;'lhk|sf btf{ g+= M !

#*÷)^*÷^(

o; c+sdf ===
. jif{ M @, c+s !, @)&) j}zfv .

$

g]kfnL a}s
+ /sf] tna–eQf

!) gfkmf a9\of] hLjg ladfsf]
sf] crf/
# csa/]
cd]l/sf / a]nfotdf
r'lnFbf] Jofkf/ 3f6f
(

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l/S;fsf]
ljsNk
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#)

s] xf]
j]a;fO6 <

k"js
{ f] Psdfq rf6{/
PsfpG6 sn]h
…;dGjo ;ldltn] ljBfnonfO{ $)
Psfsf/ u/]sf] 5Ú

#%

@&
SofG;/sf lh1f;f
k':tsdf

$&

#$
u'0f:t/ k|df0fljg}
l;d]G6

;'grfFbL Joj;fo a9\bf]
j};fv @)&)

k|x/LnfO{
k|ljlw
cfjZos

%#
1

;DkfbsLo

z}lIfs a]/f]huf/Lsf] 3gTj

lzIfs ;]jf cfof]un] ut df3 dlxgfdf k|sflzt
u/]sf] !# xhf/ %( ljleGg txsf lzIfs egf{;DaGwL
lj1fkgcg';f/ b]zel/af6 sl/a rf/ nfv *) xhf/
hgfn] cfj]bg lbPsf 5g\ . @)%@ ;fnotf klxnf]k6s
!& jif{kl5 ljleGg txsf lzIfssf] :yfoL lgo'lQm ug{
cfof]un] b/vf:t dfu u/]sf] lyof] . b]zsf &% cf]6}
lhNnf lzIff sfof{nodf ;DalGwt lhNnfsf pDd]bjf/n]
cfj]bg ug{;Sg] Joj:yf u/]cg';f/ rf/ nfv &( xhf/
cf7 ;o #% hgfn] b/vf:t lbPsf] cfof]un] ;fj{hflgs
u/]sf] tYofÍdf pNn]v 5 . pQm tYofÍcg';f/ Ps kb
j/fa/ sl/a #& hgf pDd]bj\ f/ x'g cfpF5g\ .
k|flj txsf ;ft
xhf/ gf} ;o *) kbsf
nflu b'O{ nfv %@ xhf/
b'O{ ;o ^! hgfn]
cfj]bg lbPsf 5g\ .
h;df Ps kb a/fa/
#@ hgfs]f k|lt:kwf{
xFb' 5} . lgdfljsf nflu
b'O{ xhf/ ;ft ;o (#
kbdf Ps nfv ^^
xhf/ kfFr ;o %* hgf
/ dflj txsf b'O{ xhf/
b'O{ ;o *^ kbdf ^!
xhf/ #$ hgfn] cfj]bg
lbPsf 5g\ . lgdfljdf
Ps kb a/fa/ ^! hgf
/ dfljdf Ps kb a/fa/ @& hgfsf] k|ltikwf{ x'g] cj:yf 5 .
of] ;+Vofn] b]zdf lzlIft a]/f]huf/x?sf] ;+Vof slt
5 eGg] k|i6\ofPsf]] 5 . ljut @) jif{ cl3b]lv g} b]zdf
/f]huf/L gkfPsf] eGb} lzlIft hgzlQmx? ljb]lzg yfn]sf
lyP . clxn] vf8L d'ns
' nufot ljleGg b]zdf /f]huf/Lsf
nflu jflif{s tLg nfveGbf a9L hgzlQm uO/x]sf 5g\ eg]
ljb]zdf @) nfveGbf a9Ln] /f]huf/L u/L /x]sf] tYofÍ
a]nf–a]nfdf ;fj{hflgs x'bF } cfPsf] 5 . olb t];f| ] d'ns
' df
/f]huf/Lsf] cj:yf lyPg / ;a}n] :jb]zd} lge{/ x'gk' b{Yof]
eg] s] x'GYof] xf]nf sNkgf;Dd ug{ d'l:sn kb{5 .
b'O{ dlxgfcl3 v'ns
] f] lzIfssf] lj1fkgdf dfq x}g

To;cl3 v'ns
] f] g]kfn k|x/L / ;z:q k|x/Lsf] lj1fkgdf
;d]t Ps kb a/fa/ %) hgf;Ddsf] cfj]bg k/]sf] lyof] .
Ps xKtfcl3 dfq ;lsPsf] ;z:q k|x/Lsf] kl/r/b]lv
k|fljlws / ck|fljlws clws[t kbsf nflu v'nfOPsf] lj1fkgdf
cfj]bg lbg]sf] ;+Vof klg sd lyPg . b]zdf k/Dk/fut
/f]huf/Lafx]s gofF /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/ l;h{gfdf ;/sf/sf]
e"ldsf z"Go a/fa/ g} 5 . Jojxfl/s lzIffsf] gLlt ag]sf]
5}g . Jojxfl/s / k|fljlws lzIffsf] cefjn] :gftf]sf]Q/
u/]sf lzlIft hgzlQm;d]t sf]l/of tyf vf8L /fi6«;Dd k'u/]
;fdfGo dhb'/L ug{ ljjz 5g\ . lsgls pgLx?n] kfPsf]
lzIffn] of]Uotfcg';f/sf] sfd kfpg ;Sb}g . b]zdf ePsf
pBf]u–wGbfx? qmdzM
aGb eO/x]sf 5g\ .
pBf]unfO{ k|a4{g ug]{
;/sf/L gLlt gx' F b f
dfl;s *÷!) xhf/
?k}ofF kfl/>ldsdf sfd
ug{ ;ft ;d'Gb| kfl/
k'Ug'kg]{ afWotf 5 . olb
;/sf/n] k/Dk/fut
lzIff k|0ffnLsf] ;§f
Jojxfl/s lzIffdf hf]8
lbg] xf] / b]zdf g}
/f] h uf/L
cyjf
:j/f]huf/Lsf] jftfj/0f
agfpg] xf] eg] pRr
lzIff lnP/ klg a]/f]huf/
a:g'kg]{ / ;fdfGo dhb'/Lsf] nflu ljb]z hfg'kg]{ afWotfdf
sdL cfpg] cfzf ug{ ;lsG5 t/ of] l5g–l5gdf eOxfNg]
kl/jt{g eg] cfjZos 5}g . clxn]bl] v g} Tof] lsl;dsf]
gLlt agfP/ sfof{Gjog ug]{ xf] eg] sd;]sd clxn] k|fylds
tx cWoog/t k':tfx?n] xfnsf k':tfsf] h:tf] lgolt
ef]Ug' kb}g{ lyof] ls .
;fKtflxs?kdf k|sflzt x'Fb} cfPsf] of] klqsf o;} c+sb]lv
dfl;s?kdf k|sflzt ug{ yflnPsf] cfb/0fLo kf7s tyf
lj1fkgbftf dxfg'efjx?df hfgsf/L u/fOG5 .
– ;Dkfbs

;Dkfbs÷k|sfzs M s[i0f e§/fO{
;u/dfyf c~rn k|ltlglw M /fhg k/fh'nL, d]rL c~rn k|ltlglw M hLcf/ af:sf]6f,
;fh;Hhf÷tl:a/ M gjLg u8\tf}nf
7]ufgf M O6x/L–%, ;'g;/L, kmf]g M )@%–%*@^!*, (*%@)%%&)%, zfvf sfof{no M lj/f6gu/, a/uf5L
E-mail : arthabeat@gmail.com, j]e M www.arthabeat.com.np, O–k]k/ M k|sfz OGkmf]l;;, lj/f6gu/
d'b|0f M c/lgsf] ckm;]6 k|;] , lj/f6gu/
2

j};fv @)&)

lgof{t

csa/] v';f{gLsf] crf/

a]nfot / cd]l/sfdf
tl:a/x? M gjLg

O6x/Ll:yt l/hfn6fF;L OG8l:6«hn] pTkfbg u/]sf] csa/]
v';f{gLsf] crf/ a]nfot / cd]l/sf lgof{t x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 .
pBf]un] pTkfbg u/]sf] 8Nnf lkSsn b'O{ jif{bl] v a]nfot
/ cd]l/sf lgof{t ub}{ cfPsf] pBf]usf k|zf;g k|dv
' v]ngf/fo0f
k/fh'nLn] hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/ klxnf] jif{ yf]/} dfq
lgof{t ePsf]df utjif{ Ps s/f]8 %) nfv ?k}ofF a/fa/sf
$) 6g csa/] v';f{gLaf6 tof/ ul/Psf] 8Nnf lkSsn tL
b]zdf lgof{t ul/Psf] lyof] .
…o; jif{ eg] dfu bf]Aa/ a9]sf] 5 t/ csa/] v';f{gL
kof{Kt vl/b ug{ gkfpFbf pTkfbg a9fpg ;lsPsf] 5}g,Ú k/fh'nLn]
eg] . :yfgLo?kdf csa/] v';f{gLsf] pTkfbg g} sd x'g] u/]sfn]
;d:of 5 . pBf]un] wgs'6f, Onfd / :yfgLo ahf/af6 k|lt
lsnf]uf| d tLg ;ob]lv rf/ ;o %) ?k}ofF;Dddf csa/] vl/b
ug]{ u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
…ls;fgn] hlt pTkfbg u/]klg xfdL vl/b ul/lbG5f}+ t/
pTkfbg g} sd 5 . Jofj;flos?kdf t o;sf] v]tL g} x'g
;s]sf] 5}g,Ú k/fh'nL eG5g\ .
ls;fgaf6 vl/b u/]sf] csa/] v';f{gLsf] e]6\gf r'F8\g]
nufotsf k|zf]wg k|lqmofdf pBf]usf] k|lt lsnf]u|fd ^*
?k}ofF vr{ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . crf/ tof/ x'Fbf;Dd Ps lsnf]u|fd
csa/] v';f{gL a/fa/ Ps hgf dhb'/ nfUb5 . …o; cfwf/df
pBf]un] Ps nfv s]hL csa/] v';f{gLaf6 crf/ tof/ ug]{ xf]
eg] Ps nfv hgf dhb'/n] k|ToIf /f]huf/L kfpF5g\,Ú pBf]usf
k|aGw lgb]z
{ s s]8L zdf{ eG5g\, …k|zf]wgdf olt 7"nf] /f]huf/L
l;h{gf ug]{ csa/] v';f{gLsf] Jofj;flos v]tL x'g ;s] o;af6}
7"nf] ;d'bfon] :j/f]huf/Lsf] cj;/ kfpF5g\ t/ klg o;k|lt
;/sf/ / ls;fgsf] Wofg k'Ug ;s]sf] 5}g .Ú

csa/] pTkfbgsf] nflu k"j{sf kxf8L lhNnf pj{/
e"ld dflgG5g\ . csa/]df cf}ifwLo u'0f;d]t ePsfn] t];|f]
d'n'sdf o;sf] /fd|f] dfu 5 t/ o;sf] Jofj;flos v]tL
ug]t{ km{ ls;fgx?sf] OR5fzlQm a9\g ;s]sf] b]lvFbg} lsgls
Ps s]hL csa/]n] To;sf] d'Vo l;hgdf g} tLg ;o ?k}ofFeGbf
a9L cfDbfgL lbg ;S5 of] a/fa/sf] d"No c? s]df kfpg
;lsG5 < pgsf] egfO 5 .
h]aLP;sf] crf/ klg lgof{tsf] tof/L
O6x/Ll:yt h]aLP; OG8l:6«hn] klg cfk\mgf pTkfbg
cd]l/sf tyf a]nfot lgof{t ug]{ tof/L u/]sf] 5 . pBf]usf
k|aGw lgb]{zs cgGt lai6n] pBf]un] pTkfbg u/]sf csa/]
v';f{gL tyf cGo ljleGg crf/x? lgof{t ug]{ tof/L u/]sf]
hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ . tL b]zsf vfB u'0f:t/ sfof{non]
xfd|f pTkfbgsf gd'gf k/LIf0f u/L of]Uo ePsf] k|df0fkq
lbO;s]sf 5g\ . pBf]un] laqmL k|ltlglw klg lgo'Qm ul/;s]sf]
5 . …ca lgof{t;DaGwL sfg'gL k|lqmof k"/f ug]{ sfd eO/x]sf]
5 . s]xL dlxgfleq} ;a} sfd ;DkGg ul/;Sg] nIo 5 . rfn"
cfly{s jif{df geP klg gofF cfjsf] ;'?jftb]lv g} lgof{t ;'?
x'g]5,Ú lai6n] eg] .
O6x/Ldf ;~rflnt l/hfn 6fF;L / h]aLP; b'j} pBf]u
s[lifdf cfwfl/t pBf]u xg\ . oL pBfun] ljleGg a|f08df sfutL,
;'Gtnfsf] :Sjf;, ;'Gtnf, cfFk, kfOgkn h';, hfd, :nfO;,
6f]df6f] ;;, lrNnL ;;, 6f]df6f] Ko'/L, ljleGg k|sf/sf crf/
OToflb pTkfbg u/]/ laqmL–ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . oL b'j}
pBf]udf u/L em08} rf/ ;o hgfn] k|ToIf /f]huf/L kfPsf 5g\ .

j};fv @)&)

3

cfj/0f

g]kfnL a}s
+ /sf] tna, eQf

n'lDagL a}s
+ n] k|dv
' sfo{sf/L clws[t zf]egb]j kGtnfO{
ut cfly{s jif{ b'O{ s/f]8 $( nfv (( xhf/ ?k}ofF e'QmfgL
lbof] . pgn] jflif{s tna–eQf Ps s/f]8 !^ nfv !) xhf/,
af]g; %& nfv @$ xhf/ tyf cfly{s jif{ @)^&÷)^* sf]
d'gfkmfaf6 k|fT] ;fxg ;'ljwfjfkt &^ nfv ^% xhf/ ?k}ofF k|fKt
u/]sf x'g\ . of] ;a} ;'ljwfnfO{ dfl;s?kdf ljefhg ug]{ xf] eg]
pgsf] dfl;s kfl/>lds @) nfv *# xhf/ ?k}ofF x'g cfpF5 .
;DalGwt a}+sx?n] jflif{s ;fwf/0f;efdf ;fj{hlgs
ug]{ k|ltj]bgcg';f/ g]kfnsf #@ cf]6} jfl0fHo a}+ssf
k|dv
' x?dWo] cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^( df ;a}eGbf a9L a'em\ g]df
pg} b]lvPsf 5g\ . pQm ;'ljwfsf] cltl/Qm pgnfO{ a}+sn]
rfns, OGwg / dd{t ;'ljwf;lxt ;jf/L;fwg, b'36{ gf aLdf,
kqklqsf df]afOn kmf]gnufotsf ;'ljwf lbPsf] hgfPsf] 5 .

g]kfn OGe]i6d]G6 a}+sn] k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t
Hof]tLk|sfz kf08]nfO{ Ps s/f]8 &% nfv #) xhf/ ?k}ofF
tna–eQfjfkt e'QmfgL lbPsf] 5 eg] To;sf cltl/Qm
;jf/L;fwg, rfns, OGwg, P]gcg';f/ af]g;, cf}ifwL pkrf/,
aLdf , kqklqsfnufot cGo ;Demf}tfcg';f/sf] ;'ljwf;d]t
lbPsf] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 t/ Tof] ;'ljwf s] slt xf] eGg]
v'nfPsf] 5}g .
cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^( df k|fOd sdl;{on a}s
+ sfo{sf/L
k|d'vnfO{ a9L ;'ljwf lbg]dWo]sf] t];|f]df k/]sf] 5 . ;f] a}+sn]
sfo{sf/L clws[t gf/fo0fbf; dfgGw/nfO{ Ps s/f]8 &!
nfv ^^ xhf/ e'QmfgL lbPsf] hgfPsf] 5 . pQm /sd cfj
@)^*÷^(sf] tna–eQf / cl3Nnf] jif{sf] af]g;;d]t xf] .
pgn] klg ;jf/L, rfns OGwg, 6] l nkmf] g , aLdf,

s;sf] slt ;]jf–;'ljwf <
zf]egb]j kGt

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
n'lDagL a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tna, eQfM ? ! s/f]8 !^
nfv !) xhf/
sfo{ ;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t kfl/>lds
sd{rf/L af]g;M %& nfv @$ xhf/
cfj @)^&÷)^* sf] d'gfkmfaf6
k|f]T;fxg ;'ljwfM &^ nfv ^% xhf/
cGo ;'ljwfx? M
!= rfns, OGwg tyf dd{t ;Def/;lxt ;jf/L;fwg
@= a}s
+ sf] lgodadf]lhd b'36{ gf aLdf
#= kqklqsf
$= df]afOn ;'ljwf

gf/fo0fbf; dfgGw/

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
k|fOd sdl;{on a}+s g]kfn
tnaM ?= %& nfv ^) xhf/
eQfM ?= #* nfv $) xhf/
b;}eQfM ?= $ nfv *) xhf/
;~rosf]ifM ?= % nfv &^ xhf/
af]g;M ?= ^% nfv !) xhf/
yk ;'ljwf M rfns OGwg / dd{t;Def/;lxt uf8L, a}s
+ sf]
lgodfg';f/ df]afOn lansf] e'QmfgL

4

j};fv @)&)

Hof]ltk|sfz kf08]

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
g]kfn OGe]i6d]G6 a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tna ?= &% nfv ^$ xhf/
eQfM ?=&( nfv @) xhf/
b;}+ vr{ M ?= !@ nfv () xhf/
;~rosf]if M ?= & nfv %^ xhf/
tna tyf eQfafx]s sfo{sf/L k|dvnfO{ lgDgadf]lhdsf
;'ljwfx? k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 .
!=lah' n L÷kfgL÷6] l nkmf] g vr{ lanadf] l hd
dxfk|aGws÷sfo{sf/L k|d'vnfO{ e'Qmfg ug]{ ul/Psf] .
@=dxfk|aGws÷sfo{sf/L k|dv
' nfO{ rfns, OGwg / dd{t
;Def/ ;lxt ;jf/L;fwg pknAw u/fOPsf] tyf cGo
sfo{sf/L kbflwsf/L÷Joj:yfksx?nfO{ dfgj ;+zfwg
gLltdf pNn]v ePadf]lhd ;jf/L shf{÷;'ljwf pknAw
u/fOPsf] 5 .
#= af]g; M af]g; P]g tyf g]kfn /fi6« a}s
+ sf] lgb]z
{ gcg';f/ .
$= pkbfg .
%= b'3{6gf ladf, cf}iflw pkrf/ ladf, hLjg ladf a}+ssf]
sd{rf/L ;]jf ljlgodfjnL tyf dfgj ;+zfwg gLltadf]lhd
k|bfg ul/Psf] .
^= dxfk|aGws÷sfo{sf/L k|d'vnfO{ kqklqsf pknAw
u/fOPsf] .

clgn zfx

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
d]uf a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tnaM ?=! s/f]8 $& nfv
eQfM ?=!@ nfv @% xhf/
OGwgM ?=# nfv #% xhf/
yk ;'ljwf M
dfly pNn]lvt afx]s k|d'v
sfo{sf/L clws[tnfO{ ;]jf s/f/ adf]lhd uf8L ;'ljwf,
rfns, ;'/Iff uf8{, b'36{ gf÷cf}ifwf]krf/ ladf tyf df]afOn
lan vr{ k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . k|aGws txb]lv dflysf cGo
kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ a}s
+ sf] of]hgfcg';f/sf] cfjf; shf{, uf8L
;'ljwf, 6]lnkmf]g vr{ tyf hLjg÷b'3{6gf÷cf}ifwf]krf/
ladfsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .

;'lw/afa' vqL

hf];k] m l;Nefg;

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
:6\of088{ rf6{/ a}s
+
jflif{s tna–eQfM ?= ! s/f]8 %%
nfv $# xhf/
cGo ;'ljwfM ;jf/L;fwg, rfns, OGwg,
cfjf;, ;~rf/nufot ;'ljwf

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
gljn a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tnaM ?=! s/f]8 @) nfv
&% xhf/
;~rosf]ifM ?= !! nfv $) xhf/
cGo ;'ljwfM a}+ssf] gLltcg'?k cGo
yk ;'ljwf

;'dg hf]zL

sdn 1jfnL

czf]s /f0ff

lszf]/ dxh{g

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
nIdL a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tna M ?=! s/f]8 #) nfv
^* xhf/
cGo ;'ljwfM sd{rf/L ;]jf ljlgodfjnL
/ sd{rf/L ;]jf / zt{x? cg';f/ cGo
;'ljwfx?
-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
lxdfnog a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tna–eQfM ?=($nfv $^ xhf/
labf ;'ljwfM ?=$^ nfv %* xhf/
cGo ;'ljwfM ?= # nfv #& xhf/
ladfM #) xhf/
cGo ;'ljwfM ;jf/L;fwg / P]gcg';f/sf] af]g; ;'ljwf
kqklqsfnufotsf yk ;'ljwf kfpF5g\ .
k|lt AolQm cfo jflif{s ^# xhf/ ?k}ofF /x]sf] g]kfndf
of]Uotf / Ifdtf x'gn
] ] pBf]u Jofkf/af6 dfq xf]Og gf]s/Ld}
cfk\mgf] s'zn Joj:yfksLo Ifdtf pkof]u u/]/ jflif{s s/f]8f}+
/sd kfl/>lds / ;'ljwfjfkt cfh{g ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] HjnGt
pbfx/0f x'g\ a}s
+ sf sfo{sf/L k|dv
' x? . h;af6 pgLx?n] /fHonfO{
;d]t jflif{s s/f]8f}+ ?k}ofF cfos/sf] of]ubfg lbO/x]sf 5g\ .

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
u|f08 a}s
+ g]kfn lnld6]8
jflif{s tna M ?=^# nfv ^) xhf/
eQfM ? #! nfv *) xhf/
b;}+ eQfM ?=& nfv (% xhf/
labf eQfM ? & nfv (% xhf/
cGo ;'ljwfM a}+ssf] sd{rf/L ;]jf
ljlgodfjnL, cfly{s k|zf;g;DaGwL ljlgodfjnL tyf
;~rfns ;ldltn] a]nfa]nfdf lg0f{o u/]adf]lhd
af]g; M af]g; P]gcg';f/

clgn 1jfnL

-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
lsi6 a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tna M (% nfv @) xhf/
b;}+ vr{M * nfv !& xhf/
cf}iflw pkrf/ M & nfv (# xhf/
;~rosf]if M ( nfv %@ xhf/
cGoM ;jf/L;fwg, OGwgnufot
-k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t_
l;len a}s
+ lnld6]8
jflif{s tna M ?= ! s/f]8 $$ xhf/
cGo ;' l jwfM b;} vr{ , af] g ;,
;~rosf]if, ;jf/L ;'ljwf, d]l8sn tyf
b'36{ gf aLdfnufotsf
g]kfnsf #@ jfl0fHo a}s
+ dWo] Ps ltxfOn] k|dv
' sfo{sf/L
clws[tnfO{ dfl;s gf} nfv ?k}ofFeGbf a9L tna–eQf e'QmfgL
lbFb} cfPsf 5g\ . d]uf a}+s, :6\ofG88{ rf6{/ a}+s, l;len a}+s,
gljn a}+s, nIdL a}+s, ls:6 a}+s, lxdfnog a}+s, u|f08
a}+snufotsf a}+s a9L tna–eQf e'QmfgL lbg]df kb{5g\ .
sfo{sf/L k|d'vx?nfO{ ;/sf/L a}+seGbf lghL If]qsf
a}+sx?n] a9L ;'ljwf lbPsf 5g\ .

j};fv @)&)

5

qm=
;
!=

s'df/L a}+s

@=

a}+s ckm Pl;of

#=

l;l6hg a}+s

k|d'v sfo{s f/L
clws[t sf] gfd
/fw]z kGt -cfj
@)^&÷)^*_
pbos[i0f
pkfWofo- xfn
sfd'_
kz'{/fd s'Fj/ If]qL
-@)^*÷)^(_
sfd' nId0f
l/;fn- xfn_
/fhgl;+x e08f/L

$=

PgPdaL a}+s

pk]Gb| kf}8 \ofn

(^ nfv $ xhf/

%=

Unf]jn cfOPdO

/Tg/fh ah|frfo{

*% nfv *^ xhf/

^=
&=

l;4fy{ a}+s
Pg cfO ;L

;'/]G b| e08f/L
;lzg hf]zL

*% nfv ^# xhf/
*$ nfv %! xhf/

*=

a}+s ckm sf7df08' cho >]i7

&& nfv %) xhf/

(=

hgtf a}+s

ljho kGt

!)=

df5fk'R 5||]« a}+s

tnj eQf () nfv
!# xhf/ / uf8L
tyf OGwg %@ nfv
*$ xhf/
*@ nfv ^) xhf/

!!=

Pgl;;L a}+s

efOsfhL >]i7
cf}ifwL pkrf/, aLdf,;jf/L ;fwg, OGwg,
@)^*÷)^(
af]g; P]g cg';f/sf] af]g; ;'ljwf yk
t'n;L/fd uf}td -xfn_
cd[t r/0f >]i 7
&) nfv @) xhf/ - eQf,;jf/L ;fwg, rfns, OGwg,jLdf
@)^^÷)^&_
nufot cGo ;'l jwf

!@=

sd{h P08 6|i 6

cgn/fh e§/fO{

^( nfv %! xhf/

!#=

;]Gr'/L sd{l zon

u0f]z s'd f/ >]i7

!$=

;flgdf a}+s

s'd f/ nD;fn

tnj eQf %& Nffv
&# xhf/ / uf8L
;'l jwf %$ nfv
?k}ofF
^( nfv #@ xhf/

!%=

Pe/]i 6 a}+s

lk s] dfxkfq

^! nfv @* xhf/

6

a}+ssf] gfd

j};fv @)&)

jflif{s tna, eQf

cGo ;'ljwf

! s/f]8 (% nfv
af]g; ;lxt
## nfv ^@ xhf/

;jf/L ;fwg, rfns, OGwg,jLdf,
kqklqsf, 6]lnkmf]g nufot cGo ;'l jwf

! s/f]8 @( nfv #^
xhf/

sfo{;+k fbg k|f]T;fxg eQf, ;jf/L ;fwg,
rfns, OGwg, af]g; nufot cGo
;+e mf}tf cg';f/sf ;'ljwf

(^ nfv ^$ xhf/

af]g; P]g cg';f/sf] yk af]g;, ;jf/L
;fwg, rfns, OGwg, dd{t, kqklqsf
df]jfOn, aLdf, / df]jfOn vr{
;jf/L ;fwg, P]g cg';f/ jf]g; /
;+e mf}tf cg';f/ cGo ;'l jwf
;jf/L ;fwg, rfns, OGwg, af]g;
nufot cGo
cGo ;'l jwf ;+emf}t f cg';f/
;jf/L ;fwg, rfns, OGwg, af]g;
nufot cGo ;+e mf}tf cg';f/
;~rosf]if, cf}i fwf]k rf/, ;jf/L;fwg
;'ljwf, df]jfO{n kmf]gsf] e'Q mfgL ;'ljwf
tyf jf]g; P]g adf]lhdsf] jf]g; O{T ofbL
yk ;'l jwf
rfns,dd{t jLdf / af]g; ;d]t

;jf/L ;fwg,OGwg, rfns, df] jfOn vr{,
aLdf tyf af]g; P]g cg';f/ af]g;
;'ljwf yk
cfjZostf cg';f/ OGwg vr{, aLdf,
af]g;,cf}ifwL pkrf/,;Grf/,kqklqsf
nufot ;'ljwf
rfns, Ogwg ;lxt ;jf/L ;fwg, af] g;,
jLdf nufot ;+emf}tf cg';f/sf ;'ljwf
3/ ef8f, jQL,kfgL, 6]l nkmf]g,;jf/L
;fwg, OGwg, dd{t,rfns nufotsf
;'ljwf

!^=

g]k fn a+unfb]z

!&=

g]k fn P;ljcfO

!*=

s[lif ljsf; a}+s

&( nfv !^ xhf/
#! nfv @( xhf/

;jf/L ;fwg, OGwg, 6]lnkmf]g,jLdf
nufotsf yk ;'l jwf

tnj eQf P;ljcfO
ef/tn] j]x f]{g]

t]haxfb'/
a'9fyf]sL

jflif{s tnj, a}+s
lbj; / bz}=eQf
;lxt !* nfv @)
xhf/

cfjf;,cf}i fwL pkrf/ jfkt jflif{s $@
nfv ^( xhf/, ;jf/L ;fwg nufotsf
;'ljwf
;jf/L ;fwg, OGwg, rfns ;lxt,cfjf;,
Ps nfOg 6]l nkmf]g, Psyfg df]jfOn /
3/df sfd ug]{ Ps hgf sfdbf/ ;'l jwf

;|f]tM ;DalGwt a}+ssf jflif{s k|ltj]bgx?

c
c

xflb{s z'esfdgf

K

K

Uff]ljGbjfj' ltjf/L
@)^&÷)^* ;Dd
1fg]Gb|k|;fb 9'+ufgf
-xfn_
k|jGw ;Grfns
cfnf]s s'df/ zdf{

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf ;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs tyf
z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub5f}+ .

z}lIfs jif{ @)&) sf nflu o; ljBfnodf g;{/Lb]lv sIff ( ;Dd gofF egf{ v'ns] f] hfgsf/L u/fOG5 .
;dod} ljBfnodf ;Dks{ u/L cfk\mgf gfgLx?nfO{ egf{ ul/lbg'xg' cleefjsHo"x?df xflb{s cg'/f]w 5 .

dsfn' ;]s0] 8/L af]l8{ª\ :s"n

O6x/L–%, ;'g;/L, ;Dks{ g+=+ (*%@)$**((

xflb{s z'esfdgf

K

K

lk|lG;kn

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf ;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs tyf
z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub5f}+ .
u'0f/fh g]kfn
-lk|lG;kn_

pdf 9sfn
-k|aGw lgb]z{ s_

kz'klt ;]sG\] 8/L Oª\ln; af]l8{ª :s'n
O6x/L–@, ;'g;/L

j};fv @)&)

7

tLg jif{cl3 lgIf]k
36]/ shf{ k|jfx cToflws
a9]kl5 t/ntf cefj eO{
;+s6df k/]sf] ljQLo If]qdf
utjif{ s]xL ;'wf/ ePsf]
lyof] . t/ntfdf ;'wf/ x'g
yfn]kl5 shf{ nufgL ;'?
u/] s f a} + s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?df o; jif{ k'gM
t/ntf ;d:of b]lvg] ;+st]
a9]sf] 5 .
g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn]
;fj{hlgs u/]sf] cfly{s jif{
@)^(÷&) sf] df3
d l x g f ; D d s f ]
k|ltj]bgcg';f/ cfly{s jif{
@)^(÷&) sf] ;ft dlxgfsf] cjlwdf a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?sf] lgIf]k kl/rfng $=* k|ltzt -?= $* ca{ ^(
s/f]8_ n] dfq a9]sf] 5 . cl3NNff] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf lgIf]k
kl/rfng !)=( k|ltzt -?= *( ca{ (^ s/f]8_ n] a9]sf]
lyof] . ;dLIff cjlwdf jfl0fHo a}+s, ljsf; a}+s / ljQ
sDkgLx?sf] lgIf]k kl/rfng qmdzM #=* k|ltzt, ^=( k|ltzt
/ %=& k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf
jfl0fHo a}s
+ , ljsf; a}s
+ / ljQ sDkgLx?sf] lgIf]k kl/rfng
qmdzM !@=) k|ltzt, !@=& k|ltzt / !=$ k|ltztn] a9]sf]
lyof] . jflif{s laGb"ut cfwf/df eg] a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf]
lgIf]k kl/rfng !^=! k|ltzt -?= !$& ca{ #@ s/f]8_ n] j[l4
eO{ @)^( df3 d;fGtdf ?= !)^) ca{ %@ s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 .
;dLIff cjlwdf a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] shf{ tyf
nufgL eg] !@=) k|ltzt -?= !!% ca{ *( s/f]8_ n] a9]sf] 5 .
cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] shf{ tyf nufgL &=# k|ltzt
-?= ^@ ca{ #! s/f]8_n] dfq a9]sf] lyof] . jflif{s laGb"ut cfwf/df
a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] shf{ tyf nufgL !*=! k|ltzt -?=
!^^ ca{ #& s/f]8_ n] j[l4 eO{ @)^( df3 d;fGtdf ?= !)*# ca{
%% s/f]8 k'us
] f] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6
lghL If]qdf k|jflxt shf{ !#=@ k|ltzt -?= !)@ ca{ &^ s/f]8_ n]
a9]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] shf{ %=! k|ltzt ?= #% ca{ $! s/f]8_ n] dfq a9]sf] lyof] .
;dLIff cjlwdf jfl0fHo a}+s, ljsf; a}+s / ljQ
sDkgLx?sf] shf{ tyf nufgL qmdzM !!=$ k|ltzt, &=#
k|ltzt / ^=* k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 . lghL If]qtkm{ k|jflxt
shf{dWo] jfl0fHo a}s
+ x?sf] shf{ k|jfx !#=) k|ltztn], ljsf;
a}+sx?sf] !#=^ k|ltztn] / ljQ sDkgLx?sf] !#=( k|ltztn]
a9]sf] 5 . a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 lghL If]qdf k|jflxt
shf{ jflif{s laGb"ut cfwf/df @)=( k|ltzt -?= !%@ ca{
@@ s/f]8_ n] j[l4 eO{ @)^( df3 d;fGtdf ?= **@ ca{ b'O{
s/f]8 k'u]sf] /fi6« a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 .
8

j};fv @)&)

s[lif / cf}Bf]lus shf{ a9\of]
;dLIff cjlwdf a}s
+
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx¿af6
k|jflxt shf{dWo] cf}Bf]lus
pTkfbg If]qtkm{sf] shf{ ?=
@# ca{ ^* s/f]8n] a9]sf]
5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL
cjlwdf pQm If]qtkm{sf] shf{
?= !$ ca{ !* s/f]8n] dfq
a9]sf] lyof] . To;}u/L, cl3Nnf]
jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlw;Dddf s[lif
If]qtkm{sf] shf{ ?= % ca{ #%
s/f]8n] a9]sf] t'ngfdf ;dLIff
cjlwdf ?= * ca{ @& s/f]8n]
a9]sf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf
– g]kfn /fi6« a}+s lgdf{0f If]qtkm{sf] shf{ ?= ^
ca{ @# s/f]8n] a9]sf] 5 eg] yf]s tyf v'bf| Jofkf/tkm{sf] shf{ ?= @@
ca{ (@ s/f]8n] / oftfoft, ;~rf/ tyf ;fj{hlgs ;]jf If]qtkm{sf]
shf{ ?= $ ca{ *! s/f]8n] a9]sf] 5 .
cGt/–a}+s sf/f]af/
cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷&) sf] ;ft dlxgf;Dddf jfl0fHo a}s
+ x?n]
?= @%( ca{ !! s/f]8 / cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx¿ -ljsf; a}s
+ / ljQ
sDkgLx?_ n] ?= *# ca{ $! s/f]8 a/fa/sf] cGt/–a}s
+ sf/f]af/
u/]sf 5g\ . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf jfl0fHo a}s
+ x? / cGo
ljQLo ;+:yfx¿n] qmdzM ?= !!@ ca{ $! s/f]8 / ?= !)! ca{ @^
s/f]8 a/fa/sf] o:tf] sf/f]af/ u/]sf lyP . ;dLIff cjlwdf ?= #
ca{ #( s/f]8sf] :yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwf pkof]u ePsf] /fi6« a}s
+ n]
hgfPsf] 5 . cl3NNff] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf ?= $ ca{ @( s/f]8sf]
:yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwf pkof]u ePsf] lyof] .
ljb]zL d'bf| Aoj:yfkg
;dLIff cjlwdf /fi6« a}+sn] ljb]zL ljlgdo ahf/
-jfl0fHo a}s
+ x¿_ af6 cd]l/sL 8n/ ! ca{ $! s/f]8 v'b vl/b
u/L ?= !@@ ca{ %$ s/f]8 a/fa/sf] v'b t/ntf k|jfx u/]sf]]
hgfPsf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf cd]l/sL 8n/ !
ca{ *! s/f]8 v'b vl/b u/L ?= !$! ca{ @^ s/f]8sf]] t/ntf
k|jfx u/]sf] lyof] . /fi6« a}s
+ sf cg';f/ ;dLIff cjlwdf ! ca{
^^ s/f]8 cd]l/sL 8n/ laqmL u/L ?= !$$ ca{ #( s/f]8
a/fa/sf] ef?= vl/b ul/Psf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf
! ca{ ^@ s/f]8 cd]l/sL 8n/ laqmL u/L ?= !@^ ca{ %&
s/f]8 a/fa/sf] ef?= vl/b ul/Psf] lyof] .
;l~rt d'b|f 36\of]
;dLIff cjlwdf ;l~rt d'bf| !$=^ k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 .
cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] d'bf| !$=) k|ltztn] a9]sf]
lyof] . ;dLIff cjlwdf g]kfn /fi6« a}s
+ sf] ;/sf/ dflysf] v'b bfjL
36]sf] / v'b j}bl] zs ;DklQdf ;d]t s]xL x|f; cfPsfn] ;l~rt
d'bf| df sdL cfPsf] / jflif{s laGb"ut cfwf/df eg] @)^( df3
d;fGtdf ;f] d'bf| @=@ k|ltztn] a9]sf] /fi6« a}s
+ sf] egfO 5 .

