You are on page 1of 21

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

Prepared for

Sustainability Victoria
Version 2 April 2009
655 Jacksons Track Jindivick, Victoria 3818 Australia ABN: 18 090 579 365 Tel: +613 5628 5449 Fax: +613 9923 6175 Email: info@energyconsult.com.au

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Contents
Introduction Methodology
Overview Water Heater Assumptions Energy Price and Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors Weighting Factors

2 3
3 4 6 7

Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Descriptions Results References

8 10 20

Glossary
AS/NZS 4234 CO2-e Day rate GHG GJ GWA high eff kg kWh l LPG min eff MJ NG OP TOU TRNSYS TS Zone Australia New Zealand Standard 4234: Heated water systems Calculation of energy consumption. Carbon dioxide equivalent emissions Day rate electricity tariff Greenhouse Gas Gigajoule - a thousand million joules, which is a measure of energy George Wilkenfeld and Associates High efficiency Kilogram Kilowatt hour - one thousand watt hours, which is a measure of energy Litres Liquid Petroleum Gas Minimum efficiency Magajoule - a million joules, which is a measure of energy Natural Gas Off-peak electricity tariff Time of Use electricity tariff TRNSYS is a transient system simulation program developed by the Solar Energy Laboratory at The University of Wisconsin. thermosiphon, is based on natural convection which circulates liquid without requiring a conventional pump Climate Zone from AS/NZS 4234

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Introduction
The purpose of this report is to estimate the annual energy running costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of different hot water systems in Victoria. The report updates the earlier study Estimated Household Water Heater Energy Use, Running Costs and Emissions, Victoria Based on energy price projections, 2005-2015 (GWA 2005) prepared in May 2005 for Sustainability Victoria. This analysis utilises many of the assumptions and methodology of the GWA 2005 study, however it differs in the following areas: Energy prices used to calculate the running costs are estimated from published tariffs current in 2008 compared to the weighted average forecast from 2005 2015 used in the GWA 2005 study The energy consumption is calculated and reported for each water heater type by climate zone and hot water load. The GWA 2005 study weighted the results by households/climate zone and water heater load Solar water heaters and heat pump energy consumption was calculated on the basis of solar hot water savings in Zone 4, and scaled up for Zone 3 on the basis of TRNSYS modelling of units in Zone 4 and Zone 3 This analysis primarily provides data on the estimated energy consumption, GHG emissions and energy running costs. It does not include the purchase costs of the units and therefore no lifecycle costs are calculated.

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Methodology
Overview
The energy consumption of the various water heater types was estimated according the similar methodology used in GWA 2005. The schematic of the approach is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Methodology Overview

Daily Hot Water Draw (from AS 4234)

Conventional water heaters

Solar/heat pump water heaters

Conversion Efficiency

Solar Savings

plus Auxillary Power

plus Auxillary Power

Energy Consumtpion

Enery Prices

GHG emission factors

Running Costs

GHG Emissions

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Water Heater Assumptions


The following assumptions were used for the calculation of the water heater energy consumption. Hot Water Loads The daily hot water peak winter loads by zone are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Peak System Load (MJ/Day)
Item Zone 4 Zone 3 Approx Water (litres) Source: AS/NZS 4234:2008 Small 25.2 22.5 120 Medium 42 38 200 63 57 300 Large

These peak daily hot water loads were converted to average yearly loads in accordance with the methodology shown in GWA 2005. This methodology involves the use of water temperature and energy content calculations applied to the proportion of peak load by month from AS/NZS 4234. Base on the GWA 2005 study, the small, medium and large loads are equivalent to: small households(1 bedroom, approx 120 l/day of hot water), medium households (2-3 bedrooms, approx 200 l/day of hot water); and large household (4+ bedrooms, approx 300 l/day of hot water) The Annual Delivered Energy use for the analysis is shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Annual Delivered Energy (MJ/yr)
Item Zone 4 Zone 3 Small 8,320 7,428 Medium 13,866 12,546 Large 20,799 18,819

Water Heater Characteristics The following water heater characteristics were used for the modelling of energy consumption and the key assumptions are shown in Table 3 and Table 4.

