3obn rcVbam 5

yviXvv.
IN

THE CUSTODY OF TME BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.

'SB.

V

THE

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
O F

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS=
i

Tranflated

into

Engl

i

s

h5
?*?.:?

WITH

]

NOTES

and

DISSERTATIONS.

ADA.NIS

0^

(iii)

PREFACE.
I
flit

HAVE often

wondered that the

hlJJory^

which

I now take
is

the libej'ty of offering to the public^

and which

perpe-

tually quoted by every author^

who has written upon
their
to

the con-

ution

of the Roma?iSj as the fource of all
to

lea?''ningy

and

an

authority^

which all men have agreed

fubmit^ fhould
the

never have appeared in our language.
the work^

Whether

length of

or the difficulty of explaini?ig the origijtal co7iflitution
the differences
exercife

of the Ro?nanSj a?td particula?-ly of afcertai77ing
between the three
that
co7flitutio?t^

foi-ts

of

comit'ta^

upon which the

of

i7i

a great

t77eafure^ depe77ded\

whether

thefe^

or a77y other

i7iotives

difcouraged our me7i of lear7iing

from
this

this hifo7y^ attempting a tra7iJlation of

I caimot fay : But
arid

I

ivill

venture

to

affrm^ that the a/ialogy betwee7i the regal
Ro77ia7is^

co7iflitutiQ7i

of the

and our own^

a more fu7'p7'iEngliffj

fin'T a77aloo^Vi

1

77iean

That between the Grcek^ a7id
a

languages

vi

PREFACE.
to

well have languages^ might very encouraged them
ity

tranjlate

and

to

recommend

it to

their

countrymen y as a poffejfwn they
intltled

were,

in

a particular
of this
mujl

jnajiner,

tranjlation

hijlory will anfiver

Whether my thedejtgn offuch a recomto.

mendation,

be left

to

the

voice

of the public,
this

upon

whofe

decijion,

the fate

of all produ8lio?is of

kind mufl ne-

cefjarily

depend: A?id the only hope

I can

entertain that their
is

determination

may

not be in

my

disfavor,

derived

from

the

pains

I have

beflowed upon this tranjlation,

rather than from

the effeSi of thofe pains.

Every reader has a natural curiofty
birth,

to

be iitformed of the

the private

culars relating to
it
is

and charaSier, and of all other partithe author of any work he perufes : I amforry
life,

not

ift

my power
in the

to

fatisfy this reafonable curiofity any
to
:

otherwife,

than by referring ?ny readers
preface to
this

what our author

fays ofhimfelf

hijlory

There they willfnd,
i?i

amon?

other things,

that Dio?iyfus lived at Ro?ne
all others in

the Aii-

7ujia7i age,

an age celebrated above
it

the

Roman

the great writers hifory both for

produced,
to

and for

the dijlin-

guijhing encouragement given by Auguftus

thofe writers._

He

^il,

was cotemporary, and, probably, acquainted with Livy, FirHorace, Ovid, a?id many other learned, andpolite authors,
with whofn that remarkable age was adorned, a7td was himfelf

a

confpicuous flar

in that bright confcllation,

I need

PREFACE.
ftdes
his hijlory^

V

l77eed not acquaint the learned reader that our author^ beother worksy all te?iding compofed f7iany
to the.

i?nprovement of oratorial^

are

lojl

;

but

much

the

and hifiorical writings fame of which is preferved^ and contains greatejl part
orator ^ a?td

the bejl precepts to

form an

an

hiflorian^

and

to

enable others to judge of both.

It has been

a doubt among

the

men of learnings whether he
fore,

works bepublifjed thefe critical
'"

or after his Rotnan hiflory
opinion
;

:

Dodwell has embraced

the

former

for which he gives

this

very good reafon^ that^
hiflory^

in his critical works y he ne^er makes

any mention of his

publijhed.

takes notice of the other writings he had before though he often Dodwell alfo thinks that the Cn. Pompeiusy to whom

he dedicates

his

criticifm upon

the

Greek

hifiorians,

was the

in fafne perfon, who was fubftituted conful (conful fuffedus)

the

month of OSiober in

the Varronia?z
it

year 723.
this

By

thisy

and fnany
could
7J0t

other arguments,

appears that

Cn. Pompeius

have been the great Pojjipey, whowas fai?t in JEgypt * * in 706, though M. *, in his preface, has thought fit to
eftabliJJj

afriendjhip

betweeji that

great man, and our author
his

;

and

to

make

the
:

former defre
This

judgement concerning the
his

Greek

hiftorians

I conclude
;

fwn

Mentioni72g

Pomis,

pey without
i7i

a7iy difli7i8iion

which fna7iner offpeakJ7ig

both

his,

a7id in all other languages,
'•

applicable only to the
c. vii.

per"

Diflert. de JEiat.

Dionyf.

& viii.
fon,

a 2

vi

PREFACE.
name fo famous
who
both by his fucceffeSy
his

fon^ who has rendered his

and

ortimes. jnisf

We hicns)
century^

by Photius^

lived in the 77iiddle

of the innth

afid by maiiy other authors^ that this hiflory contai?ied

twenty books^

and

that Dionyfuis hif?ifelf made^

what Photius
i7i?te

calls^ afytiopfis

of it in five booh.
lofi

So that

^

the

lafl
;

booh
but

mufl- have been

fince the middle of the ?iinth centu?y
hioiv not.

haw long

fince

ive

He?2ry Glarean^ profeffor at

his chronological tables dedicated in Freiburg, ay s^ at the end of

f

1

5 3 2 /o Ferdinafid, thenki72g of the Romans, that thefe nine booh
tifne in

were at that

being,

and concealed by fo7?ie men of learnthis
cites

he gives for ing : The reafon a moder?i author, Lafiaris,
leaves us

afjertion

is,

that Confiantim
This, indeed^

him

in Greek.

fome roojn to hope that they 7nay one day fee the light. I co7?ie now to my brother labourers, the tra7ifiators of Dio'The firfi

nyfius.

lated the eleven

was Lapus Biragus, a Flore7itine, who tranfinto Lati7i books now fro7n two re7nai?iing

old 7na?mfcripts, a7id dedicated his tra?jfiation to pope
feco7id.
ries

Paul the

It

was firfi

pri?ited

at Trevifo, a town in the territo-"

in 1480. of the Venetians,

Voff.us ve?y fiifily cen-

his fidelity, andhis fiyle. Jures both

The7iextwasThatofGele-

nius, printed at Bcfil in

1549.

He
iii.

writes better

Latin than

Lapus y

but the

liberties
*

he has taken in 7nangUng the periods
c.

De

Hiit. Lat. B,

10.

0/

PREFACE.
of the

vii

Greek

text,

a?2d of alteri?ig

many
his

places,

which he did
to

not widerftand,

have condenmed
after

tranjlation

be 72ever

read:

Particularly,

1586, printed at Frankfort,
not been printed with the

that of Sylburgius appeared i?! with the Greek text, which had
:

former Latin tranfations

Sylbur-

gius

had

alfo

the affiance of the Venetian,
his

and Roman manulo?ig

fcripts,

which

predeceffors

wanted.
viz.

Not

after,

ap-

peared another Latin

tranflation,

m

1590, by j^milius

the Greek text in 1 704 : Portus, which Hudfon has pri?ned with n^e latter fays indeed, in his preface, that he has correSled
the trafifation

where he thought of Portus,
thought
it

it

necejfary

:

I

wifi he

had ofte?2er

neceffary

;

becaufe he hasfuffered

many
edition

errors of Portus to

ftand

u7imolefled.
;

However,
Greek

this
is

of Hudfon

is

by

much

the beft

as the

text

with the notes of Sylburgius, Cafaubon^ throughout illiflrated
Portus,
ufe of,

and fome

others;

all

which

I have
But

occafonally

made

and always
which
this

acknowledged.

the greatefi
is

advanderived

tage,

edition

has over all the others,
one

from two Vatican mamfcripts,
firfi

700 years

old

for the

ten books, a7id the other not quite fo old for the eleventh
;

book

the readings
;

dow?t at the foot of both which are fet

of eveiy page
larly the firfi,

a7id, in
illuflrate

every page, thefe fnamfcripts, particuthe Greek text where
it

it is

obfcure, ex-

plain

it

where doubtful, andfupply

where

it is

defeSiive.

Iha
great

vai

PREFACE.
^

great advantages^ ariJi7i,gfro7n thefetwo jnanufcrtpts^ ought inojl his Greek text certa'mly^ to have mduced Hudfon to print from
thgm^ rather than

from

the edition

of Sylburgiusy

the

defeEls

of which thefe manufcrips fufficiently Jhew. I have now brought down the hiflory of the tranjlations ofDionyfius to the year

1722, when a comet appeared
lefs

in the

literary

worlds portending no
flations,

than the extinSiion of allformer tran:

all a?id the dmsonf of their authors
le

I mea?i

the

French

tranfation of the reverend father

yay^ a fefuit, who hadpre7'hetoric in
;

pared himfelffor
f?iont

this

widertaking by teacKmg

Cler-

college

at Paris y ashe fays ^ for above twetityyears

arid ex~ lonv

baufled the whole flock of his learnings which he
colleSling,
i?t

had bee?ifo
his

polifjingy adorning^

and rendcrifig

tranfation

more correSi and elega7tt^than any that had ever before appeared in
a7iy age.,

fuits^
ufljer

any count ry^ or in any la7iguage. But his brother feiit their jour7ial of "Trevoux for the month of January iji^^
in
this

tranfation into the world with fo 77tuch p077ip^ that
/>;

I

think myfclf obliged to give their charaSier of it i7t R?iglifh ,
to

order

few,

not

what

his

tranfatio7i

is,

but what all tranfatio72s ought

Denys d'Halicarnafie, dife?it les jou7'naUfes, s'afTure par lui-meme, une conflante fupcriorite de rtpiitation parmi Ics
to be.

docfles

de profonde littcraturc
:

\

et

cette

preeminence ne

tombera qu'avec eux
il

eft

pour reffource, un monde cntier d'autres pcrfonnes, dont Teftime
n'hono-

la

chute s'avance:

PREFACE.
n'honoreroit pas moins la
et I'auroit

ix

memoire de Denys
d'avantage
:

d'HalicarnafIe>
font

lui-meme

flatte

Ce

une

infi-

nite d'honnetes gens fans Grec,

connoifieurs neanmoins par

ftudieux fans befoin, ct fyavans genie, ledeurs par gout,
fans le fcavoir
licarnaffe
;
:

ils

ne connoilTent que de

nom Denys d'Ha:

fon Grec leleur rend inacceffible

aujourd'hui Ton

dans ce nouveau monde. produit Denys d' Halicarnafle
interprete egalement

Un

bienfadeur et du public et de I'auteur,
celui-ci

a acquiert tout

coup a

un nombre innombrable

d'honorables admirateurs, qui I'eftimeront par tout fon
rite

mefya-

perfonnel

d'hiftorien et d'ecrivain, tandis
.

que

les

vans de metier s'acharneront a fon Grec

.

.

C'eft a regret
:

que nous
n'eft point
c'eft

nommons

verfion,

ou tradudion cet ovrage

ce
;

un langage Grec rendu en langage Francois
du Franqois avec
celle

Texpreflion
;

immediate des penfees de Denys d'Halile

carnafle
celle

la conformite

Gj-ec^

neji point

d'une copie a V original^ mais

d'une copie avec

V autre

copie.

On

prend plus aifement un auteur, quand on tient
',

de fon genie et de fon caradlere devient avec moins d'efFort un
pied,

et d'imitateur fidelle,
fidelle

on

interprete.

Sur ce

Denys

d' Halicarnafle,

homme

folide et vrai, fage et
et

judicieux,

laborieux et infatigable,
lettres,

exad

applique, vif et

des eloquent, amateur
teur
;

a trouve fon veritable traducI'ait
fi

et

il

n'eft pas

etonnant qu'il

long-tems at-

tendu^

X
tendu.
. .

PREFACE.
On
peut juger de
les

la

religion

du tradudeur

a

pefer

fcrupuleufement
fubtile qu'il
fait

termes de fon auteur,
fur
le

par la reflexion
',

faire

mot

iiTo\\^Y)ipici

f9avoir

que

legalite dcs fuffrages fignifice par ce

nom,
;

fe

trouve quel-

quefois dans

un nombre de voix

incgal

puifque Denys

avance que Coriolan, qui de vint et une voix en avoit douze centre lui, ctt etc abfous par le benefice de la loi touchant
I'cgalite

des fuffrages,

fi

deux voix
;

fe fuffent
s'il

jointes

aux neuf

qui

lui ttoient favorables

c'eft-a-dire,
c'eft

eut eu pour lui

onze voix contre douze

;

qu'en matiere criminellc

une voix de plus ne
le

fuffifoit
le

pas pour

condamner^

c'ctoit

meme
'-^

effet

que

fi

nombre

des voix eut etc tgal de part

et

d 'autre
Diojiyfiis

of HalicarnaJftiSj fay thefe journalifls, has af-

^^

fured

to

hhnfelj

a

C07ijlattt

fupermyty of reputation amo?ig
;

"
''

the

men of frofcund
:

iearni?ig

a'/td this
:

preeminence canftot

them fail but with
is

T'hefall approaches

To prevent

ivhich,

" there
*'

a whole world of other people, whofe efeem would not
to the

('

memory of Dionyfus of Halicarnaffus, a?id would have flattered him 7/iore : "Thefe are an ijfinitejiumber
do
lefs

honor

"
*'

of men of
genius,

difiinElion

without Grech, but connoifjeurs by their

readers through tafie^fludious without ncceffdy,
:

and

" learned without knowing it
'^

"TJocfe

are acquaiiited with Dic:

nyfius
'

of Halicaniajfus only by name

His Greek

re?iders

him

*'

i7jacceffble

PREFACE.
'^

xi

ifiaccejfibk
^^

to

them

:

Into this

produced :
public y

An

i?Jterpreterj

new world h Dionyjius now equally a be?iefaSior both to the
at
o?icey

^^

and

to the

author^

acquires^

to the latter

a

"
7iumberlefs

7iumber of hoiiourable admirers.^ who will ejleem
writer^ while

" him whole merit of an hiflorian, and a for his " the learfied will their
by profeffion
exercife

keennefs upon his

" Greek " lation:
<*

.

.

.

We are forry to call this
is 7iot

work a verfon^ or a tra?f;
/'/

It

the

Greek lajiguage 7'e?tderedin Fre7ich
;

is

the i77miediate expreffton of the thoughts ofDiofiyJius

the con-

*'
*'
*'

French with the Greek formity of the

is

not That of a copy

with the original, but That of one copy with another copy. Every one takes an author with eafe^ when he refe77ibles hi7?t
171

^^

his

ge7nus

and charaSier

\

a7id^

f?'07n bei7tg

a faithful

"
**

i7nitator,
ter.

he becofnes^ with the
this

lefs effort^

a faithful interprea man

Upon

foot ^ Dionyfeus of Halicar77ajfus,

folid
has

*'

a7id true^

wife

and judicious^
lively

laborious a7id

i77defatigable, exletters,

" aB
^^

a7id

inte7zt^

and
;

eloquent,

a lover of
to

fou7id

his true tranflator

and we are not
.

wonder that he

" has fo
**
*'

long waited for hi7n

.

.

We 7nay judge of the religion of
of his author,
ia-o^]jrj(pi(X, ;

the tranfator in weighing fcrupuloufy the ter?ns
^ by thejubtil reflexion he 7nakes upon the word

which
is

**

is,
^^

that the equality of fuffrages, fg7iified by this word,
\

fometimesfound in an unequal number of voices
'

fjice

Dio-

See the twentyfixth annotation on the viith book.

b

"
nyfus

xii
(C

PREFACE.
that Corwla?ius^ who^
out

nyfuis affcrts

of 21

voices^

had
of

"12
*'

aga'mjl him^

would have

beeit

acquitted by the
fuff^?'ages,

be'nejlt

the

law

co?icer7img

the equality

of

if two voices
^

" had the ?2i?ie that were for him ; that is to fay joined " had had 1 1 voices 1 2 ; i?i crifumal againjl becaufe^
'*

if he
cafes y
;

a

f?iajority

was not fuflcient for a condem77atio7i of o?ie voice
it

" "

the effeEi of

bei7ig

the fa77ie^ as if the

7

lumber of voices had

been equal on both

fdesT

Hm willfuffice (for I omit feveral
fiew what
opinion thefe journalifls

other panegyrical flights) to
C7itertai7jedy

or

had a fnind

the world fjould e7itertainy of this
7nethi7ihy

faf7ious

tranjlation:
lavifloed

Andyet^
it^

amidft all the praifes
0}7e

they
left

have

upon

theyfee7ny by

expreffio7iy to

have

to themfelves

an openmg for an

efcape^

une cchappatoire,
:

if they Jhould
exprejfton

ever be heartily pufjed upon this fubjeSi

The

I

niea7i^ is this^
is

that the conformity of the French

not That of a copy with the original, / 7?iay venture but That of one copy with another copy.

with the Greek,

to

pronounce^ fmce

I have flewn
le

it

fufftciently in

7ny notes^

that this tra7iflation of
literal^

Jay

is

neither tnore 7tor
tra7iflation

lefs^

than

a

aiid not always a7i exaSl,

of the Latin

tranflation of

Partus.

It ca7i7ioty the7'eforey bethought too great
to

a

refineme7it^ particularly

thofe^

the difmge7iuQus fubtilty of this

who are acquainted with order of 77ien, a7id what they.
of
their body
ts

are capable of

when

the interefly or 7-eputation

PREFACE.
h
concerned^
to

xiii

fufpeSi they deftgfied to conceal their

real opt-

nmi

of

this

tranJlatio7i
to let

imdcr a cloud of praifes\ and, at the
:

fame

time,

fojne fparks of that opinion break out

But^

if thofe praifes
lation

were fincere^ and they

really thought this tranf-

had

all that tra7tfcejident jnejit they

have afcribed

to it^

I may fafely
politicians,

affirm that,

had

they 7Wt
a-itics,

amoitg thejn greater
they

them tranjlators, or
in

would never have

acquired

both

Europe, and America, the great power^
neither

and
had

wealth they are now poffeffed of;
the direSlion

would they have
but

of what they call the
of all the
fraternity
pri?ices

coifciences,

mean

the gover?i7ne?n,

of their own
7?ii?2d
is

coffi7?iu?mn.

If
the

a7iy

of

his

have a

to

doubt whether

tra72pation of their brother fefuit

a
his

tra77Jlation

of the

G}~eek,
willy

or

the

Latin,

let

the7n

ope7i

book
;

where they
if they

a72d co7ifro7it it
it

with

the
to

Greek text

a72d,

f7id in

the

leaf pi^etence
77iy

a

tra7fatio7i
77iay

of
alfo
le

the latter^

I

defire

that

oiim

tra7ifation

be

thought

a

tra7ifatio7i

of Portu's,
is

or,

what

is

worfe,

of

fay

Imnfelf.

But

there

another
his

difnge7n£ouf2efs,

that he has bee7t as
elfe

guilty

cf which fhews

heart

to

have

bee7i

bad

as his head :
tranfall
:

His

7totes

throughout are fearce any thing
7iOtes

but literal

latio7ts

of the
in

of Sylhurgius, Cafaubon, a7id
editio7i

others,

cofitai7ied

Hudfo7is

tmder
a77d

their

refpeSlive 7ia77ies

Thefe 77a7nes he has co7Jcealed,

impofed their notes upon the

worldfor

his

awn.

b 2

/

a7n

xiv

PREFACE.
tired with the ifwidious tqfk of cenfuring
;

I a?n

and

ivijh

I

couldfay that the other French tranflation^ which appeared the * *, is a tranfation year after, u?ider the ?mf?te of

M*

of

Dionyfius
thinky

:

But

the lave of t?'uth compels 7ne to declare what^
in

I

I have fjewn too

my

7iotes,

that,

as

le

fay tranfated
Sylburgius,

from

PortuSy this ge?itleman ha} tranfated

from

He

has, indeed, avoided

many

abfurdities,
to his

which the other was
even
is

led into by too fef'vile

an adherence
;

origiftal,

to th&

faults of

the i?}ipreJfton
\

his

flyle, by being

more

diffufe,

fnore

perfpicuous

dom fails

to

and, if he paraphrafes, as he often does, hefelhis own original at leafl, which give the fenfe of
to the
;

comes nearer

Greek, that That of le

Jay
:

:

His

notes

are often

his

own

a?jd,

when he

borrcnsos

Thofe of others, he

often pays

them a proper acknowledgement
readers

I

wifh he

had

informed
literally

his

that his chronological table

was copied
arid the
the

from That of Dodwell. So much has been faid both

by the ancients,
refulting

moderns in praife

of the adva?itages

from
among
;

Diodorus Siculus, jludy of hiflory, particularly by
form.er,

the

in the noble preface to his hijlorical colle&ions
his

a?;d

the moderns, in by the late LordBolingb?'oke, amo?ig

admir-

able letter supon that fubjcB,

that

I am

aflonifhed no treatife
a?iy

has ever yet
feffedly

appeared
to

i?i

any age, or
7'ules

language pro;

written

prefcribe.

for writing hifofy

a work
allowed

PREFACE.
albwcd
kindy
lic ^

XV
to

to Oe

of the greatejl advantage of all others
truth fraught with
leJfo?is

manpub-

the

repoftory of

both of

and private

virtue^ a?id inforced by flrofiger motives ^ than

p7'eceptSy

by examples.

Rules for poetty,
authors both ancient,

a?id rhetoric have

been written by
delighty

many

and modern,

as

if

and
:

eloquence

were of greater

co?ifequence

than in-

JlruSiion

However,
;

rhetoric

was a part of hijlory, as treated
part indeed, but fubfer-

by the ancients

not

the principal

vient to the principal y

and

calculated to apply the
it

faBs

exhi-

bited by the 7iarration.
cient
hijlories

I know

may

be

faid that mary a?i-

ficient

guides for

are flill preferved, and that thefe models are fufmodern hiflorians without particular rules :
all denominations in their hands,

So had the Greeks poets of

and yet

Ariftotle thought

it

neceffary

to

preferibe pa?'ticular-

rules to his

countrymen for applying
:

thofe

examples

to

evejy
;

branch of poetry
he had,
the befl
lefs
it is

I wifh

he

had done

the

fame

in hiflory

if

that his precepts would have rendered very probable
hiflories

of our modern

more perfeSi, and
letters,

the worfl,

abominable.

Since the refurre&ion of

the

want

of fuch

a guide has been complained of by ?nany authors, and

particularly by

Rapin
it

his hiflory in the preface to

of England.
degree,

Tins
not

want I

think

not impojflble

to

fupply

in

fome

by any thing of

my

(nam growth,

but by extraEiing, a7id
con"

xs-[

PREFACE.
what has
bee7t

cojweSiing
hhnjelf^

written upoft thisfuhjeSi hy DloJiyfrni
hiJio?y
;

the author
hijlorians^

of

this

who^ in
i7i

his

criticifms upo?i

the

Greek

and

particularly

his

parallel betwee^i

Herodotus

and

Thucydides^ has indireSily laid

down

rules

for

attaining all the perfeBio?iSy

aitd avoidifig all the faults^ of

writing

hiflory.

I hiow

that

Lucian has written a

treat

if
i?i

has up07i this fubjeSly great part of which he employed
rallying the hiforians of his
to

own

time^

in

a

ma777ter

peculiar
hut,

hifnfelf

with great fpirit

and

elegance of exprejfwn ;

at the end of this treatife, he affuines another character ^ a7id
treats the fubjeSl with great gravity

and

judge77ie7it

.

I alfo

k7iow that Cicero has laid

of an hiflorian
choice

;

downfo7ne direElions for the conduB the firft of which Lord Clarendon has i7tade

his hiflo7y : Thefe direSlions of for the Latin 77iotto of with all the power of thought , and though conceived expreffcd

with all the power of la7iguagey
is

few

what

difpofition

of

77ii7id

reqidred in an hiforian,

rather than what rules he ouo-ht

to

purfie

;

a72d kfdes,

they are fo general^
the reader to that

and fo fort,

that

I

chufe
or to

rather

to

refer

part of Cicero's
by Dr. Middle-

worksy

a very good tranfation of
life,

thefn

ton in the preface to his

than

to

i77fert

the7n here.

Before

I

with prefent the reader
it

the

co7nparifon hetwee7i

Herodotus y a7id Thucydides,

will be neceffary to p7'emife that
is,

Dionyfus divides hifory

into

two parts, that

i7Jto

the

pragjnatic

PREFACE.
matk part
J

xvu
:

as he calls h^
i/?,

and

the

language

'The

former

cojnprehends^
ledge

the choke

of the fubjeSi \
ivhere to e?id\

2dly^
'Ti^ly-,

the hioiv-

whence
hetvceen

to

begin^

and

the

difcern-

ment
are

fuch
;

eve?7tSy

as are to be related,

and
i?i its

fuch as

to be
\

omitted

\thly, the placing every event the heart of the hiforian:
*

proper

order

and

Sthly,

7^6' la?7(ruacrc

he divides into fimple elementary words, or atoms of fpeech,

and

the compoftion

of
or
the

thofe

words

;

both which a7-e
:

fifceptibk
laji

either of

of

thefe,

a proper, I mean

a figurative, fenfe

Concerning the

compoftion of words, our author has
^

written a treatife, fill extant,
co?7cerning
is lofi.

in which he

p7'omifes a?iother

the choice

of words;
treatife,

but

this,

if ever publifhed,

In
^

adi}7ired,

which has ahvays been defej'vcdly he gives the preference, with great reafon, to the
the firfi

compoftion of words,

and

lays

down fuch

rules

for

this

compothe befi

ftion, fupported throughout by examples

drawn fro7n
that

Greek writers, both
obferving the7n,

poets,

and

hifioriat7s,

any ?nan, by
;

may

acquire a fnooth,
thefe

a7id ha7'mo7iious ftyle

And, mtwHhfa7iding
language
only,
to

rules

fee7n calculatedfor the Greek
up077

their influe7ice will,

a

clofe

exafniftation

appear

be univerfal,

a77d to

govern every other language

both a77cient
4 sat/, fi

and

7nodern.
^- '^''"'
^ 6

QtwS. X"'^'^'

^^t^

o-<Jil.

cm/a*?, c.

i,

lb. c.

ii,

Dionyfus^

xviii

PREFACE.
^

DionyfmSy therefore^
T'lmcydides^fays

in his comparifon of Herodotus with

that the firft duty,
is to

and pojfibly

the

moft?teceJfary

of ally in an hifioriany

make

choice

of a grandJubjeSly and
reader
:

fuch a
faySy

onCy

as will be

agreeable

to the

In
;

thisy

he

Herodotus has the advantage of Thucydides

becaufe his

hifiory

comprehends the aSiions both of the Greeks,

and Bara&io?n

barians,

and

the

defign

of

it

is

to

preve?jt

thofe

from

being buried in oblivion.