cy{tGq

g]kfnsf] j}b]lzs Aofkf/3f6f r'lnFbf]
df3;Ddsf] 3f6f b'O{ ;o &! ca{ @# s/f]8
rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] df3 d;fGt;Dd g]kfnsf] j}b]lzs
Jofkf/ 3f6f @&=& k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ?= @&! ca{ @# s/f]8
k'u]sf] 5 . df3 d;fGt;Ddsf] cjlwdf g]kfnaf6 ef/t tyf
t];|f] d'n'sdf ?= $$ ca{ (* s/f]8sf] j:t' lgof{t ePsf]df
ef/t tyf t];|f] d'n'saf6 eg] ?= #!^ ca{ @! s/f]8 d"No
a/fa/sf a:t' cfot ePsf 5g\ . cfot / lgof{tsf] t'ngf
ubf{ ?=@&! ca{ @# s/f]8sf] j:t' cfot a9L ePsf] xf] .
cl3Nnf] jif{sf] j[l4b/sf] t'ngfdf Jofkf/ 3f6f %&
k|ltztn] a9]sf] xf] . g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf cg';f/ cl3Nnf]
jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] 3f6f !&=^ k|ltztn] dfq a9]sf]]
lyof] . s'n j:t' Jofkf/ 3f6fdWo] ef/t;F+usf] 3f6f ;dLIff
cjlwdf #)=* k|ltztsf] pRr b/n] j[l4 ePsf]] 5 . cl3Nnf]
jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf ef/t;Fusf] o:tf] 3f6f !!=# k|ltztn]
dfq a9]sf]] lyof] . To:t}, cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf #!=!
k|ltztn] a9]sf] cGo d'ns
' ;Fusf] Jofkf/ 3f6f ;dLIff cjlwdf
@@=! k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 .
cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷&) sf] ;ft dlxgf;Dddf s'n j:t'
lgof{t %=^ k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ?= $$ ca{ (* s/f]8 k'u]sf]
5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] lgof{t !#=$ k|ltztn]
j[l4 eO{ ?= $@ ca{ %( s/f]8 k'u]sf] lyof] . s'n j:t'
lgof{tdWo] ef/ttk{msf] lgof{t cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;ft dlxgf;Ddsf]
!# k|ltzt j[l4sf]] t'ngfdf ;dLIff cjlwdf @=( k|ltztn]
dfq a9]sf] 5 . To:t}, cGo d'n'stk{msf] lgof{t cl3Nnf]
jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf !$=# k|ltztn] a9]sf] t'ngfdf ;dLIff

cjlwdf !! k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 . cd]l/sL 8n/df cGo
d'n'stkm{sf] j:t' lgof{t cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf ^=%
k|ltzt j[l4sf] ljk/Lt ;dLIff cjlwdf )=& k|ltztn] x|f;
eO{ cd]l/sL 8n/ !* s/f]8 #( nfv k'u]sf] 5 . ef/ttk{m
d'VotofM hLcfO{ kfOk, h'6sf] af]/f, tf/, cb'jf / cn}+rLsf]
lgof{t a9]sf]] 5 eg] cGo d'n'stk{m bfn, 5fnf / tof/L
5fnfsf j:t'sf] lgof{tdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 .
;dLIff cjlwdf s'n j:t' cfoft @$ k|ltztn] a9]/ ?=
#!^ ca{ @! s/f]8 k'us
] f] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf]
cfoft !^=( k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ?= @%$ ca{ (% s/f]8 k'us
] f]
lyof] . ef/t tyf cGo d'ns
' b'jt} km{sf] cfoftsf] j[l4b/ pRr
/x]sf] sf/0f s'n j:t' cfoftsf] j[l4b/ cl3Nnf] jif{sf] t'ngfdf
;dLIff cjlwdf pRr /xg uPsf] g]kfn /fi6« a}s
+ sf] egfO 5 .
s'n cfoftdWo] ef/taf6 ePsf] cfoft cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
;f]xL cjlwsf] !!=^ k|ltzt j[l4sf] t'ngfdf ;dLIff cjlwdf
@^=! k|ltztsf] pRr b/n] a9]sf] 5 . To;}u/L, cGo d'ns
' af6
ePsf] cfoft cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] @*=! k|ltzt
j[l4sf] t'ngfdf ;dLIff cjlwdf @)=# k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 .
ef/taf6 d'VotofM k]6f" l] nod kbfy{, ;jf/L;fwg tyf kf6{kh
" f{,
rfdn, l;d]G6 / PdP; ljn]6nufotsf] cfoft a9]sf] sf/0f
To;tkm{sf] cfoft pRr b/n] a9]sf] xf] . cGo d'n'saf6
ljz]ifu/L tof/L kf];fs, kfOk tyf kfOk lkml6ª, b'/;~rf/sf
pks/0f, ;'g / PdP; jfo/ /8nufotsf]] cfoft a9]sf]
sf/0f To;tkm{sf] cfoft a9]sf] /fi6« a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

9

ladf ahf/

hLjg aLdf sDkgLdf vr{ s6f}tLsf] k|efj

5 dlxgfsf] gfkmf Ps ;o
@( k|ltzt a9\of]
g]kfnsf hLjg ladf sDkgLx?sf] vr{df lgofds lgsfo
ladf ;ldltn] c+s'z nufP;Fu} sDkgLx?sf] gfkmf kl5Nnf] 5
dlxgfdf Ps ;o @( k|ltztn] a9]sf]] 5 .
ut c;f/ d;fGt;Dd :jtGq?kdf Joj;fo k|a4{g
vr{ ub}{ cfPsf hLjg ladf sDkgLx?nfO{ ;fpg ! ut]b]lv
klxnf] ladf z'Nssf] ^ k|ltzteGbf a9L To:tf] vr{ ug{
gkfpg] u/L ;ldltn] c+s'z nufPsf] lyof] . vr{ c+s'z;Fu}
ladf ;ldltn] 5 k|ltzteGbf a9L vr{ u/]df sfaf{xL ul/g]
r]tfjgL;lxtsf] kq k7fP/ s8f lgb]{zg lbPsf] lyof] .
vr{ c+s'z nfu]kl5sf] 5 dlxgf cjlwsf] ladf
sDkgLx?sf] sf/f]af/af6 sDkgLx?sf] gfkmfdf bf]Aa/eGbf a9Ln]
j[l4 ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . sDkgLx?n] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf]
n] v fk/LIf0f gul/Psf] ljQLo
ljj/0fcg';f/ ut ;fpgb]lv k';
d;fGt;Ddsf] cjlwdf ladf
sDkgLx?n] cl3Nnf] jif{ s f] ;f]
cjlwsf] gfkmfsf] t'ngfdf Ps ;o
@( k|ltztn] a9L gfkmf sdfPsf
x'g\ .
g]kfndf ;~rflnt Ps ;/sf/L
/ b'O{ cf]6f ljb]zL;lxt gf} cf]6f hLjg
ladf sDkgLdWo] ;ft cf]6fsf] ljQLo
ljj/0f cy{lj6nfO{ k|fKt ePsf] 5 .
;/sf/L :jfldTjsf] /fli6«o ladf
;+:yfg tyf cd]/Lsg d]6fnfOkm -Plnsf]_n] ljQLo ljj/0f
;fj{hlgs ul/;s]sf 5}gg\ . g]kfn nfOkm OG:of]/]G; sDkgL,
g]zgn nfOkm OG:of]/G] ;, nfOkm OG:of]/G] ; skf]/{ z
] g, Plzog
nfOkm, k|fOd nfOkm, u'/fF; nfOkm / ;"of{ nfOkm u/L ;ft
cf]6f sDkgLsf] k|fKt ljQLo ljj/0fcg';f/ rfn' cfly{s jif{sf]
k'; d;fG;Dd tL sDkgLx?sf] v'b gfkmf @! s/f]8 !% nfv
$* xhf/ ?k}ofF /x]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf tL
sDkgLx?sf] v'b d'gfkmf gf} s/f]8 @$ nfv !# xhf/ ?k}ofFdfq
lyof] . sDkgLx?n] ub}{ cfPsf] clgolGqt vr{ lgoGq0f u/]sf
sf/0fn] g} hLjg ladf sDkgLx?sf] gfkmf a9]sf] ladf ;ldltsf
sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs ljgf]b cof{nsf] bfjL 5 . pgn] eg] ut
cfly{s jif{;Dd klxnf] jif{sf] ladf z'Nssf] (@ k|ltzt;Dd
10

j};fv @)&)

s]xL ladf sDkgLx?n] vr{ u/]sf lyP . h;sf sf/0f ladf
sDkgLx?sf] ljQLo cj:yf sdhf]/ x'g] vt/f a9]/ uPsf]
lyof] . ladf ;ldltn] sDkgL / laldts} lxtsf nflu of]
sbd rfn]sf] lyof] .
pgsf cg';f/ o; jif{ rfFxL tf]lsPsf] ;Ldf leqdfq}
vr{ u/]sf 5g\ eGg] s'/fdf ;ldlt ljZj:t /x]sf] 5 . h'g
rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] ^ dlxgfsf] v'b gfkmfsf] j[l4n] klg k'li6
u/]sf] 5 xfdLn] lgoldt cg'udg ul//x]sf 5f} clxn];Ddsf]
cg'udgn] sDkgLx?n] lgofds lgsfosf] lgb]z
{ g kfng u/]sf]
b]lvPsf] 5, cof{n eG5g\ .
ladf ;ldltn] tf]ss
] f] vr{sf] bfo/fdf ladf sDkgLnfO{
Nofpg ;Sbf jflif{s @^ s/f]8 ?k}ofF vr{ aRg] / pQm /sd
ladf sf]ifdf yk x'g] ePsfn] laldtn]
kfpg] af] g ; klg a9\ g ] cof{ n
atfpF5g\ .
;f] cjlwdf hLjg ladf
sDkgLx?n] cfDbfgL @( s/f]8 @)
nfv !# xhf/ ?k}ofF / vr{ * s/f]8
rf/ nfv ^% xhf/ ?k}ofF u/]sf 5g\ .
ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf
sDkgLx?sf] cfDbfgL !( s/f]8 @&
nfv rf/ xhf/ / vr{ !# s/f]8 $#
nfv @& xhf/ /x]sf] lyof] . vr{ kfFr
s/f]8 #* nfv ^@ xhf/ ?k}ofF cyf{t\
^& k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 eg] cfDbfgL gf} s/f]8 (# nfv gf}
xhf/ ?k}ofF cyf{t %@ k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 . ljQLo ljj/0fcg';f/
;f] cjlwdf ;a}eGbf a9L gfkmf g]kfn nfOkm OG:of]/G] ; sDkgLn]
sdfPsf] 5 . ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;fpgb]lv k';;Dd Ps s/f]8
@# nfv $) xhf/ v'b gfkmf sdfPsf] ;f] sDkgLn] rfn'
cfjsf] ;f] cjlwdf em08} 5 ;o k|ltzt a9L cf7 s/f]8 b'O{
nfv !* xhf/ ?k}ofF v'b gfkmf sdfpg ;kmn ePsf] 5 .
g]zgn nfOkm OG:of]/]G;n] ut cfjsf] ;f] cjlwdf *$ nfv
gf} xhf/dfq v'b d'gfkmf sdfPsf]df o; jif{ em08} tLg ;o
%) k|ltzt a9L cyf{t\ rf/ s/f]8 @! nfv &) xhf/ ?k}ofF
sdfPsf] 5 . ut cfjsf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfdf *^ nfv &*
xhf/ gf]S;fgL Joxf]/]sf] Plzog nfOkm OG:of]/]G;n] o; jif{

;f]xL cjlwdf pQm 3f6f k"lt{ u/]/ Ps s/f]8 %& nfv *^ ?k}ofF v'b gfkmf sdfPsf] 5 . o; cjlwdf k|fOd nfOkm
xhf/ v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g ug{ ;s]sf] 5 eg] ut cfjsf] bf];|f] OG:of]/G] ;n] klg cfk\mgf] gfkmf pNn]Vo a9fPsf] 5\ . t/ sf/f]af/}
q}df;df Ps s/f]8 @^ nfv *) xhf/ 3f6f Joxf]/]sf] nfOkm 36]sf sf/0f ;"of{ / u'/fF; nfOkm OG:of]/]G; sDkgLsf] v'b
OG:of]/]G; skf]{/]zgn] o; jif{ b'O{ s/f]8 #% nfv ## xhf/ gfkmf eg] s]xL 36]sf] 5 .
hLjg ladf sDkgLx?sf] ut jif{ / o; jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfsf]
cfDbfgL, vr{ / v'b d'gfkmfsf] t'ngfTds ljj/0f
hLjg ladf sDkgL
cfj @)^(÷)&)
cfj @)^*÷)^(
g]zgn nfOkm OG:of]/G] ;
cfDbfgL M %!,*(# xhf/
!%,^#@ xhf/
vr{ M (&@# xhf/
&@@@ xhf/
v'b gfkmf M $@,!&) xhf/
*$)( xhf/
g]kfn nfOkm OG:of]/G] ;
cfDbfgL M !)#,^#* xhf/
$#,!*# xhf/
vr{ M @#,$@) xhf/
#),*$# xhf/
v'b gfkmf M *),@!* xhf/
!@#$) xhf/
nfOkm OG:of]/G] ; skf]/{ z
] g
cfDbfgL M #%)(( xhf/
!!$!(xhf/
vr{ M !!%^^ xhf/
@$)(* xhf/
v'b gfkmf M @#%## xhf/
3f6f M !@^*) xhf/
Plzog nfOkm OG:of]/G] ;
cfDbfgL @^(^# xhf/
@^(!& xhf/
vr{ !!!&^ xhf/
#%%(% xhf/
v'b gfkmf M !%&*& xhf/
3f6f M *^&* xhf/
k|fOd nfOkm OG:of]/G] ;
cfDbfgL M #^!&^ xhf/
@(!*! xhf/
vr{ M !!*!$xhf/
!!#)! xhf/
v'b gfkmf M @$#^@ xhf/
!&**) xhf/
u'/fF; nfOkm OG:of]/]G;
cfDbfgL M !($&@ xhf/
@$)%@ xhf/
vr{ M %$!$ xhf/
(&$& xhf/
v'b gfkmf M !$)%& xhf/
!$#)^ xhf/
;"of{ nfOkm OG:of]/G] ;
cfDbfgL M !*&&@ xhf/
$@#@) xhf/
vr{ M &#%@ xhf/
!%%@! xhf/
v'b gfkmf M !!$@! xhf/
@^&(( xhf/

!

xflb{s z'esfdgf Pl;og nfOkmsf] nfef+; /
xsk|b ;]o/

gof“ jif{ @)&) ;fnsf]
cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ u|fxsju{
tyf z'elrGtsx?df
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

cfw'lgs tyf cfsif{s uxgf lgdf{0fsf ;fy}
;'grfFbL;DaGwL cGo ;a} sf/f]af/sf nflu ;Demg'xf];\ .

!

k|f=] uf]kfn >]i7

Go" cf]d afaf Hj]n;{
Og?jf–!, ;'g;/L
kmf]g M )@%–%^)^#$

P l z o g
nfOkm OG:of] / ] G ;
sDkgLn] cfk\ m gf
z]o/wgLx?nfO{ kfFr
k|ltzt xsk|b z]o/ laqmL ug]{ ePsf] 5 . sDkgLn] 5}7f}+ jif{
k|jz
] sf] cj;/df pQm hfgsf/L lbPsf] xf] . o;cl3 sDkgLn]
* bzdnj @( k|ltzt af]g; z]o/ tyf z"Go bzdnj $$
k|ltzt gub nfef+z ljt/0f u/]sf lyof] . sDkgLn] ut jif{
@& k|ltzt af]g; z]o/ / Ps bzdnj $@ k|ltzt gub
nfef+; lbPsf] lyof] .
sDkgLn] 5}7f}+ jif{ k|j]z;Fu} hLjg /Tg ladf of]hgf
NofPsf] 5 eg] x/]s jif{ gofF hLjg ladf of]hgf k|:t't ug]{
hfgsf/L lbOPsf] 5 . eljiodf ;+o'Qm ;jf{lws, ;Lldt
e'QmfgL ;fjf{lwsh:tf hLjg ladf of]hgf Nofpg] tof/L
u/]sf] atfPsf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

11

;jf/L b'3{6gfdf
d[ T o' ePsL ;' g ;/L
t/x/fsL rGb|s'df/L /fOsf b'O{ 5f]/f–5f]/LnfO{ Plzog nfOkm
OG:of]/]G; sDkgLn] dfl;s z}lIfs vr{ lbg yfn]sf] 5 .
Plzog nfOkmsf] w/fg zfvfaf6 gf} dlxgfcl3 cfk\mgf
5f]/f5f]/L ;bLIff / lghn /fO{sf] !÷! nfv ?k}ofFsf] hLjg
ladf u/fPsL rGb|s'df/Lsf] ut df3 @$ ut] df]6/;fOsn
b'3{6gfdf d[To' ePsf] lyof] .
ladf k|:tfjssf] ?kdf /x]sf cleefjssf] d[To' x'Fbf
ladf ul/Psf afnaflnsfnfO{ aLdfª\s /sdsf] Ps k|ltzt
/sd dfl;s?kdf z}lIfs vr{ pknAw u/fpg] sDkgLsf]
lgodcg';f/ b'j} afnaflnsfnfO{ dfl;s Ps xhf/ ?k}ofFsf
b/n] z}lIfs vr{ k|bfg ug{ yflnPsf] sDkgLsf zfvf k|aGws
r'8fdl0f ;'j]bLn] atfP .
pgsf cg';f/ b'j} afnaflnsfn] pgLx?sf] pd]/ !*
jif{ k"/f gx'Gh]n;Dd lgoldt k|To]s dlxgf !÷! xhf/ ?k}ofF
z}lIfs vr{ kfpg] 5g\ eg] pgLx?sf] ladfjfkt jflif{s?kdf
ltg'k{ g]{ ladf z'Ns klg sDkgLn] ldgfxf ul/lbPsf] 5 . b'j}
afnaflnsfn] pgLx?sf] pd]/ !* jif{ k"/f ePkl5 ladf+s /
Psd'i6 af]g;;d]t k|fKt ug]{ 5g\ . t/x/fdf cfof]lht
sfo{qmddf :yfgLo k|x/L rf}sL OGrfh{ xl/s'df/ k|;fOF /
sfdw]g' b'Uw ljsf; ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf afa'/fd bfxfn
vqLn] d[tssf cfkmGtnfO{ afnaflnsfsf] z}lIfs ;'ljwfsf]
r]s x:tfGt/0f u/]sf lyP .

g]kfn nfOkmn] Ps ;o @^
k| l tzt nfef+z lbg]

g]kfn nfOkmOG:of]/G] ; sDkgLn] cfk\mgf
;]o/wgLnfO{ Ps ;o @^ k|ltzteGbf a9L nfef+z
lbg] ePsf] 5 .
@)%* ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] g]kfn nfOkm
OG:of]/G] ; sDkgLn] cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^( sf]
d'gfkmf tyf ljleGg jif{sf ladf+sLo d"Nofª\sgaf6
ePsf] gfkmfaf6 ;]o/wgLx?nfO{ Ps ;o @^ bzdnj
#! k|ltzt nfef+z lbg] ePsf] xf] . sDkgLn] nfef+zdWo] &)
k|ltzt af]g; ;]o/ / %^ bzdnj #! k|ltzt gub nfef+z lbg]
ut df3 clGtd ;ftf a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7saf6 lg0f{o
u/]sf] xf] . g]kfnL aLdfsf] Oltxf;d} ;]o/ wgLnfO{ olt w]/}
nfef+z Ps} k6s lbg] lg0f{o ePsf] of] klxnf] xf] .
pQm lg0f{o sDkgLsf] cfufdL !# cf}+ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 kfl/t
u/fPkl5 sfof{Gjog ug]{ sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 . xfn #& s/f]8
%) nfv r'Qmf k'h
F L /x]sf] g]kfn nfOkmsf] pQm af]g; ;]o/
ljt/0fkl5 ^# s/f]8 &% nfv r'Qmf k'h
F L k'Ug] hgfOPsf] 5 .

12

j};fv @)&)

g]zgn nfOkmn]
@% k|ltzt jf]g; z]o/ lbg]
g]zgn nfOkm OG:of]/]G; sDkgLn] z]o/wgLnfO{ @%
k|ltzt af]g; z]o/ lbg] ePsf] 5 . sDkgLsf] xfn} ;DkGg
@% cf}+ jflif{s ;fw/0f;efn] af]g; z]o/;lxt Ps bzdnj
@% k|ltztsf b/n] gub nfef+; ljt/0f ug]{ k|:tfj;d]t
kfl/t u/]sf] xf] .
sDkgLsf] r'Qmf k'FhL %) s/f]8 k'¥ofpg af]g; z]o/
ljt/0f ug{ nfu]sf] xf] . xfn sDkgLsf] r'Qmf k'FhL $) s/f]8
!) nfv ?k}ofF /x]sf] 5 . af]g; z]o/ ljt/0fkl5 sDkgLsf]
r'Qmf k'FhL %) s/f]8 !# nfv #& xhf/ ?k}ofF k'Ug] sDkgLsf]
;~rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf k|]df /fHonIdL l;+xn] hfgsf/L
lbOg\ . aLdf ;ldltn] ;a} hLjg aLdf sDkgLx?nfO{ @)&)
;fn c;f/ d;fGtleq r'Qmf k'FhL %) s/f]8 k'¥ofpg ut jif{
g} lgb{]zg hf/L u/]sf] lyof] .
sDkgLn] rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] df3;Dddf ! ca{ !#
s/f]8 ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] aLdf z'Ns ;+sng ug{ ;kmn ePsf]
5 . of] ut cl3Nnf] cfjsf]] t'ngfdf @( bzdnj &* k|ltztn]
a9L ePsf] sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 .

!

xflb{s z'esfdgf

gof“ jif{ @)&) ;fnsf]
cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ u|fxsju{
tyf z'elrGtsx?df
z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

b l8«d uf]N8sf] ckf/ ;kmntfkl5 l;Ne/
uf]N8 6«8] ;{ O6x/Ldf u'0f:t/Lo ;'grfFbL
tyf /flzkmn / kTy/x? tof/ ug's
{ f ;fy}
Uof/]G6Lsf ;fy laqmL–ljt/0f ul/G5 .
k|f=] g/]Gb| >]i7

!

Plzog nfOkmaf6
z}lIfs
;'ljwf

b l8«d uf]N8, kmf]g M (*$@)#$%#)
k|f=] s'df/ >]i7

l;Ne/ uf]N8 6«8
] ;{
O6x/L, ;'g;/L

ko{6g

O6x/Ldf cuf{lgs l/;f]6{
O6x/L gu/kflnsf j8f g+= @ / $ sf]
;Ldfdf /x]sf] k'mbf]ª\ uf8]g{ df cuf{lgs len]h
l/;f]6{ ;~rfngdf cfPsf] 5 . wgs'6f /
;'g;/Lsf cu'jf ;dfh;]jL, snfsdL{ tyf
/fhgLlts sfo{stf{x? ;d]tsf] $) nfv ?k}ofF
nufgLdf pQm l/;f]6{ ;~rfngdf cfPsf] xf] .
ljleGg kmnk"mn tyf jg:kltsf] au}r
+ f
/x]sf] sl/a rf/ la3f hUufdf ;~rflnt
l/;f]6{df g]r'/n cf6{ kfs{ Uofn/L / ufO{
tyf a+u/' uf]7, df5f kf]v/L, s'v/' f kmd{;d]t
;~rflnt 5g\ . %) hgf;Dd c6fpg ;Sg]
;]ldgf/ xn;d]t /x]sf] ToxfF cuf{lgs vfgf
/ zfGt jf;sf] ;'ljwf;d]t /x]sf] l/;f]6{
;~rfns 6Lsf/fd r]Dhf]ª\n] atfP . g]kfnL
;]gfsf k"j{ ;xfos /yL s'df/axfb'/ k'mbf]ªs
\ f]
:jfldTjdf /x]sf] km'bf]ª\ au}r
+ fnfO{ wgs'6f
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf k"j{ ;efklt 6Lsf/fd
r]Dhf]ª,\ O6x/Lsf snfsf/ /f]hg /fO{, O6x/Ls}
nIdL y]j,] wgaxfb'/ yfkfdu/nufot @) hgfn] ;]o/ nufgL ;d]t efjL of]hgf /x]sf] cuf{lgs l/;f]{6n] l/;f]{6 k|j]z
u/L lnhdf l/;f]6{ ;~rfng u/]sf x'g\ .
z'Nsjfkt lnPsf] /sd eg] ul/a tyf c;xfo afnaflnsfx?sf]
lghL{j hLjhGt'x?sf] lrl8of kfs{ tyf x]Ny Snasf] nflu vr{ ug]{ atfPsf] 5 .

ho g]kfn xf]6n gofF Joj:yfkgdf
O6x/Lsf] ;a} e Gbf
l8nS; ;'ljwf;lxtsf sf]7f
k'/fgf] ho g]kfn xf]6n gofF
/ ;ft cf] 6 f P6\ o fr
Joj:yfkgsf ;fy cfw'lgs
jfy?d;lxtsf ;fwf/0f
;' l jwf;lxt ;~rfngdf
sf]7f /x]sf] ;~rfns ljgf]b
cfPsf] 5 .
b]jfgn] atfP . ko{6s:t/Lo
g] k fnL sf+ u | ] ; sf
;'ljwf ePsf] pQm xf]6nn]
k'/fgf sfo{stf{ cd/axfb'/
;ft ;o ?k}ofFbl] v Ps xhf/
uf}nLn] @)#$ ;fndf :yfkgf
cf7 ;o;Dddf k|lt/ft sf]7f
u/]sf] ho g]kfn xf]6n clxn]
pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf] 5 .
O6x/Ls} ljgf]b b]jfg;lxtsf]
xf]6ndf 6'/ ck|6] /sf
;d" x n] Joj:yfkg ug{
nflu ;d]t /fd|f] ;'ljwf /x]sf]
yfn]sf] xf] . k'/fgf] ;+/rgfnfO{
pgn] atfP . sf7df8f}+,
kl/jt{g u/L ;~rfngdf
kf]v/fnufotsf :yfgaf6
NofOPsf] xf]6ndf $) nfv
ko{6sx?nfO{ 6'/ Kofs]hdf
?k}ofF nufgL yk ePsf] b]jfgn] hfgsf/L lbP . ko{6s:t/Lo Nofpg] 6'/ ck|6] /x?sf] /fd|f] /f]hfOdf kg]{ u/]sf] ho g]kfn xf]6ndf
;'ljwf ePsf sf]7fx?;lxt :t/Lo vfgfsf kl/sf/, :t/Lo jf; a;]/ ko{6sx?nfO{ wgs'6fsf] lxn], t]xy| d
' sf] ldNs]–
;efxn / af/;d]t /x]sf] xf]6ndf ;ft cf]6f jftfg'sl' nt hnhn]nufotsf If]qdf e|d0f u/fpg] u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

13

xf]6ndf kl/rokq clgjfo{

lj/f6gu/ / O6x/Lsf xf]6ndf af; a:bf ca clgjfo{
kl/rokq rflxg] ePsf] 5 . kl5Nnf s]xL dlxgfotf lj/f6gu/,
O6x/L / cf;kf;sf xf]6ndf ck/fw tyf xTofsf z[+vnf
a9]kl5 af; a:g cfpg] u|fxssf] klxrfgsf] nflu kl/rokq
jf gful/stfsf] k|ltlnlk clgjfo{ /fVg] xf]6n Joj;foL /
:yfgLo k|zf;gn] lg0f{o u/]sf x'g\ .
gful/stf geP kf;kf]6{ jf df]6/;fOsnsf] nfO;]G; eP
klg u|fxsx?n] lbg}kg]{ lgod agfOPsf] xf]6n tyf k]okbfy{ Joj;foL
;+3 df]/ªsf cWoIf jn/fd sf/~hLtn] hfgsf/L lbP . …;'?–;'?df
Joj;foLnfO{ s]xL c;xh xf]nf t/ o;n] sfnfGt/df Joj;foLnfO{
g} kmfObf k'U5,Ú pgn] eg] . xf]6n tyf k]okbfy{ Joj;foL ;+3,
If]qLo xf]6n ;+3, ;fgf tyf d´f}nf xf]6n Joj;foL ;+3 / lhNnf
k|x/L sfof{no df]/ªsf] ;lqmotfdf kfFr a'bF ] cfrf/;+lxtf;d]t hf/L
ul/Psf] 5 . cfrf/;+lxtfdf u|fxssf] kl/ro v'Ng] u/L kl/rokq;lxt
;Dks{ gDa/ /fVg'kg],{ PshgfeGbf a9L u|fxs cfPdf ;a}sf] kl/rokq
/ ;Dks{ gDa/ clgjfo{ /fVg], s'g} klg u|fxsn] >Ldfg\–>LdtL
eg]df oyf;Dej b'js
} f] gfd / ;Dks{ gDa/ pNn]v ug'k{ g],{ s'g}
u|fxsn] ;jf/L;fwg NofPdf To;sf] ;jf/L;fwgsf] gDa/, nfO;]G;
/ hf/L c~rnsf] /]s8{;d]t /fv]/ u|fxs cfP/ a;]sf] ;do /
uPsf] ;do clgjfo{ /fVg'kg]{ pNn]v 5 .
xf]6ndf a;]/ unt lqmofsnfk ug]{x¿ a9]sf sf/0f
xf]6n Joj;fok|lt x]g]{ b[li6sf]0f;d]t gsf/fTds aGb} uPsf],

xf]6n eGg]lalQs} cfdhgtfdf gsf/fTds efjgfsf] ljsf;
ePsfn] Joj;fosf] ;fv hf]ufpg klg cfrf/;+lxtf nfu" ug'{
k/]sf] If]qLo xf]6n Joj;foL ;+3sf cWoIf ;'/]z e§/fO{n]
atfP . s]xL ;dootf lj/f6gu/sf] ;u/dfyf / uf]vf{ xf]6ndf
s]xL dlxgfsf] cGt/df b'O{hgf o'jtLsf] xTof eO;s]sf] 5 .
xf]6ndf >Ldfg\–>LdtL eGb} af; a:g] / o'jtLsf] xTof
u/L km/f/ x'g] qmd a9]kl5 Joj;foL / k|zf;gn] of] lgod
agfPsf x'g\ . O6x/L rf}ssf] :jfut nhdf klg ut kmfu'gsf]
clGtd ;ftf >Ldfg\–>LdtL xf}+ eGb} Ps hf]8L af; a;]sf]df
k'?if rfFxL ;Fu} NofPsL dlxnfsf] xTof u/]/ /ftL g} km/f/ ePsf
lyP . xf]6nnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ cfk/flws lqmofsnfk a9]sf
sf/0f Joj;foL;Fu ;dGjo u/L cfrf/;+lxtf hf/L ul/Psf]
df]/ªsf k|x/L gfoj pk/LIfs bLks kf]v/]nn] atfP .
kl5Nnf] ;do xf]6ndf a;]/ ck/fwsf] of]hgf agfpg],
xf]6ndf NofP/ xTof ug]{ / st} ck/fw u/L xf]6ndf cfO{ n's/]
a:g] k|jl[ Qsf] ljsf; ePsfn] :ki6 kl/ro v'Ng] cfwf/ gePsf
u|fxsnfO{ ca xf]6n ;~rfnsn] af; glbg] ;xdlt u/]sfn]
ck/fwLx?n] xf]6ndf a:g cfF6 gug]{ kf]vn
]| sf] egfO 5 . O6x/Ldf
klg xf]6n Joj;foL ;+3 / k|x/Ln] xf]6ndf a:g cfpg] u|fxssf]
:ki6 gfd, 7]ufgfnufotsf] kl/ro v'Ng] sfuhft clgjfo{
lnP/dfq xf]6ndf a:g lbg] ;xdlt ePsf] xf]6n Joj;foL ;+3
;'g;/Lsf cWoIf cg'/f]w yfkfn] hfgsf/L lbP .

;DkGg x'g] ;a}sf] sfdgf
;Ifd rfns agfpg] xfd|f] rfxgf

gofF jif{ @)&) sf] pknIodf ;Dk"0f{
cleefjs,lzIfs tyf ljBfyL{ ju{df
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

tkfO{ ;jf/L rnfpg l;Sb} x'gx' G' 5 <
To;f] eP xfdLnfO{ ;Demg'xf];\ .

g]kfn ;/sf/af6 dfGotf k|fKt u/L ( jif{bl] v ;~rfng
x'b“ } cfPsf] o; 8«fOleª ;]G6/df ljb]zaf6 ;d]t cg'ej
k|fKt k|lzIfsaf6 df]6/;fOsn, hLk,sf/ tyf Eofg rnfpg]
k|lzIf0f lbOG5 . ;fy} ;jf/Lrfns cg'dltkqsf nflu
cfjZos sf]if{;d]t u/fpg] Joj:yf 5 .

;fy} o; ljBfnodf g;{/Lb]lv
sIff gf};Dd gofF egf{ v'n]sf];d]t
hfgsf/L u/fpFb5f}+ .

6f9faf6 cfpg]sf nflu xf]:6nsf] ;d]t Joj:yf 5 .
;~rfns M uf]kfn l3ld/]

tfKn]hª
' 8«fOleª 6«l] gª ;]G6/

lk|lG;kn

O6x/L–!,;'g;/L
kmf]g M )@%–%*)(#$, (*$@)#^$&(, (*)$#)$)&^

1fgHof]lt Oª\ln; :s"n

Og?jf ;Dks{ M bLks l3ld/] -(*%@)%%*&%,(*$@!@!*&%_
14

j};fv @)&)

;'Gb/k'/–!, uf]7ufp“, df]/ª

c6f] ahf/

l/S;fsf] ljsNk

l;6L ;kmf/L
;'g;/Lsf] O6x/L ahf/df kmfu'g bf];f| ] ;ftfb]lv Aof6«Laf6
rNg] l;6L ;kmf/L gfds gofF k|ljlwsf] l/S;f ;~rfngdf
cfPsf] 5 . ef/tsf] PrjLPn sDkgLn] pTkfbg u/]sf
kf6{kh
" f{nfO{ g]kfnd} P;]Djn u/L ;fhgL 6«8] ;{ eb|k/' n] pQm
l/S;f ahf/df NofPsf] xf] .
b'O{ nfv !% xhf/ ?k}ofF d"No kg]{ l;6L ;kmf/Ldf ^)
PlDkP/ !@ ef]N6 Ifdtfsf tLg cf]6f Aof6«L h8fg ul/Psf]
5 . pQm Aof6«L k"/f Ifdtfdf rfh{ x'Fbf *) lsnf]ld6/;Dd
l/S;f rnfpg ;lsg] 6«]8;{sf ;~rfns wfVjfn] atfPsf
5g\ . pgn] pQm l/S;fdf Ps jif{;Ddsf] jf/]G6L lbOPsf]
;d]t hfgsf/L lbP . l/S;fdf rfns;lxt tLg hgf a:g
ldNb5 . O6x/L gu/kflnsfdf btf{ u/]/ O6x/Ldf cfwf bh{g
a9L l/S;f ;~rfng x'Fb} cfPsf 5g\ . l;6L ;kmf/Ldf klg
;fdfGo l/S;f ;/x g} ef8f lng] ul/Psf] ;kmf/L rfnsx?n]
atfPsf 5g\ .
;fhgL 6«8] ;{n] %) k|ltzt /sd lnP/ %) k|ltzt eg]
ls:tf aGbLdf ltg]{ u/L l;6L ;kmf/L l/S;f pknAw u/fOPsf]
hgfPsf] 5 . k|lt 306f #) lsnf]ld6/;Dd s'bg\ ] l;6L ;kmf/L
o;cl3 emfkfsf] eb|k'/ / dsjfgk'/sf] x]6f}8fdf ;d]t
;~rfngdf cfO;s]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . eb|k'/df xfdL cfkm}+n]
klxnf] k6s ebf} dlxgfb]lv l/S;f laqmL u/]sf xf},+ latf{df]8df
:yfgLo lgsfon] l/S;fsf] 3gTj a9L ePsf] eGb} btf{df /f]s
nufPsfn] tLg yfg dfq} laqmL ug{ ;lsPsf] t/ laqmL ePsf
l/S;f kfFr dlxgfb]lv s'g} ;d:of gcfO{ ;Grfng eO/x]sf]
wfVjfsf] bfjL 5 .
l;6L ;kmf/L rfnsn] C0fsf] ls:tf a'emfP/ klg klxn]
rnfPsf] l/S;fdf eGbf a9L cfDbfgL ug{ ;s]sf] atfPsf
5g\ . l;6L ;kmf/Lsf] Aof6«L lah'nL ePsf 7fpFdf lah'nL /
gePsf 7fpFdf ;f]nf/af6 ;d]t rfh{ ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn]
lgw{Ss;Fu u|fdL0f If]qdf ;d]t rnfpg ;lsg] / psfnf]df
;d]t b'O{ ;o %) s]hL;Dd tf}n af]s]/ ;lhn} rNg ;Sg]
wfVjfsf] egfO 5 .
6«]8;{n] l/S;fdf h8fg u/]sf] lrlgofF df]6/sf] Ps jif{
/ Aof6«Lsf] 5 dlxgf jf/]G6L /x]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
cGo l/S;fsf] lj/f]w
ofq'x?sf] klxnf] /f]hfOdf l;6L ;kmf/L kg{ yfn]kl5
cGo l/S;f rfnsx?n] o;sf] lj/f]w ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . O6x/Ldf

l;6L ;kmf/Lsf sf/0f cGo l/S;fsf ofq' 36]sf] eGb} l;6L
;kmf/LnfO{ ;~rfngdf /f] s nufpg' kg] { dfu l/S;f
Joj;foLx?n] ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . pgLx?n] r}t klxnf] xKtf
l;6L ;kmf/L btf{ ul/lbg] lgsfo O6x/L gu/kflnsfdf wgf{
lbFb} Aof6«Laf6 rNg] l;6L ;kmf/LnfO{ aGb ug{ dfu u/] . t/
gofF k|ljlwnfO{ lelqg lbg} x'bF g} , k'/ftg k|ljlwd} /lx/xg' k5{
eGg] dfu hfoh gePsfn] l/S;f rfnsx?sf] dfu ;'g'jfO
ug{ g;lsg] hjfkm O6x/L gu/kflnsfsf sfo{sf/L clws[t
u0f]z/fh sfsL{n] lbPsf 5g\ . …;~rfngsf] ?6 5'6\ofOlbg'
eGg] dfu eP ljrf/ ug{ ;lsGYof], k|ltaGw g} nufpg' eGg]
dfu t s;/L ;Daf]wg ug{ ;lsG5 / <Ú pgn] eg] .

j};fv @)&)

15

dlxGb|fsf gofF df]6/;fOsn ahf/df
ef/tsf] dlxGb|f 6'
XjLn;{ sDkgLn] pTkfbg
u/]sf !!) ;L;Lsf k]G6]/f]
/ ;] G 6] / f] gfds
df] 6 /;fOsnsf] g] k fnL
ahf/df laqmL ;'? ePsf]
5 . dlxGb|fsf] g]kfnl:yt
clws[ t laqm] t f P;hL
Unf]an k|flnn] r}tsf] t];f| ]
xKtfb]lv g]kfnL ahf/df oL
b'j} df]6/;fOsnsf] laqmL ljt/0f ;'? u/]sf] xf] .
gofF lsl;dsf] /fOl8ªsf] cg'ej ug{ rfxg] o'jf ju{nfO{
nlIft u/L tLg df]8nsf :s'6/ laqmL ub}{ cfPsf] sDkgLn]
df]6/;fOsn eg] klxnf] k6s ahf/df NofPsf] xf] . O6x/Ll:yt
l8n/ PdP; 6«8] ;{sf ;~rfns dx]z sfsL{n] ahf/df cfPsf]
k]G6]/f]sf] Ps nfv $( xhf/ gf} ;o / ;]G6]/f]sf] Ps nfv %^
xhf/ gf} ;o ?k}ofF d"No /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP .
pgsf cg';f/ k"js
{ f O6x/L, w/fg, lj/f6gu/, lj/f6rf]s,
latf{df]8nufotsf zx/df ;d]t dlxGb|f sDkgLsf df]6/;fOsnsf
l8n/ ;~rflnt 5g\ . o;cl3 dlxGb|fsf 8\o/' f] 8Lh]8, /f]l8of]
cf/h]8 / k\mnfO6 df]8nsf :s'6/ laqmL ul//x]sf] PdP; 6«8] ;{n]
dlxGb|fsf] :s'6L tyf df]6/;fOsn vl/b ug]{ u|fxssf nflu

ljleGg ;'ljwf lbFb} cfPsf]
sfsL{ atfpF5g\ . b'O{ jif{sf]
jf/]G6L /x]sf] df]6/;fOsnsf
nflu sDkgLn] 5 cf]6f
;le{l;ª\ lgMz'Ns lbPsf] 5
eg] cfk"mn] zf]?dsf] tkm{af6
yk 5 cf] 6 f ;le{ l ;ª\
lgMz'Ns lbg] u/]sf] sfsL{n]
atfP .
:k]o/ kf6{;
\ x? ;/n
d"Nodf kfOg] dlxGb|fsf] df]6/;fOsndf laqmL eGbf klg
laqmLkl5sf] ;]jfnfO{ a9L k|fyldstf lbOPsf] pgsf] bfjL
5 . …xfdLn] laqmL u/]sf df]6/;fOsn aLrdf af6f]df lalu|Pdf
lalu|Ps} :yfgdf ld:qL k7fP/ dd{t ul/lbg] ;'ljwf lbPsf
5f},Ú pgL eG5g\ . PdP; 6«8] ;{n] h'g;'s} sDkgLsf df]6/;fOsn
jf :s'6L;Fu ;f6\g] / ;/n?kdf kmfOgfG;sf] ;'ljwf;d]t lbFb}
cfPsf] 5 . dlxGb|fsf df]6/;fOsndf dlxGb|f sDkgLs} df]lan
pknAw /x]sfn] df]lansf] k|of]un] x'g] ;d:of klg o;df
gePsf] pgL pNn]v ub{5g\ . r}t clGtd ;ftfb]lv laqmL ;'?
ePsf b'j} df]8nsf df]6/;fOsn r}t d;fGt;Dd cfwf
bh{geGbf a9L laqmL ePsf 5g\ eg] Tof]eGbf a9L ;+Vofdf
a's ePsf] sfsL{n] hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ .

