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Technical Guideline NUMBER 2


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Guidelines for Waste Audit Reports

Background : A waste Audit as a procedure for surveying processes and/or equipment and identifying waste minimization options as a necessary first step to waste minimization. The results of a Waste Audit can provide management with timely and useful information for developing a viable waste Management plan that can accomplish the following goals:
• • • • •

Save money by reducing water treatment and disposal costs, raw material purchases, and other operating costs. Reduce potential environment liabilities Protect public health and worker health and safety Protect the environment Improve corporate image.

The purpose of a general waste audit is to identify all possible outputs from an industrial process to each segment of the environment and to assess the likely impact of those wastes as well as compliance to municipal standards and regulations. Waste Audits will be required for major industries to ensure compliance with the provisions of Local Order 61/1991 "The Environment Protection Regulations in the Emirate of Dubai". Guidelines for Waste Audit Reports: 1- Objectives of a Waste Audit Report The objectives for conducting a waste audit are to:

Identify each and every gas, liquid and solid waste stream leaving an industrial premises. Quantity and characterize every waste stream.


2. Comprehensive plant and environmental analysis. Identification and characterization of input materials. including compliance with Municipal Orders and Regulations. Determine the liabilities associated and the generation of those wastes. Process Engineer Waste treatment supervisor Marketing manager/officer. Municipality officer or inspector 2.Stages of a Waste Audit • • • • Selection of an Audit team. However its exact size will be determined by the time span of the audit. Determination of Audit Scope. Selection of an Audit Team An audit team usually comprises a leader and several members. Calculate the costs incurred with pretreatment.1. products and waste streams. manpower availability and plant size. • • • • • • • • • • • • The audit team may consist of: Consultants Site or Works Manager Production Manager/Technical Manager Environmental Engineer/Officer. Determination of Audit Scope 2 . Evaluation of data and regulatory compliance Preparation of Waste Audit Report. • 2. Supervisor with hands-on knowledge of how the process is actually conducted on a day-to-day basis. handling and disposal.• • • Establish how and why the waste stream is generated. Collection of preliminary Data. Identify options for effective waste management so that a waste management plan can be developed including waste minimization potential. 2. storage.

Environmental Information * * * * * * Waste disposal receipts and data Emission inventories Waste analysis reports Correspondence with authorities Environment Protection and Safety Permits. Risk assessment and environment reports. Material Safety Data Sheets.This will usually be determined by the Municipality at the time of requiring the Audit. Operating procedures Operating schedules. Raw material analysis. Economic Information * * * * Waste treatment and disposal costs Product and material costs Water consumption costs. c. Plan. An audit may involve a single industrial process or an entire industrial facility. Design Information * * * * * * b. 2. The types of information that can be useful in conducting the audit are as follows: a. Energy consumption costs 3 .3. Raw material and production information * * * * * Product composition and batch sheets. Equipment lists. elevation and layout of plant. d. Collection of Preliminary Data The objective of this activity is to collect all necessary background information on the plant's operation. An audit may be limited to the outputs from the plant or facility or may involve detailed assessment of waste impacts on the environment. Equipment specifications. Process flow diagrams Materials and heat balances of the processes Operating manuals and process descriptions.

input material stream and output product stream using the flow diagrams of the facility. liquid. Material Balance A material balance is an important tool to identify losses and to verify quantitative data of material input and output of the production process. Identify and name each and every waste stream (gas. b.). * * * * * Nature of the waste (gas. Collect data on input material and product streams: * * * * c. liquid and solid). Collect data on the identified waste streams. The principle of mass conservation is as shown in the diagram below: Air Mass out Total mass in Mass Accululated Mass out Mass out Solid Waste Wastewater Product Total Mass in = Total Mass Out + Mass Accumulated A material balance should be made individually for all components that enter and leave the process. When chemical reactions take place in a 4 . Operating and maintenance costs Identification and Characterization of Input materials. Composition of the waste Quantity (present and future) Degree of hazard (toxicity. Hazardous components Material handling and storage Production rate. etc.4. Products. product and waste streams a. flammability.* 2. solid) Generation rate.

2.5. 2. Comprehensive Plant Analysis A comprehensive plant assessment is performed to fill gaps identified during the review of the background information. monitor and assess the impact of waste streams on the surrounding environment. Waste Impacts Evaluate the volumes and components contained in each waste stream against the regulatory standards.6. Evaluation of Data and Regulatory Compliance 2.6. Report on company environmental practices. If directed.1. 5 . The main objective of an inspection is to achieve a fuller understanding of the principal and secondary causes of waste generation and to cover the items missed in the preliminary data collection stage. This is mainly achieved through a site inspection. materials in the • • materials to avoid • • Modifying equipment to improve efficiency. Waste Minimization a.6.system. there is an advantage of doing "elemental balances" for chemical elements in a system. Reclaiming (recycling) creating wastes. Generate waste minimization options for each waste stream such as: • Changing plant operation and/or procedures by improved house keeping and educating employees about waste reduction Substituting non-toxic production process. Altering final product to eliminate processes that create waste. policies and monitoring systems. 2.2. Material balance can assist in determine concentrations of waste constituents where analytical test data is limited.

production downtime. Introduction • • Give a brief description of company's operations. A suggested format for the Report is given below: a. and team members involved. Conduct preliminary technical and economic assessment of waste minimization options by considering the following factors: Technical factors: * * * * * * * * * * Product quality Safety/occupational health Production constraints/flexibility Space requirements Installation time. they should be dated. documented and filed for future reference. Mention environmental and/or other related issues that provide the basis for the audit. Intangible or qualitative benefits such as improvement in corporate image and. Expertise/skill level required for operation and maintenance. net present value (discounted cash flow) and return on investment. Preparation of Report When all the information and findings are collected.b. dates when audit was conducted. Reliability Commercial availability proven performance in a similar application Regulatory constraints. * 2. Scope of Audit 6 . The final product of a waste audit is a report that presents the results of the audit and recommendations of waste minimization options. reduction of risk and liability associated with the avoidance of penalties for non-compliance and cost of workers compensation. b. Economic factors * * * * Capital cost Operating cost Potential savings Profitability requirement using methods like payback period.7.

facility layout and surrounding land uses. storage and handling of raw materials. FURTHER INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE FROM: ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND SAFETY SECTION ¤ 2064244/ 2064245 FAX: 2270160 7 . Evaluate impact of the plant on the local environment. Evaluation of Audit • • • • Provide technical and economic assessment of identified waste minimization options. Results of Audit • • Provide both qualitative and quantitative description of waste streams identified. and spill control. Recommend changes to management policies or practices. waste management methods and practices. Assess compliance with municipal regulations. c.• • Give a brief description of target processes and equipment that are selected including the rationale for the selection. Describe problems in process operation and maintenance. waste discharge points. d. Provide a site plan showing the drainage system.

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