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Mars Quantum Entanglement Applications 2013-05-25

Mars Quantum Entanglement Applications 2013-05-25

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Published by Gary V Stephenson
2012 Quantum Entanglement Research Highlights, No Go Theorem Summary, and Possible Applications to Mars Exploration, Updated 2013-05-25
2012 Quantum Entanglement Research Highlights, No Go Theorem Summary, and Possible Applications to Mars Exploration, Updated 2013-05-25

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Published by: Gary V Stephenson on May 26, 2013
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2012 Quantum Entanglement Research Highlights (With Possible Applications to Mars Missions

)
Gary V Stephenson Seculine Consulting 25 May 2013

_________________S_E_C_U_L_I_N_E_____C_O_N_S_U_L_T_I_N_G_________________

Why a Quantum Entanglement talk?
Because 2012 was a revolutionary year for quantum entanglement experiments Included in this talk are three experiments:
1) Canary Island Long Range Quantum State Teleportation 2) Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) in Herbertsmithite 3) Entangled Photons in Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Twisted Beams

Because it is fun and instructive to speculate on which applications may be possible and which are not possible Included in this talk are three possible applications:
1) Frequency Time Standard delivery at a distance 2) Communication at a distance 3) Power coupling at a distance

Action at a distance applications will all hinge on the extent to which coherence can be maintained and utilized

Part 1: A Summary of Recent Quantum Entanglement Experiments
Part 1, A Summary Report of Recent Quantum Entanglement Experiments: What is Quantum Entanglement? Experiment #1: Canary Island Long Range Quantum State Teleportation Experiment #2: Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) in Herbertsmithite Experiment #3: Entangled Photons in Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Twisted Beams

What is Quantum Entanglement?
1) A coupled set of quantum states Can be a large enough set of coupled states to result in a macroscopic effect 2) A source of quantum coherence Can lead to novel behavior such as super conductivity and super fluidity 3) An example of non-locality Space-time coordinates are not relevant to coupled states
A quantum state here
Both part of same qubit

Affects a quantum state here

Credit: http://www.daviddarling.info/images/quantum_entanglement.gif

Notional two state entanglement example: No decay Live cat Decay Dead cat
Credit: http://www.upscale.utoronto.ca/GeneralInterest/Harrison/SchrodCat/SchrodCat.html

Experiment #1: Canary Island Long Range Quantum State Teleportation
What was the experiment? Attempt to teleport a quantum bit (qubit) from one island to another What was the result? When the quantum state of one photon was altered, the quantum state of the second photon was altered instantaneously, faster than the speed of light, without even the smallest of delays. Proof of quantum state teleportation across distances useful in space. What is the significance? A record distance of 143 kilometers (89 miles)
Photo credit: Ref [3]

Diagram credit: X-S Ma et al. Nature 000, 1-5 (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11472

Experiment #2: Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) in Herbertsmithite
What was the experiment? Used neutron scattering to measure spin states present within the Herbertsmitite crystal What was the result? Positively confirmed coherent spin state structure within the crystal What is the significance? Measurement of macroscopic liquid quantum entanglement

Herbertsmitite, Photo Credit: Tianheng Han / MIT

Inelastic neutron scattering from the spin excitations, plotted in reciprocal space: a–c, Measurements were made at T = 1.6 K on a single-crystal sample of ZnCu3(OD)6Cl2. Figure 1 from Reference [1]

Experiment #3: Entangled Photons in Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Twisted Beams
/2012/10/31/338.6107.640.DC1/Fickler.SM.pdf What was the experiment? Polarization converted to Entangled Attempt to entangle Orbital angular Polarization momentum Photon Pair Angular Momentum states of using SLM Input photon pairs (+OAM with –OAM) What was the result? Successful conversion of polarization entangled photons LaguerreGaussian into OAM entangled photons to Mode OAM very high OAM numbers Entangled Photon What is the significance? Output It is now practical to couple macroscopic angular momentum (e.g. via an optical spanner) to entangled photon states False-color image of a laser beam exhibiting a superposition of Credit:http://www.sciencemag.org/content/suppl

Photo credit: Fibre-optic spanner (macro version of EO spanner), http://images.gizmag.com/hero/fib er-opticspanner.jpg

10 right-handed and 10 left-handed quanta of orbital angular momenta, making 10 + 10 = 20 bright spots on the inner ring. Photons in such modes rotate simultaneously clockwise and anticlockwise. (Courtesy: Robert Fickler, University of Vienna) [2]

Part 1 Summary
1) Canary Island Long Range Quantum State Teleportation demonstrates a new record for the longest separation of a qubit between two entangled photons: 143 km. 2) Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) in Herbertsmithite demonstrates macroscopically entangled liquid spin states in a solid crystal 3) Entangled Photons in Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Twisted Beams demonstrates a light beam with a macroscopic quantity of entangled angular momentum, and a conversion mechanism from entangled polarization photons Quantum Entanglement and quantum coherence may enable new applications not previously thought possible.

