’ conditions in the coalmines were not much better than in factories. Food was expensive for poor factory workers. helping to manufacture a much greater amount of new machinery. harsh punishments. which meant there were more workers to help run industrial factories. The enclosure movement restricted the ownership of public farmlands specifically to the wealthy landowners. improved the city’s sanitary conditions. not only the wealthy and upper class. Better lit cities also contributed to a decreased urban crime rate. yet come to view the word "technology" in a completely new way. and slaves internationally was largely a result of this control. and other devices which increased transportation and also the movement of workers and new industrial ideas as well. each which increased the level of safety in cities. First of all. As a result of this movement. These could provide an ample energy supply for trains. Each of these improvements aided both the production and transportation of products and materials used for trade and in industrial factories. Public education also developed. a new water system. could rid 21 . and even children workers to low wages. as well as cramped and impoverished.
themselves of ignorance and illiteracy. The term ‘flaw’. document this fact. and social state. As a result. Functional Obsolescence Functional obsolescence results from a flaw in the structures. in this context. political. Due to this era in Great Britain. and other businessmen worked to increase Britain’s production of goods. self-improvement in the workplace. because of Britain’s national economic. entrepreneurs. the property may realize a corresponding reduction in value. University to business technology transfer offers specific challenges. remains unchanged today a. yet. beyond those encountered in industry more widely. • Rate of technology transfer • Life cycle and speed of technological obsolescence Traditional mortality studies alone are insufficient to assess the depreciation of utility property that is subject to technological obsolescence. First. instead of the usual twelve to sixteen. a new labor code was made. international trade enhances the speed of technology transfer. Human capital primarily reflects output through private rates of return (captured in our index of labor quality) rather than measured TFP. and proved the benefits of a futuristic way of thinking. lessening worker’s hour requirement to eight hours. The Industrial Revolution caused the people of Britain to turn away from the past. it can be concluded that.. promoting more international commerce for Britain and supporting an increase in profits on Britain’s industrial goods. indeed. This paper examines the issues in university to business technology transfer in the UK and USA and presents the results of a survey of UK and US university technology transfer officers. revolutionary. the consistency of university technology transfer policies and the accessibility of university technologies to business. developed in the first half of this century.e. new inventions and innovations contributed to a more modern outlook on life. the Industrial Revolution was. b. Assessing Technological Obsolescence Obsolescence is a measure of an asset’s loss in value resulting from a reduction in the utility of the asset relative to market expectations. external obsolescence and functional obsolescence. Because of the increased production of machinery which further forwarded industrial advances in technology. The study also looks at perceived barriers to university to business technology transfer and offers suggestions for possible improvements to the process. using a single mortality survivor curve for all vintage for all future years. or design that diminishes the function. and human capital in stimulating each source of productivity growth. While R&D raises rates of innovation. Several writings. the products of city factories became cheaper and more available. factory owners were able to provide their workers with higher wages and better working conditions. grossly understates the true impact of technological obsolescence. in which British factory owners. materials. the country was ready to surmount on its shoulders the immense change of the Industrial Revolution. The development of new machinery in factories added to the safety of working there. Technology transfer is statistically signi8cant and quantitatively important. Thus. if market expectations increase. Such a loss in value is said to be the result of obsolescence. international trade. and decreased the need for so many workers to labor for strenuous hours. the current mortality analysis process. It should be noted that while the absolute usefulness of an asset may remain constant. published in the early 1980's. utility. and instead to look toward improvements in their way of life which would last through upcoming years. As a result. industrial businesses received more income from consumers’ purchases. Thus. technological obsolescence is having a more profound impact on the future economic life of utility property today than it had in the past. Thus. Findings indicate significant differences in the motivations of universities in each country to transfer technology. Second. the theory of capitalism developed. There are two principle reasons for this. the current process. i. and value of an asset. refers to any deficiency in the asset which negatively impact its ability to perform the 22 . In this respect. There are two forms of obsolescence. We examine the roles played by research and development (R&D).