0?t the other fide, Ihucydides

writes the hifiory of a fingle wary

and

that neither jufiifito

abky nor fortu?:ate
undertaken
;

;

a wary which ought never

have been
delivered

or,

if that cotdd not bcy to have
fijade,

beefi

up
that
fefi

to

file?ice,

a?id
chofen

and unknown
fubjeSi,
hifiory
:

to

pofierity :

Ajid,

he
ifI

had
the

a bad
to

he himfelf makes 7nani-

preface
cities

his

For he there fays that

"
^^

many Greek
fome by
the

had

been

defolated through this

war,

Barbarians y and others by the Greeks them-

^^

felves
^^

;

that more banifimients,

and fiaughters had hapever been k?iown
before
i

pened by that means y
together with

than

had

"
''

earthquakes y droughts, difiempers,

and ma?iy

other calamities.^^

So thaty the readers, by
with

his

preface, are

alienated

from a

fubjeSi fraught

the

misfortunes

of

Greece.

By
to

as muchy thereforcy as

a

hifioryy

which relates
is

the wonderful aSiions of the Greeks y

and Barbarians,
miferable,

pre-

ferable

one,

that difplays

the

and dreadful
calamities

PREFACE.
calamities

xlx

of the Greeks,
in

by fo

much
fubjeSi,

is

Herodotus more
I'hucydides.

judicious

the
it

choice

of

his

tha?i

Neither can
this
choice,

be

faid,
the

that the latter was
other to be

compelled to

and knew
to

more

beautiful,

but

refolved

not

treat

the

Jame

JubjeSl
in
his

with other writers:
traduces the
his

On

the

contrary,
aSiiofis

I'hucydides,

preface,

earlier

of the Greeks,

a?jd fays

Thofe of

own

time were the greatefl,
that
he
volu?itarily

and
made

the niofl
choice
;

wonderful :
of
thefe.

Which fhews
and

The conduEi of

Herodotus

was

differejit

and,

though Hella72icus,

Charon had treated
not dtfcouraged,

the fa?ne

fubjeB before him, he was

hut thought he could write fometlmtg mora

perfe8l
llje
tory,
alfo,
is

;

in which he fucceeded.
to

fecond duty relating
to

the prag??2atic

part of

hifthis

know whence

to

begin,

and where

to end.

In

Herodotus feems much more judicious than Thucydides :
the motives,

For he begins by relating
Barbaria?is
the
to

that firfi induced the
goi?ig on,

injure
oj

the Greeks;

a?2d,

ends in

punipment

the

former, and in the revenge taken on

them for
gins from
8

thofe injuries.

On
the

the

other

fde,

Thucydides beto
^

the ti?ne,

when

fortufie

of Greece began

deit

The

reader will obferve,
all

that

I

read xaicw; here, inftead of )t«^wf, as
it

ftands in

the editions

j

but the context fliews that

muft be

>c«xwf.

c

cline

;

XX
cline
;

PREFACE.
which, as a Greek, aiid an Athema7iy he ought not to

have done; fartkulai'ly, fince he was not a ma?i of fmalt
repute,

but

a perfon

dijl'Diguiped by

the Athenia7is,
their a?'mies,
to

who

had
other

co?7ferred

on him the

command of
he openly

and

honors

:

Neither ought

have laid the

blame of the

war upon

his

country,
:

when he might have
to

charged

it

07i

ma?iy other caufes

Nor
;

have begu7i

his
7nofi

narratio7t

with the affairs of Corcyra
aFlio72s

but with the

renow72ed

of

his

countiy, which fhe perfor77ted
;

J7n-

mediately after

the
'

Pe7fan war

and which

he afterwards

mentions, i72deed,
Jlightly,
aElio7is

but not in their proper place, a7id thai
:

and

curforily

And,

after
like

he

had
of

related
his

thefe

with great
to

co77tplace7icy,

a

lover

cou77try^

he ought
envy,
upo7i

have added that the

Lacedce77ionia7is,

fwn

their

a7jd dread of thefe,
the

but fro/n other pretences,
to

C7tterecl

war :

A77d then

have

i72entio7ied the

afairs of
elfe.

Corcyra, the vote agamfl the
he thought ft.

77iegare7ifes,

and whatever
hifory,
it is

As for
:.

the

e7:d

of

his

fill
the

more defeSive

For,

though he fays

he lived

duri7ig

whole courfe of the

war ;

a72d prc7nijes to relate all the eve72ts
the 72aval i7tgage77ie72t betwec7i
the

of

it,

he

concludes voith

Athe72ia?2S,

a7jd Peloponnefa72s off Cy7ioffe77ia, which happe72cd

in the iwe7Uy feco72d

year of that

wa;r.

But he would have

9 Here, again, I read kk tv iirnyiSfico tmui, inftead of x«i fi, etc. which is. the reading of all the editions, and renders this lentence inconfiflent with

That, which immediately precedes

it.

do7te

PREFACE.
done better,
if,

xxi

after

he

had

related all the traitfaSliojis of

of

it,

he

had

concluded his hifiory in a 7na?iner, of all others,

the mofl wofiderful,

and

the mofi agreeable
ba?iiflded
to

to his readers

\

I

mean, with
which
ti??te

the returii
his

of the

me?!

from

Phyle,

from

country began

recover her liberty.
is

The third duty of an
thofe
thiftgs,

hifor'iaji

to

dijlinguifj
"Thofe,

betwee?i

that are to be related,

and

that are to

be

omitted,
:

hi

this

alfo,

Thucydides feems i7ferior to

He-

rodotus

For

the latter,

being fenfible that all ?2arratio7ts,
rejiing

whe?t they have certain conffing of long difcourfes,
places,

the minds of the affcB

readers with pkafure\
things,

buty

dwell always up07i the if they

fame

however they

may

fucceed in the defcription of them,
fatiety,

they offe?7d the ear with
to

he refolved, in itnitation of Homer,
reafofi,

vary

his

fiibit

jeB : For which
even
to the lafl

if

we

take

up

his

book,

we
:

ad77nre

fyliable, and always wifjfor more
one

Whereas
accu-

T'hucydides defcribes

war \

a?td,

without

breathi7ig,

7mdates battles upon battles, preparations upon preparatio77s,

and

fpeeches

upon fpeeches;

which

tire

the

7ninds

of

his

readers:
honey,

For, as

a7td

Pindar fays, we jnay be fated both with I a7n alfo of opi72ion that a women. change,
writi7ig

and a

variety in

are delightful

thifigs

in

hiflo7y\

which Thucydides has 7nade tfe of in two, or three places,
7nean,

I

where he

accou7its

for the

e7icreafe

of the power of the

OdryfiS,

and

defcribes

the cities

of Sicily.
j4fter

c 2

xxii

PREFACE.
this,
it is

After

the duty of
its

an hiforian

to

difirihute,

and
does

place every event

i?i

proper order.

Haw,

therefore,
his

each of thefe hifloria?is diflribute,
7'hucydides purfties
fuccejfion

and order

narration f

the

periods of ti?ne\

ajtd Herodotus the

of events

:

By

this 7nea?7s, 7'hucydides is ohfcure,

and

hard

to

be followed :
in
is

For,

as

many

trafjfaSiions

mufl have

happened
wiiiter,

different places

during the fame fum7ner,

and

he

obliged to

leave the firfl half fi7tifjed,

and

touch upon others,

that were in agitation
:

dm'ing the fame

fum7ner,
fuppofed'-y

or winter

We

wander, therefore, as jnay well be

and, our minds being confujed, we follow his nar~
difficulty,

ration
the

with

Whereas Herodotus,
cotnes

begi?ining

with
;

kingdom of the Lydians,

down

to "That

of Crcefus

from whence he prefently snakes a tra^iftion to Cyrus, who put an end to the kingdom of Crcefus-, after which, he enters
upon the relation of the
affairs

of the JEgyptians, Scythians,

and Libyans
more

:

to the foriner,

Some of which he iiiiroduces as confequefjtial and others, with a defgn to rc?ider his narration
:

a<yreeable

And,

in defcribi?7g the aSiions of the G7-eeks,
the
courfe of

and Barbarians, which happe7ied du7nng
dred and twenty years, in the
fii(rht

two him-

th7-ee C077ti7ients,

a?id adding the

he has not 77ia7igled of Xerxes,
to

his

hiflofy:

But
to

it

has

happe7ied
one

Thucydides,

who
;

chofe

a

fingle fubjcEi,

divide

body iiUo tnany parts

a7id to

Herodotus,

who made
choice

PREFACE.
choice
to

xxiii

another ^ of many fubjeSis^ in no degree refembling one
cojicordant body.

make one

I

/hall mention one branch
hiflories^
the,

more of
?7o

the

pragmatic part,

which we require in all
ready mentionedJ
difpoftion of
it

lefs

than any of thofe alhiJ}oria?2y

I

mea?i

heart of the
the

and

the

with regard
is

to

faSls he

relates.

"That

of
the

Herodotus^ which

humane

in all thifigs,
:

congratulates

happy ^ and condoles with the unfortunate
poftion of "Thucydides
is

TVhereas the dif-

fevere,

and

harfh^

and full of
:

re-

fentment againjl

his

countjy for his ba?iifh7?ient

For he enu-

merates all her defeats with the greateft exaSinefs, but takes
no notice of her fuccejfes
;

or,

when he

does,
is

he feems to b&
inferior to

forced
rodotus
is

to

it.

For
the

thefe reafons,

"Thucydides

Hehe
in

in

pragmatic part.
inferior
',

As

to

the

la7iguage,

in

fome parts
equal.

i?t

others,
alfo,

fuperior ;

and,

others,
opinio?!.

Concerning which

I

fhall deliver

my

iTyere

is

a merit

in

w?iting^

which

may

be called the frfl,

and, without which, all others are

ufelefs.

What

is

that f

A

fyle, pure in the choice of words,

and preferving
this they

the trUe

charaBer of
exaSi
;

Greek la7tguage. In Herodotus the fta?idard
the

are both very

being

of the Ionic, and Thucydidgs

xxiv
cydides

PREFACE.
'° has the third of the Attk^ laiiguage. Concifenefs In this, 'Thucydides feems to have the adva?ttage of

place.

Herodotus.
is

However,

it

may

be

faid

that,
;

wheji

concifenefs

attended with perfpicuity,
it is

it is

pleafjig

hut, whe?i it

wants

that,

harfj.

But

let 720t this

confderatio7i flop us.

Af-

ter thefe, illuflratio7i has the firfl place af}io?ig the adventitious
Qnerits
:

In

this,

the fuccefs
is

of both

is

fuficie7itly co77fpicuous.

After

this

merit,
:

placed the

i7mtatio7i both

of the ma7mers,

a7id the

pa([i07is
:

This 7nerit the two hifloria7is have divided
the adva7itage of exprejjing
reprefe7Jting

hetwee7i the7n

For Thucydides has
a77d Herodotus
thefe

the paffio7zs
ners.

;

That of

the 7na7i-

After

co7ne the 7ne7'its,

that

fjew

the

great,

a7td

W07ide}ful

art of the co77ipoftion.

ht

thefe alfo,

the hiflo7'ians

are equal.
vehe777e7ice,

Then follow

Thofe,

that co7nprehend the flrength^
:

and fuch
to

like

powers of eloquence
;

In

thefe

Tlm-

cydides

is

fuperior

He7'odotus

but the latter carries plea-

fure,
dotus
10

perfuafi07t, delight,

and all

77ierits

of that hind

to

a

77iuch

tha7i Thucydides, greater height
is

The phrafeology of He7'0;

natural ;

a7id That of Thucydides vehe77ie7it
is

who

is

unfortunately left out in all the editions, and manufcripts. Sylburgius refers us to two palTages in our author's judgement of Lyfias, and to one in That of Ifocrates I have confulted them all ;

The

fecond merit in language

:

but none of them

will

fupply

this hiatus.

always

PREFACE.
always uniform
in his
la7iguage.

XXV

But
:

thg principal merit

of all
is

others

is to

charaSierize every thing

In

this^

Herodotus

more exaEi than "Thucydides : For the

latter

is

uniform in all
?mrratio7t.

thifigs^

and more fo

in his

fpeeches tha?i in his

However^ I a?n of
adopted
his

opinion that

Demoflhe?m has particularly
the poetical pieces of

fentences.

UpQ?t the whole,
not

afraid of giving them that name) but the greatefi difference between them, is this : Tlje beauty
both are f?te (for

I am

of Herodotus
rible"

is

cheafful

;

and

'That

of Thucydides,

ter-

Thefe are the rules laid
tory
\

down by Dionyfus for
he has examined the

writi7tg hifhifiories

and, by thefe rules,

of

Herodotus,
Tljeopompus.

and
own

Thucydides,

of Xenophon,
caji

Philiflus,

and

IVothi7tg,

therefore,

be
;

examine

his

his ow7i rides hiflory by confiflent
is

more jufl than to and to inquire how
theory.
to
?io

far
der

his praSiice

has been

with

his

The
:

choice

of the fubjeSl
he has faid fo

the

frji thing we are
i7i

confi-

Of

this

much

his

preface,

that

ma?i

can refufe

hi7n the merit

of having chofen the

7ioblefl

fubje8i,

that hiflory can treat of:

The

rife

a7td progrefs, the origifial^

and

improived conflitution of a flate, which in time coiiquered,,
the

and governed

greatefi part of the then know7i world, 7nuft

be allowed to open

a fcene,

in which hiflory,

and

philofophy

have.

XXVI

PREFACE.
all their

have an oppoj'tunity of difplaying
forJ7iatiGTi^

powers for the hi-

tiifruciion^

and improvement of mankind.
that our author dates the begin"
iifant flate of the Romaji comthe
it

It
ni?Jg

is

not without reafon,
his
:

of

hiflory

from

monwealth
origiji

For^

though

7nay generally be true that the

of a

people^

as containing

mean

incidents y

andfomething
;

of Barbarifm
yet the
he
origi?i

in

it^

feldom draws the attention of the reader

offo confderable a people as the Romans will always
;

i72terejii?ig

a?id the world will be curious to ijiquire
its

ifito

the

fourceof a river fo large^ andfo awful in
to Ofverflow fometijnes apt
it

courfe^

andj though

its

banksy yet always carrying with

greater fertility y

than deflation.
s

It

is

impoffible to

fpeak

our author of the begin?mtg of
prefacey

hiforyy without
his

me72tio7ji?icr his

which 7nakes fo great a figure in
it

own

langua<rey
is 7J0t like

whatever

77iay

do

i7i

mine
to

:

'Tlois

prefacCy

which

That of Sallufiy applicable
ki7td

a7iy other hifiory^
to his

or to any other
to that alo72e.

of writingy

is

adapted

fubjeSiy

and

In that part of
Ro77ja7is

//,

w which
alfoy

he co77ipares the e7npire of the

with other

e77ipiresy

he feems to have i7nitated Polybius^
the

whoy in his preface

co77ipares

power of

the Ro7nans
the

with That of the L,acedcemonia7iSy the PcrfmnSy cedo7iians ; a7idy like our authory gives the

and

Ma-

prefere77ce to the

power of
facesy

the Ro7nans

:

But every

072ey

who reads
a
77iuch

the two pre-

will fi72d this

fubjeB treated

in

g7'eater exte72ty

and

PREFACE.
and ivhh greater
Dmiyjius^
has paid
lybius
.^

xxvii

beauty both of thought^

and language ly
where PoThis^

than by Polybius:
tacit complimejit.,
his
;

To whom^ however ^ the former
in ending his hiflory

a

begins

that

is,

at

the frfl

Punic war.

indeed Jljews either his defpair of furpajfing him in treati}jg
it.

the

fatne fubjeSi;

or

his

modefy

in

?tot

attempting

Let

us 710W

examine

i?i

what

7?ian7ter

our author

has

the third duty ijicumbent upon acquitted himfelf of

an
to

hijlori-

an,

which^

he fays^
to
ojjiit.

is

That of hiowijig what
this

relate^

and what
dides,

Under
feen,

head,

he
too

blames

Thucythe

as

we have

for

dwellijig

long upon

fame fubjeB\ which With this avoided.

he

himfelf has
he

with great judgement
digreffon

view,

has i?itroduced the

in the the beginni?2g of feventh booh, concerning Ariftodefnus

in order to relieve his readers

from
the

the

lo?jg contefls,

which

preceded

the

ejlablijhme7it

of

tribunes
the

of the people^
book.

and had
in

taken,

up
book

the greatef
alfo,

part of

fxth

And,
i?i

the feventh

the

long political debates

the

affair
tion

are fucceeded by an entertai?2ing relaof Coriolanus
procefftons,

of

ofnijfpns of

and games. Among the our author, I miif place That of a
related by

meritorious
hofi'id,

and

incredtble

incident

"

hivy,
Chap. 12.

who

fnakes

Mucins

" Book

ii.

d

Sccevola

xxviii

PREFACE.
hand
in the
Jire.,

SccEVola roajl his

in order to

Jhew Porfena
defpifed their

hem much
ferfofts,

thofe^

who aimed at a great name,

'The
7iext

order ^
he

i7i.

which the

eve?its

are

to be

placed^

is

the

point

recomme?ids.

In

this,

he has followed the

fucceffton

of events,

without breaking his narratioii by the

i?jtervention

of fummers,

and

winters,
book,

A
the

remarkable in^

flame of
tion

this

appears in the fxth
co?ning on

where

the

elec-

of

the

confids

during

fecejfon

of the
events.^

people,

he

does

not interrupt

the

7tarration
',

of the

with which the fecejfion was attended
the 7iames of the

but ,

having jufl given
the

new

confuls,

and mentioned
hafle?ts

Oly^npiad,

in

which

they

were chofen, he

to

the

feftate,

and

gives

the fpeeches, that

were made therefor, afid

agai?ifl the retu?yz

of the people.
It
is

with pleafure that
s

I now

enter upon that pa?'t of

our author

relates to writing, which
hijlorian.

him

f?iore

as

a man,,
hijhry

than as an
without

It
the

is

impojfble to read his

dif covering in

author,

all the eleme?its
honejl

of humanity,

a mind fraught with, a fincere, a jnild, and an
virtue-^
vice,

an unaffeSled love of more amiable than a deteflatio7t of
heart
;

and, whatco7?ipaJ[ion

is.

a

for

it

;

he congratulates indeed the happy, a7id condoles with the but
without
i7ifulting

miferable,

even

thofc,

who

deferve
their

PREFACE.
their

xxix

mifery

:

He

is

never fatisjied with celebrating the
the frugality^

bravery^
riches

the patriotifm^

and

contempt of
the

in the

old Roma7is\

nor with

lamenting

degehe
will

neracy of
teaches

77jofe

of

his

ow?i
his,

time

:

Upon

the

whole,

by precept what

a?7d every
profperity

other hiflory,

teach
is

by

examples,
to to

that

the

of

every

nation

owing

their public,

and private
both.

virtue,

ajid their
liberty
is

adverfity
lefs

the

want of
his

His

love

of

no

co7tfpicuous

than

love of virtue:

He

never
old
;

lofes

an

opportunity of afcribing
to

the gf^eatnefs
liberty to

of

thofe

Roma7U

their

liberty,

a7id

their

their virtue

and

is

alar7md at the leaf appearance of danger, which threatens
the7n with

the

lofs

of

either.

What
may
or

prince can read the
lafl

charaSiers given

by

Kmi of Nu7na, and the
77ie77io?y

Tarquin,

without

a wifj
as

that his
'That

be as 7?iuch revered

by pofiertty
being

of

Nu77ia,
the
latefl

without
as

a dread of
tyra7it,

delivered clown to

ages,
like

a

a7id

a
is

crimi72al of the firfi mag7iitude,

Tarquin f
7?iujl
077e

Hifo7y
day ap-

the tribunal, before which all princes

pear,

and

derive their lafing glory,

or

diflmtour
77iore',

fmn
when

her
the

decifions.

When
as
their

they

elves thetnf

are no

7nercenary
gotten
like

fcribblers

of

their

Wne

are
takes

as

77juch
\

fora?jd',

works,

then

hiflory

her feat
s

jufice

with her

ballance,

but with

efigle

eyes,

weighs
eve7y

d 2

XXX
eve?y aBm.,
tion

PREFACE.
and
explores
the

aSiors heart

\

Jlrips
like

ambi-

of her vain
robber
:

difguife^
iscill

a?id treats
juji praife

a conqueror
be given
to

a fuc-

cefsful

Tloen

the prince^

who made
law
rors,
his

the happinefs of his people his only care^
\

and

their

only guide

whofe only errors
excefs

.,

if

they

were er-

p}-oceeded

from an
to

of good7wfs

viifappliedy

and

are

ahjiofl transfo7'med

virtues by the dignity of the pri?i:

ciple,

from
in

whe?ice they flowed
colors,

Such a prince

will hiflory

paifit

her fairefl
to

aftd decorate

him for
ufiborn

?iatiom
to

yet unborn
tate,

love,

and for

princes yet

imi-

I
mine
this

fhould now,
his

to

follow
if

our author
to

s

progreffton,
into

exa-

flyle

;

but,

I was

eftter

particidars,
not to

examination would lead
the

me a great way,
of which
that
it

men:

tion

many Greek
therefore,

quotations,
t7i

mufl

confl/i

I
I

fhall,

fay

ge^ieral,
:

his

language

is

Attic,

pcrfeBly pure

and

elega?it

When I
a
as
t>

call it Attic,
;

do not mea?t fuch

trifles

as w?'iti7ig one

for a a

but

I

mean an Attic

di&ion-,

fuch a

'Thucydides,

and

Xenophon, and, before

thejn,

Since the latter, though

Herodotus, were celebrated for : he writ in the Ionic dialeSi, has
origiiially

many
it

Attic phrafes,

whether

natives

of Athens,

or afterivards
is

upon

his

made free of that city, I can?jot fay j and and flowing flyle chiefly, that Diofinooth,
nyflui

PREFACE.
nyjius

XXXI

feems

to

have formed

his

oum

:

lljis^

I

think,

have proved in feveral of
could never

7?iy

?jotes.

For

this

reafon,

I I
he

underfiand what
tyiv

" Photius mea?tedy when

faid our author was

Ae^/v xaiyoTt^sTrrid
ftyle.

that he had a
is

becoming novelty
in?20vator
either
it

in

his

Dionjfus

certainly

no
his

in the choice^

or

in the cofnpoftion,

of

words

;

hut

is

well

known that Photius was patriarch of
a7id,

CG?if}a?2tinople

in the ninth century,
art

though a
the

man

of

learning, the

lived in

ig?torant

age,

when

delicacy

of

Greek language was much

declined.

I

think the cha-

raSier Cicero has given of the flyle of Herodotus
he applied to "That of our author
;

may
the

well

fine uUis
diffe?'ent

falebris,

quad
flyle

fedatus amnis,

fluit.

'This

is

very

from

Latin authors, of fo7ne admired
the

and more
now

different

yet from
the
pe-^

Jhort

unrelative Jlyle,
;

that

prevails

among

Frefich writers
riods

whofe

concife,

acumi?tated,

unco?jfieSied

are

like

fo many proverbs,

and

follow,

rather than

fucceed,
thor
s

one another,

Amo7ig the many
one,

beauties
is

of our aulefs

fyle,

I

mufl not omit

which

more or

to

fotmd in all good writers in all languages,, and ?iever to charm the reader-, I mean his poetical expreffwns i fails
he

With

thefe

he has

animated
this

his

flyle,

particularly

in

his

fpeeches,

which,

by

means,

become elevated

and pathetic^

"

Cod. Z6,

and

xxxii

PREFACE.
infenjibly
"To

and

perfuade^
the
;

while

they fce7n
alo?te

intejtded

only

to

pleafe:

this

cofftpojition

of

his

words does not
his

a

little

co7itrihute

and
he
'^

to

the

harmony of

compoftion

I

fjall

apply what

his favourite oraImnfelf fays of
his fiyle

tor Demofihenes,

that

comprehends numbers , feme
;

complete
together^

a?id perfeSi^

others^

inco?nplete
it
is

but fe

comieSled

and compounded^
be

that

impoffble to difcover
his

them

to

numbers

:

By

which means
not melody.

feyle

is

poetical.^

not poetty't

and

melodious^

The

7-eader

may very
not

well expeB that

I

foould give a

reafon for

This

having accented the Greek in my notes : which has been^ will naturally lead to a quefeion^

my

long fnce^

difcuffcd

by 7nen of great learning both in our

own

77atio7i^

and

in others.
to

Mofl of
777y

the7n
to

I have
them,

read,
to

a7id chufe

rather

refer

readers

than

have aid', repeat what they
the

f

to

avoid which,

I pall lay
7iot

befo7-e

reader
a77y

07jly

two argU7nents, which
authors,

I have

7net

with

in

of

thofe

and which
that

convi7ice

me,

thotcgh
to

I
be

fnyfelf

was taught
like

otherwife,
to

Greek profe ought

read,

verfe,

accordi77g

the qua77tity,
left

without a7iy re-

gard
honor
is

to

the acce7its.