…u'0f:t/Lo / ;j{;'ne lzIff xfd|f] k|lta4tfÚ
gjjif{ @)&) ;fnsf] cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ ljBfyL{, cleefjs, lzIfs–lzlIfsf,
sd{rf/L tyf z'eR] 5's ju{x?df ;'–:jf:Yo, bL3f{o" Pjd\ pQ/f]Q/ k|ultsf]
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}+ .

;fy}, z}lIfs ;q @)&) ;fnsf]
nflu g;{/Lb]lv sIff–* ;Dd s]xL
;Lldt l;6df gofF egf{ v'ns
] f]
;xif{ hfgsf/L u/fpFb5f}+ .
lk|lG;kn

An'ldª nf]6; Oª\ln;
;]sG] 8/L :s'n
O6x/L–%, ;'g;/L, kmf]g M )@%–%*&#%%
16

j};fv @)&)

rf/kf+u|]sf] klxnf] l/slG8zg xfp;
xfn;Dd
k'/fgf
df6/;f
] Osnsf]
d f q
Jofj;flos
v l / b
laqmL x'Fb}
cfPsf]
k"j{sf]
ahf/df
c
a
rf/kf+ u | ]
;jf/L;fwgsf] klg Jofj;flos s]Gb| v'ns
] f] 5 . O6x/Lsf]
klZrdnfOgdf v'ns
] f] sf];L c6f] ;]G6/n] k'/fgf rf/kf+u]|
;jf/L;fwg vl/b–laqmL Joj;fo ;~rfng u/]sf] xf] .
O6x/Lsf dl0f jfGtjf;lxtsf] ;d"xn] Ps dlxgf cl3b]lv
k/LIf0f?kdf ;~rfngdf NofPsf] sf];L c6f] ;]G6/sf] d'Vo
sfd g} k'/fgf ;jf/L;fwg vl/b laqmL ug]{ xf] . …k"jf{~rnd}
xfn;Dd o; k|sf/sf] Joj;fo gePsf] x'bF f :sf]k / cfjZostf
b'j} dx;'; u/L xfdLn] klxnf] k6s of] Joj;fodf xft xfn]sf

xf}+,Ú c6f] ;]G6/sf ;~rfns dl0f jfGtjfn] eg] .
pgsf cg';f/ k'/fgf] ;jf/L;fwg laqmL ug{ rfxg]
JolQmsf] ;jf/L;fwgsf] bIf k|fljlwsaf6 k/LIf0f u/fO{
cj:yfcg';f/sf] plrt d"\No lbP/ vl/b ug]{ / k'/fgf] ;jf/L
vl/b ug{ rfxfg]nfO{ klg ;jf/L;fwgsf] cj:yfcg';f/ g}
d"No lnP/ laqmL ug]{ ul/G5 .
…hLk, sf/nufotsf rf/kf+u|] ;jf/L;fwg vl/b ug{
rfxg]n] laqmLstf{n] cfk\mgf] lx;fan] /fv]sf] d"No xf]Og
;jf/L;fwgsf] cj:yfcg';f/sf] d"No xfn]/ vl/b ug{ kfpg]
jftfj/0f xfdLn] pknAw u/fPsf 5f}+,Ú jfGtjf eG5g\ . ca
uf8L r9\g !)÷!% nfv xf]Og s]jn b'O{ nfv ?k}ofF eP
k'U5 . pgn] sf];L c6f] ;]G6/af6 k'/fgf -;]s]08 x]08_
;jf/L;fwg lng rfxg]n] sDtLdf b'O{ nfv ?k}ofF af]s]/ cfP
kfpg] atfP . tTsfn ;jf/L;fwgsf] k"/} d"No r'sfpg g;Sg]
u|fxsnfO{ ;x'lnot Aofhb/df ls:tfaGbL ;'ljwf;d]t pknAw
u/fOg] afGtjfsf] egfO 5 .
sfof{no tof/Lsf] sfd k"/f eOg;s]sfn] xfn k/LIf0fsf]
sfddfq ul//x]sfn] sf/f]af/kl§ Wofg lbg gkfPsf] jfGtjfn]
atfP . k/LIf0fsfnd} klg ;fKtflxs ?kdf @÷# cf]6fsf b/n]
uf8L vl/b–laqmL eO/x]sf] pgn] hfgsf/L lbP .

gof“ jif{ @)&) sf]] ;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs tyf z'elrGtsx?df
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
ljut @% jif{b]lv O6x/L If]qdf :jR5 jftfj/0fdf u'0f:t/Lo lzIff k|bfg ub}{ cfO/x]sf]
o; ljBfnodf g;{/Lb]lv sIff gf};Dd gofF egf{ v'n]sf] ;xif{ hfgsf/L u/fpFb5f}+ .
;dod} cfk\mgf
gfgLx?nfO{ o; ljBfnodf
egf{ u/fO{ u'0f:t/Lo lzIffsf
nflu ;xof]u ul/lbg'x'g
cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ .

lbn' ;'Aaf -lk|lG;kn_

e[s6' L ;]sG] 8/L af]l8{ª :s"n
O6x/L–!, g]kfn a}s
+ k5fl8
kmf]g M )@%–%*)*(!

j};fv @)&)

17

O6x/Ldf ;f]gflnsfsf] zf]?d 6f]of]6fsf] cTofw'lgs ;le{; ;]G6/

kLcf/ ;Knfo;{ PG8 6«]8;{ k|flnn] O6x/Ldf ;f]gflnsf
6«ofS6/sf] zf]?d ;~rfngdf NofPsf] 5 . ;f]gflnsf sDkgLsf
cWoIf nIdL ldQnn] pb\3f6g u/]sf] zf]?dn] 6«ofS6/ laqmLsf]
;fy} ;le{l;ª\, :k]o/ kf6\;s
{ f] ;d]t ;'ljwf lbg] kLcf/ 6«8] ;{
PG8 ;Knfo;{ k|flnsf ;~rfns sljg >]i7n] atfP . kLcf/
6«]8;{ sf];L c~rnsf nflu ;f]gflnsf 6«ofS6/sf] clws[t
laqm]tf xf] . 6«]8;{n] o;cl3 w/fg, lj/f6gu/, lj/f6rf]sdf
zf]?d ;~rfngdf NofO;s]sf] 5 . ;a} zf]?ddf laqmLsf
;fy} kf6{; / ;le{l;ªsf] ;d]t ;'ljwf /x]sf] ;~rfns >]i7n]
atfP . kLcf/ 6«]8;{n] /+u]nLdf klg kf6{;\ / ;le{l;ª\sf]
;'ljwf ;~rfng u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .

18

j};fv @)&)

b'O{ bzsb]lv k"jf{~rndf 6f]of]6f a|f08sf rf/kf+u|]
;jf/L;fwg laqmL–ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf] PaL u|'k ckm O08li6«h
PG8 6«]l8ª xfp;n] lj/f6gu/df cTofw'lgs ;le{; ;]G6/
:yfkgf u/]sf] 5 .
w/fg–lj/f6gu/ ;8sv08sf] Po/kf]6{ df]8df ;~rfng
ePsf] pQm ;]G6/df Ps} k6s bzeGbf a9L ;jf/L;fwgsf]
;le{l;ª ug{ ;lsg]] PaL u|'ksf cWoIf eLd l3ld/]n] atfP .
r}t bf];f| ] ;ftfb]lv ;~rfngdf cfPsf] ;]G6/sf] pb\3f6g
g]kfn pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3sf cWoIf ;'/h j}Bn] u/]sf
lyP . ;]G6/n] k"jf{~rnsf c6f]df]afON; pkef]QmfnfO{ u'0f:t/Lo
;]jf k|bfg ug{] cWoIf l3ld/]n] hfgsf/L lbP . sl/a %%
xhf/ ju{lkm6df cTofw'lgs pks/0f;lxtsf] ;le{; ;]G6/sf]
?kdf Unf]an c6f] KjfOG6n] @! cf}+ ztfJbL ;'xfpFbf] cTofw'lgs
;le{; pknAw u/fpg] pgsf] bfjL 5 .
…;]G6/ :yfkgfkl5 rf/kf+u]| ;fgf ;jf/Lx?df lemgfdl;gf
;d:of cfpFbf;d]t sf7df8f} k'Ug'kg]{ emGem6af6 pkef]Qmfn]
d'lQm kfpg] 5g\,Ú pgn] eg] .
b'O{ s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgLdf :yfkgf ul/Psf] ;le{; ;]G6/n]
k|fljlws;lxt @% hgfeGbf a9LnfO{ k|ToIf /f]huf/L lbPsf] 5 .
k"jf{~rndf PaL OG6/k|fOh]hn] 6f]of]6f a|f08sf xfonS;, xfo;,
sf]/f]nf, Pef~hf, ofl/; uf8Lx? laqmL ul//x]s
] f] hfgsf/L lbP .

a}+lsª ahf/

kfyLe/f a}+ssf
b'O{ gofF zfvf

sfj]nLn] !! a/fa/ $ lsQf
xsk|b lbg]

df]/ªsf] pnf{jf/Ldf k|wfg
sfof{no /x]sf] kfyLe/f ljsf;
a}+sn] kmfu'g t];|f] ;ftfb]lv
;'g;/Lsf] O6x/L / emfkfsf]
s]/vfdf Ps};fy b'O{ cf]6f zfvf
;~rfngdf NofPsf] 5 .
a}+ssf k|d'v sfo{sf/L
clws[t 6+sk|;fb /]udLn] k"js
{ f] Jofkfl/s s]Gb| O6x/Ldf !!
cf}+ / s]vf{df !@ cf}+ zfvfsf] ?kdf sf/f]af/ ;'? ul/Psf]
hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/ sf/f]af/ ;~rfng ul/P klg
b'O{ cf]6} zfvf sfof{nosf] cf}krfl/s pb\3f6g eg] j}zfvdf
dfq} ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] 5 .
;'g;/L, df]/ª / emfkf u/L tLg cf]6f lhNnf sfo{If]q
/x]sf] kfyLe/f ljsf; a}+ssf *) k|ltzt zfvfx? u|fdL0f
If]qdf /x]sf] / ;'g;/L df]/ªsf u|fdL0f hgtfsf] Jofkfl/s
ynf] O6x/L ePsfn] cfk\mgf u|fxssf] ;'ljwfnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL
O6x/Ldf zfvf lj:tf/ ul/Psf] /]UdLn] atfP .
pgsf cg';f/ !) s/f]8 ?k}ofF r'Qmfk'h
F L /x]sf] kfyLe/fn]
rfn" cfjsf] k'; d;fGt;Dd Ps ca{ @% s/f]8 lgIf]k ;+sng /
(% s/f]8 nufgL u/L Ps s/f]8 ;~rfng d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf]
5 eg] rfn' cfjleq tLg s/f]8 %) nfv ;~rfng d'gfkmf
cfh{g ug]{ nIo /x]sf] 5 . ut jif{sf] d'gfkmfaf6 ;]o/ wgLnfO{
o; jif{ !! k|ltzt gub nfef+z ljt/0f u/]sf] a}s
+ n] o; cl3
)^^÷)^& sf] d'gfkmfaf6 ^ k|ltzt gub nfef+z lbPsf] lyof] .

k"jf{~rnsf]
;b/d' s fd
wgs' 6 fdf
cjl:yt
sfj]nL
ljsf;
a}+sn]
;]o/wgLx?nfO{
!! lsQf
a/fa/ $
lsQf xsk|b
;] o / lbg]
ePsf] 5 . a}+ssf] xfn} ;DkGg kfFrf}+ ;fwf/0f;efn] pQm
lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] .
;fwf/0f;efn] cffly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^( sf] d'gfkmfaf6
!) k|ltzt jf]g; ;]o/ / To;df nfUg] s/ a/fa/sf] /sd
gub nfef+; lbg];d]t lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 .
xfn b'O{ s/f]8 r'Qmfk'FhL /x]sf] a}+sn] af]g; / xs k|b
;]o/ ljt/0f u/]kl5sf] r'Qmfk'FhL tLg s/f]8 k'Ug] a}+ssf
k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t z}n]Gb| jfb] >]i7n] atfP .
@# hgf ;+:yfks ;]o/ wgL;lxt sl/a tLg xhf/
;]o/wgL /x]sf] sfj]nL ljsf; a}+ssf] ;fwf/0f;efn] a}+ssf
cWoIf;lxt kfFr hgf ;~rfnsnfO{ k'gM lgjf{lrt u/]sf] 5 .
a}+ssf] ;~rfns ;ldlt cWoIfdf uf]kfnk|;fb sfk\mn]
k'gMlgjf{lrt ePsf 5g\ eg] ;~rfnsx?df hgfb{g l3ld/],
nIdLgfy l3ld/], x]d/fh ;'jb] L / bLks sfk\mn] k'gM lgjf{lrt
ePsf x'g\ .
a}+sn] rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] df3 d;fGt;Dd #% s/f]8
%! nfv !% xhf/ ?k}ofF lgIf]k ;+sng u/L @) s/f]8 !)
nfv !* xhf/ C0f k|jfx u/]sf] 5 . ;f] cjlwdf a}+sn] @^
nfv ^* xhf/ v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] 5 . a}+sn] rfn'
cfly{s jif{leq ^) nfv d'gfkmf cfh{g ug]{ nIo lnPsf]
hgfPsf] 5 .
a}+ssf] !% xhf/eGbf a9L lgoldt jrtstf{ /x]sf]
a}s
+ n] ^ ;o hgfnfO{ shf{ nufgL u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . PgPdaL
a}+s;Fu ;xsfo{ u/]/ a}+sn] Ps csf]{ a}+ssf] r]s e'QmfgL ug]{
;'ljwf;d]t lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . wgs'6f ahf/df d'Vo sfof{no
/x]sf] sfj]nLsf ^ g+= a'waf/], /fhf/fgL, lxn] / l;w'jfdf
zfvf sfof{no ;~rflnt 5g\ . a}s
+ ;~rfngdf pTs[i6 of]ubfg
k'¥ofPjfkt ;~rfns hgfb{g l3ld/]nfO{ ;fwf/0f;efdf ;Ddfg
ul/Psf] lyof] .

d]3f a}s
+ / k|e' dgL
6«fG;km/aLr ;Demf}tf
d]uf a}s
+ g]kfn / k|e' dgL 6«fG;km/aLr /]ld6\ofG;
e'QmfgL ;D´f}tf ePsf] 5 . d]uf a}+ssf gfoj dxfk|aGws
/ljgf b]z/fh >]i7 / k|e' dgL 6«fG;km/ sDkgLsf gfoj
dxfk|aGws /fd]Zj/ ;fksf]6fn] ;D´f}tfkqdf x:tfIf/ u/]sf
x'g\ . ;Demf}tfkl5 dn]l;of, stf/, b'aO, cd]l/sfnufotsf
b]zdf /x]sf g]kfnLx?n] ;xh / ;/n?kdf d]uf a}+sdfkm{t\
/]ld6\ofG; leq\ofpg ;Sg] atfOPsf] 5 .
d]uf a}s
+ n] o;cl3 ;+oQ' m c/a Old/]6;
\ sf] b'aO, ax/fOg,
s'jt] , a]nfotaf6 d]uf /]ld6 ;]jf k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . d]uf
a}s
+ n] k|e;' uF } cfO{PdO{, lxdfn /]ld6, h]PdO{, l;6L PS;k|;] , o'gfO6]8
/]ld6, l8hL6]s nufotsf /]ld6\ofG; sDkgL;Fusf] ;f´]bf/Ldf
ljZjsf ;a} d'ns
' af6 g]kfndf /]ld6\ofG; leq\ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

19

lj/f6nIdLdf
;Ktsf];L / PgPdaLsf] ;xsfo{
;L 8]enkd]G6 a}+s ln= /
P;PdP; a+}lsª ;]jf PgPdaL;Ktsf]
a}s
+ aLr nf]sn Sof; Dofg]hd]G6
lj/f6gu/l:yt lj/f6nIdL ljsf; a}s
+ n] cfkm\gf u|fxsx?nfO{
P;PdP; a}lsª ;]jf lbg yfn]sf] 5 . of] ;]jf lnPsf u|fxsx?n]
P;PdP;dfkm{t\ Aofn]G;sf] hfgsf/L, kl5Nnf] kfFr j6f sf/f]af/sf]
:6]6d]G6, gub hDdf tyf e'QmfgL;DaGwL hfgsf/L, r]s /f]Ssf,
r]sa's dfunufot cGo ljljw ;'ljwfx? pkef]u ug{ kfpg]5g\ .
a}s
+ n] cfkm\gf u|fxsx?nfO{ qmdzM cfw'lgs a}lsª ;]jf lbg] gLlt
lnPcg'?k kl5Nnf] ;dodf P;PdP; a}ls? ;]jf ;'? u/]sf]
a}s
+ sf sDkgL ;lrj x]dGt/fh Gof}kfg]n] hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf
cg';f/ a}s
+ n] o;cl3 PaLaLP; ;'ljwf, P6LPd ;]jf, ;GWofsfnLg
sfpG6/ cflb ;'ljwf lbFb} cfPsf] lyof] .
lj=;+= @)^@ ;fnb]lv a}lsª sf/f]af/ ;'? u/]sf] a}+ssf
xfn k"jd
{ f !@ zfvf sfof{no / Ps PS:6]Gzg sfpG6/;lxt
!$ j6f sfof{no /x]sf 5g\ . a}+sn] @)^( k'; d;fGt;Dd @
ca{ *& s/f]8 &% nfv ?k}ofF lgIf]k ;+sng tyf b'O{ cj{ @!
s/f]8 ^$ nfv ?k}ofF shf{ nufgL u/L tLg s/f]8 %( nfv
?k}ofF ;~rfng d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .

;f]n';g ;D´f}tfdf x:tfIf/ ePsf] 5 .
;D´f}tfkl5 b'j} a}+ssf r]s Ps csf]{
a}s
+ sf] h'g;'s} zfvfaf6 e'QmfgL lng tyf
/sd hDdf ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o;} u /L
;Ktsf];L a}+s PgPdaL a}+ssf] ;'ne
/]ld6sf] cflwsfl/s Ph]G6;d]t lgo'Qm ePsf] 5 .
a}+sn] 6+lsl;gjf/Ll:yt a}lsª sfof{noaf6 lgIf]k /
shf{ nufgLsf] ;fy} k|foM ;a}+ /]ld6fG; sDkgLdfkm{t\ ljb]zaf6
cfpg] /sd e'QmfgL lbg] / k7fpg] ;]jf;d]t lbFb} cfPsf] 5 .
a}s
+ sf dxfk|aGws gjLg ;'jb] Ln] /]ld6fG; sf/f]af/ ;DaGwdf
j]i6g{ o'lgog, cfO{PdO{, k|e,' ;]jf, z'ne, lxdfnnufotsf
dgL 6«fG;km/ sDkgL;Fu ;Demf}tf ePsf] hfgsf/L lbPsf
5g\ . kfFr dlxgf cl3b]lv ;~rfngdf cfPsf] of] a}+sn] k';
d;fGt;Dd rf/ s/f]8 lgIf]k ;+sng u/L b'O{ s/f]8eGbf a9L
shf{ nufgL ul/;s]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . s[lif, kz'kfng,
Jofj;flos, cf]e/ 8«fk\m6, xf]d nf]gnufotdf shf{ nufgL
ub}{ cfPsf] a}+ssf] sfo{If]q df]/ª, kfFry/ / Onfd /x]sf] 5 .
g]kfn /fi6« a}+saf6 u|fdL0f If]qsf hgtf;Fu a}lsª sf/f]af/
ug]{ u/L :jLs[lt kfPsf] of] a}+sn] tLgcf]6} lhNnfsf u|fdL0f
If]qdf rfn' cfly{s jif{leq} !÷! cf]6f zfvf ;~rfng ug]{
nIo /x]sf] dxfk|aGws ;'j]bLn] hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ .

ljBfyL{nfO{ l;lensf] tflnd ;Ktsf];L a}s+ sf] :jf:Yo lzlj/
l;len
a} + s
lnld6]8n] aLaLP÷aLaLP;
cWoog/t ljBfyL{nfO{ !*
lbg] cfwf/e"t a}l+ sª tflnd lbg] ePsf] 5 . a}s
+ n] b'O{ ;oeGbf
a9L ljBfyL{nfO{ tLg lbg] ;}4flGts tyf !% lbgsf] k|of]ufTds
tflnd k|bfg ug]{ hgfPsf] 5 . o;n] ;dfhdf a}+lsª afgL
a;fNg] sfo{df ;xof]uL e"ldsf v]Ng] a}+ssf] egfO 5 .

rt/fdf / kfgdf/fdf d]uf
a}s
+ sf] zfvf/lxt ;]jf
a}s
+ sf] kx'r
F gk'us
] f] ;'g;/Lsf]
rt/f / kfgdf/fdf d]uf a}s
+ lnld6]8n]
zfvf/lxt ;]jf ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 .
b'u{d hgtfnfO{ dfOqmf] a}+lsª ;]jf
lbg] p2]Zon] d]uf a}s
+ n] b]zsf ljleGg
@& :yfgdf o:tf] ;]jf lbFb} cfPsf] a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 . ljz]if
pks/0fdfkm{t\ a}+lsª ;]jf pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf] d]uf a}+sn]
dfOqmf] a}+lsªdfkm{t ;j{;fwf/0fsf] dg lhTg ;kmn eO/x]sf]
a}s
+ sL gfoj dxfk|aGws /ljgf b]z/fh >]i7n] hfgsf/L lbOg\ .
20

j};fv @)&)

df]/ª lhNnfsf] 6+sLl;gjf/L uflj;df s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
/x]sf] ;Ktsf];L 8]enkd]G6 a}+s lnld6]8n] Ps lbg] lgMz'Ns
:jf:Yo lzlj/ ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 . cfFvf, bfFt, :qL/f]u tyf
h]g/] n d]l8l;gsf ;fy} k|of]uzfnf;DaGwL ;]jfx? ;d]t lbOPsf]
lzlj/df tLg ;o %@ hgfnfO{ lgMz'Ns :jf:Yo k/LIf0f tyf
pkrf/ ;]jf lbOPsf] lyof] .
a}+ssf k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t gjLg ;'j]bLn] a}+sn]
;~rfng u/]sf] lzlj/af6 zx/sf ;'ljwfo'Qm :jf:Yo ;+:yf;Dd
k'Ug cfly{s tyf cGo lx;fan] kx'Fr gePsf gful/sn] nfe
lnPsf] atfP . pQm lzlj/df lrlsT;snufotsf hgzlQm
lj/f6gu/l:yt gf]jn
] d]l8sn sn]hn] pknAw u/fPsf] lyof] .
a}s
+ n] ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj sfo{qmdcGt{ut d'lQm cf>d
s]Gb| 6+sLl;gjf/LnfO{ cf>d lgdf{0fsf nflu kfFr xhf/ ?k}ofF
gub;d]t ;xof]u u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .

l;l6hG; a}+s /
cfO{PdO{aLr ;Demf}tf

Unf]an cfO{PdO{sf]
zfvf /fhlj/fhdf
Unf]an
cfO{ P dO{ a} + s
lnld6]8n] ;Kt/Lsf]
/fhlj/fhl:yt
uh]Gb|gf/fo0f rf]sdf Pl6Pd;lxt a}+ssf] gofF zfvf :yfkgf
u/]sf] 5 . pQm zfvfaf6 a}s
+ n] ;GWofsfnLg a}l+ sª, PaLaLP;
;'ljwf k|bfg ul//x]sf] 5 . To;}u/L kf]v/fsf] k[YjLrf]sdf klg
gofF zfvf :yfkgf u/]sf] 5 .
k[YjLrf]s;lxt a}s
+ sf zfvf ;+Vof ^# k'us
] f 5g\ . b'j}
zfvfsf] km/s–km/s ;dodf a}s
{+ sf cWoIf rGb|k;
| fb 9sfnn]
pb\3f6g u/]sf x'g\ . a}s
+ n] lbPsf] hfgsf/Lcg';f/ df3 d;fGt;Dd
a}s
+ sf ;]jfu|fxL tLg nfv !@ xhf/ k'us
] f 5g\ . a}s
+ :yfkgfsf]
5 jif{sf] cjlwdf a}s
+ sf] 8]la6 sf8{ k|of]ustf{sf] ;ª\Vof Ps
nfv @^ xhf/ k'us
] f] 5 . xfn a}s
+ sf] lgIf]k @( ca{ ?k}ofF 5 eg]
shf{ k|jfx @$ ca{ /x]sf] a}ªsn] hgfPsf] 5 . b]ze/df ^#
zfvf ;~hfn / ^@ cf]6f P6LPddfkm{t a}l+ sª ;]jf lbO/x]sf] 5 .

l;l6hG; a}s
+ OG6/g];gn lnld6]8 / OG6/g];gn dgL
PS;k|;
] k|f=ln= -cfO{PdO{_ aLr ljk|i] f0f ;]jf k|bfg ug{sf nflu
;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 . a}s
+ sf] s]Gb|Lo sfof{nodf a}s
+ sf k|dv
' ;~rfng
clws[t u0f]z/fh kf]v/]n tyf OG6/g];gn dgL PS;k|;
] sf k|dv
'
sfo{sf/L clws[t ;'dg kf]v/]nn] pQm ;Dem}ftfkqdf x:tfIf/
u/]sf x'g\ . ;Demf}tfcg';f/ ljb]zdf /x]sf g]kfnLx?n] cfO{PdO{
cGtu{tsf Ph]G6x?dfkm{t\ k7fPsf] /sd g]kfndf /x]sf o; a}s
+ sf
## cf]6f zfvf tyf #) cf]6f zfvf/lxt a}l+ sª ;]jfx?af6 l56f]5l/tf]
tyf e/kbf]?{ kdf k7fpg ;Sg]5g\ .
o;cl3 klg a}+sn] l;6L PS;k]|;, l/nfojn /]ld6,
o'gfO6]8 /]ld6 -dgLu|fd_, ;LhL lkmGsf] -j]:6g o'lgog_, k|e'
dgL 6«fG;km/, atf; Pzf]l;P6\; -lxdfn /]ld6_ tyf jN8{ln+s
kmfOgflG;on ;le{;af6 b]zsf ljleGg 7fpFx?df ljk|i] f0f ;]jf
k|bfg ub{} cfPsf] hgfPsf] 5 . o;}u/L a}s
+ n] cfˆgf] zfvf/lxt
a}l+ sª ;]jf cleofgnfO{ la:tf/ ug]{ qmddf wg'iffsf] nIdLlgof
PgcfO{;L a}+sn] ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj sfo{qmd
ahf/df #)cf}+ zfvf/lxt a}+lsª ;]jf ;~rfngdf NofPsf]
;~rfngsf
nflu :yfkgf u/]sf] PgcfO;L kmfp08]zgn]
5 . o;cl3 l;l6hG; a}+sn] df]/ªsf] 6+lsl;gjf/Ldf ;d]t
lj/f6gu/l:yt
lj/f6]Zj/ a[4f>dnfO{ Ps nfv @) xhf/ ?k}ofF
zfvf/lxt a}+lsª ;]jf ;~rfng ul/;s]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
a/fa/sf] vfBGgnufotsf] cfly{s ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . lj/f6gu/–
!# dnfof /f]8l:yt cf>ddf cfof]lht sfo{qmddf a}s
+ sf cWoIf
hubLzk|;fb cu|jfnn] a[4f>dsf ;+:yfks tyf ;~rfns
hutk|;fb cof{nnfO{ pQm ;xof]u x:tfGt/0f u/]sf] kmfp08]zgn]
hgfPsf] 5 . cu|jfnn] a[4f>ddf cfl>t $^ hgf a[4a[4fnfO{
s'df/L a}s
+ lnld6]8n]]
JolQmut¿kdf bf];Nnf;d]t k|bfg u/]sf lyP .
cfk\mgf ;]o/ xf]N8/nfO{
;ft k|ltzt gub nfef+z
kfl/t u/]sf] 5 . a}+ssf]
xfn} ;DkGg ;fwf/0f;efn] pQm nfef+; kfl/t u/]sf] xf] .
pQm ;fwf/0f;efn] ;j{;fwf/0f z]o/wgLaf6 k|ltlglwTj ug]{
gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
b'O{ hgf ;~rfnsdf 8f= zf]efsfGt 9sfn / /;]Gb|axfb'/
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs tyf
dNnnfO{ lglj{/f]w lgjf{lrt u/]sf] 5 eg] a}+ssf] cWoIfdf
;+:yfks ;~rfns g'/k|tfk ha/fnfO{ k'gM ;j{;Ddltn] rog
z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o" Pjd\
u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
;d[l4sf nflu
;fwf/0f;efdf a}+ssf] lgIf]k cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^(
df lgIf]kdf @( k|ltztn] j[l4 u/L sl/a @@ ca{ ?k}ofF
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
k'¥ofpg ;kmn ePsf] a}+sn] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . a}+sn] shf{
JoQm ub5f}+ .
;fk6Ltkm{ @! k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ¿= !* ca{ !) s/f]8 k'us
] f]
hgfPsf] 5 . ;f] cjlwdf a}+ssf] v'b d'gfkmf cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
t'ngfdf gf} bzdnj ^^ k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 .
k'?iff]Qd l3ld/]
a}+sn] rfn" cfjsf] k'; d;fGt;Dd @# ca{sf] lgIf]k
-k|wfgfWofks_
kl/rfng u/L !( ca{sf] shf{ k|jfx u/]sf] 5 . of] ut
cfjsf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf qmdzM !& / !% k|ltztn]
eujtL dfWolds ljBfno kl/jf/
a9L xf] . a}+sn] ;f] cjlwdf #$ s/f]8 ;~rfng d'gfkmf
Og?jf–!, ;'g;/L
cfh{g u/]sf] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 .

a[4f>dnfO{ ;xof]u

K

xflb{s z'esfdgf

K

s'df/L a}s
+ sf] & k|ltzt
gub nfef+;

c
j};fv @)&)

21

;xsf/L

dlxnf jrtsf] /Qmbfg

l;d/jgf art % cf}+ jif{df

O6x/L–$ l:yt
dlxnf art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yfn] cfˆgf]
jfli{fs sfo{qmd cGtu{t
cfof]hgf u/]sf] /Qmbfg
sfo{ q mddf Pshgf
ljb]zL kfpgf;lxt ($
hgfn] /Qmbfg u/] s f
5g\ .
;+ : yfsL cWoIf
uLtf
>] i 7sf]
;efkltTjdf ePsf] sfo{qmddf cWoIf >]i7nufotsf
kbflwsf/L, ;]o/ ;b:ox? / cfdlGqt cltlyx? ;d]tn] /Qmbfg
u/]sf lyP . ;+:yfsL ;~rfns ;b:o s'df/L /fO{sf]
;+of]hsTjdf ePsf] sfo{qmddf /Qmbftfx?nfO{ sb/kq k|bfg
ul/Psf] lyof] . /Qmbfg sfo{qmd rln/x]sf] ;dodf r]GgfO{
ef/taf6 cfOk'us
] f j;Gtn] ;d]t /Qmbfg ug]{ cj;/ kfPsf]df
cToGt v';L nfu]sf] atfPsf lyP .

O6x/L–% l:yt
l;d/jgf art tyf
C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn]
ljleGg sfo{qmd u/L
cfˆgf] % cf}+ jflif{sf]T;j
dgfPsf] 5 .
;xsf/L k|lzIf0f tyf l8lehg sfof{nosf k|d'v
lzjs'df/ sfsL{n] pb\3f6g ug'e{ Psf] sfo{qmddf Ho]i7 ;b:ox?
($ jifL{of k;f{b]jL 9sfn / *) jifL{o u'0f/fh s§]nnfO{
bf];Nnf cf]9fP/ ;Ddfg ul/Psf] lyof] . To:t} ;+:yfaf6 C0f
sf/f]af/ ug]{ c;n C0fL lji0f'dfof yfkf / pTs[i6 artstf{
/fdj[If kf;jfgnfO{ klg ;Ddfg ul/Psf] lyof] .
sfo{qmddf @)^* ;fnsf] P;Pn;L k/LIffdf pTs[i6
l/+s' 9'+ufgf / cg'k cfrf{onfO{ klg k'/:s[t ul/Psf] lyof] .
;+:yfsf cWoIf tLy{/fh k/fh'nLsf] ;efkltTj / pkfWoIf
zflns/fd sfˆn]sf] ;~rfngdf ePsf] jflif{sf]T;j sfo{qmddf
*^ hgfn] /Qmbfg u/]sf lyP .
;f] cj;/df lgMz'Ns :jf:Yo lzlj/;d]t cfof]hgf
ul/Psf] lyof] . ;f] lzlj/df tLg ;o @% hgfsf] :jf:Yo
k/LIf0f ePsf]] lyof] . :jf:Yo lzlj/df jLkL sf]O/fnf :jf:y
lj1fg k|lti7fgsf :qL tyf k|;"tL /f]u ljz]if1 8f= cgfldsf,
xf8hf]gL{ ljz]if1 8f= cldt hf]zL, 8f= o1 v/]n, d]l8P:s6
c:ktfn b'nf/Lsf lkmlhl;og 8f= Zofd;'Gb/ ld>, 8f= df]xg
v8\sf, afn/f]u ljz]if1 8f= cho ofbj, ;h{g 8f= /ljgs'df/
l;+x nufotsf] 6f]nLn] :jf:Yo k/LIf0f u/]sf lyP .
sfo{qmddf ;xsf/L k|lzIf0f tyf l8lehg sfof{no
;'g;/Lsf k|d'v lzjs'df/ sfsL{n] k|To]s ;xsf/Ln] gfkmfsf]
tLg k|ltzt /sd lk5l8Psf ;d'bfosf] pTyfgsf nflu vr{
ug'{kg]{ gLlt /x]sfn] o;k|sf/sf ;fdflhs sfo{nfO{ klg
;xsf/Ln] lg/Gt/tf lbg'kg]{ atfpg' eof] .

gd'gf artdf gofF g]t[Tj
;'g;/Lsf] em'Dsfl:yt gd'gf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L
;+:yfsf] !@ cf}+ jflif{s ;fwf/0f;efn] /fhs'df/ >]i7sf]
cWoIftfdf gofF sfo{;ldlt u7g u/]sf] 5 .
;j{;Ddt k'gu{l7t sfo{;ldltsf] pkfWoIfdf s[i0faxfb'/ a:g]t,
;lrjdf cGhgs'df/ ltdN;]gf, sf]iffWoIf ladn yfkf, ;x;lrj
th]Gb| >]i7 5flgPsf 5g\ . To:t}, ;b:ox?df /lj >]i7, ;fljqf
b+ufn, x]df clwsf/L, b'uf{k;| fbf s§]n ;j{;Ddt rog ePsf 5g\
eg] n]vf;ldltsf] ;+of]hsdf zDe'k;| fb e§/fO{ tyf ;b:ox?df
;fx / k"0f{axfb'/ >]i7 klg ;j{;Ddt ePsf 5g\ . efbufFp l;gjf/L
uflj;sf] ;efxndf ePsf] ;fwf/0f;efdf lgjt{dfg cWoIf xl/j+z
/f}lgof/n] jflif{s k|ltj]bg k]z u/]sf lyP .
22

j};fv @)&)

k"jf{~rnsf Ps ;o !^ ;xsf/L
:j/f]huf/ sf]ifsf] C0f ln“b}
:j/f]huf/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ k"jf{~rnsf !^ cf]6f
lhNnfaf6 Ps ;o !^ cf]6f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] k|:tfj k]z
u/]sf 5g\ .
k|:tfj k]z ug]d{ f ;a}eGbf a9L df]/ª lhNnfsf @* cf]6f,
emfkfsf @! cf]6f ;xsf/L 5g\ . ;'g;/Lsf !@ cf]6f, l;/xfsf
!) cf]6f, cf]vn9'u+ f / Onfdsf &÷& cf]6f ;xsf/Ln] :j/f]huf/
sfo{qmdsf nflu k|:tfj xfn]sf 5g\ . k"js
{ f lhNnfx? dWo]
kxf8L lhNnfdf ;a}eGbf sd ;+vj' f;efaf6 Pp6f / t/fO{sf]
;Kt/Laf6 b'O{ cf]6fdfq ;xsf/Lsf] k|:tfj :jLs[t ePsf] :j/f]huf/
sf]ifsf] ;lrjfnon] hgfPsf] 5 . Pp6f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] sDtL
!) nfvb]lv !) s/f]8;Ddsf] k|:tfj k]z u/]sf 5g\ . ;xsf/Lx?n]
sDtLdf !) hgfb]lv kfFr ;o hgf;DdnfO{ /f]huf/L lbg] k|:tfj
u/]sf 5g\ . k|:tfjcg';f/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ePdf k"js
{ f @)
xhf/eGbf a9L o'jfo'jtLx? :j/f]huf/ x'g5
] g\ . s[lif, pBf]u,
kz'kfng, t/sf/L v]tLnufotsf cfocfh{gdf ;xefuL x'g
rfxg]nfO{ b'O{ nfv;Dd ljgflwtf] C0f lbP/ :j/f]huf/ u/fpg]
nIo ;xsf/Lx?sf] 5 .
k|:tfj k]z ug]{ ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?dWo] sl/a Ps ;o
cf]6fn] k|:tfljtdWo] #) k|ltzt /sd klxnf] ls:tfjfkt
lnO;s]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . sf]ifaf6 %) nfv C0f ;Demf}tf
u/]/ klxnf] ls:tfsf] !% nfv lgsf;f kfPsf] w/fgl:yt a/fx
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf dfgaxfb'/ ljZjsdf{
cfk\mgf] ;+:yfnfO{ :j/f]huf/ sf]ifsf] C0f kl/rfng ug]{ cj;/
lbP/ ;/sf/n] 7"nf] u'0f nufPsf] atfpF5g\ . …xfdL ;d'bfodf
sfd ug]{ cj;/ vf]lh/x]sf lyof}+, xfd|f] efjgf / pT;fxnfO{
a'em]/ :j/f]huf/ sf]ifn] cj;/ lbPsf]df sf]ifnfO{ xfdL nfvf}
wGojfb lbg rfxG5f},+ Ú pgn] eg] .

kfFr ;o a9L ;xsf/LnfO{ shf{
b]zdf a]/f]huf/L ;d:of xn ug{ ;/sf/n] ;~rfng
u/]sf] :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmdcGtu{t :j/f]huf/ sf]ifaf6 &)
lhNnfsf kfFr ;o #) ;xsf/Ln] shf{ lnO;s]sf 5g\ .
;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{
b'O{ ca{ &) s/f]8sf] k|:tfj xfn]sf]df klxnf] ls:tfjfkt
sl/a *) s/f]8 ?k}ofF shf{ lnO;s]sf] :j/f]huf/ sf]ifn]
hgfPsf] 5 . sf]if;Fu dWo:ytf u/L shf{ lnPsf ;xsf/Lx¿n]
a]/f]huf/ o'jfnfO{ :j/f]huf/ shf{ k|jfx ug]{ sf]ifn] hgfPsf]
5 . o'jfx¿n] ;xsf/Lx¿dfkm{t\ pTkfbgd"ns If]qdf ljgflwtf]
C0f k|fKt ug]{ atfOPsf] 5 .
u|fdL0f tyf lk5l8Psf If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ a]/f]huf/
o'jfx¿nfO{ ;x'lnot b/df :j/f]huf/ shf{ k|jfx ug]{ p2]Zon]
;xsf/Ldfkm{t\ shf{ ;'? u/]sf] sf]ifsf pkfWoIf 8f= k'0ok|;fb
/]UdLn] atfP . pTkfbgd'vL / ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yfdfkm{t\
sf]ifn] *) s/f]8 lgsf;f ul/;s]sf] /]UdLn] hfgsf/L lbP .
of] /sd klxnf] ls:tfsf] xf] . klxnf] ls:tfsf] /sdsf] pkof]u
/ pknlAw d"Nof+sg u/L bf];|f] / t];|f] ls:tfsf] /sd klg
lbOg] pgn] atfP .
sf]ifn]] klxnf] / bf];f| ] ls:tfjfkt #)÷#) k|ltzt / b'j}
ls:tfsf] /sd ;b'kof]u ug]{ ;xsf/Lx¿n] t];|f] ls:tfjfkt
$) k|ltzt /sd kfpg] 5g\ .
g]kfn art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+3 ;'g;/Lsf cWoIf
?b| pk|t] L klg ;dfhdf sfd ug{ rfxg] ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf]
nflu ;/sf/n] /fd|f] cj;/ lbPsf] atfpF5g\ .