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Table 3: Conventional Water Heater Characteristics


Conventional Water Heater Systems Reference Water Heaters1 Zone 4 Electric Off Peak - AS/NZS 4234 Electric Continuous - AS/NZS 4234 Gas storage (2*) - AS/NZS 4234 Zone 3 Electric Off Peak - AS/NZS 4234 Electric Continuous - AS/NZS 4234 Gas storage (2*) - AS/NZS 4234 Electric Water Heaters Electric Continuous Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas Water Heaters2 Gas storage (3*) Gas storage (5*) Gas inst (3*) Gas inst (5*)
2

Small MJ/yr 10,210 18,910 MJ/yr 9,207 17,290 Small 1.25 2.44 2.64 Maintenance Rate (MJ/hr) 0.829 0.540 0.0 0.0 1.53 2.72 2.92

Medium MJ/yr 16,670 26,340 MJ/yr 15,260 24,150 Medium 1.81 2.93 3.13

Large MJ/yr 23,140 35,620 MJ/yr 21,100 32,580 Large

Tank Heat Loss (kWh/day)

Combustion Efficiency (%) 76% 84% 60.4% 73.5%

Notes: 1. Used for calculation of energy consumption by solar hot water systems 2. From Thermal Design 2009 report

Table 4: Solar/ Heat Pump Water Heater Characteristics


Solar/Heat Pump Water Heater Type Heat pump (min eff) Heat pump (high eff) Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff) Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff) Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff) Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff) Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff) Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff) Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) Annual Energy Savings Zone 4 60% 70% 60% 80% 60% 80% 60% 90% 60% 80% 60% 80% 60% 90% Zone 3 61% 71% 65% 85% 65% 85% 65% 95% 65% 85% 65% 85% 65% 95%

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Solar and heat pump water heater Annual Energy Savings for the high efficiency models were obtained from the data on models registered under Sustainability Victorias List of systems capable of complying with the regulations (SV 2008). The solar systems were modelled on the basis of the requirements of minimum Annual Energy Savings of 60% in Zone 4, as this is the requirement of the Sustainability Victoria rebate program and the 5 Star regulations for new houses. The Annual Energy Savings was scaled up for Zone 3 on the basis of TRNSYS modelling of systems under constant loads in Zones 3 & 4 (Thermal Design 2007). The modelling showed that systems saved on average between 10 to 14% in Zone 3 compared to the same system in Zone 4. However, allowing for the possible reduced level of solar radiation over the southern part of Zone 3 (Northern Victoria is in the southern part of Zone 3 which includes Adelaide and Sydney), this study assumed a 5% increase in Energy Savings in Zone 3, for a solar water heater measured in Zone 4.

Energy Price and Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors


Energy Prices The energy prices were obtained from published tariffs for all major energy retailers. The prices used in this report are estimated median prices from regulated tariffs, as shown in Table 5. This table also describes the characteristics of the tariffs.
Table 5: Median Energy Prices and Tariff Characteristics (incl. GST) 2008
Fuel Type Electric- Day Rate Peak (GD/GR) Electric- TOU Peak (GH/GL Winner) Electric- TOU Off Peak (GH/GL Winner) Electric- Off Peak (J, J6, JT, Y6, Y8) Gas- Natural Gas- LPG All 7 am 11 pm weekdays All other times Depends on Tariff NA NA 1.09 4.4 Times Applicable Median (c/MJ) Median (c/kWh) 16.96 20.98 8.85 8.86 Range 15.9 18.4 18.6 23.6 8.6 11.6 7.8 9.8 0.97 1.47 NA

GD/GR/GH/GL/J6/JT/Y6/Y8 from Victorian Regulated Tariffs

GHG Emission Factors The GHG emission factors used in the report are shown in Table 6.