It
to

is

to

thofe,

who do
77iy

77te

the

to

read
ill

this,

deter/nine

whether
thefe

co7JviBion
will,

well Or

founded.

The frfl of

aigume7Us

/

think.

PREFACE.
/
thinly

xxxiii
not to trans-

Jhew that

the

dejtgn of accents

was

form long fyllables into fjort, and fldort fyllables into long\ and confequently^ as I faid^ that we ought to read Greek
to the profe according

quantity^

without

fuffering this

to

be

the accents. deflroyed by

I

could prove the propoftion taken

I have advanced
s

by

many
the

paffages

from
;

our author but
its
:

treatife^

concerni7jg

compofition

of words
which^

I

fJjall

conte?it

myfelf with one
i?Jtelligible,
is

of

thetn^

by

fmplicity,
'The

will be

and

confequently cojtclufive

paffage

I mean

quoted by

him from

'*

Plato

tutes dignity^

Jhew what kind of compoftio?z conjli^ and from what feet, or metre, it is derito
is

ved:
is

This paffage
;

taken fro?n his
>5|m;v

£7!:iJci(pioc

"Koyot;,

and
c(pi<nv

as follows

Efyw

ftsi/

oi^'

sx^ai

tcc

Tt^oa-movjix

ocvjoiC

wv Tvxovjsc,
ufe

TTo^evovJcci rr^v

hi^oc^^Bvnv no^siuv.
this

I pall
which,

only

make

of the

lajl

member of

period;

I

believe,.,

will he fufficient to prove

all that
it

I propofe. If
be pronounced

we read
thus
coiT

this

according to the accents,

77tujl

ro-)(p))7iQ

Tiro^fvovjxT rn'v £iy.5,^f£v^v

ko^IUv'
is

Here

the penultima of no^ivovjoiT,

from

being long,

by the ac-

cent

tnade

Jhort
is

',

and

the penultima

of iTi^umtvYiv, from
that-

being jhort,

77tade

long:

But I fjall now Jhew

the

nxxiv

PREFACE.
it
is^

the firfi ought to be read^ as
it
iSi

long

;

and

the lajl^

as

fhort.

Dionyftus^

in fca7tning this

member of
ity

the peTuy^vjl;
sT,

riodj

fays that the frft

and fecond

feet of

uf
tyjv

Kopsv,

are cretic
;

;

that the

two following ovrou
{jLoiO[A,hnv
is
;

are

fpondees

then another
-Ko^hoiv'
to

cretic^

and

the

lafl

a

hypobacchiusy
this

Novo
accents^

it

plain that,

if

we read

according

the
y

the frfl of the two fpondees
ixx^;xsvYiv

will be
cretiCy

an iambic
but

ovr«;

;

and

will

not

be a

a

moloffus,

'This

cojfufmi of longy
ca?i

and

fhort

fyllables

will be

avoidedy
to

if

we

but perfuade
his ow?2

elves omf

that Dionyfus
"The

knew how

pronou?tce

language.
that
it

patrons of accents doy
to

indeed,
:

allow

we mufl
happe?2s

read verfe according

the

qua7itity

Buty if
'^

that there are verfes intermixed with profe, thor
fortSy

as

our au-

has fjewn there
whichy he faySy

are

many

in

Demojlhencs of feveral

were the
reiider

effeSl

of

choiccy

7iot

denty

and

defigned to
thefe verfes
to

his

flyle
to

?nelodious\

of accihow are
like

we

to

read

f

Are we
we

read them,
cafe,

the

C07itexty

according
be verfes:

the acce7Jts ?

In that
fiot

they will

ceafe

to

Or

7nufi

read both

thc7ny

a7td

the context according to the qua7ttityy which alo7je can pre-

vent

thefe

verfes fro7n

difi7tgtiiJjDi77g
»5

thetnfelves

too

much,

lb.

c.

25.

a7id

PREFACE.
mid from
iiiterrupting
to

XXXV
which they

that

harifto7ty

of fyle,

were defigned

promote?
'^

Ihe other argument
bic

is

this

:

Arifotk fays that iam;

verfe

is

the very

language

of the vulgar
iha?t
ri

for which

reafon^
verfes

they
in

made
;

tfe
o

of iambics more

of any other
'sroA-

talking

h

stiv hx-ii^oq uvrr)
lOL^^iiot

Xs^ic n twv

Awv*

S'lo

jwaAifa Ttuvjuv Twv ]Wf7^wv
the

(p^syfovjoii

T^syovje^.-

if

iambics were

language of the vulgar., the laftguagelike

be pronounced of the vulgar mujl

iambics:

But

the.

accents patrons of
accordi7ig
to

allow that iambics
;

muf
the

be

pronounced

the

qua?nity

therefore

lajiguage

of the

vidgar muft

be pronounced accordi?tg to the
fufpicio?i

quantity.

I
are

have not the leaf
oppofed to
this',

of

aiiy

argument, that can be

though

I

a?n fe?ifble that prejudices
cavils,

great
ing
;

logicians^,

and will fnd

where reafons are want;

and

here

indolence comes to their afifance

and
to
:

both

mafer, and fcholar are concerned method of readiiig Greek according
boy

m
to

adhering

the old

the accents

For a

may

be taught to

read that laiiguage

tolerably well ac-

the accents in cording to

a very few
to
is

mo7iths.,

when
it

as jnany

years will be necejfary which to the quantity ;

enable hi?n to

read

according
himjelf

a hiowledge

the tnafter

mufl be well acquai?ited with, wdefs he has a
'*

fni?id the

fay-

P^lojiK.

Book

iii.

chap. 8.

Vol.

L

e

ing

xxxvi
i7ig
fcit.

PREFACE.
to

be applied of Petromtis JJ?ould
"The difficulty in readiitg
is

hhn^ plus docet
to

quam
qua?ii,

Greek according

the

tity,

the three occaJio7Jed by

common, or doubtful vowels^ «,

V

;

which^ though called by that name^ are all of them always
in

long

fome words.,
is

and

alv:ays

port
a

in others

:

This di-

flinElion

only to
:

be acquired by

long

co7werfation with

the

Greek poets
it.

For no

profodiesy

that

I

have feen, will
the acto

teach
cents,

From

this laborious tajk

we are freed by
ivithout

which prefe7Jt us with a language unknown either
or moderns,
tke?i^
7io

the ancients^

a hmguage
will
it
is

quantity.

To
acce7its

what purpofc
introduced,

be [aid,
to

were the Greek

p-o7iou7icing

regard To that language?
if
to

be

paid

to

the^n

171

this

I

a77fwer,

that

they
the

were defgned voice', but 7'iot
the ancie7tt

?nark the
to

'^

elevation, ajid depre/fon

of

i7jterfere

with

the

quantity:
to

And

that

Greeks had

acce7its
alfo

(co7itra7y

the

opinion

of

ma7iy learned men)

and

a name for

thofe acce7Jts,
'^

will

appear beyond
in fpeaki7ig

co7itradiEiion by
Ilie77fes,
ifi

a

pafj'age

in

Sfj-abo,

whe7^ey

of the

he fays that the Palladium,
titfie,

which
;

was fhew7t by them

his

was

in

a

f}a?idi7ig poflure

but That, 7ne77tioned by Ho7nery fi^l^g^ which he proves by
"-'

this

pajfage

171

that poet,

17

Prifcian, B. xv.

Diomed.

B.

ii.

'^

B.

xiii.

p. 897. Edit,

of Cafaiib.

19 II.

Z. V. 92,
.

To

PREFACE.
To
fwer,
this

xxxvil
idle

armment., he fays, the
that
the
accent.^

Ilienfes

gave an

an-

allcdgi7ig

which he calk

Ttpoau^ioit

in yovmaiVi ought to be tra?isf erred,

from the aiUepenidtima,

to

the pe?iultima, a?td then

iiit

yovvucny will fgnify in)

ly.sjiqoicnc.

And

here

it

is

well worth obfervi?ig that the tranjlation of

the acce?ity here contended

for hy the

Ilieftfes,

could only transor the
qua7i-

fer the
tity\

elevation

of the

voice,

not the emphafs,

otherwife,

the metre

would not have been preferved, as
is

the reader will fee,

whe7i the whole verfe

laid before him.

77je tirpocru^ixi

of the Greeks were

called by the

a?icie77t

Latin authors, not^ vociim, moderamenta, accentiiincula?,

and

voculationes.

Thefe pajfages fu£icie72tly prove the a7itiquity of accents
but,
the77i,

\

as the nioderns have for

many

ages

made an

ill

ufe

of

a7id e777ployed the7n to co7ifou7id the qua77tity,
depreJJio7t

infead of

dircBing the elevation, and

of the

voice,

for which
of

they were originally defg77ed; the accents
they jldould
is

a7id, as this laf applicatio7i

irrecoverably lof,

I

ca7t720t

fee to

what purpofe

be retained', particida7'ly fmce thofe,

who read Greek

according to the acce7tts, are always 77nfed,

and
by

thofe,
the7?i;

who

read

it

according

to the

qua77tity^

ofte7i

itfnared,

*° Gell.

Book

xiii.

chap. 6.

CHRONOLOGICAL
Chiefly

TABLE,
L.

from

D O D

W

E L

Before

(
Befor:
J

xl

)

(
Julian Period,

xll

)

Attit
taliiiig

L

itinus

Met..

Chrift.

bilviu;-.

Troj.

1078 3636 37 77 38 ye 39 75

106
7

I

2
3

9

4
5

74 3640 4' 73 42 72 43 7' 44 1070 45 69 46 68 47 &7 48 66 49 65 3650 64
63 62
61

Tib
1
1

6
7 8

12

13 14 15 16 17 18 19
I

9 10
II

12 13

14
15

20
21

5'

16
17 18

060

59 56 58 57 57 58 56 55 ^59 54 3660 61 53 62 52
5>

52 53 54 55

22

^3 =4 25 26
27

19 20
21

22

28 29
13c
3'

23 24 25 26
27 28

105c

49 48 47 46 45
4:

63 64 65 66
67 68

32 33 34 35 36 37
38

29 30
31

32
53

69
1

39

34
35

3670
7'

40
4'

43 42
4'

36
37 38 39

1040 39
3« 37

72 73 7+ 75 76
77

42

43 44
45 4b 47 46 49
^5^

40
41

36

78

79 35 34 3680 81 33 82 32 3'1 83

51

52

53

42 43 44 45 46 4~ 48

(
Before
Chriil.

xlii

)

(
Before

xlili

)
lie.

Julun
Period.

Atiei

Agri,,-

Mctonic
I'cngd.

Alba
built.

ore

Chi ill.

tJking

pas.

Chrift.

Julian Period.

A tier
taking

Aviji-

Troy.

Troy,

895 38'9 94 3820 21 93 22 92 23 9' 24 890 89 25 2b 88
87

289 290
9'

19

20
21

86
«S

27 28

29

84 3830 3' 83
82
81

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 300
I

22
23

24
25 26
27 28

145 46 47 48 49 150
5'

257
58

851 3863

59 260
61

850 49 48
47

64
65 6b 67 68

333 34
35

36
37

62
63

52
I

2 3

64 65 66
67

46 45 69 44 3870 43 7' 42 72
4'

38 39 340
41

29

30
31

4
5
t>

68

840
39 38 37
3^^

73 74

42 43 44
45

32

2

880
79 78 77 76 75

33 34 35 36 37 38 39

3

4
5

6
7
8

32 33 34 35 36
37 38

69 270
71

75 76
77 78 79

7

8
9"

72

10
1 1

12

73 74 IS 70
77 1^

35

9

39

74 3840 73 41

310
II

40
41
Allalius.

H
^5
16
17 18

'3

79

34 3880 81 33 82 32 3' 83 84 830 29 85 28 86
27 26
25 87 88

46 47 48 49 35"
5'

52 53

54
55

56
57

72
71

870
69 68
67

42 43 44 45 46
47 48

12

I

280
81

13 14 15 16
'7 18

2 3

82 83

4
5

19 20
21

84
85

6
7

66
65

22
23

86
87 88

49 64 3850 63 51 62 52 61 53 860 54 59 55 58 56 57 57 56 58 55 59 54 3860

19

8

320
21

9 10
II

22 23 24 25 26 27 28

24 25 26
27 28

12
13

14
'5

29 30
3'

16 17 18

89 290 91 92 93 94 95

89 24 3890 23 9' 22 92 21 93 820 94 19 95 18 96 17 97
16
J5

58 59

360
61

62

63 64
65

66
67

98 99

68

14 3900 \ 13 12 2
II

69 370
7'

72

29 330

19
Aventinus.

32 33 34

96
97 98

3

810
9 8
7

4
5

6
7

5^

61

31 ?2

I

7

35 ?6

99

6

8

73 74 75 76 11 78 79

Vol.

I.

(
bcIulC

xliv

)

t-'tfote

Chiift.

Penod.

765

(
Before
Chrift.

xlvi

)

Julian Period,

After
taking

Romulus.

M

e tonic

period.

Troy.

739
38
37

3975
76 77 78

445
46
47 48

13
14 15

149

150
51

36
35

16
17

52
I

79

49

34
33
32
31

3980
81

450
51

18
19

2 3

82
83

52
53

20
21

4
5

730
29
28 27

84
85

54 55
56
57 58

22

6
7 8

23

86
87

24
25

9
10
1 1

26
25

88

26
27

89

59

24
23
22
21

3990
91

460
61

28

12

29 30
31

13
14
15

92 93

62

63

720
19
18
17

94
95

64
65 66
67

32

16
17

33 34
35

96
97 98

18

16
15

68
69

99

14

4000

470

(
Before
Chrift.
Julian Vtriod.

xlvii

)

713
12
I I

710
9
8
7

6
5

4
3 2
I

700

699
98

97

96 95

94 93 92
9'

690
89

(
Btfore
Chrift.

xlviii

)

686
85

84
'

83
82
81

680
79
78
11

76 75

74 73 72
71

670
69
68
6-

66
65
6

63
62
61

(
Before
Chrift.

xllx

)

659

(
Before
Jul,

1

)

an

Alter

A IK US
jMarcius.

Chnli.

Pttijd.

taking

Troy.

632
31

4082
83

552
53

7

8 9

630
29
28
27

84

54
55

10
1 1

86

56
57 58

12

26
25

13

89

59
560
61

14
'5

24
23 22
21

4090
91

16
17

92 93
94-

62

63 64
65

18

620
19 18
17

19

95 96
97

20
21

66
67

22
23

16
>5

98

68
69

99

24
Tarq.

14
13
12
II

4100
1

2

3

610
9
8
7

4
5

6
7

6

(
Before
Chrift.

M

605

4

2
I

600
599
98

97

96
95

94

(
Befure Chria.

li!

)

577

76
75

(

Hil

)

Ch.;ft.

(
tu'i.in

!v

)

P.wJ

50Z
1

421

2

13

5CC

'4
•5

99
98

16

97

96 95 94

18

4220
21

93

91

49c
89
88
«7

86
S5

84
83
82

THE

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
O F

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
THE FIRST BOOK.
''

I I

^HOUGH

no friend to the

difcourfes ufually

em-

ployed in the prefaces to hiftories, yet I am obHged to fpeak of myfelf In doing which I fhall neither
:

dwell too long on

my own

praife,

which
Firft

I

know would be

Annotations
'•Tiff «w9o7tfSf «7ro<J(J'oo9-«(Toi?sr^oo//*(o<ff

on the

Book.

period has occafioned ^o)'Kf. and, confequently, ; great difficulty of opinions both in the great diverfity trandators and commentators. Henry

This

firft

to the preface of his hiftory-, when, on the other fide, the preface itfclf
is

This

the thing, that gives the account, is confining the fenfe of the word
to
it is

oiTcoSiSami

a

fingle

fignification

;

Stephens, a man of great parts as well as great are not allearning (which qualities as fuch companions ways infeparable that we contends be thought) they may

as

we

call

him, who was

whereas

capable of many, and, of That, which our auparticularly, thor has given to it in this paflage. Plato has taken it in the fame fenfe, where he fays, ^ K«4 ofxoAoyufxiv
fjti,

Tra^a
I

ought
fay

to read
it is

fays he,

becaufe, too hard an expreffion to
ev

toi? sr^coiiUioi?,

(punv e(v«i t«ij twv (pv^UKoiv yvyai^t te xai yvfjivx^iKn*

fj^ijciKKV

AnOAlAONAI.

Aoj-oi a7ro^«fcni&«s«

TOK

OTfooi^ioif,

as if

agree,

the hiftorian was to give an account
>

with him that ^ki^x ^tiKofAim fhould be underftood as if
indeed,

Plato B. V. Hsgi w^iT. p. 65A. Edit, of Marfd.

B

dif-

TOO

^^

AM AMTTnTTTTTP*? OF
neither fhall
I

Book

I.

diHigreeable to the reader,
hiftorians, ^as

cenfure other
in the

Anaxilaus and

Theopompus have done

prefaces to their hiftories ; but iliall only fKew the reafons, that induced me to undertake this work, and give an account

of the means, by u'hich
the author had faid
/wfvof
;

I

was

furniflied

with the knowledge

icati'jrj^ y,Ki7oi.

liaXo-

but

I

joining ra?

eiu^oloa

cannot agree with him in Aoym with «7r«v,

becaufe

I often find 3sAo//«( governing an accufative cafe in the beft authors, and appHed in the fame fenfe our auit
:

upon thisoccafion Thus, Thucydides ufes the word in giving an
thor ufes

account of the unfortunate expedition

of the Athenians to Sicily under Nicias, ^ Lamachus, and Alcibiades, K«« wV
uulo^ I MS^iiral.v^ccKiiffiiiiv

" exa(5l than all the other hiftorians, " either ancient or modern, was this, " that he obferved, and related, not " only thofe things, tha!t were obferv" able by others, but, alfo, fearched " into the hidden motives both of the " aftions, and of the aftors, and into " the paflions of the foul, which are " not eafily difcovered by the gene" and that he rality of mankind " unfolded all the myfteries both of " and of latent vice."
•,

BOTAOMENOl) AS

It is

tKOixiS^tlfUv «7r< TOv Tti^(«v aro7auov.

TOli

TS-^OOlfAtlli;

TOIV

t^O^tCOV ITTQiniTXV.

feeming virtue, no wonder that fo free a fearcher into the fprings of Philip's policy, whofe affairs were the fubjecl of one of his hiftories, and with whom he was

of thefe hiftorians, I can find nothing relating to him, that is worth mentioning. The other was an hiftorian of great merit, and treated as fuch by many ancient authors both
to the
firft

cotemporary, fliould pafs for a cenforious writer. But the truth is, that the iniquitous defigns of Philip to ennave

Greece; the corrupt methods, made
ufe of by him to accomplini that de(ign ; the diforders of his court j his
to every vice, fometimes, through intemperance, and fometimes, through policy, were fo flagrant, that a naked relation of all

Greek and Latin, particularly by Dionyfius of Halicarnafl'us himfelfin in which his letter to Cn. Pompeius he gives the character of the moft
•,

perfonal proftitution

celebrated hiftorians
reft,
*'

•,

and,

of Theopompus,

among the "who, he fays,
of
all

thefe exceftl's

might make

his hiftory

was the moft

illuftrious
;

the

" fcholars of Ifocrates and, after " enumerating the many advantages " he had of well informed of
*'

appear a fatire. This Philippic hiftory of Theopompus contained fifty eight books, as we learn from Diodorus Siwho fays that five of theni were " fulpeded not to be genuine. Tty^ot^t
culus,
{®i07rt>[*7ri3fj

being what he writ, he

"
*'

fays,

that

the

q;i-eateftchara<5terifticofhis writins:,

(3i€A.«f

oy":c-i

nr^oj jceif

zjriv'ij-

and That, in which he was more
^

Thucyd. B.

vi.

c.

50.

'Diod,

Sic.

B

xvi. p.

;u.

Edit, of Steph.

of

Chap.

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
I
all,

3

of thofe things,
opinion that
their

am going to who propofe to
as

relate.

For

I

am

of the

leave fuch

monuments of

minds to

pofterity,

time fhall not involve in one

common ruin with their bodies, and, particularly, thofe, who write hiftories, which we look upon as the repofitories
of truth, Uhe fource both of prudence and wifdom, ought, firft of all, to make choice of worthy and grand fubjeds, and fuch as are of great utility to their readers ; then, with

and pains, provide themfelves with proper magreat care For thofe, who build their hiftories upon fubjedls terials.
or of inglorious, wicked,
difplay the

no importance,
their

either fond of

being

known, and of getting a name of any
abundance of

kind, or defirous to

oratory, "^are neither

known

by

pofterity to their advantage,

or

commended

for their

eloquence, leaving this opinion in the minds of all, who are converfant with their hiftories, that their lives, and their
writings were of a piece ; fince it is a juft, and a general of obfervation, that the works of an author are the
his

mind.

There are
;

others,

who make

images choice indeed of

the beft fubjeds

but,

by founding

their relations
carelefthefs,

upon
lofe

common reports
''

through precipitancy and
(Tocpioc;

Af>^t)v

(fj^svijirjftif

TS Kxt

as-m,

not the fenfe
plainly

it

Le

bears here, where
admiration,

it

Jay has

left

out this fine obferva-

tion in his paraphrafe on this paflage. The other French tranflator has not
left it

out

in his.
j/vfti<r£&j?

* Ovli T»)j
(Tityivoy.i'iQtg.

^yjK^ylou nr«f « Toif

Both the French

implies praife ; and, in this fenfe, it agrees very well with what goes before: Thefe men, fays our author, are fond of being known, and they are fo, but it is to
their difadvantage. explains the word
fTTMViio;.

tranf-

And thus

Suidas

latorshave applied ^)5A«v7«. in this place to imitation and emulation, which is,

^n^ulot. [^oiKoi^i^of.

no doubt, one

fenfe of the

word, but

B

2

the

4

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
cities,

Book

I.

the merit of that choice. *For

of renowned

and of

we do not allow the men who have governed

hiftories

nations,

As thereto be written in a hafty, and negligent manner. fore I am convinced that thefe considerations are neceflary to,
and ought
firft

to be regarded by, hiftorians, and, as I

have

taken great care to obferve them both, I would neither ^ omit the mention of them, nor give it any other place than in the preface to this work.
II.

That

I

and

ufeful,

have made choice of a fubjed, worthy, grand, will be readily granted by all, who are not
^
:

with utterly unacquainted

who
.

For, if any one, general hiftory has conlidered the ancient empires both of cities and

of nations, as delivered

down

to us

by

hiftory, and, after

that, in furveying them feverally,
ther, defires to be fatisfied

and comparing them togewhich of them obtained the moft

extenfive dominion, and, both in peace and war, performed the moft glaring achievements, he will find the empire

of the
it,

Romans

to have far exceeded all thofe that preceded

not only in the extent of their dominion, and in the fplendor of their acflions (^ which no hiftory has hitherto
'f'

Ov

yix^ d^iiiuiv oi,\jloa/iSiiii.,etc.

I

Can maniircript-,
aftive verb,
difpofe;

the

firft

being an
to place, to

fenfible that the genera! fignification of the word is extern«u7o^£<r(Of

am

and fignifying

porary

:

but,
I

as

it,

alfo, fignifies
it

fudthis

and the other, if there is fuch a word, a neuter, in which fenfe it can

de?!, i>ajiy,

have chofen to give

have nothing to do here,

fenfe, becaufe it agrets better with OKI}, which our author had employed, juft before, to fignify the fame thing. *• I have followed the K«1aix.(»^i(r»(.

t

Tii( xoiviif iVo^j«f.

Cafaubon very
this

well obferves,
xo;vi)

upon

place,

that

.Vojiafignifies k».^ciKik>i'i9o^i«,
tjj

inop-

pofition to
'•

tw

x«1«^tf^of trvvla^d.
ti^a

common editions

reading ^oUxx^w^iaM rather than Mtlap^a^i^fen with the Vati-

in

As

»7rai

mmitiayim Koyog aJ«f »^iu;,
juf^u'ici

^~e perfomie

vantees

comme

worthily

Chap.