;xsf/L :yfkgf ug{ cg'bfg lbg]
;xsf/L ljefun] rfn" cfly{s jif{df ljkGg ju{n] :yfkgf
ug]{ gofF ;xsf/Lx?nfO{ k|lt ;xsf/L #) xhf/ ?k}ofF gub
cg'bfg lbg] ePsf] 5 .
ljkGgx¿sf] hLjg:t/ psf:gsf nflu ;xsf/L ljefun]
o:tf] sfo{qmd NofPsf] hgfPsf] 5 . ljefusf pk/lh:6f/
pk]Gb|axfb'/ 9'+ufgfn] ljefu;Fu kof{Kt ah]6 gePsf sf/0f
cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷&) df & ;o ^) ;xsf/LnfO{ dfq /sd
pknAw u/fpg nfu]sf] atfP . ljefun] rfn' cfjdf Ps
xhf/ kfFr ;o @) ;xsf/L :yfkgf ug{ cg'bfg lbg] nIo
/fv]sf] ePklg ah]6 cefjsf sf/0f To;sf] %) k|ltztnfO{
cg'bfg lbg nfluPsf] 9'+ufgfn] hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ .

cfly{s cj:yf sdhf]/ ePsf @% o'jf ldn]/ Pp6f
;xsf/L :yfkgf ug{;Sg] ljefusf] egfO 5 . nlIft ju{eGbf
aflx/sfn] ;'ljwf pkef]u gu?g\ eg]/ ljefun] dftxtsf
#* j6} l8lehg sfof{nonfO{ cg';Gwfg ug{ lgb]z
{ g lbO;s]sf]
hgfPsf] 5 . b]zel/ ;ft ;o ^) cf]6f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{
sfof{no ;~rfngjfkt lbOg] /sd o; jif{ b'O{ s/f]8 @*
nfv ?k}ofF nfUg] atfOPsf] 5 .
ljkGg ju{n] :yfkgf ug]{ ;xsf/L ;~rfngsf nflu
;+:yf btf{ eO;s]kl5 sfof{no Joj:yfkgsdf nflu cfjZos
;fdu|L vl/b ug{ cg'bfg pknAw u/fpg nfu]sf] ljefun]
pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

23

s[lif–k|ljlw

ofGqLs/0fdf k"jn
{] L ls;fg
k/Dk/fut?kdf uf]? jf /fFuf]sf] k|of]u u/]/ v]taf/L
hf]Tg] / afnL leq\ofpg] k"jn
{] L ls;fgx?n] kmf§km'§?kdf Ps
bzsb]lv hldg hf]Tg / afnL cf];fg{ 6«ofS6/sf] k|of]u ug{
yfn]sf x'g\ . t/ kl5Nnf] ;do v]t hf]Tg] dfq x}g wfg, ux'F,
ds} /f]Kg] tyf wfg jf ux'F afnL sf6]/ bfOF;d]t Ps} k6s
ul/lbg] d]l;g -xfe]:{ 6/_ ;d]t o; If]qdf lelqg yfn]sf 5g\ .
/f]kfOF ug]{ oGq s[lif s]Gb|x?n] k|bz{gLsf] nflu dfq k|of]u ub}{
cfPsf] eP klg wfg, ux'h
F :tf afnL sf6\g] / bfOF;d]t Ps}
k6s ug]{ sDafOG8 xfe]i{ 6/ d]l;gdf eg] ;j{;fwf/0f
ls;fgsf] ;d]t kx'r
F k'Ug yfln;s]sf] 5 . ;'g;/L, df]/ª,
emfkfnufot t/fO{sf lhNnfx?df 6«ofS6/, kfj/ l6n/,
/f]6f]e6] /, xfe]i{ 6/ h:tf d]l;gx? k|of]u x'g yfn]sf 5g\ .
sfd ug{ ;Sg] hgzlQmx? ljb]lzP/ s[lif dhb'/
cefjsf] ;d:of em]Nb} cfPsf t/fO{ If]qsf
ls;fgx?sf nflu oGqsf] cfudgn] lgs} 7"nf]
/fxt ldn]sf]
5 t/
of]

nfe
; a }
ls;fgn]
eg] pkef] u
ug{ ;s]sf 5}g] g\ .
sf/0f xf] v]tsf u/fx? . o; jif{
;'g;/L lhNnfdf dfq tLg cf]6f sDafOG8
xfe]{:6/ lelqPsf 5g\ . t/ clwsf+z ls;fg cfk\mgf v]tsf
u/fx? sDafOG8 xfe]{:6/ ;~rfng ug{ g;lsg] cj:yfsf
ePsfn] kmnbfoL x'g g;s]sf] atfpF5g\ . ;'g;/Lsf k|d'v
s[lif ljsf; clws[t /fhsfGt emf eG5g\, …Ps}k6s w]/} cf]6f
sDafOG8 xfe]{:6/ lelqP, k|To]sdf #% nfv ?k}ofFeGbf a9L
nufgL ePsf] 5 .Ú pgLx?n] kof{Kt sfd gkfP/ nufgL p7fpg
d'l:sn knf{ ls eGg] lrGtf 5 . pgsf cg';f/ ;'g;/Ldf
wfg / uxF' v]tL ePsf] hldgdWo] !) k|ltzt klg 7"nf]
;fOhsf sDafOG8 xfe]{:6/ k|of]u x'g]vfnsf 5}gg\ . dWod /
ldgL;fOhsf sDafOG8 xfe]i{ 6/ leq\ofpg kfP w]/h
} ;f]df k|of]u
ug{ ;lsGYof] eGg] pgsf] ;'emfj 5 . ldgL sDafOG8 xfe]:{ 6/df
kfFr nfv ?k}ofF;Dd nufgL ubf{ eOxfNg] ePsfn] w]/} nufgL
gkg]{ pgL atfpF5g\ . clxn] ;'g;/L / df]/ªdf dfq !) j6f
;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] 7"nf] ;fOhsf] sDafOG8 xfe]:{ 6/ leq\ofPsf
24

j};fv @)&)

5g\ . @)^* ;fndf df]/ªsf] 6+sLl;gjf/L s[lif pkh tyf
ahf/ Joj:yfkg ;xsf/L / 8+u|fxf cu'jf s[lif ;xsf/Ln]
sDafOG8 xfe]{:6/ leq\ofPsf lyP . o; jif{dfq df]/ªsf yk
% cf]6f / ;'g;/Lsf tLg cf]6f ;+:yfn] sDafOG8 xfe]{:6/
leq\ofPsf] atfOPsf] 5 .
7"nf] sDafOG8 xfe]:{ 6/n] Ps 306fdf Ps la3f hldgsf]
wfg cyjf ux'F afnL sf6]/ bfOF ;d]t u/L lbG5 . Tolt sfd
u/fFpbf sDafOG8 xfe]{:6/n] $% ;ob]lv kfFr xhf/;Dd lng]
ub{5g\ . t/ ToxL sfd dhb'/af6 u/fpg] xf] eg] Ps xKtf
;do nfU5 / vr{ klg !@ xhf/eGbf a9L x'G5 . o; jif{
sDafOG8 xfe]{:6/ k|of]u u/]/ cg'ej
kfPsf ;'g;/L Og?jfsf s[ifs
lzjs'df/ d]xtf eGb5g\ .
sDafOG8

xfe]:{ 6/af6
sfd u/fpF b f cGg
kf]lvP/ jf 5l/P/ gf]S;fg
x'g] ;Defjgf;d]t /xFb}g .
dhb' / af6 u/fpF b f x' g ]
gf]S;fgLsf] t'ngfdf sDafOG8
xfe]{:6/df @% k|ltztdfq
gf]S;fgL x'g] pgsf] egfO 5 .
df]/ª ;'Gb/k'/sf cu'jf
ls;fg gf/fo0fk|;fb >]i7 klxn]
uf]?n] hf]Tgs} nflu ;fgf] cfsf/df
agfOPsf
v]tsf u/fx? clxn] ofGqLs/0fsf
nflu afws ePsf]n] k'g{;+/rgf gu/L 7"nf oGq k|of]u ug{
g;Sg] cj:yf /x]sf] atfpF5g\ . …xft] 6«ofS6/ -kfj/ l6n/_
h:t} xft] xfe]{:6/ d]l;g cfpg] xf] eg]dfq ;a} ls;fg
ofGqLs/0fdf ;fd]n x'g ;S5g\,Ú pgn] eg] .
clxn] s[lif sfdsf nflu afnL nufpg vghf]t ug{
kfj/ l6n/, sN6L, x/f{,] /f]6f]e6] /, n]en/ tyf afnL leq\ofpg
xfe]{:6/ / 6«ofS6/h:tf oGq k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . xfe]{:6/
d]l;g ;'g;/Lsf] Og?jf, cf}/fjgL tyf PsDafsf / df]/ªsf]
6+sLl;gjf/L, 8+u|fxf, cd/bxnufotsf ls;fgn] :yfgLo
;xsf/Ldfkm{t\ leq\ofPsf 5g\ . v]tsf u/fx?sf] k'g{;+/rgf
ug{ ;s] ;'g;/L / df]/ªsf] blIf0fL If]qsf %) k|ltzt;Dd
ls;fgn] 7"nf] ;fOhsf] xfe]{:6/ klg k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] s[lif
k|fljlwsx? atfpF5g\ .

udL{df ;d]t kmNg] uf]ne]F8f
uf]ne]8F fsf] v]tL eO/x]sf] 5 . kmfd{sf Dofg]h/ /Ghgs'df/
l;+xn] !) s6\7f hUufdf 6df6/ v]tL eO/x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP .
jfujfgL lj1;d]t /x]sf l;+xn] s/g,
dxfjL/ / jfof]l;8–%^ 6df6/ kmfu'g
klxnf] ;ftfdf nufOPsf]df a}zfv klxnf]
xKtfb]lv kmn l6Kg ;lsg] atfP .
sfutLsf] la?jfsf] dfemdf leqL jfnLsf]
?kdf nufOPsf] 6df6/af6 a}zfv !%
b]vL c;f/ !% ;Dd pTkfbg lng
;lsG5 . of] ;dodf g]kfnsf] kxf8L
If]qdf ;d]t kof{Kt gkmNg] x'gfn]
6df6/n] /fd|f] d"No kfpF5 .
@@ l8u|LeGbf a9L tfkqmd x'bF f
cGo hftdf k" m naf6 kmn nfUg
tfkqmdn] afwf k'¥ofpF5 t/ dxfjL/,
s/g / afof]l;8–%^ df $) l8u|L
tfkqmd;Ddsf] jftfj/0fdf kmn
nufpg ;Sg] Ifdtf 5 of] g]kfnsf]
t/fO{ If]qsf nflu gf}nf] s'/f xf], jfujfgL lj1 l;+x eG5g\ .
cfufdL jif{ eg] xfdLn] df]/ªsf] ;'Gb/k'/df #÷$ laufxfd} of]
hftsf] 6df6/ nufpg] of]hgf agfO/x]sf 5f}+ .

K

K

;fdfGot g]kfndf lxpFb -hf8f]_ dlxgfdf dfq uf]ne]8F f
v]tL x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf] cWoogcg';f/ @@ l8u|L
;] l G6u| ] 8 eGbf a9L tfkqmddf
uf]ne]F8fsf] v]tL km:6fpFb}g / udL{
nfu];Fu} t/fO{sf pkef]Qmfn] kxf8L
lhNnf jf ef/taf6 cfot ul/Psf
uf]ne]F8f dxFuf] d"Nodf vl/b u/]/
pkef]u ug'k{ g]{ cj:yf 5 .
oxL cj:yfnfO{ dWogh/ u/L
ef/tsf] >L/fd jfof]l;8 sDkgLn] $)
l8u|L tfkqmd;Dd pTkfbg lng ;lsg]
jfof]l;8–%^, dxfjL/ / s/g hftsf
uf]ne]8F fsf] aLp g]kfndf laqmL–ljt/0f
ug{ yfn] s f] 5 . pQm sDkgLn]
cg';Gwfg u/]sf tL hftsf uf]ne]8F fsf]
af]6af6 /f]k]sf] &% lbgb]lv pTkfbg
lng ;lsg] / Ps} af] 6 af6 !)
lsnf]u|fd;Dd pTkfbg lng ;lsg]
sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 . sDkgLsf cg';f/ oL hftsf uf]ne]8F fsf]
Pp6} kmnsf] tf}n cf};tdf () u|fdeGbf a9L x'G5 .
xfn O6x/Lsf] l/hfn 6fF;L O08li6«hsf] kmd{df oL hftsf

xflb{s z'esfdgf

c
gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs
tyf z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
cf]ds'df/ zdf{
-k|wfgfWofks_

u+ufaxfb'/ yfkf
-cWoIf, Joj:yfkg ;ldlt_

cfbz{ pRr dfWoflds ljBfno kl/jf/
a/fxIf]q–#, ;'g;/L

j};fv @)&)

25

g]kfndf klxnf]k6s xfOLa|8 -j0f{z+s/_ wfgsf] aLp
pTkfbg x'g] ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd k|of]u ul/Psf hfteGbf
sl/a bf]Aa/ pTkfbgsf] ck]Iff ul/Psf] gofF wfgsf] aLp
ls;fgn] b'O{ jif{kl5 k|of]u ug{ kfpg]5g\ .
xfn g]kfndf k|of]u eO/x]sf] j0f{zs
+ / hftaf6 k|ltx]S6/
sl/a # d]l6«s 6g wfg pTkfbg eO/x]sf] 5 . gofF ljsf; x'g]
wfgsf] hft k|ltx]S6/ % d]l6«s 6g pTkfbg x'g] g]kfn s[lif
cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\ -gfs{_ n] hgfPsf] 5 .
…tLg jif{bl] v g]kfnd} gofF j0f{zs
+ / wfgsf] cg';Gwfg eO/x]sf]
5,Ú gfs{sf j}1flgs dgf]h 7fs'/n] eg] . xfn;Ddsf] cg';Gwfgdf
glthf ;sf/fTds b]lvPsfn] g]kfnd} klxnf]k6s j0f{zs
+ / wfgsf]
ljsf; ;kmn x'g] b]lvPsf] 5 . 5 lkF9L;Dd j}1flgsn] cjnf]sg
tyf cg';Gwfg u/]kl5 dfq Pp6f xfOlAf|8 aLp k"0f{ ljsl;t x'g]
/ o;sf nflu kfFr jif{;Dd nfUg] pgn] atfP .
lkmlnlkG;sf] OG6/g];gn /fO; l/;r{ OlG:6Ro'6 -O/L_
;Fusf] ;xsfo{df wg'iffdf aLp pTkfbg tyf cg';Gwfg eO/x]sf]
gfs{n] hgfPsf] 5 . lkmlnlkgL wfg / g]kfnL wfgsf] qml;ªaf6
ljsf; ug{ yflnPsf] wfgsf] aLp t/fO{ If]qnfO{ nlIft u/L
pTkfbg ul/g] gfs{n] hgfPsf] 5 .

gjjif{ @)&) sf] ;a}df z'esfdgf

xflb{s z'esfdgf

Go" z'enfe :6f]/ Hj]n;{

c

O6x/L–!, lj/f6gu/ nfOg, ;'g;/L
kmf]g M )@%–%*!*$), (*%@)@!#)*

O6x/L–#, ;'g;/L

cfw'lgs tyf cfsif{s
uxgf lgdf{0f ;fy}
;DalGwt cGo ;a}
sf/f]af/sf nflu
;Demg'xf]nf .

k|f=] bLks >]i7

26

K

K

gofF hftsf wfg

xfn ef/tnufot ljleGg b]zdf ljsf; ul/Psf j0f{zs
+ /
wfg k|of]udf 5g\ . g]kfnsf t/fO{, kxf8 / lxdfndf u/L
sl/a kfFr bh{g :yfgLo tyf j0f{zs
+ / wfgsf] aLp k|of]u x'bF }
cfPsf] 5 . cGgafnLsf] gofF xfOla|8 tof/ ug{ rf/ jif{;Dd
b'O{ z'4 hftx¿aLr qml;ª u/L pTkfbg ul/G5 .
rLgaf6 @% hftsf aLp lelqg]
pRr pTkfbsTj /x]sf @% cf]6f j0f{zs
+ / hftsf lrlgofF
wfgsf] klg cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv k/LIf0f x'g] ePsf] 5 .
dsjfgk'/, wg'iff / sfEf]|knf~rf]sdf k/LIf0f pTkfbg ul/g]
tL hftdWo] !) j6f hft dl;gf] wfgsf 5g\ .
kxf8, dWokxf8 / t/fO{sf nflu nlIft ul/Psf j0f{zs
+ /
wfgsf] k/LIf0f ug{ rLgsf] xfO6]s Pu|LsNr/n gfds lghL
sDkgLn] s[lif ljsf; dGqfno;Fu u/]sf] k|:tfjcg'?k k/LIf0f
pTkfbg yflng] ePsf] xf] . s]xL ;docl3 g]kfn Ef|d0fdf
cfPsf] lrlgofF 6f]nLn] OlG8sf, hfkflgsf / hef]lgsf hftsf
xfOlAf|8 wfgsf] aLp g]kfndf cg';Gwfg ug{ ;'´fj lbPsf]
lyof] . k|:tfljt hftx¿ cf7b]lv !$ d]l6«s 6g;Dd pTkfbsTj
/x]sf] j0f{z+s/ wfgsf hft x'g\ .
xfDf|f] h:tf] xfjfkfgLdf k/LIf0f ul/Psf wfgsf hftx¿
rLgaf6 NofOg]5 . j}1flgs 7fs'/n] eg], …s[ifsn] dg k/fP /
pTkfbg ;kmn eof] eg] tL hftx¿sf] yk pTkfbg tyf
ljt/0f ug]{5f}+ .Ú b'O{ jif{sf] k/LIf0fkl5 dfq g]kfndf tL
hftx¿sf] ef}uf]lns cg's"ntf Plsg x'g] pgn] atfP .

j};fv @)&)

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs
tyf z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
n]vgfy e§/fO{
-k|wfgfWofks_

afns[i0f lai6
-cWoIf, Joj:yfkg ;ldlt_

;/:jtL dfWolds ljBfno kl/jf/

:jf:Yo

SofG;/;DaGwL ;a}
lh1f;f k"/f ug]{ k':ts
;dfhdf ca'{4 /f]u -SofG;/_ sf] eo / kLl8tx?sf]
;+Vof al9/x]sf] a]nf SofG;/;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ hfgsf/L lbg]
SofG;/sf] ljifodf tkfO{sf Ps;o k|Zgsf] pQ/x? gfds
k':ts k|sflzt ePsf] 5 . :tg SofG;/af6 kLl8t >LdtLsf]
pkrf/sf nflu ef/tsf] /fhLj ufGwL SofG;/ OlG:6Ro"6 PG8
l/;r{ ;]G6/ k'u]sf w/fgsf ;dfh;]jL b]j/fh clwsf/Ln]
ToxfF SofG;/;DaGwL r]tgfd"ns ;a} hfgsf/L ;d]l6Psf]
k':ts c:ktfnn] ljt/0f ug]{ u/]sf] b]v]kl5 pQm k':tsnfO{
g]kfnL efiffdf k|sflzt u/fpg] kxn u/]sf x'g\ .
…d]/L >LdtLn] c:ktfnsf] a]8df klxn] g} o:tf] k':ts
e]6s
] f] eP Hofg u'dfpg kg]{ lyPg . d d/]/ uP klg c?n]
o;af/] ;dod} hfgsf/L lnPdf /f]uaf6 hf]lug ;Sg] ePsfn]
k|sflzt u/]/ ;a}nfO{ afFl8lbg' eg]/ u/]sf]
cg'/f]wcg';f/ d}n] of] k':ts k|sfzg ug{ kxn
u/]sf] x'F,Ú clwsf/Ln] eg] .
kmfu'g clGtd ;ftf ;'g;/L pBf]u jfl0fHo
;+3 w/fgsf] ;efxnleq / aflx/;d]t vrfvr
el/Psf w/fg / cf;kf;sf afl;Gbfx?n] rf/
306f;Dd k|ltIff u/]/ pQm k':ts xft kfg{ ;kmn
eP . rf/ 306f k|ltIffsf] sf/0f lyof], k':ts ljdf]rg
ug{ lgDTofOPsf jl/i7 d'6' /f]u ljz]if1 8f= eujfg
sf]O/fnfsf] hxfh l9nf] x'g' . tLg ah]nfO{ lgwf{/0f
ul/Psf] sfo{qmddf 8f= sf]O/fnf ;jf ^ ah]dfq
cfOk'us
] f lyP . pgn] k':tsn] SofG;/;DaGwL ;a}
lh1f;f d]6s
] fn] k':ts k9\g] ;a}n] k':tsdf pNn]lvt
s'/f kfng ug{ ;s] SofG;/af6 hf]lug ;Sg] hfgsf/L
lbP .
sfo{qmddf jL/ c:ktfnsf] ca{'4/f]u
ljefusL k|dv
' 8f= cf/tL zfx, ef/tsf] /fhLj

d]/L >LdtLn]
c:ktfnsf] a]8df
klxn] g} o:tf]
k':ts e]6]sf] eP
Hofg u'dfpg kg]{
lyPg .

ufGwL SofG;/ OlG:6Ro'6 PG8 l/;r{ ;]G6/sf
d] l 8sn ;' k l/G6] G 8] G 6 8f= cletfe
;]G8]lnodnufotsf lj1x?n] k':tsdf k|sflzt
s' / fdf j} 1 flgs cfwf/ /x] s fn] o;nfO{
;j{;fwf/0f;Dd k'¥ofpg kg]{ atfP .
g] k fn SofG;/ kmfpG8] z gsf
;Nnfxsf/;d]t /x]sf b]j/fh clwsf/Ln] cfkm"n]
g]kfnL efiffdf o:tf] k':ts 5fk]/ afF8\g kfP
w]/n
} ] SofG;/af6 hf]lug ;Sy] eg]/ c:ktfnsf
clwsf/Lx?;Fu cg'/f]w ubf{ /fhLj ufGwL
c:ktfnn] cfk\mgf] s'/f ;xif{ :jLsf/ u/]/
g]kfnL efiffdf cg'jfb u/]/ k|sflzt ug]{
cg'dltdfq x}g k|sfzg ug]{ vr{;d]t lbP/
e'Ng g;lsg] u'g nufPsf] atfP . sf7df8f}sf
ljw'z]v/ kf08]n] lxGbLaf6 g]kfnL efiffdf
cg'jfb u/]/ k|sfzg ul/Psf] k':tsdf SofG;/
/f]u nfUg' klxn]sf nIf0f, SofG;/sf sf/0f, ;fjwfgL /
/f]syfdsf pkfonufotsf ljifodf !)) cf]6f k|Zg / To;sf]
;/n hjfkm pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . k':ts ;a}nfO{ lgMz'Ns
ljt/0f ul/g] kmfpG8]zgsf ;Nnfxsf/ clwsf/Ln] hfgsf/L
lbPsf 5g\ .
b]jifL{ k|lti7fgn] cfof]hgf u/]sf] k':ts ljdf]rg
sfo{qmddf *) jif{eGbf a9L pd]/sf %) hgf h]i7 gful/snfO{
;Ddfg ug's
{ f ;fy} :jf:Yo If]qdf of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] sb/:j?k
8f= sf]O/fnfnfO{ ljleGg ;ª\3–;+:yfn] clegGbg u/]sf lyP .

j};fv @)&)

27

lghL c:ktfndf dfkb08ljgf z'Ns
b]ze/ lghL If]qaf6 ;~rflnt c:ktfn / gl;{ª xf]dn]
dfkb08ljgf z'Ns c;'Ng] u/]sf 5g\ . lgodcg';f/ c:ktfn
tyf gl;{ª xf]dsf] z'Ns tf]Sg dfkb08 lgwf{/0f ;ldlt u7g
u/]/ z'Ns lgwf{/0f ug'k{ g]{ Joj:yf eP klg c:ktfnx¿n]
cfkm"v';L z'Ns to u/]/ la/fdL;Fu /sd c;'Nb} cfPsf]
atfOPsf] 5 .
lghL tyf u}/;/sf/L :jf:Yo ;+:yf :yfkgf, ;~rfng
gLlt, dfkb08 Pjd\ lgb]l{ zsfdf z'Ns tf]Sg dfkb08 lgwf{/0f
;ldltsf] Joj:yf 5 . t/, lghL c:ktfn tyf gl;{ª xf]dn]
dfkb08sf] kfng u/]sf 5}gg\ .
:jf:Yo dGqfnosf cg';f/ b]ze/ sl/a tLg ;o cf]6f
c:ktfnn] ;~rfng :jLs[lt lnPsf 5g\ . s'g} klg c:ktfndf
lgodcg';f/ z'Ns tf]Sg ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5}g . /fhwfgLdf
dfq lghL nufgLdf ;~rflnt c:ktfnsf] ;+Vof sl/a Ps;o
/x]sf] :jf:Yo dGqfnon] hgfPsf] 5 .
lghL c:ktfn tyf gl;{ª xf]dsf] ;]jf z'Ns :jf:Yo
dGqfnosf k|ltlglw cWoIf, pkef]Qmf, lghL c:ktfn ;~rfns
;ldltsf k|ltlglw, P;f]l;P;g ckm k|fOe]6 x]Ny OlG:6Ro"6
ckm g]kfn -Plkmg_sf cWoIf, pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3,jfl0fHo
tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno, :yfgLo lgsfosf k|ltlglw / :jf:Yo
;]jf ljefusf dxflgb]{zs;lxtsf] gf} ;b:oLo ;ldlt u7g
u/]/ ;f] ;ldltdfkm{t\ tf]Sg'kg]{ Joj:yf 5 . t/ lghL c:ktfnx?
;fdfGo dfkb08 klg k" / f gu/L ;~rfngdf /x] s fn]
k|lqmofcg';f/ z'Ns lgwf{/0f ;ldlt u7g ug{ a]jf:tf ub}{
cfPsf] atfOPsf] 5 .
P;f]l;P;g ckm k|fOe]6 x]Ny OlG:6Ro"6 ckm g]kfn

-Plkmg_ cWoIf 8f= ef]nf l/hfnn] ;/sf/n] c:ktfnsf] :t/
lgwf{/0f ug]{ Joj:yf /x] klg gubf{ o:tf] ;d:of cfPsf]
atfP . PlkmgcGtu{t sl/a #) c:ktfndfq ;b:o /x]sf]
hfgsf/L u/fpFb} 8f= l/hfnn] lgodcg';f/ ;DalGwt gLlt,
lgod / lgb]l{ zsfnfO{ Wofg glbO{ ;~rfng cg'dlt lbFbf
c:ktfn Rofp;l/ pld|g] qmd hf/L /x]sf] atfP . pgn] eg],
;~rflnt c:ktfn tyf gl;{ª xf]dnfO{ :t/ lgwf{/0f u/]/
pknAw ;]jfsf cfwf/df z'Ns lgwf{/0f ul/P s'g} cfklQ
dfGg' kb}{g t/ xr'jfsf e/df ul/g'ePg .
c:ktfn :yfkgf, ;~rfng gLlt tyf k"jf{wf/ lgb]l{ zsf
@)^! df pNn]v ePcg';f/ dfkb08 k"/f u/]sf c:ktfnnfO{
:t/ lgwf{/0f ug{ cfjZos /x]sf] pgn] pgn] atfP . z/bl;+x
e08f/L :jf:YodGqL x'bF f Psk6s dfq lghL c:ktfn tyf
gl;{ª xf]dsf] cg'udg ePsf] :d/0f ub}{ To;kl5 cg'udg
ePsf] hfgsf/L g/x]sf] l/hfnn] hfgsf/L lbP .
:jf:Yo dGqfnosf ;lrj 8f= k|jL0f ld>n] ;/sf/n]
)$^ ;fnsf] kl/jt{gkl5 v'nf pbf/Ls/0f cy{gLlt cjnDag
ug]{ qmddf :jf:Yo If]qnfO{ klg v'nf u/]kl5 c:jfefljs
¿kdf c:ktfn vf]Ng] qmd j[l4 ePsf] atfpFb} cg'udg /
lgodg ug{ g;lsPsf] :jLsf/ u/] .
ljz]if1;lxtsf] ;]jf–;'ljwf k|jfx u/] klg lgodcg';f/
grn]sfn] lgodg u/]/ Jojl:yt¿kdf ;~rfng ug{ dGqfnon]
u[xsfo{ ul//x]sf] pgn] atfP . cfGtl/s /fh:j ljefusf cg';f/
:jf:Yo ;]jf s/cGtu{t jflif{s !) s/f]8 ?k}ofFeGbf a9L /fh:j
p7\g] u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] kfFr k|ltzt :jf:Yo ;]jf s/ sfod
u/]/ lghL :jf:Yo ;+:yf;Fu c;'Nb} cfPsf] 5 .

:jf:YosdL{ ;xof]u cIfosf]if
:jf:Yo k|fljlwsx?nfO{ bL3{/f]u
tyf cGo ljkQLdf ;xof]u ug{ g]kfn
:jf:Yo k|fljlws ;ª\3n] ;f]dt/fh
a:g]t :jf:YosdL{ ;xof]u cIfosf]if
:yfkgf u/]sf] 5 .
;+3sf] O6x/Ldf ;DkGg ePsf]
t];|f] kl/ifb\ e]nfdf ;+3sf ;+:yfks
cWoIf ;f]dt/fh a:g]tn] %) xhf/
?k}ofF k|bfg u/L cIfosf]if :yfkgf
ug{ k|]l/t u/]kl5 ;+3n] %) xhf/
yk u/L cIfosf]if :yfkgf ug]{ 3f]if0ff u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] sf]ifdf
;+3sf k"jp
{ kfWoIf lzjgf/fo0f ofbjn] Ps dlxgfsf] tna,
;+3sf sf]iffWoIf jL/]Gb|k|;fb ;fxn] @% xhf/ kfFr ;o %% /
;b:o uf]kfn u'?ªn] !) xhf/ ?k}ofF ;xof]u lbPsf lyP .
28

j};fv @)&)

%! lhNnfsf b'O{ ;o @% hgf
k|ltlglw ;xefuL ePsf] kl/ifb\ e]nfn]
:jf:YonfO{ df}lns xssf] ?kdf
:yflkt ug]n
{ ufot !& a'bF ] O6x/L
3f]if0ffkq hf/L u/]sf] lyof] . ;+3sf
cWoIf xl/axfb'/ s'Fj/n] ;+3sf]
:yfkgfdf of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] :jf:Yo
k|fljlwsx? ;+:yfks cWoIf ;f]dt/fh
a:g]t, ;+:yfksx? ZofdefO{ uf}td,
/d]z/fh nfdfnfO{ bf];Nnf cf]9fP/
;Ddfg ul/Psf] lyof] . e]nfn] ;a} txsf :jf:Yo k|fljlwsnfO{
;DalGwt ljifosf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ cWoogsf] cj;/ /
labfsf] Joj:yf / a]/f]huf/ :jf:Yo k|fljlwsx?nfO{ z}lIfs
a]/f]huf/ eQfsf] Joj:yf ug'k{ g]{ dfu u/]sf] 5 .

lj/f6gu/df xfd|f] c:ktfn
lj/f6gu/sf] sGrgjf/Ldf ut dlxgfb] l v xfd| f ] ;a} ;'ljwf pknAw 5 .
c:ktfnsf] gfdaf6 gofF c:ktfn ;~rfngdf cfPsf] 5 .
s~rgjf/Lsf] !) s6\7f & w'/ hUufdf km}lnPsf]
lj/f6gu/ If]qdf nfdf] ;dob]lv lrlsT;f ;]jfdf ;lqmo c:ktfndf lj/f6gu/df ;~rflnt cGo c:ktfneGbf w]/}
x'bF } cfPsf ljleGg ljifosf ljz]if1 lrlsT;sx? ldn]/ cfk\mg} km/flsnf] ;jf/L kfls{ª:ynsf] ;'ljwf pknAw /x]sf] c:ktfnsf
nufgLdf pQm c:ktfn ;~rfngdf NofPsf x'g\ . w]/} hgf lgb]{zs 8f= z+s/k|;fb clwsf/L atfpF5g\ .
lrlsT;sx? ldn]/ cfk\mg} nufgLdf :yfkgf u/]sf] of] c:ktfn
c:ktfndf /]l8of]nf]hLcGtu{t cN6«f;fp08 -lel8of]
;Dejt k"jf{~rnd} klxnf] xf] .
PS;–/]_, l8lh6n PS;–/], Osf]–sfl8{of]uf| kmL, O;LhLnufotsf]
hg/n lkmlhl;og Pjd\ d'6/' f]u ljz]if1 8f= z+s/k|;fb ;'ljwf 5 . ;3g pkrf/sf] nflu cfO;Lo'df tLg cf]6f /
clwsf/L, :qL tyf k|;t" L /f]u ljz]if1 8f= ;'/s
] f clwsf/L, hg/n PgcfO;Lo"df kfFr cf]6f z}of 5g\ .
;h{g 8f= ;'lgnrGb| clwsf/L, xf8hf]gL{ tyf gzf/f]u ljz]if1
…tkfO{sf] ;':jf:Yo xfd|f] ;/f]sf/ eGg] gf/f /x]sf]
8f= d'sG' b bfxfn, gjhft lzz' tyf afn/f]u ljz]if1 8f= lx/fnfn c:ktfndf cfk\mgf] k]zfsf] g}lts d"No / dfGotfcg';f/ ;]jf
;xgL;lxt dx]Gb| df]/ª sn]hsL pkk|fWofks cr{gf ltlD;gf / u/f}+ eg]/ xfdLn] nufgL u/]sf xf}+ . nufgLstf{ / ;]jf ug];
{ d]t
lzIff If]qd} lqmofzLn 1fgaxfb'/ v8\sf, eLd k/fh'nL / z}nG] b| xfdL cfkm}+ xf}+,Ú c:ktfnsf k|aGw lgb]{zs 8f= clwsf/Ln]
l;jfsf]6L;d]t gf} hgfn] rf/
eg] .
s/f]8 ?k}ofFeGbf a9L nufgL u/]/
xfd|f] c:ktfn cGtu{t
…tkfO{sf] ;':jf:Yo xfd|f] ;/f]sf/ eGg]
pQm c:ktfn ;~rfngdf
lj/f6gu/
Po/kf]6{ /f]8df
gf/f /x]sf] c:ktfndf cfk\mgf]
NofPsf x'g\ . @$ 306] Od/h]G;L
k"jf{~rn ljZjljBfnoaf6
k]zfsf] g}lts d"No / dfGotfcg';f/ ;DaGwg k| f Kt laP;;L
;]jf;lxt ljz]if1 alx/ª\u /
;]jf u/f}+ eg]/ xfdLn] nufgL u/]sf gl;{ª\sf] rf/ aif{] sf]if{{;d]t
Ps ;o z}ofsf] cGt/ª\u
;]jf;d]t /x]sf] pQm c:ktfndf
xf}+ . nufgLstf{ / ;]jf ug];{ d]t ;~rflnt 5 . pQm sn]hdf
la/fdLsf] /f]u klxrfg ug{
xfn *) hgf cWoog/t /x]sf]
xfdL cfkm}+ xf}Ú+
/]l8of]nf]hL tyf k|of]uzfnfsf]
8f= clwsf/Ln] hfgsf/L lbP .

j};fv @)&)