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Table 6: Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors 2008


Fuel Type Electricity Gas- Natural Gas- LPG Victoria Emission Factors 1.31 kg/kWh (scope 2+3) 57.3 kg/GJ (scope 1+3) 65.3 kg/GJ(scope 1+3)

Source: National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors, Department of Climate Change, Jan 2008

Weighting Factors
The average Victorian annual energy running costs and GHG emissions were determined by weighted average. The average values were determined by weighting the results by the estimated number of households by size and distribution of households by climate zone. Table 7 provides the weighting by household size and Table 8 the weighting by climate zone.
Table 7: Weighting by Household Size
Household Size Small 21.0% Medium 64.0% Large 15.0%

Source: GWA 2005, Table 4

Table 8: Weighting by Climate Zone


Climate Zone 3 15.0% Zone 4 85.0%

Source: Estimated based on distribution of households by AS/NZS 4234 Climate Zone

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Descriptions1


Solar-gas or solar-electric close-coupled thermosiphon (TS) This is the most common system on the market. It consists of roof-mounted solar collectors, combined with a horizontally-mounted storage tank located immediately above these collectors. In these solar systems a pump is not required. Heated fluid rises naturally through the solar collectors and enters the storage tank. When this happens, cooler water at the base of the storage tank is forced out and flows down to the bottom of the collectors. Boosting can be provided by gas or electricity (preferably off-peak as it is lower cost). Boost heating in the storage tank (tank boost) should be in the top half of the tank so that solar can heat the bottom of the tank. Alternatively, boosting can be done after the solar storage tank by using a continuous flow gas heater (in-line boost) designed to accept varying inlet temperatures. This cycle is continuously repeated while the sun is shining. Many commercially available solar hot water systems employ this cycle, commonly referred to as thermosiphon flow (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: Close-coupled thermosiphon (mains pressure)

1 Information in this section is sourced from http://www.saveenergy.vic.gov.au/getthefacts/factsheets.aspx, Solar Hot Water factsheet.

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Solar-gas or solar-electric pumped systems With a pumped system, the tank is located below the level of the collectors, usually at ground level. Water must therefore be pumped from the tank to the collectors and back by a thermostatically controlled pump. Pumps are generally small. The electricity used in pumping is included in the annual energy running costs. The system can be boosted by electricity, usually off-peak, or gas either controlled by a timer which stops the gas burner from operating during sunshine hours or which puts the heat into the upper part of the tank (see Figure 3).
Figure 3: Forced circulation system (mains pressure pumped)

Heat pumps A heat pump is a form of solar water heating that does not rely on direct sunlight. Instead, heat is extracted from the atmosphere using a refrigerant gas and compressor, commonly known as a heat pump. The refrigerant liquid passes through a collector absorbing heat from the atmosphere and evaporating the refrigerant to a gas in the process. The heated refrigerant gas then moves along a coil wrapped around the storage tank where it condenses into a liquid and heats the water in the storage tank. The electricity consumption is similar to a solar water heater with electric boosting consequently they are treated as electric boosted solar systems. Running costs can vary as heat pumps may need to be connected to a continuous electricity supply.

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

Results
The main output of this study is the estimated energy consumption by fuel, running costs and GHG emissions for various types of water heaters. The following tables show the results separately for Zone 4 and Zone 3 by household size. The average results weighted by household size are also shown for each zone. Finally the average result for Victoria weighted by household size and zone are provided (Table 15). The result tables also provide the GHG emissions intensity of the various hot water systems in terms of the GHG emissions per hot water delivered energy, in g CO2-e/MJ. The tables provided are shown below:
Table 9: Results Zone 4 Small Households (approx 120 l/day of hot water) Table 10: Results Zone 4 Medium Households (approx 200 l/day of hot water) Table 11: Results Zone 3 Small Households (approx 120 l/day of hot water) Table 12: Results Zone 3 Medium Households (approx 200 l/day of hot water) Table 13: Results Zone 4 Weighted by Households Table 14: Results Zone 3 Weighted by Households Table 15: Results Average of Victoria Weighted by Zone and Households

The ranking of water heater by GHG emissions is shown in Figure 4 and by energy running costs in Figure 5. These figures are the estimated Victorian average, weighted by household size and climate zone.