T.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
:

5

worthily celebrated) but alfo in the length of time, that lias handed it down to our days For the empire of the Aflyrian?,
le meritent in Le Jay, is, by much, too vain a tranflation of the word mhij-m

elks

helium

;

iteriim,

quod noflrae aetati

dii

:

dederunt ut videremus, pcjl hellimi ASIi-

The other French

tranflator has tranf-

acum

ab imperatore Caefare Augujio,

lated, or, rather, paraphrafed this paf-

fage with more modefty^ ^I'aucun auteur n'a traitees jufqu'ici avec toute la
dignite,
et

pace terra marique partd. Voffius croes on, and fays. It is well known that the temple of Janus was ftiut a fecond
time,

mandent.
in

When

toute I'eloquence qu'elles deI read this expreffion
I

by Auguftus

in the year

and,

alio, a third time,,

730 ; by the fame
;

our author,

cannot

help

being
dafli,
;

emperor, the following year
fays he.

and,

furpriftd at his cenfuring, at
all

one

What

can be plainer,

when

the writers of the
if,

Roman
it

hiftory

Livy
once,

particularly,

as

is

generally

fays That temple was fhut, but in his time, that he writ thofe

thought, Livy's hiftory appeared before his. For, if ever an hiitorian had the talent of adorning the adions he relates, I really think that Livy poffefled
it

in the

this reafon,

higheft degree. Caligula, that mad

For em-

peror, whofe fayings, though deftitute of reafon, were not deftitute of the appearance of it, called JLivy verbofum
in hijhrid^.

words, before it was ftuit the fecond, and third time ? I will not quarrel with Voffius for making Livy fay more than he does, in order to favour his argument Livy does not fay, but once, though, what he fays, feems to This argument of Voffius imply it. moft proves, certainly, that, when
:

However,

I

have great

not

reafon to think that Livy's hiftory did make its appearance in the world

fo early as the confulfhip of Claudius

writ thofe words, the temple of Janus had been only flnit once by Auguftus, but it is very far from proving that Livy finiftied his hiftory before it had been ftiut, the fecond and

Livy

Nero, and Calpurnius Pifo, which was in the year of Rome 745, according
to Cato.
that

third time.
that,
after

I

find

by

«

Dion

Caffius

VofTius,

I

know, contends
"•,

Livy muft have finiftied his hibecaufe he ftory before the year 730
the temple of Janus was twice fhut, once, in the conTitus Manlius, after the end fulftiip of ©f the firft Punic war and, the fecond
fays, that, after
•,

Numa,

Caius Antiftius had obtained a viiflory over the Aftures and Cantabri (Auguftus having left the command of the army to him by reafon of his indifpofition) the temple of

emperor, for during his reign, which happened in the 729"^ year of
the fecond time,

Janus was fhut by

this

time, by Auguftus, after the battle of ' Allium. Bis deinde-poji Numae regnum : 'TitoManlio (Janus') claufus fuit femel,
eonftde, pojl

Rome, Auguftus
lanus.

being conful for the ninth time together with Marcus Si^

Now,
i.

it is

impoffible that

Livy

Punicum primum perfeSfum

could have finifhed his hiftory befoie
Latin. B.
c.
'

* Sueton. Life

6B.

liii.

of Calig. c. 34. p. 589. Edit. Steph.

'DeHift.

ig.

Liv. B.

i.

c.

19.

ancienc

6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
it

OF

Bookl.

ancient as

was,

times, fpread itfelf

and running back as far as the fabulous no farther than over a fmall part of Afia.

That of the Medes, who overthrew the AfljTian empire, and 'attained ftill greater power, lafted not long, but was
the Perlians, indeed, fourth generation after they had conquered the Medes, at laft, became mafters of almoft all Afia ; but, having alfo invaded the European
difiblved in the
:

nations,

they did not

prevail

on many of them to fubmit
or pcrjtiafion.
cviixln^r.ict.

that year ; fince Ir, plainly, appears, by the epitome, that he extended it to

ETxyofUvci,

tipoAxar,

1?,

Hefychius.
iSioTtonja'alo.

ETryiyccyiJi. wpoo--

the death of Drufus, which happened
in the 744'*" year of

coKeiucralo.

Suidas.

In this

Rome, Drufus

fenfe,

it is,

himfelf and Crifpinus being confuls.

Nay,

there

are

feme authors, who

cydides ; the Acanthians

frequently, ufed, by Thuparticularly, in relation to

who were perfiiadcd by

carry his hiftory even to the time of Tiberius, in the fourth year of whofe reign he is faid by Eufebius to have

a fpeech of Brafidas to revolt from the Athenians, as the Boeotians had, before, been,

died in his

76''' year''.

As

the

words

by thePerfians, to abandon the caufe of the Greeks. The Acanthians,

quoted by VofTius out of Livy, are in his firft book, it is very poffible he might afterwards forget to alter them.
^li^ci^ovlo.
£7r£!cJtia-a!v7o.

fays

Thucydides

',

Six

n

ra

E

n A r li r A

enrnv Tov B^xfiSxv, kxi srwi

A^yivMcov.

I faid

that

Le

Jay's tranf-

Suidas.

I fhall

defer taking notice of the ancient emour author, pires, here mentioned by
till

fliall,

he has gone through them ; as I alfo, confidering the fenfe he

was not agreeable to the truth of hiftory. For the Perfians never made any conquefts in Europe under
lation

gives to the word -yivioi, till I come to the place, where he applies it to the

Darius, the fon of Hyftafpes ; they advanced no further than Marathon, where they were defeated by the Athenians,
flain.

andDatis,

their

general,

was

duration of the
'°-

Roman

empire.

In their fecond expedition,

when

Ov

woK\a,i7Tviyiii,yov^.o.

Le Jay

has

tranflated this quifuhjuguerent mcfme une parlie de V Europe ; which is neither

agreeable to the fenfe of the Greek word, nor to the fadt, as it (lands re-

corded

in hiftory.

Y^t:

oLyt&r a.i fignifies

to prevail on

any one hy money ^ promijes

Xerxes commanded in pcrfon, they were far from making conquefts in Europe. They were defeated at Salamis by fea, and at Plataea by land ; and Xerxes himfelf was forced to fly into Afia with ignominy. But, if the Perfians were unfuccefsful in their
>Thuc.
B. iv. c. 88.

In Chronic.

to

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
and continued not
in
years.

-

7

to their obedience,

two hundred

power much above The Macedonian empire itfelf, which

overthrew the Perlian, and, in the extent of its dominion, exceeded all before it, did not flourifli long, but, after
Alexander's death, began to decline: For, being immediatelydivided into many kingdoms by his fucceflbrs ; and, after

them, fupporting

itfelf to

the fecond or third generation,

it

was weakened by its own hands, and, at laft, deftroyed by the Romans. But, even, the Macedonian empire did not
fubdue every country, and every fea. Of the wide- extended region of Libya, only that part, which borders upon Aegypt,

obeyed their power ; neither did they fubdue all Europe, Thracia being the limits of their European conquefts to the
north, and the Adriatic to the weft.

empires, therefore, we have any account oi in hiftory, "after they had arrived to fo great a As for the maturity and power, have mouldered away.
III.

The moft famous

empire of the Greeks,

it

does not defer ve to be compared
that he did not look
fion to carry

attempts to conquer Greece, they were not fo in their attempts to corrupt it, as every one knows, who has read the

upon

this

expref-

with
is,

it

queft.

But, as bad

any idea of a conas that trandation
the

Greek

hiftory.

By

their

intrigues,

of Sylburgius

other French
it

they prevailed on the Boeotians, the Macedonians, and Theflalians to ef-

tranflator has trandated

litterally

:

For he has

faid,

iis

ne firent plus
kcu

de

poufe their caufe againft the Greeks, and in the expedition of Xerxes our author what means this is by
:

grands progres. "•
Intirely
elre
left

Toircaj%v axj^n^

out by

Le

i^uir

AccSacra^.

Jay.

His

iTryiyayovlo,

which Sylburmuch more cautious than been gius has
in tranflating
;

countryman has
nous avons dit
abfolutely,
fenfe,
is

faid very well apres

he has faid non multtim proLe Jay it is far from cejferunt, which, though fenfe of the word, made the exprelTing
ufe of

parvenus au degre de puijfance que ; which, if it does nor,

come up
it.

to the author's

very near

by our author, fhews, at

leaft,

to

8
to the

ROMAN
former; imce

ANTIQJJITIES OF
it

Bookl.

folendor fo long-lived. the fpace of fixty only of the maritime country during neither did their dominion extend even over all eicrht
years,

was neither fo extenfive, nor its " For the Athenians were mafters

and Pamphylian That, but only to the coafts of the Euxine The were mofl powerful on that element. feas, when they
Lacedaemonians, having the command of Peloponnefus, and the reft of Greece, advanced their dominion as far as Macedon ; of their power by the Thebans, of which but were

deprived been in poffeflion quite thirty years. '^ gut they had not Rome is miftrefs of every country not inacceffible, or uninhabited
;

every fea
Pillars,

owns her power, not only That within
alfo the

Hercules
the
firft,

but

whole navigable ocean

:

She

is

and the only ftate recorded in hiftory, that ever made the eaft and weft the boundaries of her empire. Neither has her dominion been of fhort duration, but more
lafting than

That of any other commonwealth or kingdom. For, the city was no fooner built, but fhe conquered many
ftill

warlike nations, her neighbours, and
"•
A6>)va<oi fxiv yot(
eujlifi /movov

advanced, overthe whole, his notes

>)^?av rtjc

beholden.
are

Upon
elfe

vroc^ciKtis.

Le Jay

has furpalTed himfelf

nothing

but one continued

has paflage. tranflating redculabk n\nt etc Les Atheniens faid, quefuriamcr. The other Fi ench tranfin this

He

tranflation of the notes of other

com-

mentators.

As

to Cafaubon's criti-

lator has rendered

it

very properly.
aVao-uf
jusv

"•
j-ijf,

H

(?£

Yu^cumy

T!roKi(

ix^x^

cilm upon this hyperbo'ical parage, all that 1 fhall lay in vindication of ouf author, is, that it was the ftyle in

etc.

upon

this

Cafaubon has a long note paflage, which Le Jay has

vogue
years

at

Rome

in his time,

and many
in i'peak-

alter.

Other authois,

tranlatcd without taking any notice of him, ai he has many others from other commentators without giving his readers the
Icaft hint,

ingof the Roman power, have had the fame flights, but few have expreflcd them fo beautifully.

to

whom

he was

cominor

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS HALI C ARN ASSENSIS.
all

9

Thefe things happened during the oppofition. courfe of feven hundred and forty five years from her founof Claudius Nero, conful for the dation to the

coming

confulfiiip

fecond time, and of Calpurnius Pifo,
in the

who were

chofen

hundred and ninety third Olympiad. By the confhe was emboldened to proceed even queft of all Italy,
to univerfal empire ; and, having driven the Carthaginians from off the fea, whofe maritime ftrength was fuperior to That of all others ; and fubdued Macedon the moft powerful
nation,
till

that time,

at land,

no enemy being
ilie is

left

either

amono" the Greeks or Barbarians,

miftrefs of the

whole

world J

'^

and

this

is

the feventh generation fhe has continued
during whofe reign, the of the Medes was diflblved by empire in the Cyrus, fourth generation, as our author fays by which, he plainly Ihews in what fenfe he takes the word ysviBt. The beginning of the Perfian empire
his father
-,
•,

fAcvet

ua,\lo; ot^^ii(rx

tot«.

I

fhall,

in

this

note,

confider

the

ancient

em-

our author, and pires, mentioned by them. The a fhort fynopfis of give was founded by NiAffyrian empire and of fon the Belus, poflelTed nus, the Upper Afia during 520 years ^. As the foundation of this empire is
'

is,

generally,

computed from the tak-

placed by the chronologers that 3447'" year of the JuUan period, fii ft the before Olympiad, is, 491 years

in

the

ing of Babylon by Cyrus, which happened in the 4176"' year of the Julian From that aera, to the year period °. Alexander made his triumphal entry
into the
8

fame

city,

which was the

our author, very properly, fays that it ran back into the fabulous times "", which are computed from the Ogygian
flood, to the inftitution of the

Olym-

and comprehend 1020 years. piads, The Medes revolted from the AfTyrinns under Dejoces, who was fucceeded by his fon Phraortes, whofe fon, him " ; and AftyCyaxares, fucceeded
ages,

the fon of the latter,

fucceeded

43 3"^ of the fame period'', there are no more than 207 years ; confequently, the empire of the Perfians was of no longer duration which juftifies our author, in faying, that it did not continue much above two hundred years. In order to follow the com.putation of our author, we muft date the beginning of the Macedonian empire fiom the time fhe deftroyed That of the
-,

' * Herod, in Ufher, p. 24. Clio, c. 9;. U(her p. 81. Pid. p. 175.

">

Id. p. 7.

"

Herod,

in Clio, c, 107,

Vol.

I.

in

lo
in

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
pofleflion

Book

I.

of that dominion

;

neitlier

is

there

any nation,

as I

may
tijv

fay,

that claims a fliare in her univerfal power, or
x.aQiAaa-m^'^v,

Perfians,

Xliotuv

that

battle

of Aegos Potamos, in which
;

of is, from the abovementioned year and not from the Julian period 4383 any of the Macedonian kings berore Alexander, much Jefs from Caranus, From the founder of that kingdom. that aera, to the year 4546 of the fame their laft period % in whi< h Perfeus, Macedothe and was defeated, king, nian kingdom deftroyed by Paulus Aemilius, there are found no more than 163 years out of which number, muft be deducted the reigns of Alexander's generals (^becaufe our author to the reign- of Antifays jwfT ficwvKO whom there was gonus Gonatus, from a regular fucceffion of kings from fa•,
-,

ther, to fon

down

to Perfeus, if

Anminority of Philip, than king. his fon Demetrius, tigonus Gonatas,
his greatgrandfon Philip, and three make generagrandlbn Perfeus, tions; in the laft of which, as our au-

cept Antigonus A&xrwv, the regent of the kingdom, during

we exwho was rather

fleet was deftroyed by and which was fought in Lyfander tlie 4309''' year of the fame period, there are 69 years, which agrees pretty well with the computation of our author. The Lacedaemonian power over all Greece muft be dated from the abovementioned battle at Aegos Potamos. From thence, to the battle of Leudlra, in which they were utterly defeated, and ftripped of that power by the Thebans under the command of Epaminondas. This batde was in the fought 4344"" year of the Julian and, from the battle of Aegos period Potamos, to That of Leuiira, there are found 25 years, which make five years more than are affigned by our author, to the duration of their The power.

the Athenian

'

-,

only difficulty that remains, is to know what Dionyfius means by yiytom |g-

his

thor fays, the Macedonian empire was As to the power of the diflblved.

Athenians over die maritime country, which our author fays lafted 68 years,
not tranflate the note in Hud* * * has done, but date the of that power, withThucybeginning of Paufanias, dides%Jfrom the recalling
I Ihall

during had continued, in his time, miftrefs of the world. Dodwell has written a kind of diflcrtation upon this paflage, which Le Jay has tranflated without taking any notice of Dodwell. The other French

JoaijD,

the feventh generation,
fays,

which he

Rome

'

fon, as

M

whofe arbitrary government had alienated tiie minds of the Allies from the Lacedaemonians, and thrown them into the arms of the Athenians. This
happened
in

Julian period

the 4240"' year of tlie to the 'j from whence,
'

aded with more candor, and mentioned his name. I agree with Dodwell that, by the v/ord yi^nx^ Dionyfius does not mean any determinate number of years, but a fuccefTion of princes, or of men but I cannot agree with him that Dionyfius had a view, in fpeaking of thefe fcven generations, to any fuccellion of priefis,
tranflaror has
;

or princes in the Julian family, which
9;.
'

1 Uflicr, p. 321.

ThucyJ.

B.

i.

c.

Ufher, p. 105.

'

Id. p. 147

refufes

Chap.I.
refufes

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENS IS.
obedience to
it.

II

that I

fubjedls,

need fay no more to prove have not made choice, as I have faid, of the leaft of or propofed to relate trivial, or obfcure adlions, but

But

I

have undertaken the hiftory both of the moft illuftrious ftate, and of the moft fliining achievements that can poilibly
be treated
of.

IV. Before
it is

I

proceed, I fhall fhew, in a few words, that

not without defign, and mature premeditation, that I
enjoyed
it.

imaginary fucceffion both the French Whoever tranflators have adopted. reads Dionyfius muft be convinced of his zeal for liberty, and his deteftation of tyranny, which he never fails to
occafions, where his him fubjeft gives any opportunity of So that, I thofe fentiments declaring fee no reafon, why he fliould be ac-

The

firfl:

of thefe periods
;

was the conqueft of all Italy the fecond, the happy conclufion of the fecond Punic war, one of the conditions
of the peace, granted to the Carthaginians by the Romans, being this, that they JJjould deliver up all their foips of war, but ten ; Naves rofiratas-, praeter
decern triremes,
"

Ihew upon

all

:

traderent,

fays
:

Livy

;

cufed of flattering either Caefar, who ufurped the tyranny, or Auguftus who I fliould continued that ufurpation. fooner fufpedl him of drawing the pifture of Caefar in the charafter of

who has
srAoi*
foiD ",

tranflated Polybius
recavlot.,

Ta
:

ij.ixk^»
t^iyi-

ziToi^odiiViiu

zsrA^jv

Sikx

Spurius Caflius, who had been thrice conful, had obtained many viftories, and, like Caefar, courted the people, Had thefe in order to enflave them. been as corrupt when Caflius attempted to feduce them, as they were virtuous, or as virtuous when Caefar made the fame attempt, as they were corrupt,

words of the latter This article defl:royed their maritime power. The third period was the conquefl: of Macedon by Aemilius Paulus, which happened, as I have faid, in the 4546^" year of the Julian period from which, to the conful fliip of Tiberius Claudius Nero, for the fecond time, and of Cneius Calpurnius Pifo, which fell
are the
,

had fucceeded, like Caefir, and Caefar, like Caflius, had received the punifhment he deferved. Dionyfius mentions the periods, which, in
Caflius
their order, preceded the uninterrupted poflTefijon of the univerfal power, the

year of Rome ; and, of the Julian period'', in 4707"' which our author publiflied his hillory, there will be found 161 years: During

out in the
in the

745'''

which period,

if any reader pleafes to run over the generations of his own family, he will find that, for the moft

Romans

enjoyed was the feventh generaiion, they had
Livy, B. XXX.
c.

in his time,

which

part, fix generations are elapf;d, the feventh begun

and

37.

w

Polyb, B, XV. p. 705. Edit. Cafaub.

»

C

Uih£r, p. 59 J.

2

date

12

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
my
hlftory

Book

I.

date

from the
I

earlieft

times;

but,

from good

can produce to juftify my condud againft the cenfure of thofe, who, fond of finding fault widi every thing, and, as yet, unacquainted with the fubjed
reafons,

which

of

this

difcourfe,

may blame me

for

this

reafon

;

that,

Rome, grown famous, and her infancy fo inglorious, and obfcure, and fo unworthy the notice of that it is but a ^tw generations hiftory, ago, and, fince the
being, at this time,

overthrow of the Macedonian power, and the happy event of the Punic wars, that fhe has made any appearance, or
gained a reputation;

when

I

was

at liberty to chufe

fome

celebrated incidents in her hiftory for my fubje6t, I fhould deviate into one fo barren of fhining events, as the Roman

For, to this day, almoft Antiquities. ftrangers to the ancient hiftory of Rome,

all

the Greeks are

and the greateft part

of them are impofed upon by fome

on common
ers

reports,

and

opinions, grounded led to believe that the firft found-

falfe

were certain vagabonds without houfe or home, Barbarians, and, even thefe not freemen, whom chance,
of
it

of fortune, inconftderately ftiowering down her greateft favours upon the moft unworthy, and not reand every other virtue, have raifed, in procefs ligion, juftice,

and the

injuftice

of time, to the empire of the world

:

While

thofe,

who

are

more malicious, openly rail at fortune, for having conferred on the moft abandoned of all Barbarians thofe bleflings, which But why ftiould I menthe Greeks had formerly enjoyed. tion others? when, even, fome hiftorians have dared to
publifti

thefe things, contrary to juftice,

and the truth of
hiftory.

Chap.

I,

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
in favour of foreign kings, enemies to the

13

hiftorVj

Roman

government, to

whom

they had fervilely devoted themfelves,
flattered.
falfe

and whofe. pafTions they have, perpetually, V. In order, therefore, to remove thefe
from the minds
'^

impreflions

countrymen, and ones in their room, I fhall, in this book, fhew of what nations the firft founders of this city were compofed, at what times, each of them affembled, and, by what
of

my

to fubftitute true

particular

turns of fortune, they left their refpedive countries : By this means, I engage to make it appear that they were Greeks,

and came together from nations not the meaneft, nor the
In the beginning of the next book, I fhall enter upon the adlions, they performed immediately after the building of the city ; and give an account of their
leafl:

confiderable.

difcipline,

the obfervance of which raifed their fucceflbrs to

fo crreat power.
far as I

am

In the execution of this defign, I ihall, as able, omit nothing worthy of hiftory ; to the end
infufe in the
I

that I
•5-

may

minds of

thofe,

who

fhall

then be

Tm
I

sroAi7wv.

for the refpcift

have fo great a memory of Cafaubon,
I

and Stephens, that

am

when

am

obliged to differ

always forry from them,

were unacquainted with the ancient hiftory ot Rome; and then adds, that the greateft part of them had been

impolcd upon by

common

repoits

:

They both contended that we ought to read rav zifaWm, initead of twv woAilm.
But the rcafon given by the
fupport
this alteration,
:

laft,

to
to

feems to

me

fays, that our prove the con'.rary author attributes thefe erroneous opi-

He

not toi; zsoA^ai? he can mean none but the generality of the Greeks, his countrymen ; fince, immediately benions tok
jroXAoti,
:

But, by

ot isroAAoi,

Neither can I underltand why zs^oAilxi fhould be confined to the citizens of HalicarnalTus, and not extended to all the Greeks ; fmce the errors he undertakes to refute were common, as he fays, to almoft all of them, and not only to the citizens of HalicarnalTus, which, though in Caiia, was a Greek

fore, he fays that almoft all the

Greeks

and this might well juftify colony Dionyfius in calling ail the Greeks his countrymm.
•,

informed

i|

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
this

OF
city,

Book
as

I.

informed of the truth, fuch an idea of

may be

to its merit, if wild prejudice, and difaffedion have adequate not entirely exafperated them againfl: it ; and root out all

a fubjediion grounded on reafon, (for, by an indignation at univerfal, and unalterable law of nature, it is ordained that
fliall govern their inferiors) and, at the fame time, fuperiors iilence their complaints of fortune, as if fhe had wantonly

beftowed upon an undeferving people an empire fo -great, and of fo long a continuance ; particularly, when they fhall be
infancy, forth infinite examples of virtue, than which no brought city, either Greek, or Barbarian, ever produced greater for piety, habitual temperance, and military accomplifliments.
'^

convinced from

this hiftory,

that

Rome, even

in her

juftice,

If thefe things are really fo,

I fhall

efcape cenfure,

which

generally

attends
:

the promife
all

of things unexpeded and
raifed their

wonderful
fo great,

Since

thefe

men, who

power, are
relators.

unknown

to the Greeks,

country to for want of

worthy
only
'«•

For,

no accurate

hiftory of the

Romans,

written in the Greek language, has, hitherto, appeared, but

fummary
El

accounts, and fhort epitomes.
Thus, Cyaxares,
in

Sn. Stephens and Cafaubon read « yt us have But, I find, would alterations of the text, of their by many that they had never feen the Vatican This manufcripf, which has « Jtj. clear without the text the makes very
:

Xenophon, fends

an angry meflage to Cyrus to order him, or, at lead, the Medes, who were with him, to return immediately ;
x«i vuv,f«v f«aKufOf
.S!<a>;7<«i-«

j£jK;),v^f<f

necefllty of altering

ix.-!re^oi.i

into

a-Trffw.

Every one knows that the figure, called an ellipfis, is very by the grammarians,

wu^e^t^ : Where, after (d^ai^xi, wu^ifui is underftood; and here. after « Sk, Ta\S!a ^lu; t^fi, or fomething
yi
ry.v

Tctx'^ytv

equivalent to
the reader.

it,

mull be fupplied by

common among

the
r

Attic

writers,
t,

Xcnoph.

B, iv.

Kt^ijuraio. p.

288. Edit, of Hutchinf.

VI.

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASS ENSIS.
'^

15

VI.

Hferonymus Cardianiis

(the iirft author I

know of

account of the Roman fubjed) has given a curfory After him, Antiquities in his hiftory of the Epigoni. '^ Timaeus, the Sicilian, treated of antiquities in his univerfal

upon

this

and placed in a feparate work, the wars of the Romans with Pyrrhus of Epirus. Befides thefe, Antigonus,
hiftory,
i

"Polybius, Silenus,

and innumerable other

authors have

ETTiyovuv

vr^otyi/.aretK.

It plainly

ap-

on this that the whofe hiEpigoni, paflTage, was written llory by Hieronymus of Cardia, were not the generals, who divided the empire of Alexander, but
pears,

by

a note in Hiidfon

of the Romans and Sicilians, and thofc of the Greeks and the latter. '?• I can find very little AJ]/}/ovs^.
concerning
in
lated,
this

Hudfon, which

hiftorian. * * *

M

The note has tranf-

had
ings.
this

their defcendants.

Hieronymus writ the wars of Alexander alfo, and was

^

without faying from whence he it, gives very licde light with reVoffius, very juftly, thinks hiftorian not to have been the
HoAugi!^
^

fpefl either to this author, or his writ-

much
,

by Eumenes his who made fo great a countryman,
efteemed
Alexander's death ; by which, the age of this hiftorian is
figure after
certainly
'^'

fame with Antigonus Caryftius.
^'^-

!t«(

ZiAtjvi?.

The

firft

of

thefe hiftorians

is fo

well

known, and

known.
=

fo defervedly admired, that

Diodorus Siculus gives great commendations to his countryman, Timaeus, for his exaftnefs in chronology, and great learning; but, at the fame time, fays,
Titxaiog
I(y.£^l^oTl}f.

I need fay him. In another nothing concerning * * * has alfo tranfnote, which

M

iated,

are told, that Cicero fays Silenus writ the hiftory of Hannibal

we

"*

he was,

juftly,

accufed for his cen-

forioufnefs,
"^

which acquired him the name of ErstliiA-aiog ; which name, Athenaeus tells us, was given him by
Ifter.

with great exaftnefs, and that ' Livy quotes him. Both which, upon turning to the places in thole authors, I find to be fo. But there is one thing

worth obferving, which

is

not taken

Suidas fays, he was cotemporary with Agathocles ; and, being banifhed by him, revenged himfelf by traducing the author of his
writer fays he was a difciple of Philifcus, the Milefian, and that he writ the tranfadions

Callimachus

notice of in that note, nor any where elfe that I know of Cicero, a little after, fays that Silenus, whom Coelius

banilliment.