Quantum Entanglement Research Highlights Part 2: Possible Applications to Mars Missions

Gary V Stephenson Seculine Consulting 25 May 2013

_________________S_E_C_U_L_I_N_E_____C_O_N_S_U_L_T_I_N_G_________________

Part 2: Possible Applications of Quantum Entanglement
Part 2, A Summary Possible Quantum Entanglement Applications Part 2A: The No-No Theorems – define what you may not do… No Teleportation Theorem No Communication Theorem No Cloning Theorem Part 2B: Possible action-at-a-distance applications - what you might be able to do… Application #1: Using Long Range Quantum State Teleportation to couple atomic clock frequency time reference at a distance Application #2: Using Herbertsmithite Quantum Spin Liquids to couple communication signals at a distance Application #3: Using Quantum Entangled Photons in Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Twisted Beams to couple power at a distance

The “No Teleportation Theorem”
Description of theorem: A classical information channel can not transmit quantum information. (By transmit, we mean transmission with full fidelity.) [4]

This channel can’t send qubits…

…but taken together these two channels can.

Counter-example: Quantum teleportation schemes may utilize both resources to achieve what is impossible for either alone, per reference [4], as demonstrated by X-S Ma et al. Nature 000, 1-5 (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11472.

The “No Communication Theorem”
Description of theorem: No communication can be achieved only via a shared entangled state. Therefore shared entanglement alone can not be used to transmit any information. [4]

Quantum Channel

Photo Credit: Adapted from “Quantum Entanglement in Optical Fiber,” OSA, March 2008

Counter-example: Peacock and Hepburn, “Begging the Signaling Question,” arXiv:quant-ph/9906036v1, as referenced in [4]

The “No Cloning Theorem”
Description of theorem: No perfect quantum copies of arbitrary quantum states are possible. Therefore you cannot clone states. [4]

Counter-example: L.-A. Wu, D. A. Lidar, and S. Schneider, “Long-range entanglement generation via frequent measurements,” PHYSICAL REVIEW A 70, 032322 (2004), Ref. [6]

Application #1: Frequency Time Standard at a distance
Apply long range teleportation of quantum states to the transmission of a reference timing signal for a remote frequency time standard Source could be a GPS conditioned atomic clock ensemble on Earth User would be at an arbitrary location such as Mars or a Mars bound spacecraft Advantages include less launch mass and higher accuracy
2) Down/up spin transitions are replicated remotely via quantum entanglement, reproducing clock signal (action at a distance) 1) Atomic Clock signal coupled to spin up/down transitions of entangled photons

Application #2: Communication at a distance
Applying Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) in coupled pieces of Herbertsmithite Crystal to interplanetary Communication:
5) Modulate QSL1 spin with magnetic field: 8) Readout QSL2 spin with neutron scattering

1) Entangle QSL in Xtal1:

3) Cleave Xtal1 and send half to Mars

Ψ(t)
2) Entangle QSL in Xtal2:

Ψ’ (t)
4) Cleave Xtal2 and send half to Mars 6) Readout QSL1 spin with neutron scattering 7) Modulate QSL2 spin with magnetic field

Don’t we now have Instantaneous, Faster Than Light (FTL), Duplex Communication between Earth and Mars?

Application #3: Power Coupling at a distance
Couple entangled polarization photon pairs into a first pool of Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) Remotely locate a second pool of QSL entangled with the first Use second pool of QSL to drive an entangled photon pair output Use entangled photon pair output to create an OAM twisted photon beam OAM twisted photon beam drives a generator via angular momentum coupling Very inefficient: exercise to the reader to think of more efficient quantum entanglement coupling schemes that are capable of coupling power

1) Entangled Polarization Photon Pair Input

2) Polarization converted to angular momentum using SLM

5) OAM twisted beam rotates generator 4) QSL couples to OAM

(action at a distance) 3) OAM couples to QSL

Parts 1&2 Conclusions & Summary
Experiments in 2012 show it is possible to: Demonstrate Long Range Quantum State Teleportation Measure a Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) in Herbertsmithite Entangle Photons in Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Twisted Beams Some applications are not possible, but one must be careful in how the “No-No Theorems” are applied and NOT over-apply them Action-at-a-distance applications that may be possible: Frequency Time Standard delivery at a distance Communication at a distance Power Transfer at a distance Much, much more research must be performed to development methods for coherence maintenance and to understand the boundaries of quantum entanglement application

References
[1] Tian-Heng Han et al., Fractionalized excitations in the spin-liquid state of a kagome-lattice antiferromagnet, Nature, 2012, DOI: 10.1038/nature11659, at website: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v492/n7429/abs/nature11659.html, accessed 2/17/2013 [2] http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2012/nov/01/spooky-action-withtwisted-beams, accessed 2/17/2013 [3] http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/135561-new-quantum-teleportationrecord-paves-the-way-towards-a-worldwide-quantum-network, accessed 2/17/2013 [4] QE & No-Go Theorems: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_communication_theorem, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-cloning_theorem, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_teleportation_theorem, all accessed 2/17/2013 [5]http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/MTO/Programs/Quantum_Entanglement_Scien ce_and_Technology_%28QUEST%29.aspx, accessed 2/17/2013 [6] L.-A. Wu, D. A. Lidar, and S. Schneider. “Long-range entanglement generation via frequent measurements” PHYSICAL REVIEW A 70, 032322 (2004) [7] http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/print/volume-41/issue12/features/photonics-frontiers-entangled-photons-lsquospooky-actionrsquo-worksat-a-distance.html, accessed 2/17/2013

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