10

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Table 9: Results Zone 4 Small Households (approx 120 l/day of hot water)
System Type Units Electric Continuous - TOU Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas storage (3*) - NG Gas storage (3*) - LPG Gas storage (5*) - NG Gas storage (5*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (3*) - NG Gas instantaneous (3*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (5*) - NG Gas instantaneous (5*) - LPG Heat pump (min eff) - Day rate Heat pump (high eff) - Day rate Heat pump (min eff) - TOU Heat pump (high eff) - TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- Day Rate Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)- Day Rate Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - LPG 52 52 52 52 1,134 567 1,134 567 1,134 567 53 53 53 53 105 105 105 105 7,373 3,591 7,373 3,591 7,187 1,514 7,187 1,514 67 67 67 67 1,134 851 1,134 851 1,134 567 1,134 567 1,134 567 7,564 3,782 7,564 3,782 7,378 1,705 7,378 1,705 17,930 17,930 14,520 14,520 14,970 14,970 12,520 12,520 $195 $789 $158 $639 $175 $670 $148 $562 $192 $144 $150 $112 $125 $63 $101 $50 $192 $96 $82 $41 $333 $166 $89 $27 $333 $84 $125 $63 $192 $96 $101 $50 $89 $48 $333 $167 $96 $34 $334 $84 1.03 1.17 0.83 0.95 0.95 1.07 0.81 0.91 1.49 1.11 1.49 1.11 1.49 0.74 1.49 0.74 1.49 0.74 0.43 0.22 0.49 0.25 0.49 0.17 0.55 0.18 1.49 0.74 1.49 0.74 1.49 0.74 0.49 0.28 0.55 0.30 0.55 0.22 0.61 0.24 Electricity kWh pa 2,767 2,767 3,113 Gas MJ pa Costs $ pa $473 $469 $276 CO2 T pa 3.63 3.63 4.08

April 2009

GHG/MJ g CO2-e/MJ 436 436 490 123 141 100 114 114 128 97 109 179 134 179 134 179 89 179 89 179 89 52 26 59 30 59 20 66 22 179 89 179 89 179 89 59 33 66 37 66 27 73 28

11

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Table 10: Results Zone 4 Medium Households (approx 200 l/day of hot water)
System Type Units Electric Continuous - TOU Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas storage (3*) - NG Gas storage (3*) - LPG Gas storage (5*) - NG Gas storage (5*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (3*) - NG Gas instantaneous (3*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (5*) - NG Gas instantaneous (5*) - LPG Heat pump (min eff) - Day rate Heat pump (high eff) - Day rate Heat pump (min eff) - TOU Heat pump (high eff) - TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- Day Rate Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)- Day Rate Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - LPG 53 53 53 53 1,852 926 1,852 926 1,852 926 62 62 62 62 115 115 115 115 10,312 5,044 10,312 5,044 10,121 2,219 10,121 2,219 71 71 71 71 1,852 1,389 1,852 1,389 1,852 926 1,852 926 1,852 926 10,536 5,268 10,536 5,268 10,345 2,443 10,345 2,443 Electricity kWh pa 4,410 4,410 4,745 4,864 24,720 24,720 20,980 20,980 24,710 24,710 20,620 20,620 Gas MJ pa Costs $ pa $754 $748 $420 $472 $269 $1,088 $229 $923 $281 $1,099 $237 $919 $314 $236 $245 $184 $204 $102 $164 $82 $314 $157 $115 $57 $464 $232 $122 $36 $464 $116 $204 $102 $314 $157 $164 $82 $123 $66 $464 $232 $130 $44 $465 $117 CO2 T pa 5.78 5.78 6.22 6.37 1.42 1.61 1.20 1.37 1.51 1.71 1.27 1.44 2.43 1.82 2.43 1.82 2.43 1.21 2.43 1.21 2.43 1.21 0.60 0.30 0.69 0.34 0.66 0.21 0.74 0.23 2.43 1.21 2.43 1.21 2.43 1.21 0.67 0.37 0.75 0.41 0.73 0.28 0.81 0.30

April 2009

GHG/MJ g CO2-e/MJ 417 417 448 460 102 116 87 99 109 123 92 104 175 131 175 131 175 87 175 87 175 87 44 22 50 25 48 15 54 17 175 87 175 87 175 87 48 27 54 30 53 20 59 21