The lame

gives an account of a very remarkable dream of Hannibal, which
follows,
I

am far from mentioning for the fake of the dream, but to (hew that Livy
^
'

'Suidas. Diod. Sic. B. xix.

=

p.

695.
''

•DeHift. Graec. B.i.

c.

iz.

Diod. Sic. B. v. p. 108. Cic. of Div. B. i. c. 24.

Athen. B.

vi. c.
c.

20.
49.

Liv. B. xxvi.

attempted

i6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book!.

attempted the fame fiibjedl, though in a different manner; each of whom has written fome few things concerning the

Romans, which they have compiled from common
without any diHgence, or accuracy.
refpefts,

reports,

Like to

thefe,
alfo

in all

are the hiftories,

which fome Romans

have

in Greek concerning the ancient tranfadions of publiflied the moft ancient are ""Quindlus their own nation Of
:

whom

Fabius, and Lucius Cincius,

who both

flourifhed

during the

Punic wars

:

Each of

thefe has related the adlions, at

which

he himfelf was prefent, with great exadlnefs, as being well acquainted with them; but given a fummary account of
took the fame
relation

from Silenus,

though he has not mentioned him. Hannibal dreamed, it feems, that the gods had given him a guide to con-

The

dufthim

commanded him
•,

and that this guide not to look back But Hannibal could not govern his
into Italy,
:

was the grandfon of Caius Fabius, painted the temple of Salus, and obtained the name of Pictor E. Quindlus Fabius lived in the time of the fecond Punic war, of which he writ the tranfaftions, and is called
firft

who

faw

and, upon looking back, curiofity a vaft monllcr with ferpents twin-

was

Script or um nntiquijjimus by fent by the fenate to

ing round it, which, in its march, overturned trees, fhrubs, and houfes.

confult that oracle,

Livy. He Delphi to concerning the
"^
'

means
put

to be taken

by the Romans to

And, when Hannibal admired what
he was told by his that it was the defolation of guide, and that he fliould Italy ; go forward, without troubling himfelf with what was doing behind him. Vajlitalem
this

a flop to their misfortunes.

Lu-

might

be,

Italiae

ejje
:

:

precepijfeque
'I'liis

ut

pergeret
relates,

protinus ne laboraret.

quid retro^ atque a tergofieret,
ftory

Livy
*
:

though with greater
and
cloffes it in this
effe
:

pomp

than Cicero,
ire, tiec

manner

Italiac

pergeret porro

Vajiitatem ultra
eJJ'c.

Alimentus lived at the fame time, and treated the fame fubWe find by ^ Livy that he jeft. mentioned many particulars relating to the fecond Punic war, which he had learned from Hannibal while he was his prifoner. He is there honoured byLivy with the title oCwaximusau^or. It appears plainly, from this pafTage in our author, that both thefe Roman hiftorians writ in Greek.
cius Cincius

o inqiiirerct^fitieretquefala in occult
'

Livy, B. xxi. c. 22.
in Hanibalic.

e

Pliny, B. xxxv. c. 4.
c.

'

Livy, B. xxii.

c. 7. id.

B.

i.

c.

42.

'Appiau

''Livy, B. xxi.

38.

thofe

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN A S SEN SIS.

17

thofe early events, that happened foon after the building of For thefe reafons, therefore, I have determined not the
city.

to pafs over that beautiful part of the Roman hiftory, which the ancient authors have difregarded ; and from which, if

two things, that, of all others, accurately treated, will refult Thofe brave are the moft advantageous, and the moft juft
:

men, who have
glory,

Rilfilled their deftiny,

will gain

immortal

and be extolled by

their

pofterity, (both

which render

nature like to the divine, and prevent their adions from perifhing together with their bodies;) and the prefent " and future race of thofe godHke men, when they confider

human

ought to fet a value on themfelves, and purfue nothing unworthy of their anceftors, will tread the paths of the moft generous,
that
all,

who

are fprung

from an

illuftrious origin,

and moft
ilire

virtuous ambition, rather than lead a
;

life

of plea-

and eafe

and

I,

who

have not undertaken

this

work

for the fake of flattery,

but of truth and

juftice,
firft

(which

all place, hiftory) fhall, ought to have an opportunity of exprefiing my benevolence to all ^^ good men, and to thofe, who take a pleafure in the con»»•

be the aim of

in the

is

fo

Ifoflfwv avS^uv. far tranfported

Our author
Romans,

here
to

therefore,

any thing of this kind
I

with his admias

hereafter, occur,

fhall, defire the reader will

ration of the ancient

look upon

me

as

a tranflator of an-

dare to call them godlike men, and to talk of the human nature being

other's thoughts, not a publifher

of

my

own.

Thele rendered like to the divine. drains have been copied from impious
the heathen, by the chriftian, writers j and, by thefe, rendered ftill more im-

^iM^iu^vs twu xosAwv i^yuv x«» Le Jay has trandated this lAtyaKuv.
in a very extraodinary manner qui The other fe piquent de belles letres.
-,

*'•

pious: For there is certainly more impiety in comparing men to the true God, than to falfe ones. Whenever,

French

tranflator has faid

much

better

;

qui veulent s'injlruire des belles aSiions et des grandes (hofes.

Vol.

I.

D

fideration

j8

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
;

Bookl.

fideration of great

and worthy adllons
grateful return I
I

making the mofl

am

and, after that, of able, to the city of

have received, and the other advantages I have enjoyed during my abode here. VII. Having thus given an account of the defign of this
for the inftrudions

Rome

fomething concerning the materials I provided myfelf with before I began it For it is pofTible that thofe, who have read Hieronymus, Timaeus, Poly-

work,

I fhall

now

fay

:

bius, or

any of the

hiftorians,

whom I have, juft now,

accufed

of abbreviating hiftory, not finding in thofe authors, many things mentioned by me, will fufpedl that I have recourfe to
invention, and inquire how I came by the knowledge of thofe particulars. Left any one, therefore, fhould entertain
this

opinion of me,
^'^

I

think
I

it

the relations, and records,
Italy,
**••

proper to acquaint them with have made ufe of I came into

immediately, after Auguftus Caefar had put an end
JTionth
its

A^* Tu

aro?i6|Wov

KcilxXv^voA T5U tf/.'p\j\itv vVo xa IliS»?n Koinroi^oi iQiay.>ig
nou
in.xlo';Yi!

Hou

/w,j<r!jir))y.

OAvfAvixiei things are to be taker\ notice of in this palfage, in order to
oySonw^yit

Many

of Auguft was, then, called by old name, Sextilis, and Caefar Octavianus was not called Auguftus, when he conquered Aegypt, and put

an end

to the civil war'.

This year,
for the

make

it

clear to the reader.

The

year

Odavianus himfelf was conful

our author came to Italy, muft_have been the 724*" of Rome, and the beginning ol die third year of the 187''* Olympiad. This aera is remarkable for the death of Antony and Cleopatra, the conquelt of Aegypt, and the end of the civil war, which happened in the month of Auguft that year, as the decree of the fenate, pafTed upon that
occafion,
<

fourth time, and his collegue for this part of the year was Marcus Tullius

Cicero"", fon to the great Roman orator; who, being left at Rome, while Caefir w.is employed in Aegypt, rcceived the letters of his collegue con-

plainly ftiews
Sat. E.
i.

^.

But
'

the
Call". B.

cerning the death of Antony, and the happy event of the Alexandrine war ; and, after reading thofe letters in the roftrum, ordered a copy of them to be
li.

Macrob.

c.

12.

Dion,

p, 523.

"^

Plutarch, Life of Cicero.

to

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN AS SEN SIS.
olympiad;
is,

19

to the civil war, in the middle of the hundred and eighty feventh and, having from that time, to this prefent, that

Roman
I

twenty two years, lived at Rome, learned the language, and acquainted myfelf with their writings,

employed all that interval in preparing materials for this work ; and fome things I received from men of the greateft conlideration among them for learning, whofe converfation I
gathered from hiftories, written by the moft approved Roman authors ; fuch as ^^ Porcius Cato,
ufed; and others
I

up there, in the fame place, v/here Antony had, fo cruelly, made a fpecThis was tacle of his father's head.
fixed

he arrived
all

after

having

pafiTed

through
,

the great offices of the commonwealth. There fcarce ever was a man,

much

I taken notice of at that time. faid that Caefar had not the title of Auguftus, when he reduced Aegypt
:

into the world with greater or cultivated thofe parts with parts, greater application ; a great general,

who came

was given to him in 727, But, our author finifhed his before long
as
it

hiftory, and, probably, before he began it, there is no room to be furprifed that

a great orator, and a great hiftorian, and, above all, the moft virtuous man of the moft virtuous commonwealth,

Among
which
is

his

other

accompliftiments,

Dionyfius ftiould give him that title upon this occafion. Caefar, it feems,
three

he underftood agriculture perfedly,
a qualification, that will, al-

years

after

the

redudlion

of

Aegypt, he himfelf being conful for the feventh time, and Agrippa for the
pretended to refign his illegal power to the fenate and people of Rome, from whom he had ufurped To which purpofe, he makes a it. long fpeech, in Dion. Caffius ", to the fenate, who, certainly, never believed a tittle of it. However, they repaid his difTimulation with the title of Authird time,

ways, be highly efteemed by a wife ° Voffius fuppofes this Fabius people. Maximus not to be the fame perfon Cicero fpeaks of, when he fays, Ser. Fabius Pi£ior, et juris, et literarum, et
''

antiquitatis bene pertius,

but

Q^ Fabius

Valerius Antias is often mentioned by the Roman authors, as a writer of annals, and faid by Velleius Paterculus '^, to have been cotemporary with
is

Servilianus.

Sifenna,

another

Roman

guftus.
*S"

hiftorian, with

whom

'Cicero, if there

Hogxiof T£ K*7wv, x«» $«6/ay Mi»?«-

^of, etc.

The

firft is

known by

the

name of the
» ^ B.
ii.

Cenfor, to which dignity
liii.

no miftake in the text, fays Licinius Macer, a writer of annals alfo, lived in friendfhip. There were many
Lat. B.
c. 2.
i,

Dion. Caff. B,
c.

p. 581.

• Voflius in hift.

c, 3.

r

Cicero in Bruto,

c. 2r.

5.

'De Leg.

B.

i.

D

2

Fabius

20

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

L

"^

Fabius Maximus, Valerius Antias, Licinius Macer, the Aelii, Gellii, and Calpurnii, and feveral others of good note.

Supported, therefore, by the authority of thefe hiftories, which are Hke the Greek annals, I undertook this work.

So

much

concerning myfelf.

It

now

remains, that I fhould,

fomething concerning the hiftory itfelf ; what com~ pafs of time I affign to it j what fubjeds I relate; and what form I give to the work.
alfo, fay

VIII. I begin my hiftory from the moft ancient relations, which the hiftorians before, me have omitted, as a without and fubjedt not to be cleared ;

up

great difficulty
firft

bring

it

down

'^

to the

beginning of the
to him, the

Punic war,.

authors of the name of Tuone of whom Lucius Aelius Tubero', was an hiftorian, and one of
bero,

Roman

annalifts are very like

works of thefe RomanThofe of Thucyfirft clafs.

dides or

Rome

Quintus Cicero's legates in Afia. Sextus and Cnaeus Gelhus were, alfo, annalifts. Lucius Calpurnius Pifo was conful the 620''' year of Frugi
with Publius Mucius Scaevola,
•,

'

Xenophon, or of any other

Greek
ziroAiiMi.

hiftorian of the

which was the year Tiberius Gracchus was (lain and cenfor the 633'' with
Quindlus Caeciiius
hillory,

The firft Punic war, from whence Polybius dates his hiftory, properly began in the confulftiip of. Manius Valerius Maximus, and Manius Otacilius Cra(rus,-when the Rofent Appius Claudius at the head of an army to the relief of the Ma-

Metellus
are

:

His
often

mans

or rather annals,

quoted by the Roman authors ". There was another Calpurnius Pifo, who is faid to have written of Marius ; and, confequently, mull have been a later hiftorian than the former,

mertines,

who had
"'.

poflelled themfelves

of Melfana

Appius not only relieved Meftana, then befieged by Hiero king of Syracufe, and the Carthaginians, but defeated them both, and,
the Romans concluded a with Hiero peace Though I am fcnafter

that,

rnuy

net ii Txii EAAtjviKoii;

x,^ovoy'^ix.(pioiig

:

toiKtjtti.

Thus

tranllated

by Le Jay

-,

fible that the firft

Punic war

is,

dont J'ay lu les ouvrages trcs conformes a ceux de nos Grecs. So that, according
'Cicero to his brother, B. i. ep. *Polybius, B. i. p. ii.et 16.
1.
«

gene-

begun the fucwhen theconfuls Lucius ceeding year,
« Voff. Hift.

rally, fuppofed to have

Id. Verr. iv. c. 49.

Lat. B.

i. c.

6.

which

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASS ENSIS.
in

21

which broke out

the
:

third year of the
I relate all

hundred and

the foreign wars the was engaged in during that period, and all the feditions, city with which fhe was agitated from what caufes they flowed,

twenty eighth olympiad

;,

and, by what meafures, and, from what motives, they were I give an account, alfo, of all the forms of goappeafed vernment fhe ufed, as well during the monarchy, as after
:

and what was the conftitution of each I enter into a detail of the beft of all cuftoms, and the moft excellent of all laws; and, in fhort, I fhew the whole
its

difiblution

;

:

manner of
authors,

living of the ancient

Romans.

As

to the form.

I give to this

work,

it

does not refemble That, which the

who make
;

their hiftories

wars alone their object, have given tOr nor That, which others, who treat of the

Jeveral forms of

government by themfelves, haveadbpted^ nei-

ther

is it

like the chronological works,

which
(for
"^

'^

the authors
thefe, beings

of the Athenian annals have publifhed uniform, foon grow tedious to the reader)
Poftumius, and Quindlus Mamilius were fent into Sicily to command the This year I find to have been army. the 4451 of the Julian period", and * * * has faid not the 4449''',. as \ and the 492'' of Rome, not the 487'",. At or the 489''', as he fuppofes:
'^

but partakes of

All that I fhall fay, therefore, is, that, I cannot difcover the author of thefe

M

leaft,
»*•

it

ftands the 492'', in the Fafii

confulares.

Oi rcti Allien sr^ayf.inlnKriXi/.tyci. If I were to tranflate the doubts con-

rained in the latin annotation, as M*** has done, I believe they would afford little fatisfaftion to the reader.

Athenian annals and, if I could, I do the not imagine difcovery would be of any great confequence,. *' Aaa' e^ aVao-))? iJfar iWisJov. There is great difficulty in this paflage ; concerning which, I fhall acquaint the reader with the critical obfervations of Henry Stephens, not as they are ab(traded in Hudfon's notes, and ftill * * * more fo in Thofe of 5 but, as
\

.

M

very

they ftand in his Prolegomena ; and,, then,addfome obfervations of my own.,

f

Uiher, p. 271.

every

22

ROMAN

ANTIC^yiTIES OF

Book
;

I.

every kind ; of the oratorial, fpeculative, the intent that I may afFord fatisfa^lion to thofe perfons,
''

and narrative

to

who

Stephens contends, and, I think, very which prejuftly, that, in the period
cedes this,
ci

followed

it

himfelf, nor faid any thing

in his notes, to fignify either his ap-

we

T«f jiTcAs^st «v«j,fixvl.«v7;f,

fliould read jwo»«f after in order to

anfwer

aroA(7rt«? k\jIx; s<p' laujaiv, in

the

probation, or difapprobation of it ; neither has this reading been taken notice of by Hudfon in his collation

goes on, with the fame ftrength of reafon, and fays that, after thefe words, aAA.' e| aVao-nj Jea?
next fentence.

He

fome third fxiKJovivccyovm tj xai Gsoiftfix))?, kind of tiix is wanting; becaufe our
and not £| would have faid, iKcHi^oif iSiacf, if he had mentioned but two forts.
author fays
e| aVas-ijf «A*f,

as he

even of the Venetian manufcript ; or followed by any tranflator eitherLatin, or French. But, I muft own, I look this upon reading as the true one, and that it will conduce much to clear up this pafTage, which, otherwife, feems to me almoft inexplicable. In order, to a form clear idea of our therefore,
defign in giving a mixed form to his hiftory, and in chufing a form fo mixed, as to give fatisfadtion
author's to political orators, to philofophers, and to thofe, who read for amufement,

This, he fays, is further confirmed by cur author's propofing not two, but three forts of men, in whofe favour he gave this form to his hiftory ; He adds, that all the tranflators have miftaken the fenfe of the word iyuyuviof, by applying it to a relation of wars, and contends that the iSi» ivxyuvio;
relates to ftatefmen, as the iSim^iu^Klwyt

we muft
is

obferve that the
firft,

iSi*

imymiot
fie£o^»j7i)cij

defigned for the

the

regards philofophers third tiid, propofed in favour of the
;

and that the

and what for the third ? muft be wanting Stephens fomething it I fhould, rather, ^7«»: fupplies by chufe iiiiyt]fj.ci]iKi!, which is a word,
for the fecond,
:

defigns to gratify,

men, whom our author meaning thofe, who make hiftory an amufement, fhould be nieix, or fomething of that nature. Thus, I have laid before the reader,, in as fhort, and as clear a manner as
third fort of

properly, adapted to hiftory, narration being the foul of it, and a word ufed

I

am

able,

thefe truly judicious re-

marks of Stephens on this paflage ; and fhall only add, that I find by a note of not quite two lines in Sylburgius, that the Venetian manufcript has inftead of ocvxyvuffxairi, and ttyuvia-jjiaa-i
that Lapus has followed this reading, and trandated it in hijloricis certamini-

by our author himfelf, in his character of Thucydides ^. And what can be more entertaining to thofe, who read hiftory, as they do romance, than a relation of battles, fieges, and all the other military operations, of which
hiftory

This, in
reading

furnilhes fo great a variety.? my opinion, will juftify us in

u-yuvia-iAan-i, with the Venetian manufcript, inftead of (xvxyvu(rf*ci<n. If any one doubts of the fenfe I have

bus:

However, Sylburgius has not
1

iJsa imyuvio;, let him read the critical works of our author, and

given to the
*

Stephens Proleg.

c.

1

2.

C. 37.

deflre

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN A SSENSIS.
;

23

delire to qualify thcmfelves for political debates
as are

to fuch,

engaged in philofophical Ipeculations , and to all, who in the contemplation of military propofe no other end Thefe things, adions, than an undifturbed entertainment.
therefore, will be the

fubje6t
is

of

my
I

hiftory,

and

this the

form of

it.

The

author

Dionyfius of HaiicarnalTus, the
begin.

fon of Alexander ; and, from hence,

IX.

THE

moft ancient

pofleffors

of the place, where
fea,

this city, the miftrefs

of the whole earth and

now ftands,
to the con-

and which the Romans
barbarous
Siceli,

inhabit, are faid to have been the

natives of the country.

As

dition of the place before their time, whether it was inhaAfterwards, the bited, or defert, none can certainly fay.

Aborigines made themfelves mafters of it, having difpoflefled Thefe people lived, before the inhabitants after a long war that, on the mountains, in villages without walls, and dif:

he will find inftances without number of his ufing it in this fenfe. In fpeak^ Ex Si ing of Demofthenes, he fays,
Toiv

vV£^
zir^ot

THE nOAITIKHS ^lAOZO^IAS
«t.7v)(

ts? jca7a7fe%ou1af '°' SixtAoi. I do

aJmwf. not wonder that

ivwyoiMuv

Snoir cvjIx Aoj/&)v oTTon-oi zsr^og
»

sr,^in

yiyoiccn
I

sr^d?

iy.Khr<TiiX(.

The

the Latin trandators call thefe people Sictdi ; becaufe That was the name

laft

thing

I (hall

mention
is,

in this note,

they were

known by among
I

the

Ro-

which

am
by

afraid

already, too long,
for

mans
lators

:

But

is,that,

/)i;/7(?/c/'/6fn-,

whole

fatif-

wonder the French tranffhould call them ks Sicules.
calls

fiiftion he propofes the liitx. fifa^vjlocu. he does not mean either natural, or

However, Thucydides
and
tells

them

Si-

moral, but political philofophers : And, however unnatural this alliance may

fcem, yet our author, himfelf, fays, thathe writ a treatife (now loft) againft thofe, who, unjuftly, ctnCined political
^

us that, being driven ksAoi, out of Italy, they paiTed over into Siand, having overcome the Sicily canians, who were then in pofTeffion
•,

of that it.and, they caufed it to be called Sw.Ai«% inftead of locona.
'

^hilofophy

;

v\v

{rs^xyy.di\Ha,v)

<rvn'lci^oifji>iv

? ne§i ATjftoo-. Aei/oT. C.

45.

^Xltg'

Ta

Qnxvh ^ajax.

C. 2.

Thucyd. B,

vi. c. 2.

perfed,

24
perfed.

ROMAN

ANTIQjyiTIES OF
and fome other

Book

I.

But, after the Pelafgi,

Greeks,

mingling with them, affifted them in the war againft their of this place, walled in neighbours, they drove the Siceli out

many
all

towns, and contrived to make themfelves mafters of the country, that lies between the'" Liris, and the Tiber:
rivers fpring

Thefe

from the foot of the Apennine mountains, by which the whole length of Italy is divided ; and, at the diftance of about eight hundred ftadia from one anotljer,
Sea ; the Tiber to difcharge themfelves into the Tyrrhene the north, near the city of Oftia ; and the Liris to the fouth,

: Both thefe cities are Roman colonies. pafling by Minturnae This nation remained in the fame place, being never, from that time, driven out by any others ; the ^^ fame people being

!••

Aifif xiwT.esf/f.

Thefe two

ri-

alfo,

vers were the boundaries of Lacium, after the conqueft of the Aequi, the Hernici, and the Volfci.

a R'^man colony, fettled there Ancus Marcius. All authors agree, by that a ftadium contained 600 feet but
;

The
and

Liris

is

now called il

Garigliano^

either lan

through, or paffcd by Minturnae, a ^ Cluver fays very confiderable city. that there are to be feen, on the left of the river, and about four Roman miles

muft be remembered, that thefe are Greek feet Now, Arbuthnot makes an Englifh foot to exceed a
then
it
:

Greek
that, a

foot by ,0875 decimals: So ftadium contains 504 feet, four

inches, and, 5 decimals, Englifh
fure.

mea-

from the mouth of

it,

vaft ruins

of

£quaedufts,amphitheatres, and towers.

Between Minturnae, and the fea, are the marflies in which Marius endeavoured, in vain, to conceal himfelf. Minturnae, as our author fays, was a Roman colony, which was fent thither in the confulfhip of Appius Claudius Caecus, for the fecond time, and of
"=

otvS^unrcn nr^oa-xyo^tvofAivoi.

Here

is

cer-

tainly

fome error

in

the tranfcriber:

Sylburgius thinks it may be correded by reading fu^i^vxn inftead of ecJIxn. Hudfon prefers ovo^oiriv osAAok >,ou a\Acif
01

«u7oi,

etc.
;

I

would read

the
01

fentence thus
oa/1oi dyQ^aiTTOi

o»oft«<riv

xWolt uWois

Quintus
for the

Volumnius Flamma, alfo, fecond time which year ap•,

our author

z^^ofctyo^svoijuor, becaufc tells us, in the very next

Fetjli pears by been the 458''' of Rome.
^

the

confulares to have

'Oftia was,
«

fentence, that they were known by different names, at different periods.
c.

Uuver

Ital Antiq. p. 1074.

Livy, B. x.

21.

f

Horus, B.

i.

c. 3.

called

Chap.I.
called

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
at different periods
:

25

by different names,

Till the time

of the Trojan war, they preferved their ancient name of under Latinus, their king, who reigned Aborigines ; but,
durinor

that war, they began to be called Latines

:

And

Romulus, having built a city after his own name, fixteen from the taking of Troy, they changed their generations name to That, which they now bear ; and, in procefs of
time, contrived to raife themfelves from the fmalleft nation, to the and, from the mofl obfcure, to the moft
greateft,
ilkiftrious,

reception of thofe, who v/ere deilitute of a fettlement ; by a communication of the rights of citizens to all, who, after a brave reiiftance, had been

by

their

humane

conquered by them , by extending thofe rights to fuch, as had been manumifed among them ; and by difdaining no condition of men, from whom the commonwealth might
above reap an advantage: ^^But,
3''

all,

by the conflitution of

Trrsf

tmIx
01/

Si

^»yl oc,

Kotrf^M

rn

^o^l1eufx«7of,
Zir«5)i/A«1a;v,
ix.

iK,

uoWuv

x.xli9y,<yAvlo

makes
««

Polybius, in fpeaking of the Romans, the fame obfervation ; s (f,^ ^i
ayuvut, Kdi w^xyuciluiv, £| «u7>jj tv rxtg ut^nreleiciis iwiyvutnus to jiifCiov. Where, by the al^^fxivoi
Ttjf

^^tie-iiAcv.