producing muffins and cakes. His energy bills had jumped 70% in the past 18 months.” said Griffin. said energy costs made up 30% of his total overheads. BUSINESSES across the country are heading into annual negotiations with their power suppliers. from £30. it generally overshadows all other causes of obsolescence. The loss in value resulting from this deficiency is a form of functional obsolescence. London and Manchester. facing the prospect of a 100% rise in their annual bills.desired function. Customer expectation is a typical example: New and more powerful generations of personal computers increased customer expectations for personal computing power. Wholesale electricity prices for this winter have jumped to more than £90 per megawatt hour. Flaws are relative to need.000 – the firm has already been hit by soaring wheat costs.000 to £160. Conclusion: Both technological obsolescence and traditional life cycle factors affect the useful life. provide further evidence of the inflationary pressures on the economy. With the rapid pace of technological change. Ignoring technological obsolescence and its unique mortality characteristics will result in a gross overstatement of the life. The only way round it is to take advantage of any opportunities. this is. both should be taken into account. Jon Davies. As such. Even some household names are complaining about soaring power bills. One chain of six small car dealerships in South Yorkshire has seen its electricity bill jump to £60. called Technological Obsolescence. behind closed doors. which are hammering company finances across the length and breadth of the country.000 a year. with his three data centres alone now consuming £1. if the need evolves over time and the asset can no longer meet the need. A specialist baker in Surrey. “Now I worry about how much I can squeeze out of each unit of power. Tesco has seen all the financial advantages of an eight-year programme to halve its power consumption through green initiatives wiped out by soaring prices. In fact.000. and they do so simultaneously.5m worth of electricity a year. James Griffin. managing director of Supplier switch. an internet services company that employs 250 people in Gloucester. Relative to customer expectations (needs) older PCs have a flaw or relative deficiency. In this paper. then the asset’s value is impaired. The soaring costs. “I used to worry about how much revenue I could generate from each of my servers. technological obsolescence is the principle focus of the obsolescence analysis. given the economic conditions.” Laurence Dupree at consultancy Bearing Point said: “In the past three months we have seen a massive increase in companies looking for savings across the supply chain. You can’t just wait until your contract is about to expire before you start shopping round for deals. A car-parts manufacturer in Manchester. About half of UK small and mid-sized firms strike annual energy contracts that expire in October. when technological obsolescence is occurring. and are beginning to enter talks about new deals. has seen its power bill climb from £70. Gas prices have jumped 130% over the same period. Technological obsolescence is one form of functional obsolescence. according to Supplierswitch. meanwhile.” Griffin’s fears reflect the experience of firms across the UK.000 a year ago. While the power of older PCs remain constant. It is no longer about improving brand image.com’s figures – an increase of 110% on last winter. technological obsolescence is the principle cause of functional obsolescence today. has seen its bill jump from £250.000 to £500.” • Energy use and costs 23 . said: “Clearly it’s not going to be easy for companies to pass all of those increased costs on to their customers. consumer needs increase. a director of Star. it is about looking for efficiency savings in the face of rising costs.
This helps businesses to: • Remain up-to-date • Drive business forward • Sustain and survive competition In short. Technology is a very broad concept and is used to refer to several braches of science and study. Today. Some examples are information technology. technology has become one of the significant factors that maximize an organization’s ROI. etc. so do its benefits. understands the new IT issues facing a business. and drives the IT changes from the top down. Let us look at the benefits of technology in some major areas of day-to-day life: Benefits of Technology in Business: The days when the Chief Information Officer (CIO) took implementation decisions and passed the responsibility down the line are passed. biotechnology. This is a clear indicator of the benefits businesses are enjoying through the implementation of technology. Today technology is an integral part of any business right from the purchase of computers and software to the implementation of network and security tools.• (Changes in) Information Technology The term “Technology” is derived from the Greek word “Technologia” and “techne” means “craft” and “logia” means the “study of something”. As the term technology branches into various fields of science and study. Benefits of Technology in Communication: 24 . the CIO is an individual who possesses business as well as technical skills. medical technology.