12

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Table 11: Results Zone 3 Small Households (approx 120 l/day of hot water)
System Type Units Electric Continuous - TOU Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas storage (3*) - NG Gas storage (3*) - LPG Gas storage (5*) - NG Gas storage (5*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (3*) - NG Gas instantaneous (3*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (5*) - NG Gas instantaneous (5*) - LPG Heat pump (min eff) - Day rate Heat pump (high eff) - Day rate Heat pump (min eff) - TOU Heat pump (high eff) - TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- Day Rate Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)- Day Rate Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - LPG 52 52 52 52 895 384 895 384 895 384 53 53 53 53 105 105 105 105 5,861 2,403 5,861 2,403 5,675 488 5,675 488 67 67 67 67 997 742 997 742 895 384 895 384 895 384 6,052 2,594 6,052 2,594 5,866 679 5,866 679 16,410 16,410 13,180 13,180 13,420 13,420 11,220 11,220 $179 $722 $144 $580 $158 $602 $134 $505 $169 $126 $132 $98 $99 $42 $79 $34 $152 $65 $66 $28 $266 $114 $73 $16 $267 $39 $99 $42 $152 $65 $79 $34 $73 $35 $267 $115 $80 $23 $267 $39 0.94 1.07 0.76 0.86 0.86 0.96 0.73 0.82 1.31 0.97 1.31 0.97 1.17 0.50 1.17 0.50 1.17 0.50 0.35 0.15 0.40 0.17 0.40 0.11 0.45 0.11 1.17 0.50 1.17 0.50 1.17 0.50 0.41 0.21 0.45 0.23 0.46 0.17 0.51 0.17 Electricity kWh pa 2,520 2,520 2,865 Gas MJ pa Costs $ pa $431 $427 $254 CO2 T pa 3.30 3.30 3.75

April 2009

GHG/MJ g CO2-e/MJ 444 444 505 127 144 102 116 115 130 98 110 176 131 176 131 158 68 158 68 158 68 47 20 53 23 54 14 61 15 158 68 158 68 158 68 55 28 61 30 62 22 68 23

13

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Table 12: Results Zone 3 Medium Households (approx 200 l/day of hot water)
System Type Units Electric Continuous - TOU Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas storage (3*) - NG Gas storage (3*) - LPG Gas storage (5*) - NG Gas storage (5*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (3*) - NG Gas instantaneous (3*) - LPG Gas instantaneous (5*) - NG Gas instantaneous (5*) - LPG Heat pump (min eff) - Day rate Heat pump (high eff) - Day rate Heat pump (min eff) - TOU Heat pump (high eff) - TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- Day Rate Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)- Day Rate Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - LPG 53 53 53 53 1,484 636 1,484 636 1,484 636 62 62 62 62 115 115 115 115 8,229 3,399 8,229 3,399 8,038 793 8,038 793 71 71 71 71 1,653 1,229 1,653 1,229 1,484 636 1,484 636 1,484 636 8,453 3,623 8,453 3,623 8,262 1,017 8,262 1,017 Electricity kWh pa 4,043 4,043 4,378 4,497 22,680 22,680 19,170 19,170 22,400 22,400 18,700 18,700 Gas MJ pa Costs $ pa $691 $686 $388 $436 $247 $998 $209 $843 $256 $998 $216 $835 $280 $208 $218 $162 $164 $70 $131 $56 $252 $108 $92 $39 $372 $159 $99 $20 $373 $54 $164 $70 $252 $108 $131 $56 $100 $48 $373 $160 $107 $28 $373 $54 CO2 T pa 5.30 5.30 5.74 5.89 1.30 1.48 1.10 1.25 1.38 1.56 1.16 1.31 2.17 1.61 2.17 1.61 1.94 0.83 1.94 0.83 1.94 0.83 0.48 0.21 0.55 0.24 0.54 0.13 0.61 0.14 1.94 0.83 1.94 0.83 1.94 0.83 0.55 0.28 0.62 0.30 0.61 0.20 0.68 0.20

April 2009

GHG/MJ g CO2-e/MJ 422 422 457 470 104 118 88 100 110 124 93 105 173 128 173 128 155 66 155 66 155 66 39 17 44 19 43 10 49 11 155 66 155 66 155 66 44 22 49 24 49 16 54 16