Le

WAylog x«if » A«^£«vov7£j ti Jay has tranflated this

jstoAAwk

manner ; et fur palTage in a ftrange ioui de profiler avec adreffe des bans et des mauvais fucces pour maintenir par de
du gouvernment. /ages loix la forme was mifled by Portus, who has tranflated it pretty much in the fame

way,

ss^a.yiA.ala

fignifies difficulties^

as

uxiyiixoilx,

in

the pafTage before us,
;

fignifies fufferings

which
life
:

are,

moft
in

He

certainly,

the beft lefTons,
in

both

private, and
ar«6vj//t«7«, is

public

i^a^n^ixlu,

Sylburgius, and the other French tranflator, have rendered it

manner.

much

better.
-,

It

is

certainly

a fine

and, I believe, a very that the Romans made fo one, juft good an ufe of their fufferings, as to
obfervation

which has been employed in all ages, and in all Ianguages and may, very poflibly, be, ^ originally, derived from Herodotus,
a thought,
-,

who makes
fay to

Croefus,

when

Cyrus raSsuat
c.

HAGHMATA
yiyoin.

a captive,

improve

their

conftitution
E

by them.
•>

io^l* «;(^afi7«,

MA0HMATA

B. vi. p

459.

Herodot. in Clio,

207.

Vol.

I.

E

their

26
their

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
government,
that befel them,

Book

I.

which they formed out of the various
extracting always fomething

misfortunes,
ufeful

from every occurrence. X. There are fome, who affirm that the Aborigines, from whom the Romans are, originally defcended, were ^* natives
of
all

Italy,

a people fprung from

no other

;

(for I call Italy,

that fhore,

which
in the

is
^'

furrounded by the Ionian and Tufcan
third
place,

g" Iphs; and,
5

by the Alps on the lide

+

has

«u7oJi9ovaf IraAiaSf. trandated this in a manner
jMfv
•,

'

Oi

Le Jay
equally
s

Hudfon

la terre

fprung mentioned by Diodorus Siculus to have been formed by the flime of the Nile. The other French trannator has faid des naturels d' Italic, which is as well as
his language at all happier in expreffing
:

bold, and unphilofophical Enfant mefme : So that, the Aborigines from the earth, like the animals

de

tells us the Venetian manuhas fcript r^nlai, which reading he ^ becaufe Zofimus mentions favours,

three Alps, viz.
[xcci.

kotIkxi, Tu-oivtvai,

[Ax^Hf

But Ptolomy mentions

four, viz.

TOi; T£

Wi^l TKV ViXMtXV AhTTICt; opfci, t^J T«i5 noinvaif, xflM Ti) Ok^x, xcutvj Ka^aaJjj
o^ia-i Toif

vVo TO Nw^iKov

will allow

Ours

is

not
:

fays

Italy

; by which, he was bounded to the north.

ci,\j%yJo\a,i

So

that,

we may

as well read four

Alps

oppofition

The word natives, which I have ufed, becaufe I know no better, will not fome addition For explain it without in French, and naturels I look upon to natives in Englifh, fignify no more in the country in born than a people to foreigners. I even doubt
:

whether indigenae

in

Latin

fignifies

any

of Ptolomy, as three upon That of Zofimus. But there is a defcription of the bounds of Italy in Poly bias, which our author feems to have had in his eye upon this and which, I believe, will occafion it out of all doubt that he writ put and not r^nlxt. Polybius fays T^i1«/,

upon

the

authority

•,

more

:

When Lucan
'

piniferis ampkxtis rupibus pennine cmnes Indigenas Latii populos, I think he means no more than the natives of time But a.\flox^on( figItaly at that nifies a people who are not only born in a country, but whofe anceftors, from
:

fays of the

ApxonSiSi
V7r»^^iiirti(,
T))»

tij»

ju.ii/

fA4»v

o^i^et

zsKiv^minxAjlm,

ar^of av»'oA«;f

xtjcAijufiiiji',

0, TS luvio; 5<ro^Of, >ixtKoilocTO (rvvf^if, qkmIoc

Tufftjvixov mihoiyoi

T>;v Si Kcnrtiv
t)jv

t>;i»

time immemorial,
that country.

always

inhabited

ar«foiT£ T«{

xoM «^)cls(f

fxtu-oyajxt wctga.)j

Every body knows theA>

T«K«(rav o'^'^w x*7* TC cvK^tfy

thenians pretended to be fuch a people.
Lucan, B.
ii.

ziuv wot^(i^(i».
vi.
'

Ttiiv AKHere, what our author

v.

432.

^3.

Polybius, B.

ii.

p. loa.

of

Chap.

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSENSIS.

27

of the land) and thefe authors fay that they were firfl: called Aborigines from their having been the origin of their pofterity
;

as

we

fhould call them

or
y2vix^-)(jx.Q

'ur^uroyovsi^.

Others

without houfe or home, pretend that certain vagabonds gathered together out of many places, met one another there

by chance, and feated themfelves in the faftneffes, living by For this reafon, thofe, who robbery and feeding of cattle are of this opinion, change their name alfo to one more
:

fuitable to their condition, calling

they were wanderers

;

and,

Aberrigines, to fhew according to thefe, the Abori-

them

of being confounded with thofe, the gines are in danger ancients called '^ Leleges : For this is the name they, generally,

give to a vagabond and

mixed people, who have no

abode they can call their country. Others give a fabulous account of their being a colony of thofe Ligures,
fixed

who

are near neighbours to the

inhabit

many
is

parts of Italy,

For the Ligures and fome of Gaul ; and, which
Umbri.
is

of them
certain
calls

is

country further faid of them.
Poly-

their native

not known, fince nothing

T^iTflM,

in the third place.
Si
Koi7ry,v,

AKitu,QcAiXi'yef(7i<^i'Ki)7TloKt[j.aisivav(mrffei
Htjcfoso-oy ouToife-ffuv

bius calls

mv

the remaining

t^^m

i-n-i

Icilvioivli

".

Jide of the triangle; and,
«c yY,i,
3^-

Polybius fays,

where ouriays ara^a tjjv fHfoyouM

They were

firft

fettled in

the Idaean

n-«eal«vsi<rav.

A, Myu>.

Stephens has, with
fubftituted
in

great iagacity, the room of Sy, My<^,
fignity

AiMym

in

which words
place.

gulph-, and, being driven from thence, jhey ^vent into Caria, and lived in a ^ity, called Pedafa", lying in the injand country of the Halicarnafl'enfes.

nothing

this

The
as

xhey, afterwards, ingaged
^^re difperfed over
all

in a mili-

Leleges are mentioned by

Homer

^ary expedition with the Carians,
^heir nation extinguilhed.

and

a warlike nation, and to have been governed by Altes their king,
«>

Greece, and

Iliad

«
ip.

i'.

87.

Strabo, B.

xiii.

p.

909. Cafaub. Edit.

E

2

XI.

28

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
XI. But the moft learned of the

Book

I.

Roman

hiftorians,

among

whom

has colledled, with the greateft care, the origins of the ItaHan cities; Caius Sempronius, and a great many others, fay, they were Greeks; part of
is

Porcius Cato,

who

thofe,

who, formerly, inhabited Achaia, and, many generations before the Trojan war, left that country But they do not point out either the Greek nation, to which they belonged, the
:

from which they removed, the time, when, the leader, under whom, or, from what turns of fortune, they left their
city,

mother country
It
is

founding their account on a Greek relation, they have quoted no Greek author to fupport it
;

and,

:

therefore uncertain

how

the truth ftands.

If,

what they

" fay be true, they can be a colony of
^^'

no other people, but

Ovx «v

It£^«

tivo?

«>;ir«v

uttoikoi

has, upon this occafion, tranflated a note of Ryckius, in which the latter contends that Dionyfius is miftaken,

when he

afferts that the Aborigines were a colony of the Arcadians. For, fays he, if the Aborigines were the firft

of their country by the Aborigines afThe engines of by the Pelafgi. Cato are fo often quoted by the Latin writers, and particularly, by Varro, the moft celebrated antiquary of his time, that I fhould make no difficulty to prefer the authority of Cato before
fifted

I'hat oi any
larly,

modern

writers,

who

are

inhabitants of Italy, that the Arcadians

it is

not poffible

deprived of the books, and, particuof

under Oenotrus could be the fame people with the becaul'e it is proved by Aborigines
-,

cenlbr,

the records, which lie, as muft have had before him
:

And we

find that not only Cato, but

Scripture that Italy was inhabited beThis is, fore the time of Oenotrus.

Sempronius, and

many

other

Roman

hiftorians affirin that

the Aborigines

properly, <n.ii>ifj.axm, to raife fhadows, and then fight with them. I wonder that neither Ryckius, nor histranllator

were Greeks, who, before their coming into Italy, had lived in Achaia.

Ryckius has

alfo difcovered

another

fhould remember what Dionyfius

fays a few pages before, viz. that the Siceli were the or/j^zKiz/ inhabitants of that part

error in Dionyfius, for alferting that the Arcadians were the firft Greek

of Italy, where Rome was, afterwards, and that they were driven out built
•,

colony, that came into Italy Where° as, he ailurcs us from Pliny that the:

Pelafgi
iii.

came from Greece

into Italy,

•Pliny, B.

c, 5.

of

Chap.

I.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
:

29

For thefe are the of thofe, who arc now called Arcadians firft of all the Greeks, who croffed the Ionian gulph under
before the Arcadians.
I

have looked

into this place of Pliny, and all I can find there, is, that Pliny, in enumeof Larating ths ancient inhabitants

tium, mentions, firft, the Aborigines, then the Pelafgi, and, after them, the

have peopled Italy. the Englifh the Vulgate calls him tranllation Ctthin, the Septuagint K^ioi, and the Cotton manufcript Kilior, in Hebrew, CDD^ which word, as it was, unare fuppofed to
I

call

him Kitdm with
-,

Arcades, the Siculi, the Aurunci, and the Rutili. This, I believe, the reader will think a very weak argument to urge againft the authority of Dionyfius ; particularly, fince Paufanias fays that the colony, ' Oenotrus led into tirft fent out of Greece. Italy, was the Oenotrus was the youngeft fon of Lycaon, the fon of Pelafgus , and Paufanias makes Lycaon to have been cotemporary with Cecrops, who was fo with Moles ; and Lycaon carried a colony of Sai'tes, who were Aegyptians,
into Attica, 6g years before Mofes As Jed the Ifralites out of Aegypt.
'i

doubtedly, written by Mofes
in the

(if

he writ

the
or

Cananaean, commonly called, Hebrew language) without points, a Dagefh, may be eitherfpelt Kitim,
but
I

or Chetim,
it

fhould rather write

Ketim

The

authority, therefore,

of this text is brought to prove that the pofterity of this man, however he

This narne, peopled Italy. believe without cannot, poffibly, fuppofing, at the fame time, that Italy
fpelt his

we

was one of the

to the other proof, drawn from Scrithat Italy was inhabited pture to (hew before the arrival of Oenotrus ; this

argument, I am fure, if it could be I believe it proved from thence, as far from is cannot, fubverting the of becaule, as I Dionyfius authority have fhewn, he afierts the fame thing. The only text in Scripture which can, by any contrivance, be tortured to of Italy, muft be fignify the peopling
•,

Ifles of the Gentiles. But, fmall miftakes in geography, I know, muft not be regarded, when texts of Scripture are to be wrefted in order to carry any favorite point. However, I think it may be proved from feveral texts of Scripture, that, by the defcendants of Ketim, are meant the Macedonians, and not the Italians. I cannot put an end to this note, without taking notice of a miftake, which

the

Latin,

and,

confequently,

the

French

tranflators,
jwvflci,-

have

fallen into,

rendering

a fable.

by Every body
;

knows
it is

j^nd the fans ofjavan Elifiah a;id ^arjlnjlo, Kittim and Dodanim. By
this:
-,

'

that ^o6of fignifies a fable often ufed for Koyog, which
it

but

muft
place,

be the fignification of

in this

the Gentiles dithefe "Were the jjles of vided in their lands ; every one after his their families, in their natongue, after Of thefe fo'ir fons of Javan, tions.

unlcfs the tranflators have a

mind

to

author deftroy the authority of Cato, and of the ether Roman hiftorians, whom he quotes to fupport
his

make our

Kitcim

is

the perfon,

whole pofterity
c.

fyftem.
^

That
c. x.

fxuSof

does

often

rInArcad.

3.

^Ulher, p. lo.

Genefis,

y. 4, 5.

the

30

ROMAN
who were
the

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book!.

the condud: of Oenotrus, the Ton of Lycaon, and fettled in This Oenotrus was the fifth from JEz'ms and PhoroItaly.
neus,
firft

kings of Peloponnefus.

For Niobe

was the daughter of Phoroneus, and Pelafgus is faid to have been the fon of Jupiter and Niobe Lycaon was the fon of and Deianira and iS^zius, whofe daughter was Deianira
; ;

Pelafgus were the parents of another Lycaon, whofe fon, Oenotrus, was born feventeen generations before the Trojan
expedition.
this

And

this

was the time, when the Greeks

fent

Oenotrus left Greece as diflatisfied colony into Italy. For Lycaon, having two and with his portion of land
:

was neceffary to divide Arcadia into as many fhares This inducing Oenotrus to depart out of Peloponnefus, he prepared a fleet, and croffed the Ionian gulph with Peucetius one of his brothers They were foltwenty
fons,
it
: :

lowed by many of their own people, (for this nation is faid to have been very populous in early times) and by as many other Greeks, as had lefs land, than was fufficient for them.
Peucetius,
fignify Koyo?
critics,
(tjlf,^ot,

therefore,

landing his
the beft
:

men

^^

above the cape

we know from
ityeiv

is

not agreeable to the geography of

and the
» Sn

beft writers

Mufiwir

KVoi5<rixvfv7«,

fays

Hefychius. In Homer, we find ^u9oy ufed in this fenfe almoft in every book; and, in the following verfe, it can be
taken in no
H7rc<A.ifffu
'"•

For it is well known that the country, called from him, Peucetia, and, afterwards, Mcffapia, lay to the north of the Cal.ibri,whofe country Strabo lay to the north of that cape.
that coaft.

otlier,
c ^>,

MTGON,
ctKcti

itliMfiAtm

icli

'.

gives the following account of the inhabitants of this peninfuia, the point of which is the cape lapygia, and the

rwi(

laTTvyiM^.

The French
which
'

neck, that piece of land, which

lies

tranflators have

made

Feuceti,us land

and

fettle at

the cape Fipygia,

between Tarentum and Brundufium, and which, he fays, is one day's jour-

Iliad u, ^. 388.

lapygia,

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSENSIS.

31
fettled

which was the firft part of Italy they made, lapygia, there ; and, from him, the inhabitants of thefe places were But Oenotrus, with the greateft part of called Peucetians.
the army,

came

coaft of Italy,

into another gulph, that wafhes the weftern and which was then called the Aufonian gulph,
it
:

from the Aufonians bordering on
nians

But, after the Tyrrheits

became mafters
it is

at fea,

it

changed

name

to

That by

which

known

at this day.

XII. And, finding there a large tra£l of land proper both for pafture and tillage, but, in a great meafure, defert ; nor,

even That, which was inhabited, populous, he cleared fome of it of the Barbarians ; and built fmall cities contiguous to

one another, according to the manner of habitation in ufe among the ancients And all the country he pofleiled, which was very large, was called Oenotria ; and all the people under
:

his

command, Oenotrians ; which was
their
;

the third time they

changed
caonians

name.

called i^zii
;

when

For, in the reign of ^Ezius, they were Lycaon fucceeded to the command,

Ly-

and, after

Oenotrus led them into

for a while, called Oenotrians.

What

I

they were> lay is fupported by the
Italy,

teftimony of "Sophocles, the tragic poet, in his drama, intituled Triptolemus : For he there introduces Ceres informing Trip^ the life of Sophocles, prefixed to hirOi tTrtxt^^ioi ney to a man on foot.
xa7«
artei
/>itji»To i*iv

Ti

X«^f^Tly«f
to
it

xaAsfirj

to

«K^«y
Ti<1s(f

lairuyiav,

KaAxQ^as'
I

vVs^

zr^oa-to^oi

TliVKilioi H<ri.

am

confident their miftake arofe from their not attending to the word uVjf. "• SoCpoxAijf iv
r^xyipioTToioi
T^ittIokifA-if

one hundred of which feventeen were thirty, not to be his. Seven thought only of all thefe remain: tragedies Among
tragedies,

fays he writ

and

thofe that are loft,

i^ufiCili.

The Greek

author of
•Strabo, B.

is the tragedy of mentioned Triptolemus, by our au-

thor
vi. p.

upon
425.

this occafion.

tolemus

32

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

I.

tolemus

was to travel over, large a tra6l of land he in order to fow the feeds fhe had given him ; for, taking
notice,
firft,

how

of the eaftern part of

Italy,

which reaches

from the cape lapygia to the Sicilian ftreight, and, then, on the oppofite fide, flie returns flightly mentioning Sicily to the weftern part of Italy ; and runs over the moft

again confiderable nations, that inhabit this coaft, beginning with But I need only quote the fettlement of the Oenotrians.
thefe Iambics,

" your "

right,

" '^'Thefe you will leave behind you: On all Oenotria, the Tyrrhene gulph, and the

Ligurian land will receive you."

And

'^^

Antiochus of

a very old hiftorian, in his account of the planting ^^ ancient the of Italy, enumerates the moft inhabitants, in order, in which each of them poffeffed themfelves of
Syracufe,

any

and fays that the part of it;
Thus
tranflated

firft,

who

are recorded in

hiftory

ti.=|fA6«v.

by

le

Jay

•,

I

do not think
le

Vefpacc de

This

is,

ierre quHl avoit a labourer, indeed, improving upon the

commands

given by Ceres to TripIn Sophocles, we find fhe tolemus. orders him to travel over Italy and
Sicily : Bur, in le Jay, flie him to plough them up. The other French tranllator has rendered it very

burgius, or The firft has faid fentence properly the (econd quae loca, and quam parlem,
le

that cither Portus, SylJay has tranflated this

commands

Jay des lieux qu'ils out occupez. point contended for by our author is to (hew that the Oenotri were

The

the firft colony that
alTerts
:

came
vifibly,

into Italy

:

This, he fays, Antiochus of Syracufe

properly.
*••

And

wV,

relates to

Tx

i'

i^oTTi^i.

I

have followed

the pointing of Lapus in tranflating
thefe vcrfcs.

the order of time, in which each of thefe ancient inhabitantspofiefledthemfelves of

*•
that

Av1io;^^of

Su^«x»<nof.

This au-

thor flouriihed in the
is,

90''' olympiad", about the year of Rome336. He writ the hiftory of Sicily in nine books.

fome particular part of the country. The other French tranllator was aware of the difficulty, and has
all.

not tranflated this fentence at

X Diod. Sicul. B. xii. p. 222.

to

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENSIS.
that
:

33

to have inhabited

words are thefe
**

"

country, were the Oenotri Antiochus, the fon of

:

His

That country, which is now called Italy, was formerly poffefled by the Oeno" tri." Then, he relates in what manner they were governed, and that, in procefs of time, Italus came to be

"
"

given this account of Italy, which is certain, out of the ancient hiftories :

Xenophanes, has the moft credible and

from whom, changing their name, they were called Italians ; that he was fucceeded by Morges, from whom
their king,

being received as a gueft by Morges, and, fetting up for himfelf, divided the After which he adds this, " Thus were the Oenonation.
:

they were called Morgetes

And that

Sicelus,

"

tri

called Siceli, Morgetes, and Italians." XIII. Now, let us, alfo, fliew how '^'^confiderable a nation

the Oenotri were
+' K«i
TO j/fvof oVov
>jv

from

the teftimony of
which
+5*
is

^^

Pherecydes,
word
oVov.

azQSei^o>ixiv.

The

fenfe of the

TO Twv Oivol^uv word oVov

the force of the

^i^iKviijv rov A9>jvaiov yivuxJ^oyov

has been miftaken by all the tranfLe Jay has not lators, except Portus fo much as attempted to trandate this fentence; but has faid in a loofe manner ; Foyons ce qu'on doitpenfer des Oefwiriens. Sylburgius is not quite fo loofe; however, he has not rendered Nunc genus quoque Oenoirorum cVov. declarabimtis. This has milled the other
:

^iivo? iivV^ov.

M***fays, upon

this

occafion, that Pherecydes lived about the time of Servius Tullius. But he

confounds Pherecydes of Syrus, the Theologer, with Pherecydes, theAthenian, of whom our author fpeaks.

The

firft
;

piad
tius,

flourifhed in the 59''^ "'olymaccording to Diogenes Laer:

tranflator, has, vifibly, tranflated him ; prouvons encore I'origine
des

French

who

Oenotriens.

But our author has

who has written his life The other was born at Leros, in the 74'" olympiad ; and, living at Athens, was called an Athenian. He is named
yin»xoyo( by Diogenes, for which he quotes Eratofthenes. Pherecydes writ
the Athenian Antiquities in ten books, as Suidas fays. was about the

already proved the origin of the Oenotri ; and, now, goes on to fhew the
extent of the country, and the number of the cities they were mafters of, that
is,

He

how

confiderabk a people they were,
"

fame age with Herodotus.

Vol.

L

F

the

34

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Bookl.

the Athenian, another ancient hiftorian, and a genealogift inHe thus exprefles himfelf concerning the ferior to none :

" Lycaon was the fon of Pelafgus and kings of Arcadia; " Dei'aneira This man married Cyllene, a Nai'd nymph,
:

*'

from

whom the mountain Cyllene
"

took

its

name :" Then,

of their children, and what places having given an account each of them inhabited, he mentions Oenotrus and Peucetius, faying,

thus:

And

Oenotrus, from

whom

thofe,

" who inhabit are called Oenotri ; and Peucetius, Italy, " from whom thofe, who live near the Ionian gulph, are " called Peucetii." Thefe, therefore, are the accounts
and +^ hiftorians, concerning the given by the ancient poets Settlement and origin of the Oenotri ; by whofe authority,

I

am

a Greek
nius,

the Aborigines were, in reality, nation, according to the opinion of Cato, Sempro-

convinced that,

if

and many others, they were defendants of thefe For I find that the Pelafgi and Oenotri Cretenfes,
^'' :

and the other

that inhabited Italy, came thither afterwards ; neither can I difcover that any other colony, more ancient than this, came from Greece to the weftern
nations,
parts

of opinion that the Oenotri made themfelves mafters of many other places in Italy, fome of
of Europe.
I

am

which were
*•
47'
K^ij'ixov.

defert,

and others

ill

inhabited

;

and that they
'

Mu?(J5/fa(pwv.

See the 37** anis

— cmnamalishahitanturmoenitiGraiis,
Hie

notation towards the end.

This

one of the Greek
;

Et

Naritii pofuerunt moenia Locri^ Sakntinos obfedit milite camps
ei

colonies on the eaflern fide of Italy,

LySiius IJomeneus".

whichHeleniis advifesAeneas to avoid
»

Virgil, Aeneid.

iii.

y 398.

poflefled

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS SENSIS.

35

longing

of poflefled themfelves, alfo, to the Umbri, and

fome part of the country bewere called Aborigines from
(for

their dwelling

on mountains

the Arcadians are fond of
as, at

fuch fituations) in the fame manner,
called
'^^

Athens, fome are

Paralii. But, if any are, Hyperacrii, and, others, flow in giving credit to accounts of ancient tranfnaturally,

adtions without examination, let

them be

fo

in

believing

them Barbarians; Ligures, Umbri, and let them fufpend their judgment till they have heard what remains, and, then, determine which opinion is, of all
to be

or

any other

others, the

moft probable.
cities, firft
;

XIV. Of the
remain
been
at this
laid wafte

time

inhabited by the Aborigines, few but, the greateft part of them, having

both by wars, and other deftrudlive calamities, are abandoned. Thefe cities were in the Reatine territory, not
far

from the Apennine mountain

(as

Terentius Varro writes

in his Antiquities) the neareft being one day's journey from Rome ; the moft celebrated of which I ftiall give an account

of

after

him. Palatium,
is ftill

five

and twenty

ftadia diftant

from

Reate, which city
'•

inhabited by the

Romans

near the

X2f uTTc^axfis!? Tivoif,

A6»)vt!iri.

There

is

Kou ^oigxXint a note of the Greek

Paralii, or inhabitants of the fea coaft, I fhall, alfo, tranfcribe it ; the verfe
in Ariftophanes
is

icholiaft

upon the following
in his

Ariftophanes

verfe of but wild, witty

as follows
j

:

«,.»
n^vj'uijv

1.

rr
*

,

comedy,

called Lyfiftrate-,

which note
exthis

r

y

/

5

Suidas has tranfcribed
plaining the

literally in

Sioi.li^ot.Y.i\<i<; rni'

Kex^otto? ^^.^hKhxv

word

-mx^oLKm.

As

T^^ofKiriixxiAivoi

kou

t>jv

M:j.«^J«,

tiei^jii

note will fhew the origin of this divifion of the Athenians, fome of whom were called Diacrii or Hyperacrii, inhabitants of the mountains,

tok

wtx^tiv «?

J

fxoicuf' Aij^a pev t>iv

wu^*

to osfu/xf;:^^^! nufiis' YIcAxvIi Si tkv Tiroi^cthiav' Auxu J's tijv Aiwitjiav" N.o-^' J"s T>jr

and others,
7;!'.

Miyx^iSot.
58.

F

2

Quintian

3^

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

I.

Quintian way.
fixty ftadia,

Trebula, diftant from the fame city about

and ftanding upon an eafy afcent. Vefbola, at the fame diftance from Trebula "^^ Suna, a famous city forty
a very ancient temple of Mars. Mephyla, about thirty ftadia from Suna; of which the ruins, and the traces of the walls are to be feen. Orviftadia
is

from Velbola, where there

from Mephyla, a city inferior to none in that part of the country for fame and extent For the foundations of the walls ftill appear, and fome tombs of
nium, forty
ftadia
:

ancient magnificence ; as well as the inclofures of burying themfelves on terrafies Here is an high places extending
:

ancient temple of Minerva, feated on the top of the hill. At the diftance of eighty ftadia from Reate, on the Jurian

near the mountain Coritus, ftood Corfula, lately dean iftand is to be feen, called Ifla, furrounded ftroyed There,

way

:

have been inhabited by the Aborigines, without any artificial fortification, the inhabitants relying, for their fecurity, on the bogs of the lake,

with a lake

;

which

ifland

is

faid to

9*

Ta>v Kef (wnuv

c'foiv

j3-Av;«-/ov.