29

;"rgf–k|ljlw

j]a;fO6 s] xf] < s;/L sfd u5{ <
ljZjJofkLs/0fn] ;Defjgf / r'gf}tL
;fdfGotf j]a;fO6 eg]sf] Pp6f On]S6«fl] gS; a|fp;/
xf] . a|fp;/ ljleGg ;fOh, k]hsf] ;+Vof cflb km/s–km/s ;a} If]qsf nflu a9fPsf] 5 . ;"rgf–k|ljlwsf]
b|t" t/ ;]jfn] xfdLnfO{ pTkfbg, pkef]u,
lsl;dsf x'G5 . To:t}sf] On]S6«fl] gs e;{g j]a;fO6 xf] .
F ' k'¥ofpg
j]a;fO6 ljleGg kfgf ;+Vof? kmf]6f], lel8of], cl8of], cl8of]– ljlgdo, ljt/0f ;a} If]qdf ;xh k'xr
lel8of] /fv]/ agfOG5, / To;kl5 Tof] agfO;s]sf kmfOnx?nfO{ / lgoGq0f sfod u/fpg of]Uo / ;zQm
Pp6f @$ ;} 306f #^% lbg slxn] klg aGb gx'g] lg/Gt/ agfpF5 . ;xh?kdf eGg'kbf{ j]a;fO6 o;
rln/xg] sDKo'6/df /flvG5 . h;n] ;+;f/sf] s'g} s'gfdf o'usf] cfjZostf xf] . ljZjdf xfd|f] cl:tTj,
a;]sf] dflg;n] Ps} ;fy x]g{ / k9\g ;S5g\ . oxL kmfOn Ifdtf, ;]jf, ljZj;gLotf :yflkt u/fpg] k|sfz pk|]tL
Psdfq
/fv]sf] sDKo'6/nfO{ ;e{/ elgG5
dfWod ;"rgf k|ljlwM j]a;fO6 xf] .
/ kmfOnx? agfpg] k|lqmofnfO{ j]a;fO6sf kmfObfx¿ M
j]a;fO6 8]enkd]G6 elgG5 . !_ cfkm\gf] ;+:yfsf] ;]jf ;'ljwfnfO{ b]z tyf ljb]z;Dd ljBfyL{nfO{ ljZjljBfno /
lZfIf0f ;fdu|L, /f]uLnfO{ cf}ifwL
j]a;fO6sf] kmfOn ;e{/df klxrfg u/fpg ;lsg] .
/flvg] ePsf] x'Fbf k|To]s jif{ @_ j]a;fO6af6 cgnfOgdf sf/f]af/ ug{ ;lsg], vl/b / u'0f:t/Lo ;]jf, pBf]uLnfO{
j] a ;fO6 gjLs/0f ug{ ' k g] { jf laqmL ug{ ;lsg] , cfkm\ g f] k| 8 S6 / ;] j fnfO{ sRrfkbfy{bl] v pkef]Qmf, ls;fgnfO{
lapm, dn / ahf/;Fu hf]8g\ ] clg
x' G 5 . ToxL kmfOn /flvPsf] cgnfOgdfkm{t\ ;+;f/sf] ;a} s'gfdf b]vfpg ;lsg] .
eP/ g} j]a;fO6 gjLs/0f ug'k{ g]{ #_ cfkm\gf] ;+:yfnfO{ ljb]z;Dd klxrfg ug{] ;a}eGbf ljZjnfO{ ;fgf] ufpFsf] ?kdf kl/0ft
ug]{ s'/f g} ;"rgf–k|ljlw xf] .
x'G5 / To;}sf cfwf/df a;]{lg ;lhnf] dfWodsf] ?kdf :yfkgf u/fpg ;lsg] .
s]xL k};f klg nfUg] x'G5 .
$_ k|rf/–k|;f/ / lj1fkgsf] ;a}eGbf cufl8sf] dfWod g} ljZje/sf dflg;x?nfO{ cfkm\gf
;"rgf k|ljlwsf] cfhsf] j]a;fO6 xf], h;n] tkfO{sf] ;+:yfnfO{ clg tkfO{sf] ;]jf s'/f eGg] / c?sf] s'/f a'em\g] a[xt
o'udf lj1fgn] w/} g} km8\sf] ;fy} k|8S6nfO{ ljZjJofkL?kdf ckm\gf] kl/ro lbg]] u5{ . ;femf rf}tf/f]] klg j]a;fO6 xf] .
JolQmut?kdf cfkm\gf n]v
df/]sf] 5, cd]l/sf, hfkfg, %_ u'undf s;}n] tkfO{sf] ;+:yfsf] gfd vf]Hbf j]a;fO6
sf]l/of, b'aO{ dn]l;of, stf/df ;lhn} e]6g\ ;S5g\, h;n] ubf{ ;]jf, k|8S6, clg /flvPsf]] /rgf, kmf]6f], lel8of] cflb klg
j]a;fO6df /fVg ;lsG5, clg
/x]sf] ;a} s'/fx? xfdL g]kfndf ;Dk"0f{ hfgsf/L lbg ;lsG5 .
a;]/ OG6/g]6 hf]8s
] f] sDKo'6/df ^_ ;+:yfsf] lelhl6ª sf8{, a|f;
] /, klqsf, clg PkmPddf To;sf] ;'emfj, k|ltlqmof klg
x]g{ ;S5f}, t/ xfd|f] ;+:yfsf] af/]df, lj1fkg ahfpFbf j]a;fO6sf] 7]ufgf lbFbf ;+:yfsf] af/]df ;Dk"0f{ k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . j]a;fO6df
sn]h, :s'nsf] af/]df clg xfd|f] s'/f b]vfpg ;lsG5, lelhl6ª\ sf8{, a|f;
] / cflbn] cf+lzs ;'xfpFbf] lj1fkg /fv]/ To;af6
cfly{s nfe klg lng ;lsG5 .
k|f8] S; / ;]jfsf af/]df ljb]zdf hfgsf/L lbG5g\ t/ j]a;fO6n] k"0f{ hfgsf/L lbG5 .
a:g] dflg;nfO{ b] v fpg g} &_ ;+:yfsf] nf]s];g, kmf]g, O–d]n cflb kl/jt{g x'g g]kfndf o:tf j]a;fO6x? y'k}|
j]a;fO6sf] h?/L kb{5 .
;S5g\, t/ j]a;fO{6sf] 7]ufgf h'g 5 ToxL g} ;bf;bfsf] 5g\ , h:t} M gful/sGo" h ,
cgnfOgva/, dfO;+;f/, u'un
;/n efiffdf eGg] xf] eg], nflu /lx/xg] x'G5 .
P8;]G;sf] k|of]uaf6 j]a;fO6df
j] a ;fO6 Pp6f On] S 6« f ] l gs *_ @$ 306f #^% lbg ;]jf lbg / lng ;lsG5 .
a|fp;/ xf], h;df tkfO{n] rfx]sf] (_ ;+:yfsf] kmf]6f], lel8of], k|f]kmfOn, ;+:yfsf] nf]s];g – k|rf/ /fv]/ j]a;fO6af6 cfo–
a]nf ;"rgf yk–36 ug],{ kmf]6f]x? Dofk OToflb s'/fx? Ps}k6s ;a}nfO{ b]vfpg ;lsg] . cfh{g klg ug{ ;lsG5 .
gofF k| l jlwcGt{ u t
/fVg], lel8of]x? ;lhn} cknf]8 !)_ j]a;fO6df kmf]6f], j8{ PS;n, kfj/ kf]OG6sf kmfOn,
ug]{, clg rfx]sf] s'/f ljZj;fd' lel8of], cl8of]nufot w]/} s'/f b]vfpg ;lsg] ePsfn] j]a;fO6nfO{ pkof]u u/]/ ;+;f/sf]
:ki6 b]vfpg], ;+;f/sf] ;a}eGbf jt{dfg ;dodf j]a;fO6af6 w]/} kmfObf lng ;lsG5 . Ps s'gfdf ePsf] ultlalwnfO{
csf{] s'gfdf a;]sf hf]–sf]xL
cufl8sf] k|rf/–k|;f/sf] dfWod
xf] of] . h'g ofb ug{ ;lhnf], gla;{g] clg @$ 306f #^% lbg g} dflg;nO{ b]vfpg ;lsG5 . h:t}M lj/f6gu/df ePsf] Pp6f
:s'nsf] hfgsf/L >Job[Zosf] dfWodaf6 ;+;f/sf] h'g} s'gfdf
;]jf lbg] x'G5 .
a;]/ klg x]g{ ;lsG5 . h:t}, b'aO{df a:g] Pp6f g]kfnLn]
j]a;fO6 lsg <
;a} lsl;dsf] ;+ 3 –;+ : yfx?nfO{ /fli6« o tyf t]xy| d' df ah]sf] /]l8of]nfO{ ;f]xL ;dodf ;'Gg ;lsg] dfWod g}
cGt/f{li6«o:t/df @$ ;} 306f ;lhnf] dfWodaf6 ;:tf] / j]a;fO6 xf] . j]a;fO6sf] dfWodaf6 b]z–ljb]zdf a:g] JolQmx?n]
´G´6/lxt ;fy} :t/Lo tl/sfaf6 k|a4{g ug{sf nflu j]a;fO6 cgnfOgdfkm{t\ O{–k]k/ k9\g ;Sg] k|ljlwnfO{ j]a;fO6n] ;xof]u
clt pkof]uL] dfWod xf] . j]a;fO6df kmf]6f], lel8of], cl8of], u/]sf] 5 . Ps 7fpFsf] dfG5] csf]{ 7fpFsf] dfG5];uF ;Dks{ x'g
kmd{ gS;f, k/LIffkmn, ;"rgf, ;fdfrf/, lsga]r s'g} klg j]a;fO6 g} ;xof]uL dfWod xf] .
j:t'sf] k|a4{g ug{ ;lsG5 .
-n]vs k|sfz OGkmf]l;; lj/f6gu/sf lgb]{zs x'g\_
30

j};fv @)&)

tf//lxt jfOd]S; OG6/g]6
ca 3/–3/df

g]kfn 6]lnsdn] ;j{;fwf/0f u|fxsnfO{ 3/d} h8fg
u/]/ rnfpg ;Sg] u/L pRr ultsf] tf/ljxLg jfODofS;
OG6/g]6 ;]jf laqmL ug{ yfn]sf] 5 .
ut sfltsb]lv ;+:yfut u|fxssf nflu ;]jf
;'? u/]sf] 6]lnsdn] r}t !$ b]lv ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{
klg kmf]/hL k|ljlwsf] jfODofS; ;]jf lbg yfn]sf]
xf] . 6]lnsdsf ;xk|jQmf /fh]z hf]zLsf cg';f/
tLa| ultsf] OG6/g]6 vf]Hg]nfO{ of] ;]jf pko'Qm
x'g]5 . 6]lnsdn] ef]n'd a]; -rnfPsf cfwf/df
/sd sfl6g]_ Kofs]hdf of] ;]jf ;'? u/]sf] xf] .
sDkgLsf cg';f/ pkef]Qmfn] Ps dlxgf, tLg dlxgf /
Ps jif{sf] Kofs]h lsGg ;Sg]5g . Ps dlxg] Kofs]h lsGbf
b'O{ ;o %^ lsnf]la6\; k|lt;]s]G8 -s]aLkLP;_ ultsf] %
luufafO6 -lhaL_ 8f6f lsGg'k5{ . of] Kofs]hsf] d"No ^ ;o
%) ?k}ofF tf]lsPsf] 5 .
To;}u/L, % ;o !@ s]aLkLP; ultsf] * lhaL 8f6fdf
* ;o %) / ! d]ufla6\; -PdaL_ ultsf] !@ lhaL 8f6f
lsGbf ! xhf/ # ;o $) ?k}ofF kb{5 . tLg dlxg] Kofs]hdf
%) k|ltzt / ! jif]{ Kofs]h Ps} k6s lng]nfO{ sDkgLn] !%
k|ltzt 5'6 lbg] hgfPsf] 5 .
6]lnsdsf cg';f/ tLg dlxg] Kofs]hdf @ ;o %^
s]aLkLP; ultsf] ;]jf lng]n] #) lhaL, % ;o !@ s]aLkLP;
/ ! PdaLkLP; ultdf #^ lhaL 8f6f Kofs]h kfpF5g\ . @ ;o
%^ s]aLkLP;sf] tLg dlxg] Kofs]hnfO{ dlxgfdf ! xhf/ ^
;o %) ?k}ofF, % ;o !@ s]aLkLP;nfO{ ! xhf/ * ;o %) /
! PdaLkLP;nfO{ @ xhf/ !) ?k}ofF ltg'k{ 5{, of] 5'6 d"No xf] .
6]lnsdn] of] ;]jf rnfpg cfjZos s:6d/ lk|ld;];

OSo'kd]G6 -l;lkO_ aG8lnª u/]/ laqmL ug]{5 .
8]:s6k, Nofk6k, :df6{kmf]gdf Ps}k6s w]/}
k|of]ustf{n] OG6/g]6 rnfpg ldNg] jfODofS;nfO{
klg Pl8P;Pn df]8d
] h:t} l;lkO rflxG5 .
jfODofS;sf nflu # k|sf/sf] l;lkO h8fg
ug{ ;lsG5 . 6fj/eGbf @) lsnf]ld6/ 6f9f;Dd
OG6/g]6 rnfpg cfp68f]/ l;lkO rflxG5 . o;nfO{
3/aflx/ leQf jf 5tdf /fVg'k5{ . l;lkOn] 6fj/af6 l;Ugn
tfg]/ OG6/g]6 rnfpg ;lhnf] agfpF5 .
3/leq /fVg Og8f] / l;lkO x' G 5 . 6fj/af6 $
lsnf]ld6/;Dd of] l;lkOaf6 OG6/g]6 rnfpg ;lsG5 . o;nfO{
kfj/ lbPkl5 Ps}k6s tf/ jf jfo/n]; agfP/ w]/n
} ] OG6/g]6
rnfpg ;S5g\ . ;fgf] sfof{nonfO{ Og8f]/ l;lkO pko'Qm
x'G5 . 3/df Ps}k6s 8]:s6k, Nofk6k jf :df6{kmf]g rnfpg
of] pko'Qm x'G5 .
Nofk6k, 8]:s6knufot Pp6fdfq sDKo'6/df OG6/g]6
rnfpg eg] o'P;aL 8+uf]n jf df]8]d cfjZos k5{ .
3/fo;LnfO{ o:tf 8+uf]n / df]8]d g} pko'Qm x'g] 6]lnsd
clwsf/L atfpF5g\ . o;n] 6fj/b]lv @ lsnf]ld6/leq
jfODofS; OG6/g]6 rnfpg ;lsG5 . o'P;aL 8+uf]nsf] d"No
% xhf/ / df]8]dsf] & xhf/ k5{ . l;lkOsf] d"No eg] a9L
x'G5 . 6]lnsdn] Og8f]/ l;lkOsf] !@ xhf/ / cfp68f]/
l;lkOsf] @) xhf/ kg]{ hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . 6]lnsdn]
k"j{sf lj/f6gu/, w/fg, O6x/L gu/;lxt !# c~rnsf $(
lhNnfdf ;]jf lj:tf/ u/]sf] xf] .

jN8{ln+sn] s]an h'd OG6/g]6 lj:tf/ ug]{
jN8{ln+s sDo'lgs];g k|flnn] b]zsf k|d'v ;x/df
s]andfkm{t !) d]ufafO6\; k|lt;]sG] 8 -PdaLkLP;_ sf] pRr
Ifdtfsf] OG6/g]6 lj:tf/ ug]{ ePsf] 5 .
sDkgLn] …s]an h'dÚ of]hgf cGtu{t !) d]ufafO6\;
k|lt;]s]G8sf] OG6/g]6 ! xhf/ ! ;o ?k}ofF -s/afx]s_
k|ltdlxgfsf b/n] Kofs]h lj:tf/ ug]{ hgfPsf] 5 . of] ;'ljwf
cGtu{t u|fxsn] @) hLaL;Ddsf] 8f6f Ps dlxgfleq k|of]u
ug{ ;Sg]5g\ . Ps dlxgf k'Ug'cl3 g} @) hLaL ;lsP klg ;f]
;]jf cj?4 geO{ ! ;o @* s]aLkLP; Ifdtfsf] OG6/g]6 ;]jf
eg] u|fxsn] kfO/xg] 5g\ .
sDkgLn] ;a}df OG6/g]6 kxFr
' a9fpg] p2]Zon] of] of]hgf
NofPsf] hgfPsf] 5 . sf7df8f}+, nlntk'/ / eQmk'/df …s]an
h'dÚ ;]jf lbO;s]sf] sDkgLn] tTsfn} lj/f6gu/, e}/xjf /
kf]v/fdf ;d]t ;]jf lbOg]] sDkgLsf cWoIf bLlnk cu|jfnn]
hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/ s]an h'd ;]jf vf;u/L 3/fo;L
k|of]ustf{nfO{ nlIft u/L NofOPsf] ;]jf xf] .

df3 bf];|f] xKtfb]lv ;'? ul/Psf] s]an h'd ;]jf s]an
dfkm{t\ lbOg] x'Fbf cGo k2lteGbf !) u'0ff a9L u'0f:t/Lo x'g]
/ u'0f:t/Lotfsf] t'ngfdf z'Ns klg ;:tf] /x]sf] sDkgLsf]
bfjL 5 .
s]an h'dsf] h8fg z'Nsjfkt # xhf/ lng] sDkgLn]
@) hLaL 8f6fsf nflu ! xhf/ ! ;o, #) hLaLsf nflu !
xhf/ % ;o, $) hLaLsf nflu ! xhf/ * ;o ?k}of / ^)
hLaLsf nflu # xhf/ ! ;o ?k}ofF k|ltdlxgf b/ sfod u/]sf]
5 . ;fy} k|lt tLg dlxgfsf] Kofs]h lnFbf eg] () hLaL
8f6fsf] $ xhf/ # ;o %), ! ;o @) hLaL 8f6fsf] % xhf/
@ ;o %) z'Ns /x]sf] 5 . To:t}, @ ;o $) hLaL !@ xhf/,
# ;o ^) hLaLsf nflu !% xhf/ ^ ;o / $ ;o $*
hLaLsf nflu eg] !* xhf/ ^ ;o ?k}ofF k|ltjif{ sfod
ul/Psf] sDkgLn] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . b]zsf %& lhNnfdf
@# xhf/eGbf w]/} u|fxsnfO{ ;]jf lbO/x]sf] sDkgLn] ;/sf/nfO{
a;]{lg # s/f]8eGbf w]/} /fh:j a'´fpFb} cfPsf] hgfPsf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

31

ofqf ;+:d/0f

c:6«l] nof ofqf
ljb]z e|d0fsf nflu cft'/ d]/f] dg, ljrf/, efjgf clg
ljb]z 3'Dg] ;kgf ;fsf/ x'g] cfsf+Iff af]s]/ >LdtL OlGb/f /
d @)^* ;fpg @@ ut] sf8df8f}a+ f6 !M#) ah] l;Ns Po/df
k|yd kfOnf 6]Sof}+ . % 306fsf] cfsfzofqfkZrft l;+ufk'/
k'Uof},+ ToxfF $ 306f lj>fdsf] cjlwdf l;+ufk'/ ;x/sf] kl/qmdf
/ cjnf]]sg ug]{ df}sf t kfOPg . aflx/ x]g]{ 3'Dg] OR5f
x'bfFx'b}F klg Po/kf]6{ aflx/ hfg] cg'dlt lyPg . s]xL vNnf] /
pbfzLg dgn] Po/kf]6{leq} ;o/ ug{ nfUof}+ . aflx/ t s]
lyof], s:tf] lyof], leqs} ;'Gb/tf / b'nxLh:tf] ;lh;hfj6n]
xfd|f] dg–dl:ts g} Psf]xf]l/of], To;sf] j0f{g s] u/f}+, s;/L
u/f}+ < k'gM l;+ufk'/ Po/nfOG;af6 & 306f cfsfzleq} x/fpFb}
c:6]«lnofsf] la|;j]g ;x/df cjt/0f x'g k'Uof}+ . la|;j]gdf
ToxfFsf] ;docg';f/ laxfgsf] !! ah]sf] /x]5 . $ 306f @)
ldg]6 xfdL -g]kfn_ k5fl8 /x]5f}+ .
tLg jif{kl5 e]l6Psf b'O{ 5f]/L HjfOFx? qmdzM ;'/Iff
s];L / o'j/fh s];L tyf pRrtf lai6 / k|bLk lai6 xfdLnfO{
lng Po/kf]6{ g} cfpg'ePsf] lyof] . Po/kf]6a{ f6 cfˆgf ;fdfg
lhDdf lng] sfd HjfOFx?n] ;DxfNg'eof] . vfg]–lkpg] ;fdfgnfO{
/f]s nufpF5 kmflnlbG5 eGg] lrGtfn] d]/f] b[li6 ;fdfgkl§
lyof] . 8«'s a|f08sf ;fdfgx?dWo] cfk"mnfO{ dgkg]{ / nfg
kfOg] ljleGg kl/sf/sf crf/x? af]s]sf] lyPF, To;}df d]/f]
Wofg lyof] . kmflnb]nf ls eGg] z+s}z+sf /x]klg Tof] ;fdfg
5f]/L HjfOFsf] 3/;Dd k'¥ofpg kfOof] .
c:6«]lnofsf] s'OG; NofG8 /fHosf] la|;j]gaf6 6'pDaf
zx/df hfgsf nflu @ 306f nfUbf] /x]5 . @ 306fsf] sf/
ofqf to ubf{ b]lvPsf 7"nf rf}8f rf/ n]g, 5 n]gsf] af6f]sf]
j0f{g ul//xFbf aNnaNn e]6 ePsf xfdLaLr ;~r ;'lj:tf,
cf/fd, s'zntf 3/–ufpFsf va/x? cfbfg–k|bfg eGbf /d0fLo
af6f]sf] ;km/df zx/ x]b}{ ToxLsf] j0f{g ub}{ 3/ k'luof] . 3/
k'u]kl5 kf] yfxf ef] g]kfn t 5fl8;lsP5 . x]b}{ /dfpFb}
6'pDafl:yt 3/ k'Uof}+ . To; lbg va/ cfbfg–k|bfg / enfs';/L
tyf vfgkfg d} /ft laTof] . xfdL a;]sf] 3/ 5]pd} hfkfgn]
agfPsf] clt Jojl:yt hfkflgh uf8]{g /x]5 . To;a]nf ToxfF
hf8f]sf] ;do g} lyof] ;fpg dlxgfdf klg ToxfF hf8f] / lr;f]
lyof] . ef]lnkN6 laxfg} em'Ns] 3fddf g} xfd|f] hfkflgh uf8]{g
x]g]{ OR5fcg'?k rf/ 5f]/L HjfOF;lxt xfdL kfs{lt/ nfUof}+,
To; kfs{sf] If]qkmn sl/a *÷( ljufxf hlt xf]nf . Tolt g}
If]qkmndf klg ;'Gb/ Jojl:yt s[lqd em/gf / kf]v/L clt
/d0fLo hfkflgh snf ;+:s[lt emNsg] gd'gf uf8]{g glhs}
lbgx'F dg axnfpg], 3'Dg kfOg] rfxgfn] xfdL k|km'lNnt x'GYof}+ .
d]/f] b]z g]kfn clg c:6«l] nof
32

j};fv @)&)

d]/f] dg dl:tis clg efjgf /
;f]rfOx? tLj|ultdf t'ngfTds 9+un]
;~rflnt eO/x] clg rln/x] . Pp6f
/fd|f] slj, Pp6f /fd|f] n]vs / Pp6f
;flxTosf/n] ;f]Rg], ;lDemg] dL7f÷dL7f
;f]rfO / efjgfdf x/fpg] /dfpg]h:tf]
d]/f] dg eO/Xof] . d ;f]Ry]F d]/f] g]kfn v]ngf/fo0f k/fh'nL
klg o:t} x'Fbf] xf] t < o:tf] x'g
slt÷slt jif{ nfUbf] xf] < cflb÷cflb . d]/f 3'dfOsf Ps–Ps
kn, If0f / lbgx? laTb} uP . 3/ a:bfsf] ;do k|foM Tox?
hkflgh kfs{df g} Aoltt x'g] lbgrof{ aGYof] .
ToxfF ePsf] kf]v/Ldf v]Ng] /dfpg] ljleGg hft, k|hfltsf
r/fx? kfNt' xfF; ;fy} h+unL xfF;, Ps} :yfgdf v]ns
] f /dfPsf,
ljleGg hft / afGsLsf ;f/;, sfnf–;]tf as'Nnf, df5f /
s5'jfsf] rxn–kxn clg ltgnfO{ rf/f] -cfxf/f_ lbg]x?n]
lnPsf] cfgGb ;fy} cfxf/f vfg cfpg]x?sf] /d0fLo
b[Zofjnf]sgdf xfd|f km'[;{bsf ;do Aoltt x'g] uy]{ . olt
dfq sxfF xf] / < ljleGg km"nsf k|hflt, 9sdSs km"ln/x]sf
nx/fO/x]sf v} s:tf] dfnL lyof] xf]nf . dfnLsf] c;nL
snfsfl/tfsf] v'jL emlNsPsf] kfPF, d x]/]sf] x]/} ePF .
o;/L g} a]nfa]nf c:6«l] nofsf d'Vo–d'Vo zx/x? l;8\gL
, Sofgef/f, la|;j]g, uf]N8sf]:6, d]nag{, ;g;fOg sf]:6df
xfdL 3'ld/x\of}÷x/fO/x\of}+ . l;8\gLsf] la|h, cf]k/] f xfp; clg
cf;kf;sf uugr'DaL dxn;Fu} gLnf] ;d'Gb|sf] cfgGb To;}df
rxn÷kxn ul//x]sf kfgL hfxhx? hf] g]kfndf slxNo} kfOFbg} g\,
tL b]v/] s]÷s] dgsf sNkgfx?df 8'la/x]F x/fO/x] . cf]k/] f
xfp;s} bflxg] 5]pdf clt /d0fLo Pjd\ Jojl:yt snfTds
kfs{ /x]5 . To; kfs{df ljleGg d'ns
' sf ;fy} ef/t / g]kfnsf
snfsf/x?n] ;d]t lkmNd ;'l6ª ug]{ /fd|f] ynf] agfPsf /x]5g\ .
Tof] kfs{ ;a}sf] dg nf]Eofpg ;kmn ePsf] cg'ej kfPF . clg
d}n] ;f]r,F] o:t} ljslzt /fi6« xfd|f] klg slxn] x'g] xf] < dgdg}
;f]rF] . ef]s nfu]sf] klg cQf]kQf] g} ePg .
d}n] cfkm"n] cfkm}nfO{ eg], xfdL efUodfgL, ;'Gb/ g]k] fn
b]zsf cefuL gful/s, g]kfndf t w]/} /fhg]tf, g]tf hlGdP
hlGdb}5g\ x/]sn] eGg] u/]sf 5g\, g]kfnnfO{ l;+ufk'/, k]l/;,
l:j6h/n}08 agfOlbG5f} / eGb} 7"nf7"nf cf]xf]bfdf k'u,] k'us
] f
5g\, tL cf]xf]bfdf k'Ug]x? /fi6« / hgtfsf nflu t xf]Og kf6L{ /
JolQmut :jfy{df 8'a,] sdfP, s'DNofP, ca t nfU5 g]kfnnfO{
l:j6h/n}08 xf]Og gª\ufn}08 -gfª\uf]_ r} kSs} agfOlbG5g\ xf]nf .
To;}n] d k|foM h;f] eGg] u5',{ hlt cUnf] ;u/dfyf Tolt g} ulx/f]
g]kfnL g]tfx?sf] k]6 s'g} sfndf -/f0ffsfn, /fhtGqsfn,
k~rfotsfn, ax'bnLo sfn, /fi6«kltsfn of dfcf]jfbLsfn_ df
klg gel/g] eof], el/Pg . x], b}j ;'ba'l4 b]pm, xfd|f rt'/ g]tfsf]
a'l4 hglxt, b]zelQm, lxt / pGgltdf nufpm .
-n]vs O6x/Ll:yt l/hfn6fF;L O08li6«hsf k|zf;g k|d'v x'g_\

pBf]u

#$ dlb/f pBf]u ylkg]
;/sf/n] !@ jif{kl5 v'Nnf u/]sf] dlb/f pBf]usf] gofF
nfO;]G; kfFr dlxgfdf #$ cf]6f pBf]un] kfPsf 5g\ . !@
jif{b]lv aGb /x]sf] dlb/f pBf]usf] nfO;]G; ljt/0f sfo{ ut
c;f]hdf dfkb08 agfP/ v'Nnf ul/Psf] lyof] .
nfO;]G; v'Nnf ePkl5
dlb/f Joj;fod} :yflkt Ps}
kl/jf/sf tLg hgf;Ddn] gofF
nfO;]G; lnPsf] atfOPsf] 5 .
dGqfno ;| f ] t sf cg' ; f/
hfjnfv]n l8l:6n/Lsf cWoIf
ljhos'df/ zfxsf] kl/jf/n] tLg
cf]6f nfO;]G; lnPsf 5g\ .
k|:tfljt pBf]udWo] k;f{df
pgsf 5f]/f /fhaxfb'/ zfxsf]
gfddf 5 eg] 5f]/L hofn] ;f]xL
7fpFdf :k|L6 pBf]usf] nfO;]G;
kfPsL 5g\ . zfx kl/jf/sf
gfddf o;cl3 g} hfjnfv]n,
lxdfnog / Pl;og l8li6n/Lsf]
nfO;]G; 5 . oLafx]s g]kfn pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3sf cWoIf
;'/h j}B, dlb/f pTkfbs ;+3sf cWoIf /lj s];Ln] klg gofF
pBf]usf] nfO;]G; lnPsf 5g\ .
ljefudf k'; klxnf] ;ftf;Dd Ps ;o %) pBf]un]

hubDaf l;d]G6sf ;a} a|f08

n]ldg]68] af]/fdf
hubDaf l;d]G6 pBf]u e}/xjf / z'e>L hubDaf l;d]G6
pBf]u jL/uGhaf6 pTkflbt ;a} Af|f08sf l;d]G6 n]ldg]6]8
af]/fdf Koflsª u/]/ laqmL ljt/0f ;'? u/]sf 5g\ . o;cl3
ut k';df oL b'j} pBf]un] cfk\mgf kLkL;L l;d]G6sf a|f08df
n]ldg]68] af]/fsf] k|of]u ;'? u/]sf lyP . s]xL ;dosf] kl/If0fkl5
xfn b'j} pBf]uaf6 pTkflbt ;a} a|f08sf l;d]G6df n]ldg]6]8
af]/f k|of]u u/L ahf/df k7fpg yfln;s]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .
e}/xjfl:yt hubDaf l;d]G6 pBf]uaf6 ljleGg % cf]6f
Af|f08 / jL/uGhl:yt z'e>L hubDaf pBf]uaf6 $ cf]6f
Af|f08sf u/L gf} Af|f08sf cf]kL;L / kLkL;L l;d]G6 n]ldg]6]8

lgj]bg lbPsf lyP . tLdWo] af]8{n] #$ nfO{ dfq} nfO;]G;
lbPsf] xf] . ljefun] k|lqmof k'u]sf !% pBf]uaf/] lg0f{o ug{
afFsL /x]sf] hgfOPsf] 5 . :jb]zL dlb/f pTkfbs pBf]unfO{
nfO;]G; aGb ubf{ ljb]zL dlb/f cfoftsf] b/ a;]{lg a9]sf] /
7"nf] /sd aflxl/Psf] eGb}
dlGqkl/ifb\ n ] c;f/ # df
…cfjZos dfkb08 agfP/
nfO;]G; km's'jf ug{Ú pBf]u
dGqfnonfO{ lgb]{zg lbPsf]
lyof] . ToxL lgb]z
{ gsf cfwf/df
dGqfnon] dfkb08 agfP/
c;f]h @% df nfO;]G; vf]ns
] f]
xf] .
;Lldt JolQmnfO{
nfO;]G; lbP/ k'gM aGb ug]{
tof/L eO/x]sf] ;|f]tsf] egfO
5 . dlb/f pTkfbs ;+3sf
lgjt{dfg cWoIf b]jLk|;fb kf08]
v'nf cy{gLlt cjnDag ug]{
d'ns
' n] nfO;]G; aGb ug{ gldNg] ts{ u5{g\ . kf08]sf cg';f/
ut jif{ dlb/fhGo pBf]un] dfq} ;/sf/nfO{ @! ca{ ?k}ofF
/fh:j a'´fPsf lyP . k|To]s jif{ dlb/fsf] sf/f]af/ !% k|ltztn]
a9\g] u/]sf] 5 .
af]/fdf Koflsª u/L ahf/ k7fOPsf] xf] .
n]ldg]6]8 af]/f k|of]u ubf{ ;fwf/0f af]/feGbf k|ltaf]/f ^
?k}ofF d"No nfut a9L kg]{ u/]sf] ePklg pkef]QmfnfO{ ;fljs
d"Nod} pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf] dxfk|aGws ljb'/ 9'u+ fgfn]
hfgsf/L lbP . pBf]un] cfk\mgf] ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTjnfO{
;d]t dWogh/ ub}{ d"No ga9fPsf] atfpFb} 9'u+ fgfn] n]ldg]68]
af]/fsf] k|of]ukl5 ;a}lt/af6 /fd|f] k|ltlqmof cfPsf] pNn]v
u/] . kl5Nnf] ;do b'j} pBf]uaf6 hubDaf cf]kL;L, cN6«f
kLkL;L, cN6«f lk|ldod cf]kL;L / kmf];{ kLkL;L Af|f08sf l;d]G6nfO{
n]ldg]68] af]/fdf Koflsª ub}{ laqmL ;'? u/]/ ;fwf/0f af]/fnfO{
k"0f{¿kdf lj:yflkt u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
n]ldg]6]8 af]/fdf Kofs ul/Psf] l;d]G6 w]/} l6sfp x'g],
af]/fdf kfgL gk:g] / nf]8-cgnf]8 ubf{ w'nf] g´g]{ ePsfn]
jftfj/0fd}qL x'g'sf ;fy} l;d]G6sf] u'0f:t/df Ps¿ktf /
tf}ndf k"0f{tf /xg] atfOPsf] 5 .
pBf]u tyf jfl0fHo dGqfnon] b]zsf ;a} l;d]G6
pBf]ux¿nfO{ n]ldg]6]8 af]/fdf l;d]G6 Kofs u/L laqmL ug{
utjif{ g} /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt u/]sf] lyof] .

j};fv @)&)

33

u'0f:t/ k|df0fljg}

l;d]G6 laqmL

l;d]G6 pBf]un] lgwf{l/t dfkb08 clgjfo{¿kdf k"/f
u/L g]kfn u'0f:t/ Ohfhtkq lnP/ dfq laqmL–ljt/0f ug'k{ g]{
sfg'gL Joj:yf ePklg clwsf+z :jb]zL l;d]G6 pBf]un] …g]kfn
u'0f:t/ lrGx g} glnO{ cfk\mgf] a|fG8 laqmL ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf]
tYo ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . sltko pBf]un] eg] cfkm"v';L
l;d]G6sf af]/fdf …g]kfn u'0f:t/ lrGxÚ /fv]/ ´'6f] k|rf/
ul//x]sf] eGb} g]kfn u'0f:t/ tyf gfktf}n ljefun] @* cf]6f
l;d]G6 pBf]unfO{ pTkfbg /f]Sg s]xL dlxgfcl3 kqfrf/ u/]sf]
lyof] . kqfrf/ ul/Psf ;a} l;d]G6 pBf]unfO{ u'0f:t/ lrGxsf]
dfkb08 r}t;Dd k"/f ug{ lgb]z
{ g;d]t lbPsf] lyof] .
g]kfn u'0f:t/ k|df0f lrGx P]g @)#& sf] lgodfjnL
@)$) cg';f/ l;d]G6 laqmL–ljt/0fsf nflu u'0f:t/ lrGx
clgjfo{ 5 . g]kfndf ;fgf–7"nf u/L $) cf]6feGbf a9L l;d]G6
pBf]u ;~rfngdf 5g\ . oL pBf]udf emG8} #) ca{ ?k}ofF
nufgL 5 . pBf]u ljefuaf6 &) eGbf a9L pBf]un] l;d]G6
pTkfbgsf] cg'dlt lnPsf 5g\ . dfkb08 k"/f gug]{ pBf]usf]
nfO;]G; vf/]h ug{ ;lsg] r]tfjgL;d]t ljefun] lbPsf] 5 .
cg'dlt k|fKt pBf]uaf6 sl/a Ps ;o %) Af|f08sf
l;d]G6 pTkfbg eO/x]sf 5g . tLdWo] hDdf !^ j6f Af|f08n]
dfq ljefuaf6 u'0f:t/ lrGxsf] Ohfht lnPsf 5g\ . glnPsf
pBf]unfO{ l56f] dfkb08 k"/f ug{ lnlvt tyf df}lvs cfu|x
ubf{;d]t c6]/ u/]sf] ljefusf] egfO 5 . ahf/df /fDf|f] rrf{
sdfPsf / w]/} kl/df0fdf laqmL x'g] a|f08n] ;d]t u'0f:t/
lrGx lnPsf 5}gg\ . t/ l;d]G6 pTkfbs ;+3n] eg] ;/sf/n]
u'0f:t/ lrGx glbPs} sf/0f ;d:of cfPsf] atfPsf] 5 .
ljefun] @* cf]6f pBf]ux?nfO{ u'0f:t/ lrGx lnP/dfq pTkfbg

ahf/df nfg lgb]z
{ g lbPsf] 5 . ljefun] dgf;f, s~rgh+3f,
g]zgn, df?tL, cf/Pd;L, s[i0f, z'e>L, hubDaf, lzjd\,
cf]d, k~r/Tg, a'6jn, cUgL, ljzfn, g]kfn cDa'hf, ;'lk|d,
s}nfz, uf]oGsf, c3f{vfFrL, s]kL, ;f]gfk'/, otL, a'4, u0fklt
nufotsf l;d]G6 pBf]unfO{ kqfrf/ u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
xfn;Dd !^ cf]6f Af|f08sf l;d]G6n] dfq} g]kfn u'0f:t/
-PgP;_ lrGx lnPsf 5g\ . ljefusf cg';f/ x]6f}+8f l;d]G6n]
zlQm / pbok'/ l;d]G6n] u}+8f 5fk a|f08sf] l;d]G6 laqmL
ul//x]sf 5g\ . lghL If]qaf6 ;~rflnt cGo !$ j6f pBf]un]
g]kfn u'0f:t/ lrGx lnP/ laqmL ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . u'0f:t/
k|df0f lrGx lnPsf pBf]ux?df lrtjg, lj/fh, l/nfoG;,
l;4fy{, ljZjsdf{, lqzQmL, cDa], zflndf/, kz'klt, ;]Gr'/L,
uf]/vsfnL, t]h, ljho / :6f/ l;d]G6 /x]sf] ljefun] hfgsf/L
lbPsf] 5 . w]/h
} ;f] pBf]un] ;fdfGo dfkb08 k"/f gu/L ljefusf]
lgb]{zg;d]t c6]/ ub}{ cfPsf] cf/f]k 5 .