14

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Table 13: Results Zone 4 Weighted by Households
System Type Units Electric Continuous - TOU Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas storage (3*) - NG Gas storage (3*) - LPG Gas storage (5*) - NG Gas storage (5*) - LPG Gas inst (3*) - NG Gas inst (3*) - LPG Gas inst (5*) - NG Gas inst (5*) - LPG Heat pump (min eff) - Day rate Heat pump (high eff) - Day rate Heat pump (min eff) - TOU Heat pump (high eff) - TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- Day Rate Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)- Day Rate Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - LPG 53 53 53 53 1,809 905 1,809 905 1,809 905 60 60 60 60 113 113 113 113 10,252 5,017 10,252 5,017 10,061 2,210 10,061 2,210 71 71 71 71 1,809 1,357 1,809 1,357 1,809 905 1,809 905 1,809 905 10,469 5,234 10,469 5,234 10,278 2,427 10,278 2,427 Electricity kWh pa 4,369 4,369 4,702 4,143 24,572 24,572 20,835 20,835 24,489 24,489 20,431 20,431 Gas MJ pa Costs $ pa $747 $741 $417 $402 $268 $1,081 $227 $917 $279 $1,090 $235 $911 $307 $230 $239 $179 $200 $100 $160 $80 $307 $153 $114 $57 $461 $230 $121 $35 $461 $116 $200 $100 $307 $153 $160 $80 $122 $65 $461 $231 $129 $43 $462 $116 CO2 T pa 5.72 5.72 6.16 5.43 1.41 1.60 1.19 1.36 1.50 1.69 1.26 1.43 2.37 1.78 2.37 1.78 2.37 1.19 2.37 1.19 2.37 1.19 0.60 0.30 0.68 0.34 0.66 0.21 0.74 0.23 2.37 1.19 2.37 1.19 2.37 1.19 0.67 0.37 0.75 0.41 0.72 0.27 0.81 0.29

April 2009

GHG/MJ g CO2-e/MJ 419 419 454 359 105 120 88 101 109 124 93 104 174 130 174 130 174 87 174 87 174 87 45 22 51 25 49 16 55 17 174 87 174 87 174 87 50 27 56 30 54 21 60 22

15

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Table 14: Results Zone 3 Weighted by Households
System Type Units Electric Continuous - TOU Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas storage (3*) - NG Gas storage (3*) - LPG Gas storage (5*) - NG Gas storage (5*) - LPG Gas inst (3*) - NG Gas inst (3*) - LPG Gas inst (5*) - NG Gas inst (5*) - LPG Heat pump (min eff) - Day rate Heat pump (high eff) - Day rate Heat pump (min eff) - TOU Heat pump (high eff) - TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- Day Rate Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)- Day Rate Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - LPG 53 53 53 53 1,445 619 1,445 619 1,445 619 60 60 60 60 113 113 113 113 8,174 3,379 8,174 3,379 7,983 791 7,983 791 71 71 71 71 1,610 1,197 1,610 1,197 1,445 619 1,445 619 1,445 619 8,391 3,596 8,391 3,596 8,200 1,008 8,200 1,008 Electricity kWh pa 4,000 4,000 4,332 3,825 22,520 22,520 19,010 19,010 22,163 22,163 18,500 18,500 Gas MJ pa Costs $ pa $684 $678 $384 $371 $245 $991 $207 $836 $254 $987 $214 $826 $273 $203 $213 $158 $159 $68 $128 $55 $245 $105 $91 $39 $369 $158 $98 $20 $370 $53 $159 $68 $245 $105 $128 $55 $99 $47 $370 $159 $106 $28 $370 $54 CO2 T pa 5.24 5.24 5.68 5.01 1.29 1.47 1.09 1.24 1.36 1.54 1.15 1.30 2.11 1.57 2.11 1.57 1.89 0.81 1.89 0.81 1.89 0.81 0.48 0.21 0.55 0.23 0.54 0.13 0.60 0.14 1.89 0.81 1.89 0.81 1.89 0.81 0.55 0.27 0.61 0.30 0.61 0.19 0.67 0.20

April 2009

GHG/MJ g CO2-e/MJ 425 425 463 366 107 122 89 102 110 125 94 106 171 127 171 127 154 66 154 66 154 66 40 17 45 19 45 11 50 11 154 66 154 66 154 66 45 23 51 25 50 16 56 17