Greater access: Technological advancements have opened education to learners with learning disabilities and in remote locations. 25 . discussion boards. broadcasting news. The means and the modes of communication are unlimited. This saves cost and time by reducing office visits. making travel arrangements to university admissions. technology has made it faster.and time-saving: Physicians can follow-up. They set their own goals. Communication: The world is a smaller place and technology allows everyone to keep in touch with their families and friends at a more affordable cost. or simply paying bills. manage the process and content of learning. Benefits of Technology in Healthcare: The marriage between medicine and technology has reshaped healthcare and revolutionized the medical profession. Cost. Some of the benefits of technological advancements in the field of communication are: • Speed : time is no longer a constraint in communication • Clarity : With megapixel images and video. banking. and patients with complex birth defects. Immediate response: Most e-learning programs provide immediate feedbacks on learner assessments. Medical devices: Medical aids allow patients to continue recovery at home reducing their hospital stay. and high fidelity audio systems clarity in communication has become a never-before experience • Proximity : technological advancements have made the world a smaller place to live in • Dissemination : whether spreading information. Vulnerable population: Technology aids the very young. easier. and communicate with peers. Self-paced: Learners can chart courses at their own pace. Speed: From sending gifts to making payments everything gets a done with a few clicks. Flexibility: Physicians can answer routine and less critical queries at a convenient time. Some of the benefits are: Convenience: Provides a great deal of convenience in expediting personal and business transactions be it shopping. elderly. e-libraries. etc that allow clarifications at a faster pace than in traditional classrooms. Some of the benefits of technology in this field are: Personalized learning experience: Learners are able to take control and manage their own learning. Some of the major benefits are: Secure environment: Technology allows physicians and patients to interact in a secure and comfortable environment to discuss sensitive issues. and smarter Benefits of Technology in Education: Technological advancements in the field of education are fast evolving. Development: Technology has brought about development in many fields such as medicine. banking.From hand-held computers to touch phones. and disabled children by alleviating their problems so that they can continue living in their homes Benefits of Technology in Society: Today technology pervades almost all aspects of our daily life from shopping. saving time and cost. Today. and re-direct patients to resources on the Internet. This ensures higher levels of motivation both in terms of completing the course as well as in performance. technological advancements in the field of communication are endless. Similarly there are features such as chat. chronic illnesses. Accuracy: Technology has reduced errors in mundane and monotonous chores. provide advice. or sharing knowledge. e-learning is a familiar and popular term.
Examples of mobile IT devices include: • (Changes in) Mobile Technology a. e. business. reductions in inventory. g. • (Changes in) Internet Top concerns for CEO's in today's business environment are: a. education. for internal activities such as knowledge sharing and new product development. the threat posed by competitors. c. e. acquisition of new customers and increased sales. improved efficiency and productivity. Bluetooth . J.technology that is portable.change management. General Electric and many others are reporting benefits from the use of the Internet. people and business processes as an integrated whole and making changes in all these dimensions. c. Mobile technology is exactly what the name implies . Business of all sizes in all sectors are using the Internet in many different ways . laptop and notebook computers palmtop computers or personal digital assistants mobile phones and 'smart phones' global positioning system (GPS) devices wireless debit/credit card payment terminals Mobile devices can be enabled to use a variety of communications technologies such as: a. cost savings. E-business online is itself capable of delivering these benefits. finding new opportunities. Sainsbury. wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) . organization. b. d. Technology has evolved and transformed our lives and society. information and knowledge sharing. h.to work with partners and suppliers. However the benefits are achieved not by technology (which is an enabler) but by addressing strategy.government. These benefits include: a. c. good implementation practices and clear business objectives are required in order to reap the full benefits. e. f. improved communications. b. Improved customer service. b. Overall. The Internet is just like other information technologies . it has brought about tremendous growth and benefit to mankind. and much more. d. etc. for procurement. d.a type of wireless local area network technology b. technology. i. Better customer focus and service. Companies such as United Technologies. better transfer of best practices. and improving responsiveness. controlling costs. improved speed of response. harmonization and standardization of procedures.connects mobile devices wirelessly 26 .
enabling home working. The growth of cloud computing has also impacted positively on the use of mobile devices. place an order online This leads to great flexibility in working . For example. Benefits Mobile computing can improve the service you offer your customers. networking 'hot spots' are being provided in public areas that allow connection back to the office network or the internet. 27 .c.data networking services for mobile phones d.allowing you to update customer details whilst away from the office. 'third generation' (3G). you could: a. set up a new customer's account b. Increasingly. For example. by using a wireless payment terminal diners can pay for their meal without leaving their table.data networking services using modems and telephone lines e.secure access to a private network It is therefore possible to network the mobile device to a home office or the internet while travelling. Alternatively. More powerful solutions can link you directly into the office network while working off site.for example. you can enable customers to pay for services or goods without having to go to the till. or working while travelling. supporting more flexible working practices by providing services over the internet. global system for mobile communications (GSM) and general packet radio service (GPRS) data services . virtual private networks .over the internet . dial-up services .. for instance to access your database or accounting systems. when meeting with customers you could access your customer relationship management system . For example. check prices and stock availability c.
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