I

am

commentators

refer

iis

to Cliiver for

Cluver's opinion that the intirely tranfcribers fct down the Ceraunian inftead of others mentioned by our

of

^

the fituation of thefe ancient towns of the Aborigines. But, upon looking into that great, and learned geogra-

author

:

Since every body

knows

thofe

pher, I find he
gives this very

is

mountains
Italy.

Le

are in Epirus, oppofite to Jay has, upon this occafion,

cerning their fituation,

very uncertain confor which he
:

good reafon

That

trandated two notes, one of SylburBut gius, and the other of Portus
:

moft

of

them

our author

lay in ruins at the time writ his hiftory. I fhall,

them give any light to this I done fo, I fhould have Had paflage obliged to name Thofe myfelf thought irom whom 1 took them. All the
neither of
:

therefore, not trouble the reader with the conjedlures of various authors,

concerning their names
tions.
Antiq. p. 684.

and

fitua-

»

Cluver,

It.

inftead

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
Near
to
Ifla,
is

3,7

inftead of walls.

of the fame lake, diftant forty
"The

Maruvium, at the end ftadia from what they call

Again, Batia, towards the Latin way, Reate Then, Tiora, which is called thirty ftadia from In this city, they fay, there was a very old Matiena, forty. oracle of Mars ; the manner of which was near the fame with
/even waters.
:

that oracle, fabled to have, formerly, been among the Dodonaeans ; only there, a pigeon was faid to prophefy, fitting on a holy oak : But, among the Aborigines, a bird, fent

from heaven, which they call Picus, a wood-pecker^ and the Greeks b>,^voKo'koi.'K\r\Q-i appearing on a pillar of wood, did the fame. Lifta, twenty four ftadia from the laft mentioned
city,

the metropolis of the Aborigines; which, formerly, the

Sabines,

from Amiterna, attacking
after
it,

Thofe, who

by night, furprifed. furvived the taking of the town, being received
attempts, they found they confecrated the country

it

by the Reatines, when,
to the gods, as if
it

many

themfelves unable to retake
ftill

had been
ftiould,

their

own, denouncing
pro-

curfes againft thofe,

who

after that, enjoy the

duce of it.
Cutylia, a renowned city, feventy ftadia from Reate, fituated at the foot of a mountain ; not far from which, is a

XV.

lake of four acres, full of native waters, ever flowing, and, This lake, as having fomething as they fay, bottomlefs
:

divine in

it,

the inhabitants of the country look
;

upon

as

lacred to vidlory

and, furrounding it with an inclofure, left any one fhould approach the water, they preferve it inacceflible; only, once a year, thofe, who are appointed by
their

38
religion,

ROMAN

ANTIQJLJITIES OF
facrifices
fifty

Book
little

I.

perform certain cuftomary in the lake: This ifland is near

on a

ifland

feet diameter;
:

and
and

not more than one foot above the water
floats about, the

It

is

loofe,

another.

wind, gently, wafting it from one place to There grows an herb in this ifland, like ^° Burre;

reed, as, alfo, certain fmall flirubs

a thing,

which

thofe,

who

works of nature, will hardly looked be as a and wonder inferior upon may comprehend,
are unacquainted with the

to none.

XVI. The Aborigines
thefe places, after they

are faid to have fettled,

firfl,
:

in

had driven out the Umbri And, making excurfions from thence, they warred upon the
but, particularly, upon the Siceli, their neighbours, in order to difpoflcfs them of their lands. Firft, a

Barbarians

;

body of young men, confecrated to the gods, conflfling of a few, wei-e fent out by their parents to feek a maintenance, according to a cuflom, which, I know, many Barbarians and Greeks have ufed. For, wlienevcr the numbers of the inhabitants of any of their cities were fo far increafed, that the lands would, no longer, maintain them all, produce of their or the earth, injured by unfeafonable changes of the weather, brought forth her fruits in lefs abundance than ufual, or

any

other accident of that nature, either better or worfe, intro-

duced aneceflity of leflening their numbers, they confecrated to fome god all the men, who were born within a certain
year
'"•

;

and,

providing

them with arms,
call
it

fent tlicm out
It is

of
in

This plant is called in in Norfolk, wc Burre-reed; Englifh
B«"o,Mov.

Gladden.

very

common

maifhy grounds.

their

Chap.I.

DIONYSIUS H A LIC ARN ASS E N SIS,
:

39

their country

If this

was done by way of thankfgiving for

populoufnefs,
fices,

or a vidory in war, they, after the ufual facri-

profecuted their colony with benedidions : But, if the defign of it was to pray a deHverance from thofe evils, which
the divine anger had inflidled on them, they performed the

fame ceremony, but, with dejeded looks, and begging
fent away. givenefs of the youth they

for-

Thofe, who departed, having, now, no longer, any country they could call their own, unlefs by favour, or force, they fhould gain another to
receive them, looked

the god,

to

whom

upon the latter as their country. And they had been confecrated when they
afTift

were fent out, feemed, generally, to
all

them, and, beyond

to profper thofe colonies. In purfuance, therefore, of this cuftom, fome of the Aborigines,

human

expedtation,

grov/ing very populous, would not put any of their children to death,, (for they looking on this as the greatefl: of crimes) conlecrated to fome
alfo,

at that time,

their country

god the offspring of the year, and, when they were grown to be men, they fent them out. Thefe, after they had left
their country, as foon as

were continually plundering the Siceli And, they became mafters of any places in the enemy's
:

wanted lands, with country, the reft of theAborigines, alio, attacked each of them their neighbours; greater fecurity, now,

who

and

built feveral cities,

fome of which

are inhabited, to this

day, by the Antemnates, the Tellenenfes, and the Ficulenles, who live near the mountains, called Corniculi, and the

by

Tiburtini,

among whom a part
:

of their city

is,

at this time,

called Sicelion

And, of

all their

neighbours, they infefted the

40

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
From
Italy,

Book

I.

the Siceli moft.
ral

thefe differences, there arofe a genenations,

war between the two

of the former in
length.

which

conliderable than any was drawn out to a great

more

XVII. AfterwardS) fome of the

Pelafgi,

who

inhabited

to leave their Theffaly, as it is, now, called, being obliged the Aborigines ; and thefe, with joint country, fetded among
forces,

made war upon
receive

the

Siceli..

It

is

poflible the

Abori-

them from the hopes of their afliftance, but I rather believe it was chiefly on account of their afiinity. For the Pelafgi were, alfo, a Greek nation, anciently, of
gines

might

Peloponnefus
particularly,

:

They were

unfortunate in

many

things, but,

wandering much, and having no fixed abode. For they, firft, lived in the neighbourhood of the Achaian as it is now called, being, in the opinion of many,
in

Argos,

received their name, origifrom Pelafgus their king: Pelafgus was the fon of ginally, as it is faid, and of Niobe, the daughter of PhoroJupiter, neus, who, as the fable fays, was the firft mortal woman
natives of the country.

They

In the fixth generation afterwards, leaving Peloponnefus, they came^' into that country,
Jupiter
of.
»'

had knowledge

Elf Tuv To^E A((Uovi«v, vuv

St

Oii1x\itnv

KuXufA-ivYiv.

upon Strabo, quotes fome Greek verfes of Rhianus, which explain the account given by our author of TheffaJy, as ^ well as That given of it by Strabo who fays that Theffaly was called Pyrrhaea from Pyrrha, the wife of Deucalioa ; afterwards, Haemonia, from
•,

Cafaubon,

in his notes

and, at laft, Theflaly, from Theflalus, the fon of Haemon. Thefe verfes the reader may not be difpleafcd to find here
-,

Haemon

:

^.^ea-av ^d.

rr.ry.

»ax«.o1.fo.

««m.^««
ea nixa^ry.;

n^..^^^ a^vkux.^.o-, u^- afx-'"; <^^'X»'>ai,zo,.«, i' 4civl,f

ap' a.^lo,,^,

».

r«»aJo,ipi^iali)K;io»-

o J'avT«i©i<r<raXoi.A.>«r.
ftilif ^p^ailo.

tm
ix. p.

J'

awo ©nrffa^w moi

?

Suabo, B.

677.

which

Book!

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
called

41

Haemonia, and, now, Theflalia: The leaders of the colony were Achaeus, Phthius, and Pelafg us When they were arrived the fons of Larifla, and Neptune. in Haemonia, they drove out the Barbarians, who were the
which was, then,
and divided the country into three parts, after the names of their commanders, Phthiotis calling them Achaia, and Pelafgiotis. After they had remained there five
inhabitants of
it,

arrived to the greateft profgenerations, during which, they the mofl: fertil plains in Theffaly, in the perity, enjoying
fixth generation, they

were driven out of

and

who are now many others, who inhabit
Leleo-es,

by the Curetes, called Aetoli, and Locri, and by
it

enemies being

commanded by

the parts near ParnafTus, their Deucalion, the fon of Pro-

metheus, and of Clymene, the daughter of Oceanus.

XVIII. And, difperfing themfelves in their flight, ^^fome went into Crete ; others pofTefled themfelves of fome of the fome inhabited the country, called iflands, called Cyclades ;
Heftiotis, near

Phocis,
5»-

went into Boeotia, Olympus and OfTa ; others and Euboea; fome, tranfporting themfelves into
I,r,ro9o<.?

The
all

dering people

«f K^tllnv aTT^^fiov. etc. different fettlements of this wanare taken notice of by

Oi

y

IU£V

«V£ <pf^« ^a^^c^y:.. £7%s^.f*«.e«,

t«.
j

0.

A^^.a^a. .^.S.^.^* ,«..1aa^«v^

geographers-, efpecially, by Homer, whofe authority in geography IS little inferior to That he has, fo defervedly, mentions the in poetry.

acquired Pelafgi in Crete,

He
"

quotes the authority of ^^^^^^^ jpeaks of their inhabiting ^^^^^ countries, and many others; that they fettled in the
g^rabo,
particularly,

who

-q^^j ^f Lefbos, which, from them,
,.j^at

^'

Ki-J^Kf,

Ao^xiii'r'.r^iX'':;m^><'>rint\sccyo,K

He alfo takes notice of their inhabiting
the plains of Theffaly near Larifla,
k

^35 calledPelafgia. And, after Oiewing he fays, they lived alfo at Athens, the Athenians called them niKotpya^y Storks, becaufe they wandered from
one place to another.
840^

Odyf.

T.

*
)!'.

177.

Iliad.

(3. ;^.

B. v. p. 338.

Vol.

I.

G

Afia,

42
Afia,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book

I.

became mafters of many places on the fea coaft near the Hellefpont, and of many of the adjacent iflands, partiof That, which is now called Lefbos, mingling with cularly, thofe, who compofed the firft colony, that was fent thither
from Greece
^^

under Macar, the fon of

Ciralius.

^+

But the

cannot find whether this Macar was the fon of Criafus, who, as Eufebius fays, was the fifth king of the Argivi But I find in Stephanus that he was the father of Erefiis, from whom the
:

principality of Dombes, have employed all their eloquence to extol, and adorn Which the this tranflation of le Jay
:

reader will not be furprifed at, when he is informed that both the tranOator,

and the panegyrifts

are Jefuits

;

whofe

city in

Lefbos,
<?£

fo called,

took

its

name.
5+'

To

fji.'-roynii

T^xTtoixivoi

nrX«o« uvluv jUf^of ii» rtit w^oy ra; iv AoiJ'wvi)

obftinacy in defending one another at all events, joined to an unrelenting hatred of all their oppofers, puts me in mind of what * Tacitus fays of the

I fhall not dereader of the the curious tranfprive Jation le Jay has exhibited of this pafKoloiKuvltiif (r<pu\> (rvfyiv»;.

Jews, apud ipfos fides objlinata, mifericordia in promptu ; fed adverfus omnes
alios
hojlile

odium.

However,

I

find

fage.

It is

well

known

that

Dodona

of the Moloffi, a people of Epirus and that Theifaly, from whence the Pelafgi were driven by the Curctes, and Leleges, was feparated from Epirus only by mount Pindus. So that, our author fays, very properly,
city
-,

was a

that, notwithftanding thefe the tranflation

pompous

of le Jay panegyrics, has bfen cenfured in France in fomc
critical letters, written, I

that the Pelafgi paffed through the

midland country to Dodona,
(Aie(iy»)i.

Sia,

T>)f

Jay has, unfortunately, rendered par la Mediterranee.
It is fcarce

This fentence

le

prefume, by and, him, among this affair of the Mediterranean was This produced an annot forgotten. fwer from the Jefuits, in which they acknowledge the mijlake but attribute it to an overfight in the correftors of
the

other

tranflator; other errors objefled to

French

-,

credible that a

man, who taught rhetoric above twenty
years in Clermont college, as he himfelf fays,

the prefs, and lay, that the tranflator had written que ce nomhre (des Pelaf-

fhould be, fo perfectly, unacquainted both with the Greek lanBut le guage, and with geography
:

pays Mediterrane., oit par campagne Mediterranee, on par la Mediterranee ; and that the word region
gues)
villi

par

le

la

region, for

example, had been dropped

feems, was fond of navigation. Jay, * I find, by the preface of *, the other French tranflator, that the journaliils of Trevoux, the capital of the
it

M*

The other replies by the corredlors. that this anfwer will be allowable, if : The firft, that two things are
granted
le

paysy la campagne, la region

Medi^

B.

V. c. s.

greatefl:

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENS IS.

43

greateft part
took, refuge

of them, paffing through the midland country,

(againft

among the inhabitants ofDodona, their relations whom, as a facred people, none would make war)

where they continued fome time. But, finding themfelves grow troublefome, and the country not being fufficient to
fupport them
all,

they

left it in

obedience to an oracle,
:

which commanded them to fail

to Italy, then, called Saturnia

And, having prepared
Ionian
fea,

a great many fhips, they paffed the endeavouring to reach the neareft parts of Italy.

But, the wind being in the fouth, and they unacquainted with the coaft, they were carried off to fea, and landed at

one of the mouths of the Po, called ^' Spines In this place, they left their fhips, and fuch of their people, as were leaft
:

able to bear fatigue, placing a guard there, to the end that, if their affairs fucceeded ill, they might be fure of a retreat:

Thofe,
wall
;

who were

left

behind, furrounded their

camp with

a

when

and, bringing in plenty of provifions in their fhips, their affairs feemed to of the profper, they built a city
river.

fame name with the mouth of the

Thefe people arrived to a greater degree of than any others on profperity
terranee
is

k

milieu des terres
it

ufed ia French to fignify and the fecond,
-,

that le Jay's brethren had recourfe to a mean fubterfuge, in order to defend

is probable the word region^ or pays, campagne, fhould be dropped the of the prefs, and the corre6tors by

that

a moft egregious blunder. Js*^Cluver fhews this to J^vrivii;. have been the principal mouth of the

tranflator fay

nothing of

it

among

his

trrata,

By this abftra6t of the difpute, the reader will fee that the attack was
ftrong,

Po, which he fuppofes to be the reafon why it is called Primaro at this On the left fide of it, flood day. Spina, once a confiderable city,

and the defence weak

;

and
p. 134.

f Ital. Antiq.

G

2

the

44

ROMAN
;

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

and, being mafters at fea for a long time, they fent tenths to the god at Delphi, thofe arifmg from their gains at fea, being, in magnihcence, inferior to none. But,
afterwards,

the Ionian coaft

the Barbarians,

making war upon them

the neighbourhood, in great numbers, they left the city
in

(however, thefe Barbarians, in procefs of time, were driven out by the Romans) and that part of the Pelafgi, left at
Spines, was, thus, deftroyed.

XIX. Thofe, who bent

their

march through the midland

country, croffing the mountainous part of Italy, arrived at the territory of the Umbri, which borders on That of the

other parts of Italy, and were an exceeding great, and ancient people. At firft , therefore, the Pelafgi made themfelves m.afters of

Aborigines

:

The Umbri

inhabited a great

many

fome of the lands belonging to the Umbri, where they, firft, fettled, and took fome of their fmall towns : But, a great

army being number of

raifed againft

them, they were terrified at the their enemies, and betook themfelves to the
:

Thefe, determining to treat them as enemies, prefently, gathered together out of the adjacent The towns, in order to drive them out of the country.

country of the Aborigines

happened, at that time, to be incamped near hard by the Holy lake, Cotyle, a city of the Aborigines, in it ; and, obferving the little ifland floating about learning,
Palafgi,

who

from the

captives they

had taken
^^

in the fields, the

name of

the inhabitants,
5**

concluded
TO

they had
Jay,

accompliflied the
this as if c(pi(n re-

TiKof (X»v

f^P'i^'

^eoTr^cTTict

have rendered

vV£^«eov. Poniis,

and

his tranQator le

lated to Bttn^oTrny,

which the Greek

oracle

:

BoDkl.
oracle
:

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
For
Tliat,

45

which had been delivered

to

them

in

Dodona, and which Lucius Mamius, no obfcure man, fays, he himfelf, faw ingraven, in ancient characters, upon one of
the Tripods, {landing in the temple of Jupiter, was in thefe terms ; " *' Go in fearch of the Saturnian land, inhabited

by the Siceli, and of Cotyle, a city of the Abori" ifland then, mixing with gines, where there is a floating
-,

*'

language will not bear For, in that or fomething analogous JfiToi^ufvou, But to it, would have been inierted.
:

the curious
that this

cafe,

For it muft be allowed would be the moft ancient
:

very elegant Greek to fignify thai the oracle was accompUJJjed with regard to them. Sylburgius has faid, crediderunt finemjam haT£Aof ix^v
ff?'"-'

is

infcription now in the world. But, whatever might be the charaders, the
oracle, or rather, the priefts, at dona, delivered themfelves in

Dovery

bere

Latin

fuum craaduni; which However, it fliews
:

is

fcarce

that

he

and, particularly, took care to be very explicit in their injundion to the Pelafgi to fend the

good

verfe

•,

made

the fame miftake.
ils

The
it

other

French
artfully,

tranflator has rendered

very

tenths to Apollo ; which fhews the oracle to be genuine For, notwith:

crwent que Voracle etoit Thus, by leaving out o-cpitr;, acccmpli. he has avoided the difficulty of conreding it with either. The reader will determine which tranflator takes

ftanding the diverfity of opinions concerning the meaning of other parts of
this oracle,
I

obferve,

there

is

none

moft pains

for his fatisfaftion; he,

who
or

There is a padage concerning That. in this book, in which our author tells us, that Hercules abolifhed this nionftrous

endeavours to explain he, who avoids them.
aiuv, etc.
I

difficulties,

cuftom of

facrificing

human

viftims,
offer

by directing the people to pageants to Saturn, inftead of

wifh our author had given usthisinfcriptioninthe ancient characters, in which Mamius fays, he faw it

men.

All authors agree that the Carthaginians, like the Tyrians, their anceftors,

thought human

ingraven on the tripod

at

Dodona

:

mofl

effeflual

But

I

fuppofe

Mamius

himfelf did not

deities.

How

facrifices the to appeafe their ano-ry

flrange a thing

is

it

copy the infcription in thofe charadlers. However that may be, it is certain
that an infcription, ingraved fo many before the Trojan war, generations and exhibited in the characters then in
ufe,

that any nation fliould be fo infatuated by their rehgious prejudices, as to imagine that the facrifice of their fel-

low-creatures, under the notion of a

delegated attonement, could be an acceptable offering to their

would give great

fatisfaflion

to

Creator
t'

!

them,

46

ROMAN
XX. When

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

" them, fend
*'

a tenth to Phoebus,

and heads to Jupiter,

and, to his father, a man."

the Pelafgi faw the Aborigines advancing

with a numerous army, they met them unarmed with olive brandies in their hands, and gave them an account of their
begging they would receive them in a friendly manner, and fuffer them to cohabit with them ; alliirino: them, at the fame time, they would not be troublefome ;
fortunes,

iince heaven,

itfelf,

led

them

into this country,

as the

only

one,

that agreed with the oracle,

which they explained to
this,

they refolved to laboured under a war, they obey the oracle ; and, as they to the on with receive the afSiceli, were, then, carrying
frftance

them.

When

the Aborigines

heard

To

of thefe Greeks againft the Barbarians, their enemies. this purpofe, they entered into an alliance with the

Pelafgi,

and granted to them fuch of their lands as lay near the Holy lake, of which the greateft part were marfliy, and which, according to the ancient ftyle of their language, For it was the cuftom of the ancient are now called Felia
:

Greeks, generally, to place before thofe words, that began with a vowel, the fy liable 8, written with one letter : ^^ This

was

like a

gamma, formed by two oblique
Faner, and

lines

joined to one
Foicus,

upright

line, as FsAsvyj,

Felene, Fava?, Panax,

Fo/Afos",

and

Foivr,^,

many

fuch words.

Afterwards, a

confiderable part of them, as the land was not fufficient to
5^iliall

I Txlo <J'»;v u(rnis yoi^y-iAx, etc. defer the confideration of this
letter, till I

Aeolic

come

to

th.e

place,

charafters were, orlthe fame. See the forty firlt ginally, annotation on the fourth book,

man, and Greek

where our author fiiews that the

Ro-

fupport

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.

47

fupport them all, prevailed on the Aborigines to join them in the expedition they propofed ; and, making war upon the Umbri, they furprifed Croton, a rich and large city; and

made uk of

this

city,

as a fortrefs to

was, fufficiently, fortified

annoy the Umbri, which to defend them in time of war,
round
it.

and had many

fertil

paftures lying
alfo,

They made

other places, and, with great alacrity, aflifted the Aborigines in the war they were then ingaged in againft the Siceli, till they drove them out of their country: And the Pelafgi in-

themfelves mafters,

of a great

many

habited in

common

with the Aborigines

many
is

cities,

fome

of which were, before, inhabited by the they built themfelves ; of which number,

Siceli,

and others

the city of the

Caeretani, then, called Agylla, and Pifa, Saturnia, and Alfion,

and fome

others,

of which they were, in procefs of time,
are, to this day, in-

difpoffeffed

by the Tyrrhenians. XXI. But Phalerium, and Fefcennia

habited by the Romans, and preferve fome fmall remains of the Pelafgian nation ; which cities, formerly, belonged to

In thefe there remained, for a long time, many of the ancient inftitutions, formerly, inufe among the Greeks, fuch as the ^9 fafhion of their arms, Argolic bucklers, and when they fent out an army beyond their confpears ; and,
the
Siceli.
s»- TuvcTrKm ruv woMlxiTn(ib3v jioiTuof. All the tranflators, both Latin and French, have rendered this, the ornawfK^j c/ /Mr ^r»?j ; Their reafon was, I imagine, becaufe xaj/^of, fometimes,

he would, no doubt, have fhewn us thofe ornaments were Whereas, he mentions only the fliape of thefe arms; calling the firft an Argolic

what

:

iigmhtsan cnwmejit. Had Dionyfius defigned to fpeak of the ornaments,

leaft

buckler, which every one knew, at in his time, to be round; and
the

this

Romans, who had made

ufe

fines.

48

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Bookl.

begin a war, or to refifl an invasion, certain with them holy men, unarmed, went before the reft, carrying the conditions of peace: Such, alfo, were the ftrudure ^° of their temples, the images of their gods, their purificafines, either to

tions,

and

ture.

and many other things of the fame naBut, the moft confpicuous monument, by which it
facrifices,

the Siceli, formerly, appears that thofe men, who drove out Hved at Argos, is the temple of Juno at Phalerium, built in

the fame form with That at Argos ; where the manner of the ceremonies was the fame; holy women ferved the
a girl unmarried, called Canephoros, BqfketBearer^ began the facrifice, befides chorus's of virgins, who ^' hymned the goddefs in fongs of their country. Thefe

temple, and

^'

mafters of a confiderable part of thofe, a moft pieafing they call, the Campanian plains, which afi'ord driven the Aurunci, profpedt, and very fertil pafture, having There they built a barbarous nation, out of part of them.

people were,

alfo,

buckler, afterwards, changed for the 6 Scutum, which we find by ail authors to have been of an oblong
figure
as they, alfo, made ufe of the If any ^Pilum, inftead of the fpear. one doubts whether the Argolic buckler was round, let him look into Virgil,
•,

of

this

*"•

sJij toiv fifwv.
iSri

The

tranflators

who compares
fame

the only eye of Poly-

akarsy as ihi; fignilies alfo, But, fanuluaries. an image, as may be feen in Julius Pollux, Hefychius, and others, I have chofen to tranflate it fo ; becaufe the chapels, etc. feem to be included ia the ftrudlure of the temples,
chapels,
*'•

have rendered t«

phemus, to an Argolic buckler, or the fun, which 1 prefume retains ftill the
figure
it

Aj/m

j-of^uwv

araij.
-,

Admirably,

telo

had then lumen terebramus acuta
:

une jeune vierge irreproachable dans fes nweurs. '"' Tjwvaa-wv t>;v ^eov. The reader will
tranflated

by

le

Jay

4rgolici

Ingens,quodtor"jdfolumfuh /rente latebat, clypei, aut Pkoebeae lampadis
inftar'.
6

forgive

my

when he
the

tranflating this hymning^ confiders that Milton has ufed
in his Paradife loft.
'B.
iii.;}'.

word

Livy, B.

viii. c.

8.

liPolyb. B. vi.p. 469.