16

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Table 15: Results Average of Victoria Weighted by Zone and Households
System Type Units Electric Continuous - TOU Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Off Peak Electric Dual-element Off Peak Gas storage (3*) - NG Gas storage (3*) - LPG Gas storage (5*) - NG Gas storage (5*) - LPG Gas inst (3*) - NG Gas inst (3*) - LPG Gas inst (5*) - NG Gas inst (5*) - LPG Heat pump (min eff) - Day rate Heat pump (high eff) - Day rate Heat pump (min eff) - TOU Heat pump (high eff) - TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- Day Rate Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)- Day Rate Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (min eff)- LPG Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost (high eff)-LPG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-TOU Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)- Day rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (min eff)-OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost (high eff)-OP Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost (high eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (min eff) - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost (high eff) - LPG 53 53 53 53 1,755 862 1,755 862 1,755 862 60 60 60 60 113 113 113 113 9,940 4,772 9,940 4,772 9,749 1,997 9,749 1,997 71 71 71 71 1,779 1,333 1,779 1,333 1,755 862 1,755 862 1,755 862 10,157 4,989 10,157 4,989 9,966 2,214 9,966 2,214 Electricity kWh pa 4,314 4,314 4,646 4,095 24,264 24,264 20,562 20,562 24,140 24,140 20,141 20,141 Gas MJ pa Costs $ pa $738 $732 $412 $397 $264 $1,068 $224 $905 $275 $1,074 $232 $898 $302 $226 $235 $176 $194 $95 $155 $76 $298 $146 $111 $54 $447 $219 $118 $33 $448 $106 $194 $95 $298 $146 $155 $76 $119 $62 $448 $220 $125 $41 $448 $107 CO2 T pa 5.65 5.65 6.09 5.36 1.39 1.58 1.18 1.34 1.48 1.67 1.25 1.41 2.33 1.75 2.33 1.75 2.30 1.13 2.30 1.13 2.30 1.13 0.58 0.29 0.66 0.33 0.64 0.20 0.72 0.21 2.30 1.13 2.30 1.13 2.30 1.13 0.65 0.35 0.73 0.39 0.71 0.26 0.78 0.28

April 2009

GHG/MJ g CO2-e/MJ 420 420 455 360 105 120 89 101 110 124 93 105 173 130 173 130 171 84 171 84 171 84 44 22 50 25 49 15 55 16 171 84 171 84 171 84 49 27 55 30 54 20 60 21

17

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Figure 4: Hot Water System GHG Emissions (T pa) - Weighted Average for Victoria

April 2009

Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost -NG

Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost - LPG

Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost - NG

Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost - LPG

Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost -NG

Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost -LPG

Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost - NG

Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost - LPG

Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost

Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost

Gas storage - NG

Gas inst - NG

Gas storage - LPG

Gas inst - LPG

Heat pump

Electric Dual-element Off Peak

Electric Continuous

Electric Off Peak

CO2-e pa

18

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria


Figure 5: Hot Water System Energy Costs ($ pa) - Weighted Average for Victoria

April 2009

Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost -NG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost - NG Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost -NG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost - NG Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost -OP Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost -OP Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost -TOU Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost -TOU Solar-gas close coupled TS, in line boost - LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, in line boost - LPG Solar-elect close coupled TS, tank boost - Day Rate Solar-elect Pumped system, tank boost - Day rate Heat pump - TOU Solar-gas close coupled TS, tank boost -LPG Solar-gas Pumped system, tank boost - LPG Gas storage - NG Heat pump - Day rate Gas inst - NG Electric Dual-element Off Peak Electric Off Peak Electric Continuous - Day rate Electric Continuous - TOU Gas inst - LPG Gas storage - LPG

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Running Costs $ pa

19

Estimated Hot Water System Running Costs in Victoria

April 2009

References
AS/NZS 4234 Heated water systems Calculation of energy consumption. 2008. GWA 2005, Estimated Household Water Heater Energy Use, Running Costs and Emissions, Victoria Based on energy price projections, 2005-2015. George Wilkenfeld and Associates for Sustainability Victoria, Melbourne, May 2005 SV 2008, List of systems capable of complying with the regulations. Sourced from http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/www/html/2025-compliant-solar-hot-watersystems.asp?intSiteID=4 Thermal Design 2007, Annual Energy Use Of Domestic Water Heaters prepared for The Australian Greenhouse Office by Graham Morrison, Thermal Design Pty Ltd, 31-August 2007, commercial-in-confidence, not available for public. Thermal Design 2009, Gas and Electric Domestic Water Heater Energy Use prepared for Sustainability Victoria by Graham Morrison, Thermal Design Pty Ltd, 4 March 2009

20