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Chopper Drive.ppt

Chopper Drive.ppt

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Published by: mazza234 on May 27, 2013
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A Seminar on

Chopper Drives
Presented By: md mustafa kamal

Table of Contents
Electric Drives  DC Motor Characteristics  DC Motor speed control options  Linear and Switch Mode Regulators  Motoring Mode of drives  Regenerative braking  Two and four quadrant operation  Performance criterions  Applications

Electrical Drives
An Electric Motor along with its controller is called an Electric Drive

Electrical Drive System .

DC Motors .

Separately Excited DC Motor .

D. damping factor and load torque .DC Motor Equations where J . and TL are the moment of inertia.

Speed control options Va = IaRa + Eb = IaRa + KIf ω Or ω = (Va – IaRa)/ Kif Or ω = (αVs – IaRa)/ Kif So drive Speed can be controlled by:  Armature Voltage control  Field Flux control .

. For speeds higher than the rated speed: The armature voltage is maintained at rated value. This mode is referred to as “field weakening” operation.For speeds less than the rated speed: The armature current and field currents are maintained at fixed values (hence constant torque operation). The power developed is maintained constant. and the field current is varied to control the speed. and the armature voltage controls the speed.

Speed Torque Characteristics .

Characteristics .

DC Series Motor .

Series Motor Characteristics .

DC Voltage control Strategies   Linear Regulation Switch Mode Regulation .

Output Voltage Vo = Vin -Vce .Linear Regulator Transistor is operated in linear (active) mode.

Equivalent Circuit Power loss is high at high current due to: Po = IL2 x RT Or Po = Vce x IL .

Life Time Motor Operating Costs .

Switching Regulator Transistor is operated in switched-mode: Switch closed: Fully on (saturated) Switch opened: Fully off (cut-off) .

.Equivalent Circuit When switch is open: no current flows in it When switch is closed: no voltage drops across it.

no losses occurs in the switch.DC converters . • Power is 100% transferred from source to load. • Power loss is zero (for ideal switch) Switching regulator is the basis of all DC .Advantages of Switching Regulator • Since P = VI.

.What is a ‘Chopper’? Chopper is an electronic switching circuit which converts the unregulated DC input to a controlled DC output with a desired voltage level by switching the supply ON and OFF.

General Block Diagram .

.Methods Of Control  The output dc voltage can be varied by the following methods. ◦ Pulse width modulation control or constant frequency operation. ◦ Variable frequency control.

Pulse Width Modulation
 tON

is varied keeping chopping frequency ‘f’ & chopping period ‘T’ constant. Output voltage is varied by varying the ON time tON

Pulse Width Modulation
V0 V tON tOFF t T V0 V

t tON tOFF

Variable Frequency Control
Chopping frequency ‘f’ is varied keeping either tON or tOFF constant.  To obtain full output voltage range, frequency has to be varied over a wide range.  This method produces harmonics in the output and for large tOFF load current may become discontinuous

Variable Frequency Control v0 V tON T v0 V tON T tOFF t tOFF t .

Current Continuation v0 V tON i0 Imax Imin i0 T tOFF t Output current Continuous current t Output current Discontinuous current t Output voltage .

Motoring Control .

Wave .Forms .

Chopper Controlled DC Motor .

Quadrants of operation .

Motoring Action .

 It causes the machine to slow down until E = Va and then revert to motoring mode  . the machine acts as a generator  Armature current flows towards the source  Energy stored in the machine rotor is fed back to the source.Regenerative Breaking If back emf E > Va.

Regenerative Breaking During motoring mode. Ia is reversed  Power is delivered to the dc bus  The motor works as a generator in the regenerative braking mode  For loads. Such as a train going down the hill or a descending hoist. emf Ea is more than the source voltage Vs  . armature current Ia = (Vt – Ea)/Ra  If Ea (= Km ωm) exceeds Vt.

Regenerative Breaking .

Wave Forms .

Two Quadrant Chopper drives .

Forward Motoring .

Regenerative Braking .

Four Quadrant Chopper drives .

Forward Motoring .

Forward Regenerative Braking .

Reverse Motoring .

Reverse Regenerative Braking .

Merits     Versatile control characteristics. Control over a large speed range. Speed control methods are simpler and cheaper as compared to AC machines. High starting torque. .

Above 500 kW. .De-merits    Bulky as compared to AC counterpart. manufacturing of machine itself is tedious. mine and chemical applications. Commutator sparking – not suitable for petrochemicals.

 The commutator limits maximum power capacity to a few hundred kilowatts.  Series or parallel combination of motors are used to handle larger  .Limitations of Brushed DC Motors The commutator limits the maximum applicable voltage to about 1500 V  The maximum armature current and its rate of change are limited by the commutator.

Fs – Switching Frequency .

Power Devices Uncontrolled On-controlled On-Off Controlled Diode Thyristor Transistor BJT GTO MOS & FETS IGBT .

Operating Range .

 To reduce the load ripple current.  . & max.  Ripple in the load current depends inversely on the chopping frequency.Performance Parameters The thyristor requires a certain minimum time to turn ON and turn OFF.  Duty cycle α can be varied only between a min. value  Therefore the min. and maximum value of the output voltage is limited. frequency should be as high as possible. f.

Effect Of Source Inductance The source inductance should be as small as possible to limit the transient voltage.  Also source inductance may cause commutation problem for the chopper.  .  Usually an input filter is used to overcome the problem of source inductance.

Effect Of Load Inductance The load ripple current is inversely proportional to load inductance and chopping frequency.  To limit the load ripple current.  Peak load current depends on load inductance. a smoothing inductor is connected in series with the load.  .

Applications .

Electric Cars .

Electric Car Speed Control .

Electric Bikes .

Electric Trains and Trams .

Paper Mills .

Steel Rolling Mills .

Lifts .

Hoists .

Real DC Motor Controller .

References First courses on power electronic and drives by Ned Mohan  Power Electronics converters. Undeland. Second Edition by Ned Mohan. Robbins  Power Electronics Handbook by Muhammad H. Rashid  Power Electronics by Dr. S. Bimbhra  . P. Applications and Design.

Thanks .

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