! !
xflb{s z'esfdgf

gofF jif{ @)&) ;fnsf] k'lgt cj;/df ;Dk"0f{ lgdf{0f Joj;foL
ldqx?;lxt ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL bfh'efO, lbbLalxgLdf ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o"
tyf pQ/f]Q/ k|ultsf nflu xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5' .
x;a'n ldof“ -k|aGw lgb]z
{ s_

PrPd laN8;{ k|f=ln=
Og?jf–%, ;'g;/L

34

j};fv @)&)

lzIff ljz]if

k"j{df rf6{/ PsfpG6
k9fpg] Psdfq sn]h
n]vf Joj;fosf] dxTjk"0f{ hgzlQm rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6
pTkfbg ug]{ k"jf{Grnd} klxnf] sn]hsf] ?kdf o;} jif{bl] v
PKnfO8 sn]h ;~rfngdf cfPsf] 5 .
k|fk] m]zgn sl/o;{ PG8 Ph'sz
] g k|flnn] ;~rfng u/]sf]
PKnfO8 sn]hn] ut jif{bl] v lqe'jg ljZjljBfno;Fu ;DaGwg
lnP/ aLaLP; sf];{ ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf]df o; jif{bl] v g]kfn
rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6 ;+:yf -cfOSofg_sf] ;DaGwgdf kfFr jif{
cjlwsf] rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6 -;LP_ / !* dlxgf cjlwsf]
PsfplG6ª\ 6]lSgl;og -P6L_ sf]if{ ;~rfng ug{ yfn]sf] xf] .
h'g;'s} ljifoaf6 !) hf]8 @ jf k|df0fkq tx pQL0f{
u/]sf ljBfyL{n] k9\g kfpg] rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6 sf]if{cGtu{t
xfn ;f] sn]hdf #@ hgfn] cWoog ul//x]sf 5g\ . emfkfb]lv
l;/xf / pbok'/;Ddsf ljBfyL{ cWoog/t rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6
sf]if{df !$ hgf 5fqf 5g\ .
sn]hsf Ps]8]lds 8fO/]S6/ ljgo s];Lsf cg';f/
PKnfO8 sn]h] rf6{/ Psfp06]G6 ljifosf] kfFr jif]{ sf]if{ k"/f
ug{ b'O{ nfv #* xhf/ kfFr ;o ?k}ofF z'Ns tf]s]sf] 5 . pQm
z'Ns sf7df8f}sf sn]hx?n] lng] z'NseGbf lgs} sd ePsf]
s];Lsf] bfjL 5 . Sofk !, Sofk @, Sofk # u/L # cf]6f
efudf ljefhg u/]/ cWofkg u/fOg] ;LP sf]if{cGtu{t Sofk
@ ;Dd @ jif{sf] cjlw ;}4flGts tyf Sofk # df # jif{ cjlw

;}4flGts / Jojxfl/s b'j} ljlwaf6 cWofkg u/fpg] z}lIfs
sfo{qmd sn]hn] agfPsf] 5 .
k"jf{~rndf sfo{/t rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6nufot ljifo
ljz]if1af6 lgoldt cWofkg / dlxgfdf # k6s;Dd
sf7df8f}af6 jl/i7 rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6 af]nfP/ ljz]if sIff
;Grfng ub} cfPsf] sn]hn] j}zfv / ebf} u/L jif{df @ k6s
ljBfyL{ egf{ lng] nIo /fv]sf] 5 .
clxn] cfOSofgn] k"jf{~rnsf] lj/f6gu/d} k/LIff
s]Gb|;d]t tf]ss
] fn] k"jf{~rnaf6 rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6 cWoog
ug{ rfxfg] ljBfyL{sf nflu /fd|f] cj;/ cfPsf] s];L atfpF5g\ .
PKnfO8 sn]hdf xfn rf6{/ PsfpG6]G6 kl9/x]sf clwsf+z
ljBfyL{x? 3/af6} wfP/ kl9/x]sf 5g\ . 3/af6 wfP/ gEofpg]
O6x/L, w/fgafx]ssf ljBfyL{dfq lj/f6gu/df 8]/f lnP/
a:5g\ . xfdLn] cfufdL jif{ xf]:6ndf a;]/ k9\g rfxg]x?sf
nflu klg cj;/ k|bfg ub}{5f}+ . 5fq tyf 5fqfsf] nflu
5'§f5'§} xf]:6n vf]Ng] of]hgf 5, s];Ln] eG5g\ .
PKnfO8 sn]hn] clxn] lj/f6gu/ / O6x/Ldf u/L b'O{ :yfgdf
PsfplG6ª\ 6]lSgl;og -P6L_ tflnd;d]t ;~rfng ul//x]sf] / pQm
tflnddf O6x/Ldf #) hgf / lj/f6gu/d @) hgf ;xefuL /x]sf]
sn]hn] hgfPsf] 5 . P6L tflndsf] !* dlxg] sf]if{sf nflu ^$
xhf/ ?k}ofF z'Ns tf]lsPsf] sn]hn] hgfPsf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

35

k':tsfno ;]ldgf/
;'g;/Lsf] vgf/l:yt zf/bf pRr dfljsf] k':tsfno
Joj:yfkg;DaGwLdf Pslbg] ;]ldgf/ cfof]hgf eof] . ;]ldgf/df
;f] ljBfnosf] k':tsfnosf ljifodf hgtf ax'd'vL SofDk;
O6x/Ldf lzIffzf:qsf] :gftsf]Q/ cWoog ul//x]sf ljBfyL{x?
yfg]Zj/ 9sfn, Zofd /fO{, nId]Zj/ /fO{ / cfzf/fd rf}w/Ln]
tof/ u/]sf] sfo{kq k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] .
sfo{kqdf ljBfnosf] k':tsfnosf] jt{dfg cj:yf, /fd|f
tyf sdhf]/ kIf / ;'wfg'{ kg]{ s'/fx? ;d]t ;d]l6Psf] lyof] .
;]ldgf/df k|:t't ul/Psf] sfo{kqdfly lbg]z rf}w/L, a]gk' ;
| fb
l;6f}nf, sdn ;fksf]6f / ljdn g]kfnn] l6Kk0fL u/]sf lyP .

qm=
;+=

Vfftfsf] k|sf/

!
@
#
$
%
^
&
*
(

c?0f art -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
v'q's] art -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
ljz]if art -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
w/fg /dfO{nf] art -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
c?0f :6«f ]Ë art -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
;'gsf]zL art vftf -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
e'6gb]jL art vftf -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
lbbL alxgL art vftf -b}lgs df}Hbftdf_
;+:yfut vftf (Institutional Account)

Aflif{s Aofhb/
k|ltztdf

*=))
*=%)
*=%)
(=))
(=%)
!)=))
!)=))
!)=))
cfk;L ;xdltsf]
cfwf/df

!)
!!
!@
!#
!$
!%
!^
!&
!*

# dlxg] d'2lt vftf -Psd'i7 e'QmfgL_
(=%)
^ dlxg] d'2lt vftf -q}dfl;s Aofh_
!)=%)
( dlxg] d'2lt vftf -q}dfl;s Aofh_
!!=))
! aif]{ d'2lt vftf -q}dfl;s Aofh_
!@=))
@ aif]{ d'2lt vftf -q}dfl;s Aofh_
!#=))
# aif]{ d'2lt vftf -q}dfl;s Aofh_
!$=))
$ jif]{ d'4tL vftf -q}dfl;s Aofh_
!$=%)
% aif]{ d'4tL vftf -q}dfl;s Aofh_
!%=))
lb3f{o' ejM d'2tL vftf -! b]v L !* dlxg]_ !@=))-!%=))
;Dk"0f{ k|sf/sf shf{df lnO{g] Aofhb/
!&–!(
s]Gb|Lo sfof{noM
w/fg–^, efg'rf]s, ;'g;/L kmf]g g+= )@%–%@#!*%÷%##(#), km\ofS; g+=M )@%–%@$$%)
E-mail address: arunfinanceltd@gmail.com

zfvf sfof{nox?M
df“vf–^, vf8Lrf}/, l;Gw'kfNrf]s kmf]g g+= )!!–$*@!$#, km\ofS; g+= )!!–$*@!$$
x]6f}8+ f–!), d]g/f]8, dsjfgk'/ kmf]g g+= M )%&–%@^*!@, km\ofS; g+= )%&-%@^*!$
36

j};fv @)&)

tflnd k|fKt lzIfssf] ;+udM
df]8{g lk|k|]/f]6/L

K

cfPsf *) hgf ljBfyL{ /x]sf 5g\ .
5fq / 5fqf b'js
} f] nflu 5'§f–5'66\ } 5fqfjf;df laxfg
a]ns
' } sf]lrªsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 eg] ljBfyL{nfO{ kf]if0fo'Qm
vfgfdf ljz]if Wofg lbOPsf] 5 .
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ dgf]j1} flgs?kdf cWoog pTk|/] 0ffsf nflu
ljBfnon] sfplG;n/sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
lzIffzf:qdf :gftsf]Q/ pkflw k|fKt zfGtf
yfkfn] ljBfnodf sfplG;n/sf] sfd
ul//x]sL 5g\ . pgL ljBfnosL Ps]8]lds
sf]cl8{g]6/;d]t x'g\ .
…u'0f:t/Lo z}lIfs sfo{qmddf ljz]if
Wofg lbFb} cfPsf] ljBfnoaf6 pQL0f{ ePsf
ljBfyL{ x ?n]
;d] t
lrlsT;f,
OlGhlgol/ªnufosf If]qdf b]z–ljb]z;Dd}
/fd|f] :yfg kfPsf 5g\,Ú ljBfnosf k|c nfdf eG5g\ . w]/}
ljBfyL{ cd]l/sf, ci6«]lnof, a]nfotnufotsf b]zdf cWoog
tyf lhDd]jf/Ldf /x]sf 5g\ . w]/} ljBfyL{x?n] pRrlzIff
cWoogdf 5fqfj[lQsf] cj;/;d]t kfPsf 5g\ .

xflb{s z'esfdgf

K

lzIff If]qdf nfdf] cg'ej ;Fufn]sf JolQmTjx?n]
;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] df]8{g lk|k|]/f]6/L ;]s]08/L af]l8{ª :s'nn]
ljBfyL{sf] l;sfOdf ljz]if k|fyldstf lbFb} cfPsf] 5 .
ljBfnon] ljBfyL{nfO{ 3f]sfP/ x}g a'emfP/dfq k9\g] jftfj/0f
ldnfpg ;a} lzIfsx?nfO{ afnd}qL tflnd pknAw u/fPsf]
hgfPsf] 5 .
ljBfnosf k|wfgfWofks ljgo nfdfsf
cg';f/ @)$( ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf]
ljBfnon] @)%^ ;fnb] l v cfk\ m gf
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ P;Pn;Ldf ;xefuL u/fpFb}
cfPsf] 5 . P;Pn;Ldf x/]s jif{ pTs[i6
>]0fL;lxt ztk|ltzt ljBfyL{ pQL0f{ u/fpFb}
cfPsf] 5 . …xfd|f] ljBfnodf sfo{/t ;a}
@@ hgf g} lzIfsx? tflnd k|fKt x'gx' G' 5,
ljBfno ;~rfngdf xfd|f] l6djs{ /fd|f] 5,Ú ljBfnosf lgb]z
{ s
;'j0f{axfb'/ yfkf eG5g\ . ljBfnodf O6x/L If]qs} :t/Lo
5fqfjf;sf] Joj:yf /x]sf] ljBfnosf k|aGw lgb]z
{ s yfkfsf]
bfjL 5 . yfkfsf cg';f/ 5fqfjf;df k"jf{~rnsf ;a} lhNnfaf6

c

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf ;Dk"0f{
cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs tyf
z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o"
Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
u0f]z b'nfn
-lzIff lgb]z
{ s_

n]vgfy l3ld/]
-k|frfo{_

nId0f zdf{ l;jfsf]6L
-cWoIf_

ljZj cfbz{ pRr dflj tyf sn]h kl/jf/
O6x/L, ;'g;/L

j};fv @)&)

37

s:t'/Laf6 pTs[i6 ljBfyL{ k'/:s[t

O6x/Ll:yt s:t'/L Ps]8]dLn] !% cf}+ jflif{sf]T;jsf]
cj;/df Ps]8]dL cGtu{tsf pRr dflj / sn]hsf pTs[i6
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ k'/:s[t uof]{ .
jl/i7 nf]sufos PnkL hf]zLsf] k|d'v cfltYo ePsf]
sfo{qmddf sIff !! / !@ sf ;'lgtf b'/fn, ;Lldt pkfWofo,
l/of tf]ifgLjfn, ljgf]b sf]O/fnf, cgfldsf lg/f}nfnufot

ljBfyL{ k'/:s[t ePsf lyP .
To:t}, sn]htkm{ k'/:s[t x'g] ljBfyL{x?df dGhnf e§/fO{,
nIdL du/, ozf]bfb]jL v8\sf, nId0f /fo, nfSkf z]kf{, ;s'Gtnf
u]nfn, dlgif kf7snufot 5g\ . ;f] sfo{qmddf ljleGg
cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkdf pTs[i6 ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;d]t ;Ddfg
ul/Psf] lyof] .
s:t' / L Ps] 8 ] d Lsf cWoIf df] x gaxfb' / a:g] t sf]
;efkltTjdf ePsf] sfo{qmddf k|frfo{ k|]dk|;fb Gof}kfg],
pkk|frfo{ e'kG] b| Gof}kfg], sdn]z zdf{ kf}8n
] nufotn] Ps]8d] Lsf
ultlalwaf/] k|sfz kf/]sf lyP .
@)%% ;fndf pRr dfWoflds lzIff kl/ifb\af6 cg'dlt
k|fKt u/L !@ sIff;Ddsf] Joj:yfkg ljifosf] k9fO ;'? u/]sf]
s:t'/L pRr dfljkl5 s:t'/L Ps]8d] Ldfkm{t\ ;~rfng x'g yfn]sf]
xf] . Ps]8d] LcGtu{t xfn s:t'/L ;]s0] 8/L af]l8{ª :s'n / s:t'/L
sn]h;d]t ;~rflnt 5g\ . Ps]8d] LcGtu{tsf s:t'/L dfljdf
rf/ ;o %) hgf, pRrdflj / sn]hdf ;d]t !% ;oeGbf a9L
ljBfyL{ cWoog/t /x] s f 5g\ . sn] h tkm{ k" j f{ ~ rn
ljZjljBfnoaf6 ;DaGwg k|fKt s:t'/L sn]hdf rf/ jif]{ aLaLP
/ lqe'jg ljZjljBfnoaf6 ;DaGwg k|fKt s:t'/L sn]h ckm
Dofg]hd]G6df tLg jif{] aLaLP; txsf] k9fO x'bF } cfPsf] 5 .

ln6n k\mnfj;{df
l;;L Sofd]/faf6 sIff cg'udg
O6x/L–% sf] kr?vLdf ;~rfng x'Fb} cfPsf] ln6n
k\mnfj;{ ;]s]G8/L Oª\ln; :s'nn] z}lIfs u'0f:t/ j[l4sf ;fy}
lzIfs / ljBfyL{sf] lhDd]jf/L / cg'zf;g a9fpg ut z}lIfs
jif{bl] v g} sIff sf]7fsf] ultlalwnfO{ ;L;L Sofd]/faf6 cg'udg
ug{ yfn]sf] 5 .
;L;L Sofd]/f lgu/fgLaf6 lzIfssf] l;sfO Ifdtf ;'wf/df
;xof]u k'Ug'sf ;fy} sIff sf]7fdf cgfjZos xNnfvNnf ug]{
OToflb ljBfyL{sf] ultlalw lgu/fgL x'Fbf sIffut cg'zf;g
a9\g] / z}lIfs u'0f:t/df ;d]t ;xof]u k'Ug] ljBfnosf
k|wfgfWofks k'0ok|;fb ;fksf]6fn] hfgsf/L lbP .
@)%% ;fndf k|flj txaf6 :yfkgf ePsf] o; ljBfnon]
:t/f]Gglt ub}{ @)^# ;fnb]lv
P;Pn;L u/fpFb} cfPsf] xf] .
P;Pn;Ldf ;' ? jftLb] l v g}
ztk|ltzt pQL0f{ u/fpFb} cfPsf]
ln6n k\mnfj;{n] @)^^ ;fndf
;'g;/L lhNnfd} ;jf]{Ts[i6 /
@)^* df O6x/Lel/df ;jf]T{ s[i6
l/hN6 Nofpg ;kmn ePsf]
;fksf]6fn] hfgsf/L lbP . o;
38

j};fv @)&)

jif{ $# hgfn] P;Pn;L lbPsf] ln6n km\nfj;{n] ;tk|ltzt
ljlzi7 >]0fLsf] l/hN6 xfl;n ug]{ nIo /fv]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .
…sIff * b]lv !) ;Dd ;L;L Sofd]/f h8fg u/]sf] ljBfnodf
k|flj txb]lv g} sDtLdf :gfts pQL0f{ lzIfsnfO{ dfq cj;/
lbFb} cfPsf 5f}+ / dflj :t/sf ;a} lzIfs ;DalGwt ljifodf
:gftsf]Q/ pkflw k|fKt 5g\,Ú k|wfgfWofks ;fksf]6fn] eg] .
pgsf cg';f/ ljBfyL{nfO{ k9fPsf] s'/f a'em\g ;lhnf] xf];\
eg]/ cl8of]–lel8of]sf] ;d]t k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 .
@@ hgf lzIfs;lxt @& hgfnfO{ k|ToIf /f]huf/L
lbPsf] ljBfno ;f9] ^ s6\7f hUufsf] cfk\mg} ejgdf
;~rflnt 5 . ljBfnodf b'O{ cf]6f :s'n a;sf] ;'ljwf
/x]sfn] O6x/Ldfq xf]Og ksnL,
em'Dsf / xfF;kf];fsf ljBfyL{;d]t
oxfF cfpg] u/] s f 5g\ .
ljBfnon] lgoldt cWoog–
cWofkgsf ;fy} ljBfyL{ x ?sf]
;jf{ ª \ l u0f ljsf;sf nflu
;fKtflxs?kdf ljleGg
cltl/Qm lqmofsnfk;d] t
u/fpF b } cfPsf] 5 .

;'g;/L ;]G6h]leo;{ cfk\mg} ejgdf
@)%% ;fnb]lv ef8fsf] 3/df
;~rfng x'bF } cfPsf] O6x/L–! kf?xfª\
rf]sdf cjl:yt ;'g;/L ;]G6h]ljo;{
;]sG] 8/L af]l8{ª\ :s'n o;} jif{bl] v cfk\mg}
;'ljwfo'Qm ejgdf ;/]sf] 5 .
ljBfnosf k|wfgfWofks sljGb|
d08nsf cg';f/ @)%% ;fndf k|flj
txaf6 ;'? ePsf] ljBfno cku|]8 x'Fb}
@)^! ;fnb] l v cfk\ m gf ljBfyL{ n fO{
P;Pn;Ldf ;xefuL u/fpFb} cfPsf] xf] . x/]s jif{ P;Pn;Ldf
ztk|ltzt l/hN6 NofpFb} cfPsf] ljBfnoaf6 o;jif{ $#
hgf ljBfyL{n] P;Pn;L lbPsf 5g\ .
kfFr ;o @% hgf ljBfyL{ /x]sf] ;'g;/L ;]G6h]ljo;{n]
o;}jif{ b'O{ s6\7f kfFr w'/ hUufdf Ps s/f]8 @% nfv ?k}ofF
nufgL u/L tLg tn] ejg lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . lxdfnog a}s
+ sf]
%) k|ltzt C0f kl/rfng u/]/ lgdf{0f u/]sf] ejgdf clxn]sf]
ljBfyL{ ;+VofnfO{ wfGg;Sg] sIff sf]7fx? /x]sf] d08n atfpF5g\ .
…!$ jif{;Dd ljBfno ef8fd} rnfof},+ xfdLn] dlxg}lkR5]
lgoldt ef8f ltb{Yof}+ . ef8f ltbf{–ltb}{ klg 3/wgLaf6 zflGt;fy
ljBfno rnfpg] jftfj/0f ldNb}gYof], To;}n] klg C0f sf9]/}
klg ejg agfpg afWotf k¥of] . xfdLnfO{ C0f kTofOlbPsf]df
lxdfnog a}s
+ / ;f] a}s
+ sf k|aGwsk|lt xfdL cfef/L 5f}+ .

xfdLn] ca cfk\mg} ejgdf :jtGqtfk"js
{
ljBfno ;~rfng ug{ kfPsf 5f}+ . a?
Ps5fs g} vfP/ ePklg ljBfno ejg
rfxLF cfk\mg} agfpg'kg]{ /x]5 eGg] xfd|f]
cg'ej 5,Ú k|wfgfWofks d08nn] eg] .
u'0f:t/Lo lzIff cfk\mgf] nIo
agfPsf] ;]G6h]ljo;{af6 P;Pn;L pQL0f{
u/]sf w]/} ljBfyL{x?n] /fd|f] k|ult u/]sf
5g\ . d08nsf cg';f/ ;]G6h]ljo;{sf
pTkfbg cho d08n clxn] ;/sf/L 5fqj[lQdf kfls:tfgdf
PdaLaLP; cWoog ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;GbLk /fO{ OlGhlgol/ª
cWoog ;s]/ ci6«l] nofdf sfd ub}5
{ g\ . ls/0f clwsf/L a+unfb]z
/ ;ljgf clwsf/L Sofg8fdf PdaLaLP; cWoog ul//x]sf
5g\ . oLdfq x}g cGo bh{gf}+ ljBfyL{x? :jb]z tyf ljb]zdf
lj1fg / OlGhlgol/ª\ kl9/x]sf 5g\ .
ljBfnon] ljBfyL{sf] eljio of]Uo lzIfsaf6 dfq} ;Dej 5
eGg] a'em]sfn] of]Uo lzIfsnfO{ dfq ljBfnodf ;dfj]z u/fPsf]
bfjL d08nsf] 5 . pgsf cg';f/ dflj txdf k9fpg] ;a} lzIfs
:gftsf]Q/ pkflw k|fKt 5g\ eg] lgdfljdf :gfts clgjfo{nfO{ dfq
df}sf lbOPsf] 5 . !( hgf lzIfs;lxt @^ hgf hgzlQm /x]sf]
ljBfnosf] ;kmntfsf] >]o lzIfs / sd{rf/LnfO{ lbG5g\ d08n .
…of] ;a} ;fyLx?sf] ;xof]un] dfq ;Dej ePsf] xf],Ú pgn] eg] .

j};fv @)&)

39

…;a} ljBfnonfO{ Psfsf/
ug{ ;dGjo ;ldlt agfPsf xf}Ú+
KofA;g, Pg–KofA;g nufotsf gfddf #÷$ cf]6f ;+u7g
rln/x]sf] a]nf km]l/ of] ;dGjo ;ldlt rflx lsg <
;a}sf] p2]Zo Pp6} xf] ;+ul7t ug],{ xfd|f] klg ToxL xf] . t/
w]/} cf]6f ;+u7gdf ljBfno afFl8Psf sf/0f ljBfnox?sf] vf;
;d:ofdf Psfsf/ x'g emg\ ;d:of dx;'; eof] . To;}n] PSnf–
PSn} lxF8g\ ] ;d:ofnfO{ tf]8g\ ' k5{ . h;n] s;}sf] enf] x'bF g} eg]/
sd;]sd O6x/Ldf rfFxL xfdL ;a} Ps eP/ ;+ul7t x'gk' 5{ eg]/
xfdLn] ;dGjo ;ldlt agfPsf xf}+ . of] ;dGjo ;ldlt klg k'/fg}
xf] t/ ;lqmo lyPg . xfdLn] s]xL jif{bl] v o;nfO{ ;lqmo agfPsf
xf}+ . /, ;dGjo ;ldltdfkm{t\ O6x/L If]qsf ;+:yfut ljBfnox?sf
;d:of ;dfwfgdf Ps ePsf 5f}+ . o;df h'g;'s} ;+u7gdf
cfa4 ljBfno ;b:o x'g kfpF5 / x'bF } 5g\ .
o;n] klg ;a}nfO{ t ;d]6s
] f] b]lvPg lg <
O6x/L If]qdf ^) sf] xf/fxf/Ldf ljBfnox? xf]nfg\
xfd|f] ;dGjo ;ldltdf $) cf]6f ljBfno ;b:o 5g\ . ;a}
g;d]l6Psf] s'/f ;fFrf] xf] t/ xfdLn] cg'/f]w ul//x]sf 5f}+,
sltkonfO{ of] ;dGjo ;ldlt klg To:t} t xf]nf lg eGg]
cfz+sf x'g ;S5 / ;xefuL gePsf x'g ;S5g\, pgLx? klg
a'em]kl5 cjZo cfpg] 5g\ . ;dGjo ;ldltdf ljif]z u/L k"j{
k|flj tx;Dd ;~rflnt ljBfnox? cfa4 x'g afFsL 5g\ .
;dGjo ;ldltn] s] ub}5
{ t<
klxnf] s'/f z}lIfs If]qdf lghL ljBfnox?sf] of]ubfg slt
5 eGg] ;a}df 5n{ªu\ } 5 t/ ;/sf/n] lghL ljBfnosf nflu olt
;f}tg] f] Jojxf/ u5{ ls Tof] klg lghL ljBfno ;~rfnsx?n]
ef]us
] f] tLtf] oyfy{ xf] . ;fd'bflos ljBfnosf ;a} lzIfsnfO{
ljleGg k|sf/sf tflnd lbP klg lghL ljBfnosf lzIfsnfO{ klg
tflnd rflxG5 eGg] ;/sf/L lgsfonfO{ slxNo} 1fg ePsf] kfOFbg} .
lghL ljBfnox? cfk\mg} ana'tfn] rNb} cfPsf 5g\ . ;dGjo
;ldltn] klxnf] k|fyldstf ;a} lghL ljBfnosf lzIfsx?nfO{
klg tflnd lbP/ bIf agfpg' k5{ eGg] xf] . To;}n] ;fob k"jf{~rnd}
klxnf] k6s of] ;dGjo ;ldltn] O6x/L If]qsf lghL ljBfnosf
lzIfsx?sf nflu tflnd lbg yfn]sf] 5 . tflnd sfo{qmdnfO{
k|To]s jif{ lg/Gt/tf lbO{ ;+:yfut ljBfnosf ;a} lzIfsnfO{
tflnd lbg] of]hgf agfPsf] 5 . xfdL;Fu afnd}qL lzIff;DaGwL
tflnd ;~rfng ug{;Sg] lj1 / of]Uo k|lzIfsx? x'gx' G' 5 .
lzIfsnfO{ tflnd;Fu} ;+:yfut ljBfnosf] z}lIfs u'0f:t/ j[l4
ug{ cleefjsx?;Fu cGt{lqmof u/fpg] ul/Psf] 5 . utjif{ cfwf
bh{g ljBfnosf cleefjs;Fu o:tf] cGt{lqmof /fv]sf]df o;af6
;sf/fTds glthf b]lvPsfn] o; jif{ ;dGjo ;ldltsf ;a}
;b:o ljBfnodf of] sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{ nIo /flvPsf] 5 .
ljBfnodfq afnd}qL eP/ x'bF g} 3/ klg afnd}qL x'g ;s]dfq
l;sfOdf ;sf/fTds pknlAw xft k5{ eGg] xfd|f] 7DofO xf] .
To:t} ljleGg ljBfnosf ljBfyL{aLr v]ns'b k|ltof]lutf /
lzIfsx?aLr cGt{lqmof u/fpg] ul/Psf] 5 . h;n] lzIfsx?df
cfk;L lrghfg / l;sfOsf pknlAwx?nfO{ cfbfg k|bfgdf ;xof]u
40

j};fv @)&)

;'j0f{axfb'/ yfkf -cWoIf_

lghL tyf cfjf;Lo ljBfno O6x/L If]q ;dGjo ;ldlt, O6x/L
k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] of] ;dGjo ;ldlt ljBfnosf] dfq geP/
ljBfno, lzIfs, cleefjs, ljBfyL{ ;a}sf] ;femf Kn]6kmd{ xf] .
O6x/Lsf ljBfnox?sf ;d:of rflx“ s]–s] 5g\ <
;d:ofx? w]/} 5g\ . qmdzM ;dfwfg ub}{ hfg] k|0f xfd|f ;b:o
ljBfnox?n] ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;/sf/ / :yfgLo lgsfon] xr'jfsf]
e/df gofF ljBfno cg'dlt lbg] k|jl[ Qn] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] ;d:of
lgDTofpFb} cfPsf] 5 . x/]s jif{ ;:tf] z'Ns clg s]–s] ;kgf b]vfP/
x'/Lsf] ?kdf cfpg] ljBfnox?n] jiff}{ k'/fgf ljBfnosf] ljBfyL{
;+/rgfnfO{ l5GgleGg kfg]{ u/]sf 5g\ . ;/sf/L lgsfon] cfk\mgf]
bfloTj lgjf{x u/]sf] 5}g . h;n] ubf{ of] If]qsf ;d:of a9\bf] 5 .
ljBfno cg'udgsf] gfddf lhNnf lzIff sfof{non] gf6sdfq ug]{
u/]sf] 5 . ljut jif{df ljgfcg'dlt ;~rfng ePsfnfO{ sfaf{xL
ug's
{ f] ;6\6f lzIff dGqfnos} lgb]z
{ gljk/Lt ljgf Doflkª\ ljBfno
cg'dlt lbPsf] kfpFbf xfdL crlDdt ePsf 5f}+ . klxnf] t;f{pg],
wDSofpg] clg cg'dlt klg lbg] of] lgot xf] jf k/Dk/f xfdLn]
a'em\ g ;s]sf 5}gf}+ .
ef}lts k"jf{wf/ t /fd|} ljsf; ePsf] 5 lg ;a}sf gofF
lalN8ª ag]sf 5g\ / aGb} klg 5g\ .
u'0f:t/Lo lzIffsf] nflu ef}lts k"jf{wf/ geO{ x'bF g} rf}/
b]vfP/ xfdL tkfO{sf aRrfnfO{ u'0f:t/Lo lzIff lbG5f} eGbf
s'g} klg cleefjsn] kTofpg] s'/f cfpFbg} To;}n] ejg cToGt
h?/L 5 . ef8fdf rnfpFbf klg 7"nf] ;d:of 5 3/wgLn] nfdf]
;do glbg] lbPklg ljleGg av]8fx? ug]{ ubf{ ljBfnosf]
z}lIfs jftfj/0fd} c;/ k5{ . To;}n] dlxg}lkR5] ltg]{ ef8fsf]
/sdn] ls:tf lt/f} a}s
+ af6 C0f g} lnP/ ljBfno rnfcf}+ eg]/
w]/} ljBfnox?n] ejg agfPsf x'g\ . nufgL u/]/ ejg agfPkl5
ToxLcg';f/sf] z}lIfs u'0f:t/ lbg klg ljBfnonfO{ afWotf
kb{5 lsgls u'0f:t/ gePdf cleefjsn] gkTofpg] cj:yf
klg cfpF5, To;}n] ljBfnosf] nflu ejg clt cfjZos xf] t/
O6x/Lsf ;a} ljBfnon] ejg agfpg ;s]sf] cj:yf 5}g .
;dGjo ;ldltsf ;b:o /x]sf $) dWo] klg @^ cf]6f;Fu dfq
cfk\mg} ejg /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . oL klg ;a} a}s
+ sf] C0fdf 5g\ .
tkfOx?n] ;a} ljBfnodf k'u/] ;f]Wg–a'em\ g ;Sg'xG' 5 .

An"ldªsf] gf/fM hLjgsf nflu l;sfO

K

K

xflb{s z'esfdgf

cfPsf] 5 . ljBfyL{nfO{ ljBfnodf
dfq x}g labfsf] ;dodf 3/df
/xFbf;d]t cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkdf
pTk|/] 0ff ug{ 6f]n–6f]ndf afnSna
u7g ug]{ gLlt ljBfnon] agfPsf]
k|wfgfWofks uhd]/ atfpF5g\ .
…xfd|f ljBfyL{x?sf] afx'Notf
ePsf] k|To]s 6f]ndf afn Sna
u7g ug] { xfd| f ] of] h gf 5,Ú
uhd]/n] eg] .
klxnf] r/0fdf cfFkuf5L,
e]63f6rf]s, cfOtaf/], u};f/ / e'mDsfdf o:tf] Sna u7g ug]{
sfd ePsf] pgn] hfgsf/L lbP . uhd]/n] eg], …ljBfyL{nfO{
k9fOdf dfq x}g rf}tkmL{ 1fg / k|ltef k|ik'm6gsf nflu cltl/Qm
lqmofsnfk h?/L ePsfn] ljBfnon] To;df Wofg lbPsf] xf],
kmn:j?k xfd|f ljBfyL{x? cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkdf /fd}| :yfg
k|fKt ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ .Ú s]xL dlxgf cl3dfq dsfn' 6]lnlehg
dfkm{t ;Grfng ePsf] sf]zL cGrn :t/Lo g6/fh gfds
g[To k|ltof]lutfdf sIff ^ sf ljBfyL{ cleif]s kf]vn
]| n] pTs[i6
5}7f}+ / xfpefp k|bz{gtkm{ pTs[i6 Pjf8{ lhTg ;s]sf 5g\ .
g;{/Lb]lv o'sh
] L;Dd lrN8«g] kfs{df v]ns'bsf] dfWodaf6
/ b}lgs cl8of]–lel8of]sf] k|of]u u/]/ l;sfpFb} cfPsf] ljBfnon]
sIff ^ b]lv g} ljBfyL{x?nfO{ k|of]uzfnfsf] ;d]t ;'ljwf lbFb}
cfPsf] uhd]/sf] egfO 5 .

K

K

O6x/L–% sf] xnu8fdf
;~rfng x'bF } cfPsf] An"ldª nf]6;
Oª\ln; ;]s0] 8/L :s'nn] hLjgsf
nflu l;sfO eGg] d"n gf/f /fv]/
ljBfyL{nfO{ lzIff lbFb} cfPsf] 5 .
nf]6; OG6/g]zgn kmfpG8]zg
km/ Ph'sz
] g -nfOkm_ cGtu{t
;~rflnt An"ldª nf]6;df g;{/Lb]lv
!) sIff;Dd cWoog cWofkg x'bF }
cfPsf] 5 . sl/a kfFr ;o ljBfyL{
cWoog/t ljBfnon] @)^& ;fnb]lv
P;Pn;L k/LIffdf ljBfyL{ ;xefuL u/fpFb} cfPsf] 5 .
k|To]s jif{ ;tk|ltzt ljBfyL{ ljlzi6 / k|yd >]0fLdf
pQL0f{ x'Fb} cfPsf] o; ljBfnoaf6 o; jif{ #$ hgfn] k/LIff
lbPsf] ljBfnosf k|wfgfWofks hut uhd]/n] hfgsf/L lbP .
!% s6\7f hUufdf km}lnPsf] ljBfnodf e'mDsf, t/x/f, vgf/
/ b'nf/L;Ddsf ljBfyL{ cWoogsf nflu cfpg] u5{g\ .
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ljBfno Nofpg]–nfg] ;'ljwfsf] nflu tLg cf]6f
:s'n a;sf] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .
ljBfnosf] k9fO;DaGwL u'0f:t/LotfnfO{ ljz]if Wofg
lbPsf] ljBfnon] k|To]s xKtf ljBfyL{x?sf] k9fO;DaGwL
k/LIf0f;d]t ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . k|To]s tLg dlxg] k/LIffdf sIff
k|yd x'g] ljBfyL{nfO{ lgMz'Ns 5fqfj[lQ lbFb} cfPsf] ljBfnon]
k9fOsf] cltl/Qm cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkdf ;d]t Wofg lbFb}

xflb{s z'esfdgf

cc
gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL bfh'efO
lbbLalxgLx?df ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o"
Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL bfh'efO
lbbLalxgLx?df ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o"
Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .

k|bLk clwsf/L

k|f]= lzj >]i7

a;'Gw/f OG6/k|fOh]h

g]kfn x]eL 8«fOleª ;]G6/

O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

O6x/L–*, lj/f6gu/nfOg

j};fv @)&)

41

u|LgkL;sf z}lIfs ultlalw
OG6/g]6df k|ToIf x]g{ ;lsg]

42

j};fv @)&)

lk|lG;kn wd{ Gof}kfg]n] atfP .
lzIff If]qdf cfa4 s]zj v8\sf, cfgGb kf]v|]n, k"0f{
l3ld/], dlgif /f}lgof/, d'lQm/fh ;'j]bL, lr/GhLjL ltlD;gf /
?b| uf}td gofF ;fem]bf/sf] ?kdf ljBfnodf k|j]z u/]sf
5g\ . k|foM ;a} lzIfs g} /x]sfn] ljBfnosf] z}lIfs u'0f:t/df
;a}n] Wofg lbg] lr/GhLjLn] atfP .
u|LgkL;n] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;}4flGts cWoogsf] ;fy} jif{df
$) 306f ;fdflhs sfddf pTk|]/ssf] ?kdf nufpg] 5 .
lsgls pgLx?n] ;fdflhs kf6f]sf] k|ToIf cWoog ug{ kfP
eg] ;fdflhs bfloTjaf]w;d]t ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug] ljBfnosf]
egfO 5 . ljut 5 jif{b]lv P;Pn;Ldf ljBfyL{ ;xefuL
u/fpFb} cfPsf] u|LgkL;n] lj/f6rf]sb]lv em'Dsf / t/x/fb]lv
b'xjL;Ddsf ljBfyL{ cfpg] ePsfn] ljBfyL{x?sf] ;'ljwfsf
nflu b'O{ cf]6f a; ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 . o; jif{ Pp6f a;
yk ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] Gof}kfg] atfpF5g\ . ljBfyL{x?sf nflu
c f j f ; L o
cWoogsf] ;d]t
Joj:yf u/] s f]
hgfPsf] 5 .
Psn?kdf
rnfpF b } cfPsf]
ljBfnonfO{
;fem]bf/Ldf nfg'
;dosf] dfu /x]sf]
lk|lG;kn Gof}kfg]
atfpF5g\ . pgL
eG5g\ , …PSn}
rnfpFbf ;a} 7fpF
k'Ug sl7g x'G5,
l6daf6 eg]
To;nfO{ ;xh
agfpg ;lsG5 .
To:t} Jojxfl/s
lzIffsf nflu
cg' e jL / bIf
hgzlQm h'6fpg
klg xfdLn] ;d"xdf
;~rfng ug{
h?/L lyof] .
cfufdL jif{ pRr
dflj;d]t
;~rfng ug]{ xfd|f]
nIo 5 .Ú
tl:a/ M gjLg

O6x/Ll:yt u| L gkL; Ps] 8 ] d L o; jif{ b ] l v gofF
Joj:yfkgdf ;~rfng x'g yfn]sf] 5 . gofF Joj:yfkg;Fu}
ljBfnodf cfk\mgf aRrfx?n] s]–s;/L cWoog ul//x]sf 5g\
eGg] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L cleefjsx?n] OG6/g]6af6 k|ToIf
cjnf]sg ug{;Sg] Joj:yf u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . wd{ Gof}kfg]sf]
Psn nufgL / Joj:yfkgdf ;~rfng x'bF } cfPsf] of] ljBfnodf
gofF z}lIfs jif{;Fu} * hgf gofF ;fem]bf/ ylkPsf 5g\ . lzIff
If]qdf ;lqmo / gofF cjwf/0ff nfu" ub}{ cfPsf ;fem]bf/x?sf]
k|jz
] ;Fu} ljBfnosf sIff % ;Ddsf sIff dG6]Zj/L ljlwaf6
;~rfng x'g yfn]sf 5g\ .
gofF ;fem]bf/af6 () nfv ?k}ofF nufgL leq\ofPsf]
u|LgkL;n] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ a:gsf nflu ;'ljwfo'Qm kmlg{r/sf]
Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . g;{/Lb]lv sIff !) ;Dd $ ;o hgfeGbf
a9L ljBfyL{ /x]sf] u|LgkL;df o; jif{bl] v Kn] u|k' sf nflu;d]t
;'ljwf ;'? u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . gofF z}lIfs;qdf yk tLg ;o
ljBfyL{ yKg] nIo
/fv]sf] ljBfnon]
Ps} :yfgdf ;a}
sIff ;~rfng ug{
sl7g x'g] ePkl5
k|flj txsf sIff
xf6vf]nfl:yt
;'ljwfo'Qm sfzL
ejgdf ;~rfng
ug{ yfn]sf] 5 .
ljBfnodf ;'ljwf
;DkGg k':tsfno
/ k| T o] s sIff
sf] 7 fdf ;L;L
Sofd]/faf6 sIff
cg'udgsf]
Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
;L;L Sofd]/fnfO{
OG6/g]6df lnª\s
ul/Psf sf/0f
sIff sf] 7 fsf]
u l t l a l w
cleefjsx?n]
3/d} a;L–a;L jf
h'g;'s} :yfgaf6
klg k| T oIf?kdf
x]g{ ;Sg] Joj:yf
ldnfOPsf]

df]/ªsf] uf]7ufpFdf ljut !^ jif{b]lv ;~rfng x'Fb} 5g\ . ljBfnon] 6f9faf6 cfpg] ljBfyL{x?sf nflu :s'n
cfPsf] 1fgHof]lt Oª\ln; :s'nn] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;}4flGtsdfq a;sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . k9fO sdhf]/ ePsf ljBfyL{nfO{
geP/ Jofjxfl/s 1fg;lxtsf] lzIffdf hf]8 lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . lgoldt sf]lrª\sf] ;d]t ;'ljwf lbFb} cfPsf] ljBfnon]
;}4flGts lzIffn] dfq aRrfx?sf] dfg;k6ndf k|efj ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ljleGg :yfgsf] e|d0fsf] ;fy} z}lIfs d]nf /
gkg]{ ePsfn] ljBfnon] sIff sf]7fdf k9fPsf s'/fx?nfO{ ;]ldgf/x?df ;d]t ;xefuL u/fpg] u/]sf] 5 . cltl/Qm
;se/ lkmN8df nu]/ cjnf]sg u/fpg] u/]sf] 5 . ljBfnosf lqmofsnfkdf ljz]if Wofg lbPsf] ljBfnosf ljBfyL{x? a]nfa]nf
lk|lG;kn b]jL l;6f}n
+ f eG5g\, …;}4flGts l;sfOsf] e/df /xFbf x'g] ljleGg k|ltikwf{x?df /fd|f] :yfg xfl;n u/]/ kmls{g]
ljBfyL{x?n] k|i6;Fu s'/f a'em\ g g;Sg] ePsfn] lkmN8 e|d0f u/]sf 5g\ . cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkdf kfn}kfnf] ;a} ljBfyL{x?nfO{
u/fP/ xfdLn] k|ToIf cjnf]sg u/fpg] ub{5f}+ . ljz]ifu/L ;xefuL u/fpFb} cfPsf] ljBfnon] ljBfyL{sf] ?lr /
lj1fg ljifodf xfdLn] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ a9L
Ifdtfcg';f/sf] k|ltof]lutfx?df efu lng
Jofjxfl/s 1fg lbg] u/]sf 5f}+, h;n] ubf{
eo/lxt lzIffdf hf]8 clek|]l/t ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . kmn:j?k If]qLo
pgLx?n] k9]sf s'/f /fd|/L a'em\g] u/]sf 5g\
lhNnf:t/df x'g] SjLh sG6]:6 tyf
lbPsf] ljBfnon] o; tyf
/ xfd|f] glthf klg /fd|f] 5 .Ú
:k]lnª\ sG6]:6df ljBfyL{x?n] /fd|f] :yfg
@)%$ ;fndf ef8fsf] 3/df tLg jif{bl] v cfjf;Lo -af]8;{_ xfl;n ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ .
;'ljwf ;~rfng ug]{
sIff;Ddsf] sIff ;~rfng u/]/ ;'? u/]sf]
…ljBfyL{sf] cWoogsf] u'0f:t/df ljz]if
1fgHof]lt @)^# ;fnb]lv cfk\mg} ejgdf
ePsf] 5 . Wofg lbFb} cfPsf] xfd|f] ljBfnon] k|To]s jif{
;~rflnt 5 . xfn 5 ;o hgf ljBfyL{
cleefjs e]nf u/fP/ cfk\mgf gfgLx?sf]
cWoog/t o; ljBfnon] cfufdL jif{b]lv P;Pn;L;Ddsf] z}lIfs k|ult / sl7gfOaf/] 5nkmn rnfpg], pTs[i6 / sdhf]/
k9fO ;~rfng ug]{ cg'dlt kfO;s]sf] 5 . …xfd|f] ljBfnosf] ljBfyL{sf] k|fk] mfOn agfP/ pgLx?nfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbg], #÷#
u'0f:t/df xfdLn] e/k'/ k|of; ul//x]sf xf}+ t/ ( sIff;Ddsf] dlxgfdf k|ult k|ltj]bg tof/ u/L cleefjsnfO{ lbg] u/]sf]
dfq cg'dltsf sf/0f xfdLn] k|ToIf glthf b]vfpg kfPsf 5,Ú :s"n sf]cl8{g]6/ hoGb| e§/fO{ eG5g\ .
lyPgf}, cfufdL jif{b]lv xfdLnfO{ Tof] cj;/ ldn]sf] 5,Ú
eo/lxt lzIffdf hf]8 lbPsf] ljBfnon] o; jif{b]lv
l;6f}+nfn] eg] .
cfjf;Lo -af]8;{_ ;'ljwf ;~rfng ug]{ ePsf] 5 . !% s6\7f
@@ hgf lzIfs–sd{rf/L sfo{/t ljBfnodf ;'Gb/k'/, hUufdf km}lnPsf] ljBfnon] &) nfveGbf a9L nufgL u/]/
b'nf/L / d[uf}lnof uflj; If]qaf6 ljBfyL{ k9\g cfpg] u/]sf ljBfnosf] cfk\mg} ejg lgdf{0f u/]/ ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 .

Jofjxfl/s lzIffdf 1fg Hof]lt

j};fv @)&)

43

/ht jif{ dgfpFb} e[s6' L

K

K

xflb{s z'esfdgf

z}lIfs / ef}lts jftfj/0fdf pTs[i6
e[s6' L af]l8{ª :s'n O6x/Lsf ;+:yfut ljBfnox? dWo]df
z}lIfs tyf ef}lts jftfj/0f Joj:yfkgdf pTs[i6 /x]sf] Ps
cWoog k|ltj]bgn] hgfPsf] 5 . lzIff If]qdf nfdf] cg'ej
xfl;n u/]/ ;]jflgj[t lhNnf lzIff clwsf/Lx?, k|wfgfWofks
tyf k|fWofksx?sf] ;+nUgtf ;~rfng ePsf] z}lIfs ;xof]u
tyf k|a4{g s]Gb|, g]kfn -;]l;g_ gfds u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfn] b'O{
jif{cl3 u/]sf] O6x/L If]qsf ljBfnox?sf] cjnf]sgdf afnd}qL
Jojxf/, sIff sf]7fsf] k"jf{wf/, ;/;kmfO tyf cGo jftfj/0fLo
lx;fadf e[s'6L pTs[i6 b]lvPsf] cWoog cjnf]sg 6f]nLsL
;b:o 8Da/L of]Ghgn] hfgsf/L lbOg\ . …xfdLn] O6x/Lel/sf
;a} ;+:yfut ljBfnosf] cjnf]sg u¥of}+ t/ e[s'6Ldf h:tf]
:jR5tf c?df kfpg ;s]gf},+ Ú of]Ghgn] elgg\ . s'g} klg
s'/fsf] g]tT[ j kfPeg] dlxnfx?n] /fd|f] ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] e[s6' L
HjnGt pbfx/0f ePsf] of]Ghgsf] egfO 5 .

K

K

O6x/Ll:yt e[s6' L af]l8{ª :s'n O6x/Ldf ;~rflnt k'/fgf
ljBfnodWo] dlxnfn] g]t[Tj u/]sf] klxnf] ljBfno xf] .
;~rfngsf] @% jif{ k"/f u/]sf] o;n] clxn] /ht dxf]T;j
dgfO /x]sf] 5 .
@)$$ k'; ! ut]b]lv ;~rfngdf cfPsf] e[s'6Ln] ut
k'; ! ut]bl] v /ht dxf]T;j dgfpFb} cfPsf] xf] . @)$$ ;fn
k'; ! ut] lbn' ;'Aaf / 8Da/s'df/L u'?ªn] !^ hgf ljBfyL{
/fv]/ g;{/L sIffaf6 ;'? u/]sf] ljBfno s]xL jif{kl5 lbn'nfO{
dfq} 5f]8]/ 8Da/s'df/L xªsª uPkl5 lbn' PSn}n] rnfpFb}
cfPsL 5g\ . g;{/Laf6 ;'? ePsf] ljBfno @)%^ ;fndf
dflj:t/sf] cg'dlt k|fKt u/]sf] xf] . @)%* ;fnb]lv cfk\mgf
ljBfyL{nfO{ P;Pn;Ldf ;xefuL u/fpFb} cfPsf] e[s6' Ln] x/]s
jif{ ztk|ltzt glthf NofpFb} cfPsf]] lbn' atfpFl5g\ .
e[s6' Laf6 P;Pn;L kf; u/]sf clwsf+z ljBfyL{ rLg,
hd{gL, cd]l/sf, a]nfotnufotsf /fi6«df cWoog tyf sfd
ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;fy} lrlsT;f, OlGhlgol/ tyf df; sDo'lgs]zg
If]qdf w]/} ljBfyL{x?n] sl/o/ agfPsf 5g\ . e[s6' Lsf ljBfyL{x?
k9fOsf] ;fy} cltl/Qm lqmofsnfkdf ;d]t cufl8 5g\ . ln6n
cfOsg, ld; sn]h,:k]lnª\ sG6]:6nufot k|ltikwf{df /fd|f]
:yfg sfod ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ .
rf/ ;o %) hgf ljBfyL{ cWoog/t e[s6' Laf6 o; jif{ @#
hgfn] P;Pn;L lbPsf 5g\ . …o; jif{ klg xfd|f] glthf ztk|ltzt
cfpg] s'/fdf xfdL ljZj:t 5f},+ Ú ljBfnosf lzIfsx? eG5g\ .

xflb{s z'esfdgf

cc
gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ s6'jfn aGw' tyf ;a} g]kfnL
bfh'efO lbbLalxgLx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
s'df/axfb'/ s6'jfn
-cWoIf_

s6'jfn j+z k|lti7fg kl/jf/
O6x/L–%, ;'g;/L

44

j};fv @)&)

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs
tyf z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
s]zj ;'j]bL
-k|wfgfWofks_

lgd{n s];L
-cWoIf, Joj:yfkg ;ldlt_

srgf dxfb]j dfWolds ljBfno kl/jf/
O6x/L–$, ;'g;/L

c+u|]hL / g]kfnL b'j} dfWoddf h'lk6/
df]/ªsf] ul5of ahf/df cjl:yt h'lk6/ Oª\ln; :s'nn]
g]kfnL jf c+uh
]| L h'g;'s} dfWod rfxg] cleefjs / ljBfyL{sf]
rfxfgfcg';f/ k9fO ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
s]xL ljBfyL{ % sIff kf; u/]/ ;fd'bflos ljBfnoaf6
o; ljBfnodf cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . …pgLx?nfO{ c+uh
]| L dfWodaf6
k9fpFbf a'em\g sl7g x'g] ePsfn] pgLx?sf nflu g} eg]/
xfdLn] g]kfnL dfWod ;'? u/]sf xf}+ t/ clxn] cfP/ cleefjss}
dfucg';f/ g]kfnL dfWod rnfOFb} 5,Ú ljBfnosf k|wfgfWofks
xl/zrGb| 9sfnn] eg], …sIff ^ b]lv !) ;Dd c+uh
]| L / g]kfnL
k9fpg] 5'66\ f–5'66\ } Anssf] Joj:yf u/]sf] ljBfnon] g;{/Lb]lv
% sIff;Dd eg] ;a}nfO{ c+u|]hL dfWodaf6} k9fpg] u/]sf] 5 .
…olb s'g} ljBfyL{n] xfd|f] ljBfnoaf6 ;fd'bflos ljBfnodf
hfg rfx] eg] klg pgLx?sf] nflu g]kfnL / c+uh
]| L b'j} dfWod
;lhnf] x'G5,Ú ljBfnosf ;xfos k|wfgfWofks n]vgfy ;'jb] L
eG5g\, …t/ ;fd'bflos ljBfnoaf6 % sIff kf; u/]/ cfPsf
clwsf+z ljBfyL{nfO{ g]kfnLsf] s, v / c+uh
]| Lsf] PaL;L8Lb]lv
g} l;sfpg' kg]{ cj:yf kfPsf 5f}+ / pgLx?nfO{ xfdL klxnf] b'O{
dlxgf PaL;L8L / s–v k9fP/ z?b pRrf/0f u/]/ k9\g /
n]Vg hfGg] agfP/dfq} c? kf7 k9fpg] ub{5f}+ . To;f] gug]{ xf]
eg] tL ljBfyL{n] sIff kf; ug{ ufx|f] x'G5 .Ú g;{/L sIffb]lv g}
egf{ ePsfafx]s % sIff;Dd ;fd'bflos ljBfnoaf6 pQL0f{
ePkl5 cfk\mgf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ af]l8{ª\ k7fpg] k/Dk/f /x]sf] 5 .
tL ljBfyL{n] c+uh
]| L dfWodaf6 cWoog cufl8 a9fpg ufx|f] x'g]
ePsfn] xfdLn] cleefjss} dfucg';f/ g]kfnL dfWodsf] ;d]t
;'ljwf lbPsf xf}+ h;n] ubf{ a;]l{ g ;fd'bflos ljBfnoaf6
pNn]Vo ljBfyL{ cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ .

cfk\mg} :jfldTjsf] ^ s6\7f hUufdf ;~rflnt ljBfnon]
a}+saf6 C0f lnP/ ;'ljwfo'Qm ejg lgdf{0f u/L ;~rfng ub}{
cfPsf] 5 . ljBfyL{sf] rfkcg';f/ k|To]s sIffdf ;]S;g
5'6o\ fOPsfn] sIff sf]7f sd x'g] ;Defjgf b]lvPkl5 yk gofF
ejg;d]t lgdf{0f ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
@)%) ;fndf nlnt ;'Aafn] :yfkgf u/]sf] pQm ljBfno
xfn xl/zrGb| 9sfn, ch'{g clwsf/L, nIdL uf}td, u0f]z
>]i7 / n]vgfy ;'j]bLn] ;fem]bf/Ldf rnfpFb} cfPsf 5g\ .
…xfdL hlt klg ;fem]bf/x? 5f} ;a} hgf cfkm}+ vl6/x]sf 5f}+ .
k|fo ;a} lzIf0fd} cfa4 ePsfn] ljBfnodf z}lIfs :t/Lotf
klg 7fpFcg';f/ lbg ;s]sf 5f} eGg] nfUb5,Ú 9sfn eG5g\ .
@)%& ;fndf lgdflj / @)%( b]lv dflj tx ;~rfng x'Fb}
cfPsf] ljBfnon] cfk\mg} gfdaf6 ljBfyL{x?nfO{ @)^! b]lv
P;Pn;Ldf ;xefuL u/fpg yfn]sf] lyof] . …To;otf klg
ljBfnon] w]/} k|ltef pTkfbg ul/;s]sf] 5, xfd|f w]/} ljBfyL{x?
:jf:Yo / OlGhlgol/ª\ If]qdf cfj4 5g\ . s]xL ljBfyL{n]
:jb]z / s]xLn] ljb]zdf 5fqj[lQ kfP/ cWoog;d]t ul//x]sf
5g\,Ú 9sfnn] eg] .
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ :t/Lo lzIffdf hf]8 lbPsf] h'lk6/n] ;Lldt
z'Nsdf clwstd ;do lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . ljBfnon] ( sIffsf
ljBfyL{nfO{ laxfg ( ah]bl] v ;fFem % ah];Dd / !) sIffsfnfO{
laxfg ^ ah]b]lv ;fFem ^ ah];Dd ljBfnod} /fv]/ k9fpg]
u/]sf] 5 . …xfdLn] cltl/Qm ;do lbPjfkt cleefjs;Fu yk
z'Ns lnPsf 5}gf},+ xfd|f] Wo]o g} ljBfyL{x?n] /fd|f] k9'g\ /
pTs[i6tf xfl;n u?g\ eGg] xf],Ú ljBfnosf csf{ ;xfos
k|wfgfWofks nIdL uf}td eG5g\ .

j};fv @)&)

45

O6x/Ldf cGt/f{li6«o:t/sf] ljBfno
;~rfngdf cfpg]

cGt/f{ l i6« o :t/df k| r lnt ;LaLP;O l;sfO
k|0ffnLcg';f/sf] ljBfno O6x/Ldf o;} jif{b]lv ;~rfngdf
cfpg] ePsf] 5 .
;]G6/ af]8{ ckm ;]s0] 8/L Ph'sz
] g -;LaLP;O{_ sf] l;sfO
k|0ffnL ljZjsf clwsf+z /fi6«x?df nfu" ul/Psf] 5 . :t/Lo
lzIffsf nflu of] k|0ffnL pko'Qm b]lvPsf] 5 . O6x/Ldf of]
k|0ffnLaf6 ljBfno ;~rfng ug{ nfu]sf] g]kfn 8LaLPd Unf]an
Ps]8d] Lsf cWoIf w|j' s'df/ ;'Aafn] eg] . xfdLn] pQm k|0ffnLnfO{
cg'z/0f ub}{ g]kfnL kf7\oqmdcg';f/s} lzIff lbg]5f}+ .
O6x/L–* sf] sl/j % lj3f hUufdf ljBfnosf] ef}lts
k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf] sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . xfn sIff & ;Dd
;Grfngsf] tof/L ul//x]sf] Unf]an Psf8]dLn] k\mo'r/ :6f;{
af]l8{ª\ :s'nsf] gfdaf6 ljBfno rnfpg] hgfPsf] 5 .
ljBfnon] kf7\oqmd;Fu} ljBfyL{sf] ?lrcg';f/sf] cltl/Qm

lk;hf]gsf] cleefjs lbj;

lqmofsnfk;DaGwL k|lzIf0f lbOg] hgfPsf] 5 .
ljBfyL{x?df k9fOsf] ;fy;fy} cGo k|ltef klg x'G5g\ .
tL k|ltefnfO{ phfu/ ug{ ljBfno :t/b]lv g} pko'Qm
jftfj/0f k|fKt x'g] xf] eg] ljBfnoaf6} w]/} k|ltefx? pTkfbg
x'g ;S5g\ . …Unf]an Ps]8]dLn] o; s'/fnfO{ ljz]if Wofg
lbP/ ;+uLt, g[To, ufog, km'6an, elnan, t]SjfGbf],
s/fFt]nufotsf v]n;DaGwL 5'6\6f–5'6\6} k|lzIfs /fv]/
lgoldt sIff ;~rfng ug]{ 5,Ú cWoIf ;'Aafn] eg] . #%
hgf ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf] Unf]an Ps]8]dLn] xfn ljBfyL{ egf{
v'Nnf ul/;s]sf] ;~rfns k|bLk clwsf/Ln] hfgsf/L lbP .
ljleGg r/0fdf ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ug]{ ljBfnon] #@
s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgL cg'dfg ul/Psf] hgfPsf] 5 .

gjjif{ @)&) sf] ;a}df z'esfdgf
oxfF ;'grfFbL vl/b–laqmLsf ;fy} cfw'lgs
l8hfOgsf u/uxgfx? tof/ ul/G5 ;fy} cfk\mgf]
OR5fcg';f/sf ljleGg uxgfx? agfpg' k/]df
xfdLnfO{ ;Demg'xf];\ .
k|f=] cf/Pd >]i7

/ht dxf]T;j ;~rfng ul//x]sf] lk;hf]g cfjf;Lo
pRr dfWoflds ljBfno O6x/Ln] @% cf}+ cleefjs lbj;
dgfPsf] 5 .
gful/s ;dfh O6x/Lsf cWoIf /fh]z >]i7sf] k|d'v
cfltYo / ljBfnosL ;+:yflksf rGb|snf cf]nLsf] ;efkltTjdf
ePsf] sfo{qmddf ljBfnosf] sIffut cWoogdf pTs[i6
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ k'/:s[t ul/Psf] lyof] .
lk|lG;kn hulbzk|;fb cf]nLn] ljBfnosf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg
k|:t't u/]sf] pQm sfo{qmddf ljBfnosf k|frfo{ o'j/fh
l;6f}+nfn] ljBfnosf] ljifodf k|sfz kf/]sf lyP .
46

j};fv @)&)

xflb{s z'esfdgf

c

K

K

z'enIdL :6f]/
O6x/L–!, lj/f6gu/ nfOg, ;'g;/L
kmf]g M )@%–%*##(#

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf ;Dk"0f{
e§/fO{ aGw' tyf ;a} g]kfnL bfh'efO
lbbLalxgLx?df ;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o" Pjd\
;d[l4sf nflu xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{
-;lrj_

lbg]z e§/fO{
-cWoIf_

e§/fO{ j+z k|lti7fg kl/jf/
O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

;'/Iff

…k|x/LnfO{ k|ljlwo'Qm agfpg
;lsPdfq ;'/Iff k|efjsf/LÚ

ofbj/fh vgfn
-jl/i7 k|x/L pk/LIfs_
sf];L c~rn k|x/L sfof{no, w/fg
sf];L c~rnsf] zflGt ;'/Iffsf] cj:yf s:tf] 5 <
;du|df eGg] xf] eg] c~rnel/sf] ;'/Iff cj:yf /fd|f]
5 . kxf8L lhNnfdf lqmofzLn hftLo ;+u7gn] kmf§km'§?kdf
rGbf c;'nLnufotsf sfd ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . cGo lhNnfdf
clxn] ;fdfGo 5 .
of] t /fhgLlts ;+u7gsf] s'/f eof] t/ cGo cfk/flws
36gf t eO/x]s} 5g\ lg <
kmf§k'm§?kdf cfk/flws 36gf eO/x]sf 5g\ To:tf 36gf
lgoGq0f ug{ xfdLn] ;fbf kf]zfsdf 6f:skmf];{ u7g u/L kl/rfng
u/]sf 5f}+ . w/fg, lj/f6gu/, O6x/Lnufotsf 3gf zx/L Pl/ofdf
of] 6f]nL kl/rflnt 5 . cfjZos k/]df of] 6f]nLn] cGo :yfgdf
klg ;'/Iff lgu/fgL u5{ . 6f:skmf];s
{ } ;lqmotfdf w/fg /
cf;kf;sf If]qdf nfu"cf}ifw cf];f/k;f/ ug]{ lu/f]xnfO{ kqmfp
ug{ ;lsPsf] 5 . /, clxn] To:tf ultlalw lgs} sd ePsf 5g\ .
klxnf] r/0fdf t/fO{df kl/rfng ul/Psf] ljz]if 6f:skmf];n
{ fO{
qmdzM kxf8L lhNnfx?df klg kl/rfng ul/Fb} 5 .
s]xL ;docl3 pBf]uL u+uflj;g /f7Lsf] ckx/0fkl5
xTof eof] . pBf]uL Joj;foLx? c;'/lIft dx;'; ul//x]sf
5g\ . o;tkm{ s]–s:tf] Joj:yf ldnfpg' ePsf] 5 <
pBf]uL–Jofkf/LnfO{ dlg{ªjfsnufotdf lxF8\bf k|x/Lsf]
;'/Iff dfu]/ lxF8\g cfu|x u/]sf 5f}+ . ;fy} pgLx?n] dlg{ªjfs
ug]{ 7fpFdf ;fbf kf]zfssf k|x/L v6fpg] ul/Psf] 5 . ;fd'lxs
sfo{qmd x'g] :yfgdf eg] o'lgkmd{df ;d]t k|x/L v6fpg]
u/]sf 5f}+ . y|]6 cfPsf pBf]uL Jofkf/LnfO{ ;'/Iff lbg lhNnf
;'/Iff ;ldltn] cfjZos 7fg]sf JolQmnfO{ JolQmut ;'/Iffsf
nflu ;'/IffsdL{ v6fpg];d]t u/]sf 5f}+ .
lbgx'“ hg3gTj al9/x]sf] 5, ;'/Iff lbg slQsf] cK7\of/f]
dx;'; ug'e
{ Psf] 5 <
hg3gTj j[l4 / k|ljlwsf] ljsf;;Fu} ck/fwsf z}nLx?
klg km]l/Psf 5g\ . o:tf] cj:yfdf k|x/L eg] k'/fg} z}nLcg';f/

kl/rflnt eP/ sfd ug'k{ g]{ cj:yf /lx/xFbf ;'/Iff k|efjsf/L
x'g sl7g x'g] ePsfn] ca ;'/Iff Joj:yf klg k|ljlwo'Qm
agfpg'kg]{ cfjZostf 5 . ToxL cfjZostfcg';f/ klxnf]
r/0fdf w/fg, O6x/L, lj/f6gu/ h:tf a9L ck/fw x'g] :yfgdf
;L;L Sofd]/f h8fg ug]{ ljifodf lghL If]q;Fusf] ;fem]bf/Ldf
sfd cl3 al9/x]sf] 5 . lj/f6gu/df ^) nfv ?k}ofFsf] nfutdf
ljleGg :yfgdf ;L;L Sofd]/f h8fg ug]{ s'/fsf] nueu 6'+uf]
nflu;s]sf] 5 . w/fg / O6x/Ldf klg :yfgLo gu/kflnsf /
jfl0fHo ;+3;Fu 5nkmn eO/x]sf] 5 . pxfFx? klg o; ljifodf
w]/} ;sf/fTds x'g'x'G5 .
;L;L Sofd]/f h8fg u/]kl5 ck/fwdf sdL xf]nf t <
;L;L Sofd]/f ePdf ck/fwL klxrfg ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 .
ck/fwL klxrfg u/]/ kqmfp ug{ ;lsof] eg] lgZro klg
ck/fw 36\5g\ lg .
o;sf] s'g} pbfx/0f 5 t, hgsk'/df t ;L;L Sofd]/fs}
d'lg lbpF;} ad la:kmf]6 eP/ dfG5] d/] t/ ck/fwL kQf
nfu]g, To;a]nf ;L;L Sofd]/f lah'nL gePsf sf/0f aGb
lyof] /] Û To:tf] ;d:of oxfF gxf]nf / <
nf]8;]l8ªsf] ;dodf j}slNks Joj:yf gx'Fbfsf] Tof]
;d:of xf] . t/ o; If]qdf To:tf] sdhf]/L x'Fb}g lsgeg] @$
3G6f g} Aofsck x'g] u/L ;f]nf/ o'kLP; /fVg] ljifodf klg
5nkmn ePsf] 5 . / To;}cg';f/ sfof{Gjog ug]{ tof/Ldf
5f}+ . kf]v/fdf d a:bf g} ;L;L Sofd]/f h8fg ul/Psf] xf]
ToxfF hg;xeflutfdf %) nfv ?k}ofF nufgLdf l;;L Sofd]/f
h8fg ul/Psf] lyof] . To;n] w]/} /fd|f] kl/0ffd lbPsf] 5 .
k|x/L klg k|ljlwdf hfg}k5{ k|ljlwljgf sfd ug{ sl7g 5 .
w]/} lhNnfdf cj}w xltof/sf sf/0f ;d:of 5 . lhNnf
k|zf;gaf6 cg'dlt lnP/ xltof/ /fVg]x?n] klg jiff}b{ l] v gjLs/0f
u/fPsf 5}gg\ . tL xltof/ lgoGq0f ug{ s] ub}{ x'gx' G' 5 <
;a} lhNnfsf ;'/Iff ;ldltn] a}7s a;]/ o; ljifodf
5nkmn rnfO;s]sf 5g\ . ;fgf xltof/ eg] nfO;]G; lnP/
klg JolQmn] /fVg gkfpg] ePsfn] ;a} ca}w xf] . nfO;]G;
lnP/ /fv]sf 7"nf xltof/sf] xsdf klg ;dodf gjLs/0f
gu/]df cj}w dflgG5 . t]x|y'd lhNnfdf To:tf cj}w xltof/
;+sngsf] sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] yk Ps dlxgfsf]
;do lbP/ xltof/ a'emfpg cfu|x u/]sf] 5 . tf]lsPsf] ;dodf
ca}w xltof/ ga'emfPdf To:tf xltof/ /fVg] JolQmnfO{ kqmfp
u/L xftxltof/ tyf v/vhgf P]gcg';f/ ;DalGwt lhNnf
k|zf;gdfkm{t\ sfaf{xL rnfO{ xltof/ hkmt ul/g] 5 .
k|:t'lt M PnkL k/fh'nL

j};fv @)&)

47

j}bl] zs /f]huf/L

O/fsdf >d :jLs[lt lbg] tof/L

K

K

xflb{s z'esfdgf

ljefunfO{ kq k7fPsf] lyof] .
sf]l/ofnL b"tfjf;n] cfkm\gf] sfof{nodf
sfo{/t sfdbf/sf] ;'/Iffsf] lhDdf b"tfjf;s}
x'g] kqdf n]vs
] f] 5 . b"tfjf;sf] kqdf g]kfnL
sfdbf/ b]pdfg tfdfª, b'uf{nfn >]i7, rGb|
tfdfª, nf]saxfb'/ ;fsL{, o'j/fh uf];fO{,
g]qaxfb'/ sfsL{, l8NnL v8\uLnufotnfO{
O/fsdf j}bl] zs /f]huf/Lsf nflu :jLs[t
lbg cg'/f]w ul/Psf] xf] .
b"tfjf;df ;'/Iff;DaGwL ljleGg
kbdf sfo{/t g]kfnLn] dfl;s cf7 ;o 8n/b]lv @% ;o
8n/;Dd sdfO ub}{ cfPsf] atfOPsf] 5 . O/fsdf xfn
sl/a #) xhf/sf] ;+Vofdf g]kfnL sfo{/t 5g\ . ;/sf/n]
)^& ;fpg !@ ut]b]lv k|ltaGw km's'jf u/]sf] lyof] .
cd]l/sL ;]gfn] k|ltaGw nufPsf b]zsf sfdbf/nfO{
sfddf gnufpg] eg]kl5 g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|ltaGw km'sj' f
u/]/ ToxfF sfo{/tnfO{ j}Btf lbPsf] lyof] . t/ gofF /f]huf/sf]
nflu >d :jLs[lt eg] lbg] u/]sf] 5}g . ;/sf/n] :jLs[t
glbPsfn] ToxfF sfo{/tx? 5'66\ Ldf 3/ cfP/ ef/tLo af6f]af6
b'aO{ x'Fb} O/fs hfg] u/]sf 5g\ .

K

K

;'/Iffsf b[li6n] ;+jb] gzLn dflgPsf]
O/fsdf sfdsf nflu hfg] cg'dlt lbg
>d tyf /f]huf/ dGqfnon] k|lqmof ;'?
u/]sf] 5 .
cf7 jif{cl3 cft+sjfbL ;d"xn]
g]kfnL sfdbf/nfO{ O/fsdf lgd{dtfk"js
{
;fd"lxs xTof u/]kl5 )^! ebf} !^ ut]bl] v
;/sf/n] O/fsdf sfdsf nflu hfg
k| l taGw nufpF b } cfPsf] 5 . >d
dGqfnodf r}t t];|f] ;ftf ePsf] a}7sn]
aubfbl:yt sf]l/og b"tfjf;af6 !# hgf g]kfnL sfdbf/
dfu eO{ cfPsfn] >d :jLs[lt lbg] k|lqmof cl3 a9fPsf] xf] .
dGqfnosf] >d ;DaGw dxfzfvfsf k|d'v ;x;lrj
ljgf]b s];Lsf] cWoIftfdf >d, k//fi6« dGqfno, j}b]lzs
/f]huf/ ljefu / j}bl] zs /f]huf/ Joj;foL ;+3sf k|ltlglwsf]
a}7sn] l;kmfl/;sf] lg{0fo u/]sf] xf] .
dGqfnodf ePsf] a}7sn] u/]sf] pQm l;kmfl/; ;lrj:t/Lo
lg0f{o ePkl5 nfu" x'g] 5 . sf]l/og b"tfjf;n] sl/a Ps
dlxgfcl3 cfk\mgf] sfof{nosf nflu !# g]kfnL sfdbf/sf] >d
:jLs[tsf nflu cg'/f]w ub}{ >d dGqfno / j}bl] zs /f]huf/

xflb{s z'esfdgf

cc
gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs
tyf z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .

:yfkgfsfnb]lv g} P;Pn;Ldf ztk|ltzt
glthf Nofpg ;kmn o; ljBfnodf z}lIfs;q
@)&) sf nflu g;{/Lb]lv sIff ( ;Dd
egf{ v'ns
] f] hfgsf/L u/fOG5 .
k'0ok|;fb ;fksf]6f
-lk|lG;kn_

lnl6n k\mnfj;{ ;]s]G8/L af]l8{ª :s'n
O6x/L–%, ;'g;/L

48

j};fv @)&)

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs
tyf z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .

s:t'/L Ps]8d
] L kl/jf/
O6x/L, ;'g;/L

ljljw

d"No j[l4 r'ln“bf]
rfn' cfly{s jif{df vfB tyf k]o kbfy{sf] d"No j[l4
r"ln+bf] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 . g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf cg';f/
@)^(÷&) sf] df3 dlxgfdf jflif{s laGb"ut cfwf/df vfB
tyf k]okbfy{ ;d"xsf] d"No ;"rsfÍsf] j[l4b/ !)=& k|ltzt
/x]sf] 5 eg] u}/vfB tyf ;]jf ;d"xsf] ;"rsfÍdf (=^ k|ltztn]
j[l4 ePsf] 5 . @)^* df3 dlxgfdf oL ;d"xx?sf] d"No
;"rsfÍdf qmdzM $=! k|ltzt / (=^
k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] lyof] .
@)^( df3 dlxgfdf vfB tyf
k] o kbfy{ ;d" x df kg] { j:t' x ?dWo]
t/sf/Lsf] d"Noj[l4 ;a}eGbf a9L cyf{t\
!^=@ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . @)^* df3
dlxgfdf t/sf/Lsf] d"No !=^ k|ltztn]
x|f; ePsf] lyof] . @)^* df3 dlxgfdf
qmdzM $=^ k|ltzt / !%=@ k|ltztn]
j[l4 ePsf] df5f–df;' tyf l3p–t]n pk–
;d"xx?sf] d"No ;"rsfÍ @)^( df3
dlxgfdf qmdzM !$=$ k|ltzt / !#=&
k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . To;}u/L, lrgL
tyf ld7fO / /]i6'/G] 6 tyf xf]6n pk–;d"xx?sf] d"No ;"rsfÍdf
@)^( df3 dlxgfdf qmdzM !@=% k|ltzt / !@=! k|ltztn]
j[l4 ePsf] 5 . @)^* df3 dlxgfdf oL pk–;d"xx?sf] d"No
;"rsfÍdf $=^ k|ltzt / !)=% k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] lyof] .
cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL dlxgfdf l:y/ /x]sf] bnxgsf] d"No
;"rsfÍ @)^( df3 dlxgfdf !!=& k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 .
@)^( df3 dlxgfdf u}/vfB tyf ;]jf ;d"xsf j:t'x?dWo]

kmlg{l;ª tyf 3/fo;L pks/0f pk;d"xsf] d"No ;"rsfÍdf
!@=( k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . @)^* df3 dlxgfdf pQm
pk;d"xsf] d"No ;"rsfÍdf !#=^ k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] lyof] .
To:t}, @)^( df3 dlxgfdf lzIff / nQfsk8f tyf h'Qf–
rKkn pk–;d"xx?sf] d"No ;"rsfÍdf qmdzM !@=% k|ltzt /
!!=% k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . @)^* df3 dlxgfdf plNnlvt
pk;d"xx?sf] d"No ;"rsfÍdf qmdzM *=(
k|ltzt / !%=@ k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] lyof] .
To;}u/L, @)^( df3 dlxgfdf 3/fo;L
pkof]u / oftfoft pk;d"xx?sf] d"No
;"rsfÍdf qmdzM !)=@ k|ltzt / (=)
k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . @)^* df3
dlxgfdf o:tf] ;"rsfÍdf qmdzM %=& k|ltzt
/ !*=% k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] lyof] . ;~rf/
pk;d"xsf] d"No ;"rsfÍdf eg] @)^( df3
dlxgfdf @=! k|ltztn] x|f; ePsf] 5 .
cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL dlxgfdf pQm pk;d"xsf]
d"No ;"rsfÍdf *=@ k|ltztn] x|f; ePsf]
lyof] .
If]qut cfwf/df ljZn]if0f ubf{ @)^( df3 dlxgfdf
;j}eGbf a9L d"No ;"rsfÍ t/fO{df !)=^ k|ltztn] j[l4
ePsf] 5 eg] sf7df8f}+ pkTosf / kxf8sf] d"No ;"rsfÍsf]
j[l4b/ qmdzM !)=@ k|ltzt / (=) k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf]
jif{sf] ;f]xL dlxgfdf o:tf] d"No ;"rsfÍsf] j[l4b/ qmdzM
^=^ k|ltzt, ^=# k|ltzt / *=^ k|ltzt /x]sf] g]kfn /fi6|
a}+ssf] k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v 5 .

sf];L gbLdf aufP/ ns8L t:s/L
;Ktsf];L gbLdf afF;sf] c:yfoL 8'+uf agfP/ To;leq
n'sfO{ cj}w?kdf ns8L t:s/L ug]{ lu/f]x ;lqmo ePsf] 5 .
;'g;/Lsf] rt/fl:yt ;z:q k|x/L j]; SofDksf] 6f]nLn]
!% lbgsf] cjlwdf b'O{ k6s To;/L NofpFb} u/]sf] ns8L
kqmfp u/]kl5 pQm s'/f v'ns
] f] xf] . To;/L cj}w?kdf n'sfP/
nfFb} u/]sf] cj:yfdf km]nf kf/L ;z:q k|x/L lg/LIfs /fdk|;fb
;'jb] Lsf] g]tT[ jsf] 6f]nLn] b'O{ k6s u/L &) 3glkm6 ns8L
kqmfp u/L lhNnf jg sfof{no ;'g;/LnfO{ a'emfPsf] 5 .
jiff}{b]lv t:s/x?n] ef]hk'/, wgs'6f / pbok'/sf jg
If]qdf s6fg u/]sf ;fnsf ns8LnfO{ tn / dfly jfF;n]
5f]k/] 8'u+ fsf] cfsf/ agfP/ aufpFb} O6x/L, Og?jf, /fhlj/fh,
lj/f6gu/ / ef/t;Dd nfg] u/]sf] hfgsf/L cfPsf] ;k|lg

;'j]bLn] atfP .
pQm sfo{df :yfgLo 7"nf] lu/f]x ;+nUg ePsf] kfPkl5
To;nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ ;z:q k|x/L nflu k/]sf] 5 . …gbLdf
aufpFb} ns8L Nofpg] lu/f]xn] k|x/LnfO{ b]Vgf;fy ns8L 5f]8/]
gbL kf/L efUg] ePsfn] dflg; eg] kqmfp ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g .
t/ cfufdL lbgdf eg] xfdL ;+nUg lu/f]xnfO{ ;d]t kqmg]
of]hgf agfO{ /x]sf 5f},+ Ú ;'jb] Ln] eg] . pgsf cg';f/ ns8L
t:s/Ldf ;+nUg rt/f If]qsf lu/f]xsf ;b:ox?sf] klxrfg u/L
pgLx?sf] ultlalw cWoog ug]{ sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . ;z:q
k|x/Ln] rt/f / cf;kf;sf] If]qaf6 Ps dlxgfsf] cjlwdf kfFr
k6s u/]/ tLg ;o &% 3glkm6 ns8L kqmfp u/L lhNnf jg
sfof{no ;'g;/LnfO{ a'emfO;s]sf]] hgfPsf] 5 .

j};fv @)&)

49

k]6f« n
] kDkaf6 pkef]Qmf 7luFb}
;'g;/L df]/ªsf k]6f« n
]
kDkx?df g]kfn cfon lgud
/ u'0f:t/ tyf gfk tf}n
sfof{ n osf] cg' u dg
a]jf:tfsf sf/0f pkef]Qmfx?
7luFb} cfPsf 5g\ .
ut xKtf O6x/Lsf
s]xL k]6f« n
] kDksf] cg'udgn]
k]6f« n
] kDkx?af6 pkef]Qmf
7luFb} cfPsf] k|df0f km]nf
kf/]sf] 5 .
pkef]Qmf xs lxt ;+/If0f d~r / gfk tf}n tyf u'0f:t/
sfof{non] O6x/L ahf/ If]qsf k]6f« n
] kDkx?df cg'udg u/]sf]
lyof] . cg'udg 6f]nLn] ;f] qmddf k]6«f]n kDkx?sf] leqL zLn
tf]l8Psf] cj:yf km]nf kf/]sf] lyof] . To;/L zLn tf]l8Psf]
k]6f« n
] kDkx?df cg'udg 6f]nLn] t]n gfk]/ x]bf{ sd–a];L
dfqfdf aflx/ cfPsf] b]lvPsf] 6f]nLdf ;+nUg ladnf vgfnn]

hfgsf/L lbOg\ .
pkef]Qmfx?n] k]6«f]n
/ l8hn ;jf/L;fwgdf
l;w} eg] { ePsfn] kDk
;~rfnsx?sf] 7uL yfxf
gkfpg] u/] s f] cg' u dg
6f]nLsf] egfO 5 .
pkef]Qmf xs lxt ;+/If0f
d~r g]kfnsL ;lrj /x]sL]
vgfnn] x] 6 f} 8 fb] l v g}
k]6«f]n kDkx? cg'udg ub}{
cfPsf] atfOg\ . pgn] cg'udgsf qmddf O6x/L ahf/df
;~rflnt u0f]z ;le{l;ª :6]zg / cf]d cfon 6«]8;{sf]
d]l;gsf] zLn tf]l8Psf] cj:yfdf km]nf k/]sf] hfgsf/L
lbOg\ . cg'ugsf qmddf sdhf]/L kfOPsf k]6«f]n kDknfO{
sfaf{xLsf nflu ;DalGwt lgsfodf kqfrf/ ul/Psf] pgn]
atfPsL 5g\ .

gfO ;+3df clgoldttfsf] cf/f]k
g]kfn gfO ;+3 lhNnf sfo{;ldltsf cWoIf / ;lrjn]
;+3sf] lx;fa–lstf? kf/bzL{ gu/L cfly{s clgoldttf u/]sf]
cf/f]k ;+3s} kbflwsf/Lx?n] nufPsf 5g\ .
;+3sf cWoIf pd]z 7fs'/ / ;lrj hLt]Gb| 7fs'/n]
ljut 5 jif{b]lv ;+u7g Psnf}6L?kdf rnfpFb} cfPsf] 5
jif{bl] vsf] lx;fa–lstf? gb]vfPsf], n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bg;d]t
;fj{hlgs gu/]sf] ;+3sf pkfWoIf ;'/]z 7fs'/, s]Gb|Lo ;b:o
k/d]Zj/ 7fs'/, o'jf ;ldlt cWoIf rGbg 7fs'/nufotn] s]xL
;docl3 kqsf/ ;Dd]ng u/]/ cf/f]k nufPsf x'g\ .
pgLx?n] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt ;'g;/Ln] sfof{no
Joj:yfkgsf nflu lbFb} cfPsf] jflif{s #) xhf/ ?k}ofF sfof{no
g} g/fvL b'?kof]u ub}{ cfPsf] atfP . ut r}t ! ut] cfof]lht
lhNnf clwj]zgdf lx;fa–lstfa ;fj{hlgs ug{ dfu ubf{
;+3sf cWoIf
pd]z 7fs'/
;efxnaf6}
a]kQf ePsf]
/ clwj]zg
: y l u t
e P s f ]
pgLx?sf]
egfO 5 .
pgLx?n]

50

j};fv @)&)

lhNnfel/sf] ;}ng' Joj;foLn] lng] z'Nssf] b/ klg cfk"mv';L
lgwf{/0f u/]sf];d]t atfP . pgLx?n] sfo{;ldltdf lx;fa–
lstfa ;fj{hlgs gu/] lhlj; / lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf
5fgljg / sfaf{xLsf nflu ph'/L lbOg] atfPsf 5g\ .

kl08t 5ljnfn k'/:sf/ e§/fO{nfO{
k"js
{ f] z}lIfs tyf
wfld{s If]qdf dxTjk"0f{
of]ubfg lbPsf :juL{o
kl08t 5ljnfn kf]vn
]| sf]
!$ cf}+ :d[lt lbj;sf
cj;/df
w/fgsf
lzIff;] j L k| f Wofks
k'?iff]Qd e§/fO{ k'/:s[t
ePsf 5g\ .
;dfh sNof0f ;T;+u ;ldlt O6x/Ln] cfof]hgf u/]sf]
:d[lt lbj;df k"jd{ f ;+:s[t lzIffsf nflu of]ubfg lbg] k|fWofks
e§/fO{nfO{ pQm k'/:sf/ k|bfg ul/Psf] xf] . k|fWofks 8f=
uf]kfn e08f/Ln] k|f= e§/fO{nfO{ bf];Nnf;lxt kfFr xhf/ gub
k'/:sf/ x:tfGt/0f u/]sf x'g\ . ;dfhsf cWoIf zf/bfk|;fb
ld>sf] ;efkltTjdf ePsf] sfo{qmddf k"j{k|zf;s /fds'df/
;'Aafnufotn] kl08t kf]v|]nsf] of]ubfgsf] rrf{ u/]sf lyP .

alb| /Tg :d[lt k|lti7fg u7g ;}lgs >LdtL ;+3sf] ;xof]u
O6x/L–
% sf wfld{s
lrGts Pjd\
;dfh;]jL
zf/bfk| ; fb
ld> / pgsf
efO 8f=
tLy{k|;fb
ld> kl/jf/n]
@! nfv
?k}ofF cIfo
sf] i f /x] s f]
alb|–/Tg
g]kfnL ;}lgs >LdtL ;+3n] df]/ªsf] uf]ljGbk'/ uflj;sf
: d [ l t
k | l t i 7 f g clUgkLl8tx?nfO{ sDan ljt/0f u/]sf] 5 .
;}lgs >LdtL ;+3sL s]Gb|Lo ;b:o lji0f'dfof dxtn]
:yfkgf u/]sf 5g\ .
cfk\mgf :juL{o lktf alb|k;
| fb / cfdf /Tgs'df/L ld>sf] cfunfuL ePsf] :yfgsf $! 3/ kl/jf/nfO{ *) yfg sDjn
:d[ltdf :yflkt k|lti7fgn] lxGb" wd{sf] cg'z/0f ub}{ ;dfhdf ljt/0f ul/g\ . ;f] cj;/df g]kfnL ;]gfsf] gDa/ @ aflxgL
pTs[i6 of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] Ps ;fdflhs ;+:yf jf JolQmnfO{ c8\8f lxn]sf aflxgLklt ;'j{0faxfb'/ dxt, df]/ªsf k|d'v
a;]l{ g k'/:s[t ug]{ nIo /fv]sf] k|lti7fgsf cWoIf zf/bfk|;fb lhNnf clwsf/L tf/fgfy uf}td, df]/ªsf k|x/L pk/LIfs
lg/haxfb'/ zfxL, g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3 df]/ªsf cWoIf ljqmd
ld>n] atfP .
k|lti7fgn] o; jif{sf] k'/:sf/ ljut #) jif{bl] v c;xfo lg/f}nf, ch'{gjf0f u0f ynfxfsf u0fklt e'jg vqLnufotsf]
h]i7 gful/ssf] ;+/If0f ub}{ cfPsf] wgs'6fsf] d"n3f6l:yt pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] .
r}t !# ut] lbpF;f] uf]ljGbk'/–# df ePsf] cfunfuLdf
lj>flGt dlGb/ a[4f>dnfO{ $! xhf/ Ps ;o !! ?k}ofF k|bfg
u/]sf] 5 . k|lti7fgn] s]xL ;docl3 Ps sfo{qmd cfof]hgf #* kl/jf/sf (& 3/–uf]7 hn]/ gi6 ePsf lyP . lhNnf
u/L cf>dsf ;lrj hgfb{g l3ld/]nfO{ pQm /sd x:tfGt/0f k|zf;g sfof{no df]/ªn] cfunfuLdf sl/a Ps s/f]8 %)
nfv ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] Iflt ePsf] hgfPsf] 5 .
u/]sf] xf] .

z'Ns j[l4 k|:tfj c:jLs[t
;'g;/Lsf lghL ljBfnox? / P;cf]P; xd{g dfOg/
ljBfnon] !) b]lv @% k|ltzt;Dd z'Ns j[l4 ug]{ k|:tfj
lhNnf lzIff sfof{nodf k]z u/]sf]df ;f] sfof{non] k|:tfj
c:jLs[t u/]sf] 5 .
r}t @( ut] lhNnf lzIff sfof{nosf] z'Ns lgwf{/0f
;ldltsf] a}7sn] tTsfnnfO{ z'Ns j[l4 ug'{ pko'Qm gx'g]
lg0f{o u/]sf] lhNnf lzIff clwsf/L jL/axfb'/ v8\sfn] atfP .
;ldltsf] a}7sdf KofA;gsf k|ltlglwn] eg] lg0f{ok|lt gf]6
ckm l8;]G6 n]v]sf 5g\ . …gf]6 ckm l8;]G6 n]Vg' pxfFx?sf]
clwsf/sf] s'/f xf] t/ ut jif{dfq z'Ns lgwf{/0f ul/Psfn]
o; jif{ k'gM z'Ns j[l4 ug'{ P]g ljk/Lt x'gfn] lg0f{o gul/Psf]
xf] lsgls lzIff P]gd} Ps k6s lgwf{/0f u/]sf] z'Ns tLg jif{
gk'uL k'gM a9fpg gldNg] Joj:yf 5,Ú lhlzc v8\sfn] eg] .
pgsf cg';f/ ;'g;/Lsf ;+:yfut ljBfnox?nfO{ utjif{ dfq
dfl;s clwstd !$ ;o ?k}ofF lng kfpg] u/L z'Ns lgwf{/0f
ul/Psf] lyof] .

OSHIL SAJHA
TRAVEL & TOURS

xfd|f ;]jfx? M
# /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o xjfO l6s6 tyf >d ;]jf
# /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o s'l/o/, sfuf]{ ;]jf
# P;6L8L÷cfOP;8L, k\mofS;, kmf]6f]skL, n]ldg]zg ;]jf
# :kfO/n a's jfolG8ª\, kmf]6f] tyf sDKo"6/ lk|G6
# l/rfh{ sf8{ tyf /]ld6\ofG; ;le{;
O6x/L rf}s, ;'g;/L
;Dks{ M )@%–%*#!^^
k\mofS; M )@%–%*$@@!
Od]n M sajhatravel@yahoo.com

j};fv @)&)

51

e'mDsf pjf;+3df km]l/ ;u]g OGb|–a/fx x\jLnr]o/
e' m Dsf pBf] u jfl0fHo
;+ 3 sf] cf7f} + ;fwf/0f;efn] af:s]6an
cWoIfdf k'gM ;u]g rf}w/LnfO{
lgjf{lrt u/]sf] 5 .
r}t clGtd ;ftf ePsf]
;+3sf] lgjf{rgdf cWoIf kbdf
rf/ ;o @% dt NofP/ ;u]g
ljhoL ePsf x' g \ . pgsf
k|ltikwL{ ;Togf/fo0f rf}w/Ln] b'O{ ;o !@ dtdfq NofPsf
lyP . ;u]g ljut 5 jif{b]lv ;+3sf] cWoIf /xFb} cfPsf 5g\ .
;+3sf] k|yd pkfWoIfdf ;q'3g /fo, låtLo pkfWoIfdf
wd]G{ b| ;fx, dxf;lrjdf ;'lhts'df/ /fo, pBf]u ;lrjdf wL/]Gb|sd' f/
cu|xl/, jfl0fHo ;lrjdf ;To]Gb| Gof}kfg], k|rf/–k|;f/ ;lrjdf
;GbLk uf}td, sf]iffWoIfdf k|sfz rf}w/L tyf n]vf;ldltsf]
;+of]hsdf k|Ltgf/fo0f rf}w/L lgjf{lrt ePsf x'g\ .
lgjf{rg ;ldltsf ;+of]hs l8NnL sfsL{sf cg';f/ ;+3sf]
;b:ox?df nIdLk|;fb e§/fO{, /lGht rf}w/L, b'uf{gGb zdf{,
k|sfzaGw' a:g]t, c?0fs'df/ rf}w/L, slkn v8\sf /dgf]b]jL
;/bf/ lgjf{lrt ePsf 5g\ . ;ft ;o !( dtbftf /x]sf]
pjf;+3sf] lgjf{rgdf 5h ;o $& dt v;]sf] lyof] .

s6'jfn aGw'sf] /Qmbfg
…/ut bfg hLjg bfgÚ eGg] d"n gf/fnfO{ cfTd;ft ub}{
s6'jfn s"n j+z k|lti7fg O6x/Ln] /Qmbfg sfo{qmd ;DkGg
u/]sf] 5 .
k|li7fgsf cWoIf s'df/axfb'/ s6'jfnsf] ;efkltTjdf
O6x/L rf]sdf r}t t];|f] ;ftf ePsf] /Qmbfg sfo{qmddf ^@
lkG6 /ut ;+sng ePsf] lyof] . g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L /Qm
;~rf/ s]Gb| w/fgsf] ;lqmotfdf ePsf] sfo{qmdsf] ;+of]hg
;'/G] b| s6'jfnn] u/]sf lyP .
k|lti7fgn] ;f] sfo{qmdsf] cj;/df &$ jifL{of d}gfb]jL
s6'jfn / *$ jifL{o s0f{axfb'/ s6'jfnnfO{ s'n j+zsf h]i7
;b:osf] ?kdf ;Ddfg u/]sf] lyof] .

w/fgl:yt
xl/ofnL ;fd' b flos
jgsf] v]n d}bfgddf
ePsf] OGb| a/fx /fli6«o
af:s] 6
an
k|ltof]lutfsf] pkflw
k'?iftkm{ g]kfn cfdL{
/ dlxnftkm{ 8An';fgn]
lht]sf] 5 .
pkflw;Fu} XjLnr]o/ :kf]6;
{ P;f]l;o;g -8An';fg_sf]
dlxnf l6d / g]kfn cfdL{ l6dn] !) xhf/ ?k}ofFsf b/n] gub
k'/:sf/ k|fKt u/] . k|ltof]lutfsf] pkljh]tf hf]/kf6L dlxnf
tyf k'?if l6dn] %÷% xhf/ gub;lxt 6«kmL k|fKt u/] eg]
k'?iftkm{ cfdL{sf lxdfn cof{n / dlxnftkm{ 8An';fgsL Hof]lt
cof{n pTs[i6 v]nf8Lsf] ?kdf k':s[t eP .
ljh]tf, pkljh]tf / pTs[i6 v]nf8LnfO{ jLkL sf]O/fnf
:jf:Yo lj1fg k|lti7fg w/fgsf lzIffWoIf 8f= ljqmd >]i7,
k|ltof]lutfsf ;+of]hs lztns'df/ t'nfw/, a/fx Hj]n/L
O08li6«h k|fln w/fg zfvfsf k|dv
' dfgaxfb'/ lbofnLnufotsf
cltlyx?n] k'?:sf/ / k|df0fkq ljt/0f u/]sf lyP .

kf]v/]n
] aGw' e]nf
kf]v/]n j+z k|lti7fgsf] cfof]hgfdf df]/ªsf] lj/f6rf]sdf
ePsf] kf]v/]n aGw'x?sf] e]nfn] :yfgLo b|f]0fk|;fb kf]v/]nsf]
cWoIftfdf !# ;b:oLo kf]v/]n j+z k|lti7fg OGb|k/' ufpF
;ldlt u7g u/]sf] 5 .
k|li7fgsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf wd{/fh kf]v/]nsf] k|d'v
cfltYodf ePsf] e]nfn] an/fd kf]v/]n, b'uf{ kf]v/]n / 1fggfy
kf]v/]n;lxtsf] tLg ;b:oLo ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldlt;d]t rog
u/]sf] 5 .

gjjif{ @)&) sf] pknIodf ;Dk"0f{ cleefjs ju{df xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
o; ljBfnodf g;{/Lb]lv sIff ( ;Dd gofF egf{ v'n]sf] x'Fbf ;dod} cfk\mgf gfgLx?nfO{ egf{ ul/lbg'x'g
cg'/f]w 5 . sIff ^ b]lv c+u|]hL / g]kfnL b'j} dfWoddf cWoog–cWofkg x'g] o; ljBfnodf ;fd'bflos
ljBfnoaf6 cfpg] ljBfyL{nfO{ ;d]t cWoogsf] nflu pko'Qm jftfj/0f /x]sf] hfgsf/L u/fOG5 .
lk|lG;kn

h'lk6/ Oª\ln; :s'n
b'nf/L–%, ul5of, df]/ª
52

j};fv @)&)

cfe'if0f

;'grf“bL Joj;fodf cfsif{0f
lj/f6 cg'kd÷w/fg
/fhgLltzf:qdf :gftsf]Q/ pQL0f{ ;'Gb/ >]i7 xfn
w/fgdf ;'grfFbLsf] Joj;fodf Ao:t 5g\ . df/jf8L ;d'bfosf
lzlIft o'jf ljho cu|jfn klg w/fgsf :yflkt ;'g Jofkf/Lsf
?kdf lrlgG5g\ . ptf, w/fgdf uxgf ;fh;Hhfsf] cfwf/e"t
;Lk l;s]sf ljsf; ljs klg kf/Dkfl/s k]zfnfO{ Jofj;flos
agfpFb} ;'gsf] ahf/df o'jf Jofkf/Lsf] ?kdf ;+3if{/t 5g\ .
o;/L clxn] w/fgdf ;'grfFbL Joj;fodf nfUg]x?sf] ;+Vof
a9\bf] 5 . k9]–n]vs
] fx?n] klg ;'grfFbLs} Jofkf/df xft xfNg
yfn]kl5 of] Joj;fodf cfsif{0f a9]sf] cg'dfg ug{ sl7g 5}g .
;'g;/L pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf k"jc
{ WoIf tyf
:jLsf/ uxgf u[xsf ;~rfns df]xgsfhL zfSo
w/fgdf b}lgs !) s/f]8 ?k}ofFeGbf a9Lsf]]
;'grfFbL lsga]r / ;§fk§f x'g] atfpF5g\ .
Pp6f ;fdfGo k;nsf] klg b}lgs cf};t laqmL
8]9 nfv xf/fxf/Ldf x'g] pgn] ;'gfP . cem
/f]rs s'/f t sf/f]af/sf] *) k|ltzt u|fxsx?
;d]t :yfgLo g} ePsf] pgsf] cg'ej 5 .
afFsL u|fxs rflxF sf];L c~rnsf kxf8L
lhNnfdf x'g] pgn] hfgsf/L lbP .
w/fgdf ;'grfFbL Joj;fodf ljz]ifu/L
ljZjsdf{ ;d'bfosf dflg;x? a9L ;+Vofdf ;lqmo
5g\ . k'Vof}n
{ L k]zfsf] ?kdf ;'grfFbLsf] l;Nk
l;s] s f ljZjsdf{ x ? clxn]
Jofj;flos?kd} cl3
al9/x]sf] atfpF5g\, Go"
sdn Hj]n/Lsf ;~rfns
ljsf; . @) jif{b]lv
;'grfFbL Joj;fodf
;lqmo pgL eG5g\,
…;' g rfF b L Joj;fo
xfd| f ] df} l ns /
k'Vof}{nL Joj;fo xf]
t/ cGo ;d'bfosf
dflg;x? klg of]
Joj;fodf cfpg'
ePsf] 5, of] /fd|f]
s' / f xf] . a/fx
Hj] n /Lh:tf] xfd| }
;d'bfosf Joj;foLn]
;~rfng u/]sf] k;n
;a} e Gbf ;kmn

ag]sf]df emg} v';L nfU5 .Ú
w/fgdf g]jf/ ;d'bfo / df/jf8L ;d'bfosf Jofkf/Lx?sf]
klg ;'grfFbL Joj;fodf a9\bf] ;+Vof /x]sf] x]l/6]h uf]N8
Kofn]; w/fgsf ;~rfns ;'Gb/ >]i7 atfpF5g\ .
;'g;/L pjf;+3sf k"j{ cWoIf zfSosf cg';f/ w/fgdf
;'grfFbL k;n ;ft bh{geGbf a9L 5g\ .
sfnLu9 ;d:of
art, u/uxgf, ;hfj6 / ;'Gb/tfdf clws k|of]u x'g]
;'g w/fgsf nfx'/] kl/jf/, j}bl] zs /f]huf/df hfg]x?sf cfkmGt
/ dWodjuL{o kl/jf/df a9L nf]slk|o x'bF } cfPsf] 5 . t/
;'grfFbLsf cfsif{s u/uxgf agfpg] sfnLu9x? eg]
a+ufnL / laxf/Lx? g} a9L ;+Vofdf /x]sf] Jofkf/Lx?
atfpF5g\ . @)$@ ;fnb]lv sfnLu9sf] ;d]t
sfd;Fu} ;'grfFbL Joj;fodf ;lqmo zfSo eG5g\,
…g]kfnL sfdbf/eGbf sfnLu9 sfddf a+ufnL,
laxf/Ls} afx'No 5 . a+ufnLx? h'g;'s} a]nf
;'Gb/, cfsif{s l8hfOgsf 1ftf ePsfn]
pgLx?sf] dfu klg a9\bf] 5 .Ú zfSon] a+ufnLx?
/ftsf] ;dodf klg sfddf ;do lbg] x'gfn]
nf]slk|o ag]sf] atfP . t/ w/fgdf a9]sf] ;'g
Joj;fosf] t'ngfdf sfnLu9 sfddf hgzlQmsf]
cefj ePsf] Joj;foLx? atfpF5g\ .
k|zf;gaf6 ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt gx'Fbf
n'6kf6 tyf To;af6 x'g] Ifltsf] Ifltk"lt{
gkfPsf] clwsf+z Jofkf/Lsf]
u'gf;f] 5 . ;'grfFbL
Joj;fodf ;' g sf]
kof{ K t / ;d' l rt
cfk"lt{ gx'g,' :jb]zd}
klg
uxgf
cf];f/k;f/sf] ;'/lIft
jftfj/0f af] s ] /
a]Rg;Sg] jftfj/0f
gx' g '
h:tf]
cK7\ o f/fx? /x] s f]
zfSosf] u'gf;f] 5 .
pgL eG5g\, …t/n
d" N o sfod /xg]
;'gsf] Jofkf/ / ahf/
klg t/n g} 5 t/
ztk|ltzt xtf;sf]
jftfj/0f klg 5}g .Ú

j};fv @)&)

53

…;'grfFbL Joj;fo cf;nfUbf] 5Ú
o'jf pd]/d} ;'grf“bL Joj;fodf nfUg'eof] lg <
Ps t k'Vof}n
{ L k];f ;fy} cGo hflu/eGbf cfk\mg} ;Lko'Qm Joj;fo
u/f}+ eg]/ ;'? u/]sf] xf] .
ljZjsdf{ ;d'bfosf] t of] k/Dk/fut k]zf xf], o;nfO{ Jofj;flos
agfpg s] ug'k{ 5{ <
;Lk, snf / k/Dk/fut k[i7e"ld x'Fbf klg xfd|f] ;d'bfosf
;fyLx? Jofkf/df v/f] pqg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . sf/, ;dofg's"n ck8]6
gx'g' / k'FhL nufgL ug]{ lxDdt gx'g' xf] . t/, Jofj;flos aGg rflxF
;lhnf] 5 . ;Lk ;'wfg]{ / k'FhL ga9fpg] clg Joj;fo la:tf/ u/]/
k"0f{sfnLg k]zf ug{ ;Sg'k5{ . kf6{6fOd ug]{n] of] ;'g Joj;fodf
xft} gxfn] x'G5 .
;'g k;ndf rf]/Lsf 36gf lg obfsbf ;'lgG5g\, tkfO{sf] s'g} cg'ej <
bzscl3 d]/f] klg k;ndf rf]/L ePsf] lyof] . nueu 8]9
s/f]8sf] u/uxgf rf]/L eof] t/ k|zf;gsf] /fd|f] ;xof]u k|fKt ePg .
Ifltk"lt{sf] t s'/} 5f8f}+ .
;'gsf] w/fg] ahf/ / Jofkf/sf] af/] of] If]qdf cfpg rfxg] Jofkf/Lx?nfO{
s] eGg rfxg'xG' 5 <
w/fg ;Lldt ahf/ 5, t/ c;Lldt u|fxsx? 5g\ eGg] klg
e'Ng'xG' g . To;}n] ;'grfFbL If]qdf cBfjlws lzNkLjfn ;fyLx?n] plrt
nufgL u/]/ cfpg ;s]g lg/f; x'g] 7fpF 5}g .

K

K

xflb{s z'esfdgf

c
gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ kf]v/]n aGw' tyf ;a}
g]kfnL bfh'efO lbbLalxgLx?df
;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf
nflu xflb{s d+undo
z'esfdgf JoQm ub5f}+ .
wd{/fh kf]v/]n
-s]Gb|Lo cWoIf_

kf]v/]n j+z k|lti7fg kl/jf/
O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

54

j};fv @)&)

ljsf; ljs

Go" sdn Hj]n/L ;~rfns
;b:o, ;'grf“bL Joj;foL ;+3, w/fg

a/fxsf] cWoIfdf lzjs'df/

K

K

xflb{s z'esfdgf

Go" z'esfdgf l8kf6{dG] 6 :6f]/,
ef]hk'/] km]G;L :6f]/, a/fx art
tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf;d]t
;~rflnt 5g\ . a/fx
Hj]n/LcGtu{t tLg;o hgfeGbf
a9Ln] k|ToIf /f]huf/L kfpFb}
cfPsf 5g\ eg] ;/sf/nfO{ jflif{s
$) nfv ?k}ofFeGbf a9L /fh:j a'emfpFb} cfPsf] 5 .

a/fxn] l8nS; a; rnfpg]
g'gb]lv ;'g;Ddsf] sf/f]af/ ub}{ cfPsf] w/fgl:yt a/fx
Hj]n/L k|flnn] o;} jif{b]lv w/fg–sf7df8f}+ ;'ljwfo'Qm a;
;]jf;d]t ;~rfng ug]{ ePsf] 5 .
sDkgLsf w/fg zfvf k|dv
' dfgaxfb'/ lbofnLn] sDkgLn]
rf/ cf]6f a; vl/b u/]/ a8L agfpg lbO;s]sf] hfgsf/L
lbP . pgn] klxnf] r/0fdf jftfg'sl' nt -P;L_ ;'ljwf;lxtsf
b'O{ cf]6f l8nS; a; / b'O{ cf]6f ;fwf/0f a; ;~rfng ul/g]
atfP . sDkgLn] a; ;]jf ;~rfng ug{ sl/a b'O{ s/f]8 %)
nfv ?k}oFf nufgL u/]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . …a;sf] sfd nueu
clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] 5 . s]xL dlxgfleq} ;a} k|lqmo k"/f
u/]/ ;]jf ;~rfngdf Nofpg] 5f}+,Ú dfgaxfb'/n] eg] .

K

K

a/fx Hj]n/L OG8li6«hsf cWoIf OGb|s'df/ nfld5fg]sf]
Jofkf/ lj:tf/sf] nflu xªsª uPsf] a]nf tLg dlxgfcl3
lgwg ePkl5 sDkgLsf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] lzjs'df/
nfld5fg]nfO{ sfo{jfxs cWoIfdf rog u/]sf] 5 .
#@ jifL{o lzjs'df/ sDkgLsf ;+:yfks OGb|s'df/sf
5f]/f x'g\ . pgL cfk\mgf] cWoog k"/f u/]/ ljut !) jif{b]lv
sDkgLs} sfddf ;lqmo x'bF } cfPsf lyP . …sDkgLdf ;+:yfks
bfO OGb|s'df/sf] vfFrf] t csNkgLo xf] t/ pxfFsf] cefjdf
sDkgLsf] sf/f]af/df c;/ knf{ eg]/ z]o/wgLx?n] cflQg'kg]{
cj:yf 5}g lsgls pxfFn] cfk"m d/]/ uPklg $) hgfeGbf
a9L pQ/flwsf/L 5f]8]/ hfg'ePsf] 5 . pxfF l;lgo/ SofK6]g
x'g'x'GYof] / a/fxnfO{ rnfpg ;Sg] w]/} h'lgo/ / e/kbf{
SofK6]g tof/ u/]/ hfg' ePsfn] nufgLstf{nfO{ gcQflng
xfdL cg'/f]w ub{5f},Ú w/fgzfvf k|d'v dfgaxfb'/n] eg] .
ef]hk'/sf] b'u{d ufpFdf hlGdPsf OGb|s'df/n] w/fg
ahf/df @)%@ ;fn ebf}df @) xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgL u/]/
Pp6f ;6{/leq ;'? u/]sf] a/fx Hj]n/L clxn] w/fgb]lv sf7df8f},+
kf]v/f, xªsª, n08g;Dd km}lnPsf] 5 . sDkgLcGtu{t
sf7df8f}df k|wfg sfof{no;lxt tLg cf]6f ;f]?d / ;xsf/L
;+:yf;d]t ;~rflnt 5g\ . sDkgLn] k/Dk/fut / cfw'lgs
u/uxgf pTkfbg / laqmL–ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
sl/a Ps ca{sf] k'h
F L k'us
] f] a/fx Hj]n/LcGtu{t w/fgdf

xflb{s z'esfdgf

cc
gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs
tyf z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
ljgo nfdf
-lk|lG;kn_

;'j0f{ yfkf
-k|aGw lgb]z
{ s_

df]8g{ lk|k|]6f]/L ;]s]G8/L af]l8{ª :s"n
O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

gofFjif{ @)&) sf] z'e pknIodf
;Dk"0f{ cleefjs, ljBfyL{, lzIfs
tyf z'elrGtsx?df ;':jf:Yo,
bL3f{o" Pjd\ ;d[l4sf nflu
xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub5f}+ .
sljGb| d08n
-lk|lG;kn_

;'g;/L ;]G6h]leo;{ O+=;]s]08/L :s"n
O6x/L–!, ;'g;/L

j};fv @)&)

55

tkfO{sf] efUo
d]if /flzsf ePsfnfO{ of] jif{ dWod kmnbfoL /x]sf] 5 .
Jofkf/df ;kmntf ldNg]5 . klt kTgLaLrsf] ;DaGwdf
ljZjf;sf] ;+s6 b]vf kg]{5 . kfl/jfl/s snx /
:jf:Yo;DaGwL ;d:ofn] ;tfpg] 5 . gf]s/L / ;fdflhs If]qaf6 dfg;Ddfg
ldNg]5 . cw'/f /x]sf sfdx? k"/f x'g5
] g\ . j}bl] zs Jofkf/ /fd|f] /xg]5 .
s[lif tyf kz'kfngaf6 ;fdfGo nfe x'g5
] . jif{sf] pQ/fw{af6 gofF sfdsf]
yfngL x'g5
] . cfly{s b[li6n] c;f/, df3 / kmfu'g dlxgf z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
o; jif{ j[if /flzsf JolQmx?nfO{ z'e /x]sf] 5 .
j[if :jf:Yo;DaGwL ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f ldNg]5 . ;Gtfgaf6
;'v ldNg]5 . sfg'gL If]qsf sfdx? aGg]5g\ . cfFvf;DaGwL
;d:ofn] ;tfpg] 5 . gf]s/Ldf dfg;Ddfg ldNg]5 . dfª\ulns sfo+x{ ?
x'g5
] . csf{sf] xftdf uPsf] wg xft nfUg yfNg]5 . sfdsf gofF gofF
cj;/ b]vf kg]5
{ g\ . nfdf 5f]6f ofqfx? ug'k{ g]{ 5 . ;fpg, sflt{s,
kmfu'g / r}t dlxgfdf /fd|f sfdx? aGg]5g\ .

d]if

ldy'g /flzsf JolQmx?nfO{ o; jif{ /fd|f] /x]sf] 5 . Jofkf/af6
;f]r] cg'?k nfe ldNg]5 . kl/jf/df dfª\ulns sfo{x?
x'g5] g\ . u'ds
] f] wg xft nfUg'sf ;fy} ck|Tofl;t ?kdf wg
k|fKt x'g5] . cfly{s b[li6n] j}zfv, ebf}, df3, / r}t dlxgf z'e /x]sf 5g\ .

ldy'g

ss{6 /flzsf JolQmx?nfO{ o;

ss{6 jif{ e"ld, jfxg ;'v ldNg] 5 .

u/]sf sfddf ;kmntf ldNg]5 .
cgfjZos emd]nfdf km:g' kg]5{ . afa' cfdfsf] :jf:Yo
;d:ofn] lrlGtt agfpg]5 . c9}of zlgsf] k|efjn]
em'§f cf/f]k nfUg], dgdf czflGt k}bf x'g,] sfddf
l9nf;'l:t x'g5
] . wfld{s sfo{df vr{ a9g'sf ;fy}
kl/jf/df dfª\ulns sfo{ x'g]5 . a[x:klt cg's"n
/xgfn] jif{ cf/Dedf u'ds
] f] wg xft nfUg] / gofF
:yfg k|fKt x'g5
] . c;f/, sflt{s / kmfNu'g dlxgf
si6s/ /x] klg j}zfv, h]7, k'; / c;f]h dlxgf
z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
l;+ x
/flzsf
l;+x JolQmx?nfO{ o;
jif{ z'e /x]sf] 5 .
gofF gofF sfdsf] yfngL x'g]5 .
;fdflhs If]q / /fhg}lts If]qdf
clws ;do vr{ x'g]5 . gf]s/Ldf
dfg;Ddfg ldNg]5 . dfª\ulns sfo{df 7"n} wg/flz vr{ x'g5
] . Jofkf/af6
;f]re
] Gbf al9nfe x'g5
] . wfld{s lty{:ynx?sf] ofqf x'g5
] . Gofo tyf
sfg'g ;DaGwL If]q o;jif{ sdhf]/ /x]sf] 5 . cfkmGt;Fusf] n]gb]gsf]
sf/f]jf/n] zq'tf a9fpg]5 . u'? cg'sn
' /xgfn] c;f/af6 dgsf OR5fx?
k"/f x'gfsf ;fy} y'k|} nfe ldNg]5g\ . ;fpg, dª\l;/ / r}t dlxgf s]xL
si6s/ /x]klg h]7, c;f/, sflt{s / df3 dlxgf z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
;f9];ftL zlgsf] k|efjn] o; jif{ dfgl;s lrGtf
sGof a9\g] sfddf l9nf;'l:t x'g,] dfg;Ddfgdf cf3ft
kg],{ :jf:Yo;daGwL ;d:ofn] ;tfpg], ;l~rt wgsf]
gfz x'g], ckh:f kmnx? nfUg]5g\ . zlg :ju[xL
pRr/flz / z'e kmnbfoL /x]sf JolQmx?nfO{ z'e kmn k|fKt x'g]5 . zlg
clgi6 x'g] JolQmx?n] zlgsf] nflu bfg, hk, :qf]t kf7x? ug'{kg]{ 5 .
o; jif{ wfld{s, ;fdflhs If]qsf sfdx? aGg]5g\ . gf]s/Ldf dfg;Ddfg
ldNg]5 . Jofkf/df ptf/r9fj cfpg]5 . j}bl] zs If]qsf sfdx? aGg]5g\ .
j}zfv, ebf} / k'if dlxgfdf s]xL b'Mv si6 ;xg' k/]klg c;f/, ;fpg,
dª\l;/ / kmfu'g dlxgf z'e /x]sf 5g\ .

kl/jf/df dfª\ulns sfo{ xg]5 . ;Gtfg ;'v ldNg]5 .

t'nf j}bl] zs If]qsf sfd / cw'/f /x]sf sfdx? k"/f x'g5] g\ .
ofqfx? ug'{kg]{5 . ;fF9];ftL zlgsf] k|efjn] zl//df
cfn:otf k}bf x'g,] dfgl;s tgfj a9\g,] gzf;DaGwL /f]un] ;tfpg],
;l~rt wgsf] gfz x'g,] cfkmGtdf j}/efj x'gh
] :tf clgi6 kmn zlg
cz'e x'g] JolQmx?nfO{ nfUg]5 . o:tf JolQmx?n] zlgb]jsf] k"hf, hk, bfg,
zlg d[To'~ho :qf]tkf7 cflb ug'k{ g]5
{ . h]7, c;f]h / df3 dlxgfdf b'Mv
si6 a9] klg ;fpg, ebf}, k'; / r}t dlxgf cfly{s b[li6n] z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
l Zrs /flzsf JolQmx?nfO{ o; jif{ dWod
j[lZrs j[kmnbfoL
/x]sf] 5 . wfld{s / ;fdflhs sfo{df
;do laTg'sf ;fy} wg vr{ x'g]5 . j}b]lzs If]q
/ Jofkf/af6 nfe x'g]5 . ;f9];ftL zlgsf] k|efjn] zlg k|lts"n
ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ em'§f cf/f]k nfUg]5, ;l~rt wgsf] gfz x'g],
dfg;Ddfgdf cf3ft kg]{, cfkmGt;Fu j}/efj x'g], cgfjZos emd]nfdf
km:g'[kg]{5 . d'2f dfldnfdf ljho k|fKt x'g]5 . :jf:Yo ;DaGwL
;d:ofn] ;tfpg] h:tf clgi6 kmn nfUg] 5 . zlgb]jsf] k"hf, bfg,
hk, kf7 ugf{n] z'ekmn ldNg]5 . c;f/, sflt{s / kmfu'gdf b'Mv
si6 a9]klg j}zfv,ebf}, c;f]h / df3 dlxgf z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
z'e kmnbfoL jif{ /x]sf] 5 . e"ld Pj+ jfxgsf]
xg]5 . kfl/jfl/s ;d:ofn] ;tfP klg ;Gtfg
wg' nfe
;'v ldNg]5 . kl5 nfe x'g] gofF gofF sfdsf]
yfngL x'g5
] . tLy{:ynx?sf] wfld{s ofqfsf
cj;/x? ldNg]5g\ . j}bl] zs If]qsf sfdx? aGg'sf
;fy} u'ds
] f] wg ck|Toflzt ?kn] xft nfUg]5 . gf]s/Ldf
dfg;Ddfg k|flKtsf] of]u /x]sf] 5 . :jf:Yok|lt ;r]t
/xg'kg]5
{ . ;fpg, df3 / r}t dlxgfdf b'Mv a9]klg
h]7, c;f]h, sflt{s / kmfu'g dlxgf z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
ds/ /flzsf JolQmx?nfO{ o; jif{
ds/ z'e kmnbfoL /x]sf] 5 . cw'/f
/x] s f sfdx? k" / f x' g ] 5 g\ .
cfDbfgLsf gofF gofF ;| f ] t x?
b]vfkg]{5g\ . kl/jf/df dfª\ulns sfo{ x'g]5 . e"ld,
jfxg / k'Vof}{nL ;DklQn] ljjfb lgDTofpg] 5 .
g;f]lrPsf] wg crfgs k|fKt x'g5
] .
gf]s/L / Jofkf/af6 ;Grf]if ldNg]5 .
kfl/jfl/s :jf:Yodf 7" n } vr{
ug'k{ g]5
{ . d'2fdfldnf / emu8faf6
k/} a:g' /fd|f] x'g5
] . j}zfv, ebf} /
k'; dlxgfdf b'Mvsi6 a9]klg c;f/,
sflt{s, dª\l;/ / r}t dlxgf cfly{s b[li6n] z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
s'De /flzsf JolQmx?nfO{ o; jif{ /fd|f] /x]sf] 5 . zq'x?
s'De cfˆgf] e"n :jLsf/ ub{} z/0fdf cfpg]5g\ . wfld{s /
dfª=\ulns sfddf wg vr{ ePklg cfdbfgLsf gofF gofF
cj;/x? b]vfkg]5
{ g\ . Jofkf/ km:6fpg] 5 . j}bl] zs If]qsf sfdx? aGg]5g\ .
s[lif tyf kz' Jofj;foaf6 ;f]r cg'?k nfe x'g5
] . gf]s/L k|flKt cyjf gofF
gofF sfdsf] yfngL x'g5
] . ;fdflhs / /fhg}lts If]qdf ckh; v]Kg'kg]5
{ .
bfDkTo hLjgdf ptf/r9fj cfpg]5 . h]7, c;fh / df3 dlxgfdf s]xL
emd]nfdf km:g] 8/ eP klg j}zfv, ;fpg, df3 / k'; dlxgf z'e /x]sf 5g\ .
/fzLsf JolQmx?nfO{ o; jif{ dWod kmnbfoL /x]sf
dLg dLg
5 . c9}of zlgsf] k|efjn] sfdx? cw'/f /xg], rf]6k6ssf]
eo, ;l~rt wgsf] gfz, kl/jfl/s snx, cfkmGtdf j}/efj, gzf;DaGwL
/f]un] ;tfpg] h:tf clgi6 kmn zlg k|lts"n ePsf JolQmx?nfO{ nfUg]5 .
zlg b]jsf] k"hf kf7, bfg ugf{n] z'e kmn ldNg]5 . j}bl] zs If]q ;kmn
/x]sf] 5 . g]fs/Ldf ckh; vKg'k/] klg dfg a9\g5
] . tLy{ofqfsf cj;/x?
ldNg]5g\ . c;f/, sflt{s / kmfu'g dlxgf s]xL sdhf]/ /x]klg h]7, ebf},
k'; / df3 dlxgfdf y'k}| sfdx? aGg]5g\ .

@)&) sf] jflif{s /flzkmn

56

j};fv @)&)

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