635.

feveral

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS

11
^^

ALIC A RN A S SEN S J S.
Larifia, giving to
it

49

feveral cities, particularly,

the

name of

their metropolis in Peloponnefus.

Some of

thefe cities are

ftanding even at this day, having often changed their inhabitants But Larifia has been long deferted, and fliews, at
:

prefent,

no other

but the name, and, even, this is not, generally, known: It was not far from *+ Forum Popilii. They were, alfo, mafters of a great
its

fign of

ever having been a city,

other places, as well on the coaft, as in the midland country, of which they had difpofTefled the Siceli.

many

XXII. The Siceli, being warred upon both by the Pelafgi, and Aborigines, found themfelves incapable of making refiftance ; and, taking with them their wives and children, and
fuch of their effeds as confifted in gold or
all their

filver,

they quitted

Then, bending country ward, along the mountains, they marched through all the lower driven from every place, they, at part of Italy ; and, being
:

to

them

their courfe fouth-

laft,

prepared
^^

rafts in

of an
*'•

ebb-tide,

the Streight; and, taking the advantage to the next ifland ; paffed over fromTtaly
fenfible that there are

was called Lafrom Larifia, the daughter of rifla, Pelafo-us, from whom, alfo, two cities in Thefialy were called by the fame name ; which tends very much to confirm the account, given by our author,
of the Pelafgi living in Thefl^aly. '»• Cluver fliews Ayopoif TloTriKix;to have been town the name of this he Forum Popilii^ which, fays, is now but called Forlm populo, oftener, Forli
'

Ax^i(T(rx^. the citadel at Argos

Paufanias fays that

no

tides in the

The Mediterranean, reafon of which may, poflibly, be that the water in the Mediterranean being fo much lefs in bulk than That of the ocean, it cannot refill the weight of the water in the latter ; for which reafon, this, always, runs into the Meditjrranjean with great violence at theStreights of Gibraltar, not to mention the waas in the

ocean

:

ter,

that
-,

lefpont
efteCl

comes in thro'igh the licland this violence exceeds the
:

piccolo.

OuAa;|av7sf xal/o*I«Tov ^xv. I have called this an ebb-tide, though I
65-

am

of the attra>5tion of the moon water of the Mediterranean the upon For this feems to be large enough for

^

In Corinth,

p.

165. Edit. Lipf.

Vol.

I.

H

'Ital, Antiq. p. 295.

which

50

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
giv^en

OF

Book

I.

which was then poffefTed by the Sicani, an Iberian nation ; who, flying from the Ligures, were, but lately, fettled there^
and had
the

the

name of Sicania to

that ifland, which,

from

to ad more upon one part than another, and, tonfequently, to make one part fwell more than an-

moon

of

it

then called Sicania, fays they crofled the Streight kixIiovIo; th ccvif/.^, with a
favourable wind, or, as

Hobbes

has,

other

;

but,

when

it

fubfides,

it

muft

itfelf towards the Streights, •which the fuperior weight, and torce of the water, perpetually, rufhing in This might, there, will not permit.

extend

very properly, tranflated it, tvith aforeivitid. But, there is a difficulty, that occurs in the account given of the
Sicani by Thucydides, and

followed

by our author
vVo Atyvu\

:

The

indeed, be anfwered by the afllimption of an under-current, which may run out of the Streights, at the fame time, the upper-current runs in. But, even,
in that cafe, fo vaft a lake as the

Sicani were driven out
ciVM^avlic-,

fays, the of their country
firfl:

and our author

fays Aiyva^ qnvyciHig. in no hiftory that the
*"

Now, we

find

Ligures werethis dif-

Me-

ever in poflellion of any part of Spain.

diterranean could neither receive, nor difcharge water enough at the Streights, in fo fhort a time as the tide flows and
ebbs, to rife, or fall fenfibly. I know '" Ariftotle fays the water, in the that acStreight of Sicily, ebbs, and flows
" Strabo alfo, cording to the moon. that the to fhew quotes Eratoft;henes its courfe in that water Streight changes often as and twice every day, every Notthe ocean. night, like That of authothefe very great withftanding ebbrities, I much doubt whether the

Cluver endeavours to folve

ficulty by fuppofing that Spain ought here to beunderflood in a large fenfe,
fo as to

comprehend France

;

in

which

cafe, thofe Ligures, who lived between the Rhone, and the Alps, would be

near

neighbours
this

to

the Spaniards.

occafion, I cannot help of a great miftake comnotice taking mitted by this, truly, learned and exadt

Upon

ing,

and flowing of the water,

in the

geographer He imagines that Thucydides, whofe words he quotes, applied thofe words to the paflage of the Sicani from Italy to Sicily whereas,
'
:
-,

as they Streight of Sicily, is fo regular contend for-, and, particulary, whe-

ther

it

is

governed by the moon.
it is

I

nothing can be plainer than that Thucydides applied them to the Siceli crofTing the Streight on rafts, and not
to the Sicani.

rather think, that

owing winds, which, fometimes, blow into that Streight from the Tyrrhene fea, that is, from the north and, at other
•,

to the

As

for the Aij-uff,

who

times, from the
to the fouth of

Sicilian fea,

which

lies

it.

And ° Thucydides,

who

gives the

Siccii paffing
17(^1

fame account of the over from Italy to Sicily,
"B.
.p. 59.

arefaidby Thucydides, and Dionyfius to have expelled the Sicani, I fufpedt they were not the Ligures, as all the tranflators have called them, and I myfclf among the refl:, but fome other ancient people, whofe hiftory we are

unacquainted with.
c, 2.

mvj*.

r

In

Sic.

Ant. p. 26.

1

P. 27.

its

Bookl.
its

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASS ENSIS.
Trinacria
;
:

51

triangular figure, was, before, called were very few inhabitants in it for fo large an ifland

There
fo that,

When, therefore, the the greateft part of it was defert. Siceli landed there, they, firft, fettled in the weftern parts ;
and, afterwards, in feveral others, and, from thefe, the ifland In this manner, the Sicelian nabegan to be called Sicely.
tion left Italy, according to ^^ Hellanicus, the Leftian, the ^^ the twenty third generation before the Trojan war, and in

For he fixth year of the priefthood of Alcyone at Argos. that two ItaHan colonies paflTed over into Sicely ; the fays
firft

the Elymi, confifting of

who had

been driven out of

by the Oenotri ; the fecond, five years after, He makes of the Aufones, who fled from the lapyges.
their country

king of thefe people, who, he fays, gave name ^* Phiboth to them, and to the ifland. But, according to
Sicelus the
**•

E^A«vixo{
Suidas,

AsrSiof.

Ou

de Milet;

il fit, felon

um
:

terre,

fays

M***

description de la

But, here, again,

he confounds Hellanicus, the Lefbian, with Hellanicus, the Milefian: Suidas, was fays, the s!-£giO(Jay j/t;?
exprefsly, written by the
laft.

Argos. It is fuppofed that Hellanicus of Lefbos was the firft hiftorian, who introduced the method of computing the years according to thofe of the
prieftefies at

Argos

;

as

Timaeus was

the

firft,

who

introduced That of corn-

There

is

a re-

puting them according to the olympiads.
'^^*

markable paflage quoted by Gellius out of 'Pamphila, by which, the ages of Hellanicus, the Lefbian, of Herodotus, and Thucydides will, plainly,
In the beginning of the Pewas fixty loponefian war, Hellanicus

$iAi5-of

lufajcsir/of.

The

age, in

appear

:

five years old,
*7-

Herodotus and Thucydides forty.

fifty three,

AAxi/out;; Isfai,«£v.if €» Aflj-e/.

Our

author follows the
'

fame method with

Thucydides, who fays that the firft the year of the Peloponnefian warwas of the Chryfis at 48^*^ of priefthood
'B. XV.
c.

very well attachment to Dionyfius the elder, by whom he was, afterwards, banifhed ; a juft reward for the affiftance he gave to the tyrant of his ^ He writ, befides other country. of the affairs of Sicily, in eleworks, As to his fentiments, the ven books. difpofition of his fubjeft, and his ftyle, they are very particularly, and very " beautifully defcribed by our author,

which

this hiftorian lived, is
his

known by

23.

=B.

ii.

c. 2.

'Diod. Sicul. B.

xiii.

"

H

p. 387.

C.

j-

2

liftus,

52
liftus,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

I.

the Syracufian, the time, when this colony paffed into the Trojan war; but Sicely, was the eightieth year before the people, who went thither out of Italy, were neither the
Siceli,

the Aufones, nor the Elymi, but the Ligures, whofe leader was Sicelus ; who, he fays, was the fon of Italus ; and
that,

the people were called Siceli ; and that thefe Ligures had been driven out of their country by the Antiochus, the Syraculian, fixes no Umbri, and Pelafgi.
in his reign,

time for their paflage, but fays the people, who left Italy, were the Siceli, who had been forced to quit their country
chofe Sicelus for by the Oenotri, and Opici ; and that they But ^^ Thucydides writes that the people, who their leader. left the country, were the Siceli, and thofe, who drove them

out of

it,

the Opici

:

And

that the time,

when

they

left it,

Thefe, therefore, Trojan war. are the relations, given by authors of credit, concerning the to fettle in Sicely. Siceli, who removed from Italy,

was many years

after the

XXIII. The

Pelafgi,

a large and fertil to power, riches, and and, by a fwift and great advance, rofe which they did not long enjoy : But, other
every
profperity,

having made themfelves maflers of trad of land, took fome towns, built others,

when

all

the world looked
condition,
on
the

flourifhing
in his
rians
:

upon them to be in the moft of divine they became the objed
hifto-

criticifm

Greek

him

He,

there,

fiiys,

among

other

of imitating the freedom, and fpirit of Thucydides, he was a fervile flatterer of tyranny that, like Thucydides, he left his fubjea:
things, that, inftead
-,

in dignity and flrength, yet he imitated him in the roundnefs, and clofenefs of his periods, *9- QinvSih^ ii. See his fixth book,

imperfed

;

and, though inferior to

and fecond chapter; great part of which paflage has been quoted in the former notes.

wrath;

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A S S ENSI S.
;

53

and fome of them were deftroyed by calamities, inothers by their Barbarian flidled by the hand of Heav^en, But the greateft part of them were again difneighbours
wrath
:

and the country of the Barbarians ; perfed through Greece, whom, if I attempted to give a particular acconcerning
count,
it

would require a very long difcourfe. However, a few of them remained in Italy, through the care of the
Aborigines.

The

iirfl:

caufe of the defolation of their cities

feemed to be a drought, which laid wafte the land, the fruit came to muturity ; neither falling from the trees before it
did the corn, which
till

came up, and

flowered, ftand, as ufual,

the ear was ripe ; nor was there grafs fufficient for the cattle Some of the waters were not fit to drink, others
:

fhrunk, during the fummer ; and others were, totally, dried "° The like misfortunes attended the oiFspring both of up.
''°'

AhX(foi

Si

Tuloig

tyinlo

ts-ffi

by the
ties in

w^oSoIoii' x»i yvvoimui* yovxi. will obferve that, in this

The

reader

repetition of the different terms.

fame calamiThere is one

defcription of the misfortunes, which happened to the offspring both of women, and cattle, our author has made choice of fuch terms, as are applicable to both: In which, he has been followed by the

thing in his tranOation, that renders it not only tedious, but ridiculous. It is to be obferved that our author, after he has defcribed the corruption, and

Latin tranflators, particularly, by Portus, as publifhed by Hudfon, who, I obferve, has made fome very proper
alterations
allb,

drying up of the waters, fpeaks firft. in general terms, of the misfortunes, that happened to the offspring of women, and cattle; and then goes on to

place. Jay, has fucceeded very well in renBut the other dering this paffage. French trandator has taken another courfe He has made two periods of it; one of which he has applied to the
:

in

this

Le

This general acparticular! fe them count of thofe misfortunes this tranf:

lator has left out, becaufe Sylburgius, his guide, has left it out alfo ; whole

words

are thefe

-,

Nee
;

feliciores

erant

foeturae muUerum

women, and
which renders

the other to the cattle
his trandation

;

has literally netoient pas plus heureufes dans leurs
:

which the other tranflated Les femmes
Nov/, the leaving out

tedious

accouchements.

cattle

54
cattle,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
and of women.
;

Book

I.

For they were

either abortive, or died

at their birth

fome, by their death, deftroying even thofe that bore them And, if any efcaped the danger of their de:

they were either lame, or imperfedl ; or, being hurt by fome other accident, were not fit to be reared. The reft of the people, alfo, particularly thofe, in the vigor of their
livery,

age, were afflided with various diftempers, and uncommon deaths. Upon their confulting the oracle what god, or gehad offended, to be thus afflidied, and, nius what

they

by

means, they might hope for

relief,

the

having obtained what they delired, but that the moft valuable give what they had promifed,
things were
ftill

god anfwered that, they had negledted to
Pelalgi, in a

due from them

:

For the

time

of

^'

general fcarcity, had

made

a

vow to

offer

up

to

Jupiter,

this general account of thofe misfortunes has given an air of ridicule to
his

ments etoient prefque epuifces, ou meme entirement a fee par les chaleurs exceffives.

tranflation of the
in order to
I

But,

fhew

this in a

whole paflage proper
:

light,

muft tranfcribe the period,

which, immediately, precedes this. Les fources, fays he, etoient frefque mme entirement a fee par fpuiJceSy oil
les

n«v7wv ^^i]-^oilm. This ufe of the x^YiiAoO.ci ought to convince the tranflators that it does not always

''•

word

chaleurs

exceffives.

And,
etoient

then,

adds,

Les femmes n
dans
leurs

heureufes

fas plus accouchements,

Now,it is plain, by the common rules of grammar, that this laft fentence muft relate to That, which, immediately, precedes comparative-, and muft relate to fomctMng and there is nothing but the
•,

though, I obferve, that genera'ly, rendered fo. Nay, what is ftill more extraordinary, even '' Ariftotle's definition of ;^;^i;f*«7tf, (by which he fhews that, inftead of fignifignify motley
it
is,
;

fying money,
of

it

fignifies
is

every thing,

which the value

meafured by

money)

it ;

becaufe plus

is

a

is, however, rendered in the fame manner by fh; Latin tranflator, whoever he is. The words of Ari-

uotle are
ccruiv
»)

;

^^..ft.xia,

ii KtyofAiv

zirccvlct,

preceding
relate,

fentence, to

which

it

can

The

laft fente. ce,

therefore,

Thus «|(« v^fj.icruali /jifgH^cti. trandated ; Pemnias autein appcllimus
omniay quorum aeftimationem nummiis.
metitur

muft mean nothing, or it muft mean this Les femmes dans leurs accouehe:

w

kOix. B. iv, c. I.

Apollo,

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC A RN AS SENSIS.
^'

sj
profacri-

the Apollo, and

Cabiri, the tenths of

all

their future
apart,

dud.

Their prayer being heard, they
''^

fet

and

ficed to the
cattle,

gods the promifcd portion of all their fruits, and as if their vow had related to them only This,
:

'"^Myrfilus, the Lefbian, relates,
'*•

ufmg almoft the fame
Hyde,
''

words,.

Toif K«^«^o(f.

Much

time, and

labour have been thrown away by many men of learning in order to difcovcr the etymology, the origin, the names, and I'unftions of thefe ridicucalled by the lous heathen gods,

in his hiftory of the religion the of ancient Perfians, fays, Cabiri [tint Gabri, voce Perjicd aliquantulum

Thefe, he fays, paid a not a true worfhip to fire.
detortd.

civil,

"'

II?

Svi

KOilOi

TuluV

fACVCilV

IV^dfAlVOI,

Herodotus fpeaks Greeks, KaSei^ai. of a temple dedicated to them at Memphis, and fays, that their images refembled That of Vulcan, whole children, it feems, they were; and that the image of Vulcan reprefcnted a pygmy. Upon this foundation, y Bochart, and, after him,

"

Cafaubon, very

juftly,

(v^ii&cu noilx tivcs quid; to fupport which, he quotes a this I paflage in Demofthenes.

obferves that fignifies vovere alt-

To

ihall

who
fenfe

add the authority of Ariflophanes,
ufes
;

£v;\^;]v

ar(jiij(r«o9-«i

in the

fame

the author

^

of

the hiftory of Heaven, deduce their names from the Phoenician language,
in

which

CT^D

fignifies powerful^
:

in the plural

nician,

number And the Phoecommonly called the Hebrew,

When
a

any one made

a

vow to

offer

number of

up

goats, or oxen, the

vow

and the Aegyptian language, being,
nearly, the fame, it will follow that this was the fignification of the word
in

was

Aegyptian.

I

h.ave

fhewn, in a

fmall diflertation inferred in
lation of

my

tranf-

to be performed at the expence of thofe poor animals For which reafon, the prepofition kxIu was very This cuftom of facrificing proper. oxen, by way of thankfgiving for a
:

Xenophon's Anabafis, that there is no fort of affinity between the Hebrew, and Aegyptian languages To which I fhall now add an obfervation I have fince made, which will put this matter out of all doubt When ^ Jofcph's brothers went into Aegypt to buy corn, he fpoke to them
: :

was, like all other follies., carried to an extravagant height by the Roman emperors, to one of whom

vidory,

the white oxen are fuppofed to have fent a Greek epiftle, in which they are made to fay, «y (rv viKjjfwf, )}jt*«y «5roA8jU£9a, if you conquer,

we

die.

'*
is

by an
»

interpreter.

Our countryman

Muf o-iAof AicSio;. This hiftorian quoted by many ancient authors
^^c. 27.

In Thai. c. 37. )'P. ii. Geog. ' 'C. zg. ji'J7r?r£u.y'. 657,8,9.

facr. B.i. c. 12,

^Genefis,

c. xlii.

:!'.

23.

vvhicli

56

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
I

Book

I.

which

now

do, only, that he does not call the

people

Pelafgi,

but Tyrrhenians, of which

I fhall, prefently, give

the reafon.
they heard the oracle was brought to them, they were at a lofs to guefs at the meaning of it. While they were in this perplexity, one of the elders, conjeduring the
fenfe of
it,

XXIV. When

told them, they were very

much miftaken,

if
:

they

thought the gods complained of

them without reafon That

to the gods the firft fruits of they had, indeed, rendered and juftice, except Thofe of the every thing with pundluality, human offspring, a thing, of all others, the moft precious in

the fight of the gods, which yet remained due ; and that, if the gods received their fhare of this alfo, the oracle would

be

^5

fulfilled.

But, fomebody propofing to afk the god^ whether he defired to receiv^e the tenths of the men, they fent
their priefts a fecond time, and the god ordered of this, a fedition arofe among In
it

in the right, his difcourfe:

fome were of opinion that he was others that there was treachery couched under

Upon

this,

fhould be

fo.

confequence

them concern-

and thofe, who had the ing the manner of this decimation ; government of the cities, firft quarrelled among themfelves ;
after that, the reft

magiftrates.

of the people conceived a jealoufy of their Thence, followed diforders, and infurredlions,

fuch as might well be expeded from a people, feized with a madnefs, inflided by the hand of Heaven Many houfes
:

but without any circumftances, that can acquaint us, certainly, cither with his writings, or the age, in which he

lived.
"'•
^6'-^^

Tf^oc

sfe<v

a-!pi(rt

to Acj-iav.

See the

annotation.

became,

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALI C ARN A SSENSIS.
intirely,

^y

abandoned, wJien, only, part of the inhaFor their relations were unwilling to bitants removed: '^forfakc their deareft friends, and remain among their greateft

became,

enemies. Thefe, therefore, were the

firft,

who, leaving Italy,

country : tinued every year. For the magiftrates in the cities ceafed not to feleft the firft fruits of the youth, as faft as they arrived to manhood, defiring to render what was due to the gods ;

wandered about Greece, and many parts of the Barbarians After thefe, others did the fame, and this con-

" who, and, at the fame time, to free themfelves from thofe, were the moft likely to raife tumults ; lurking in the cities,
were fent away by their fpecious pretences, So that, there were many ^* emienemies through hatred. and the nation of the Pelafgi was fcattered over the

Many, alfo, under
grations,

greateft part

of the earth.

were fuperior to many in the knowledge of which they had acquired by " pradlifing military difcipline,
it

XXV. They

in the midft of dangers, while they lived
7*A?ro^«7r£^)9•lX«

among
x«;

warlike
outc

tuw (piAloclm.

The

ao-^yj

tie

t«v

«r(»Afl!;:(^ov?wv,

eK«,MCf-

the tranflators have mifgenerality of taken the fenfe of this paflage: «5ToA«7rfo&«i Tjvo? fignifies
to

^ivlwv ^iSiole;. '*• ETtccvx^xceif.

Here Sylburgius,

forfake any one,
by
others,

Portus, and Stephens, with great reafon, read, «T«v«5-«o-«f. ''>' Eic t« jwslas xivifuvwv
jW£As?«f.
zjtoihsS-*/ rw; In this, our author has imi-

rather than to

be forfaken

Many
in

inftances of which

may

be found

Xenophon, and
"• K««

other writers of the
tuh J',«a«Sov7wv

beft authority.
<;ct<nx(rfii£^
sic

iiSiolii.

Here muft be

forne error in

Thucydides, who, in fpeaking ofthe experience, which the Lacedaemonians, and Athenians had acquired
tated
in military affairs,

it ought This will to be J(«A«;:(^tiv1ffli'. certainly I but not cure it. help the defeft,

the text.

Sylburgius thinks

before they entered

upon the Peloponnefian war, fays, mvJyvwi; t«j jusAslosf woijspMj ^.
c.

^Sa

fliould chufe to read

it

thus

:

Kojj frfin-

*B.i.

18.

Vol.

I.

I

nations;

58
nations
;

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

and, by their cohabitation with the Tyrrhenians^ became, intirely, mafters of fea affairs: And, Neceflity, alone
to give refolution to thofe in want,
enterprife.
:

fiifficient

was
So

their leader,

and director in every dangerous
people, from the

that,

whither

foever they went, they conquered with eafe

And

the fame

name of
alfo,

had been
tradlion,

driven, and,

the country, out of which they in memory of their ancient ex-

were called by the reft of the world, both Tyrrhenians, and Pelafgi ; which I have mentioned for this reafon, that, when the poets, and hiftorians call them Tyrrhenians,

none may wonder how the fame people fliould have both thefe names. For ^° Thucydides fpeaks of them as
and
Pelafgi,

living in that part of Thracia called Adle,

and of the
:

cities

He, makes mention of the in the following then, Pelafgian nation " manner There are fome but the
f]3oke
:

there as inhabited by

men, who

two languages

Chalcidians,

"
*'

greateft

part are Pelafgi, the fame nation with the Tyrrhenians, who, once, inhabited Lemnos, and Athens." And

Sopho-

cles

makes the chorus,

in his

following anapaeftic verfes,
This paflage of Thu©»>£Ui3'.<J)jf. cydides rehues to the expedition of Brafidas againft the coaft of Thrace,
called A£ie:
*°"

drama of " Father

^'

Inachus, fpeak the Inachus, fon of the

But, as there are feme fmall differences between the words, as he quotes them,

and thofe

in
I

tlie

The latter part of it he has fubjedl tranfcribed in the manner, I fuppofe, he read it in his Cupy of that author,
:

part of which pafTage our author does not tranfcribe, but only gives the fenfe of lb much of it, as he thought neceflary to his
firfl:

The

Thucydides,

fliail
"

piefent editions of lay the palTage
k,p<. tj

before the reader.

xjh XaAmJ'i-

mv

tn [o^x^v-, to h thKh^oi, UiKxe-^inov tuv x«i AijfAvoY wch Kxt AO»)»«f
oixtja-avlw. ^'-

Tufe-ijvwv

Ev hxxif.
is loft.

This tragedy of So-

phocles
iv. c.

f

Thucyd. B,

109.
-

*'

fountains

Book
<'

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSENS IS.
who
art

59

held in great venera" tion in the ftreets of Argos, and the hills of Juno, and " among the Tyrrhene Pelafgi." The name of Tyrrhenia

fountains of old Ocean,

And all the weftern was then known throughout Greece. that name ; the feveral napart of Italy was called even by tions, of which it was compofed, having loft their xefpedive
thing happened to many parts of Greece ; and, particularly, to that part of it, which is now For the whole peninfula, in which are called Peloponnefus
appellations
: :

The fame

comprifed Arcadia, and Ionia, and
called Achaia,

many

other nations, was

from the Achaians, one of the nations, that

inhabited

it.

However, the time, when the calamities of the Pelafgi began, was about the fecond generation before the Trojan war But this people fublifted, even, after that war,
:

XXVI.

was reduced to a very inconsiderable number. For, beiides Croton, a town of fome note in Umbria, and fome others founded by the Aborigines, all the reft of
till

their nation

the Pelafgian cities were deftroyed. But Croton preferved its ancient form a great while; neither is it long, ftnce it

changed both

its

name, and inhabitants, and

is,

now, a
left

Roman

colony, called Corthonia.
cities

After the Pelafgi

the

country, their

were feized by many people,

as

each

happened
nians,

to live near

who made
beft,

but, chiefly, by the Tyrrhethemfelves mafters of the greateft
;

them

and the

of them.

Some

rhenians are natives of Italy ; Thofe, who maintain the firft, fay this
I

part, are of opinion that the Tyrthat : are others, they foreigners

name was given them
from

2

6o

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Book

I.

from the towers, which they built before any of the inhabitants of this country For covered buildings, when fortified,
are called by the Tyrrhenians, as well as by the Greeks, ^^ Towers. From this incident, they will have it Tv^asiCy

that they received their name, in like manner as the Mofynoeci in Afia : For thefe, alfo, live in a kind of wooden
towers,
raifed

on

high

piles,

which

towers

they

call

XXVII. But

thofe,

who, fabuloufly, affirm them
:

to be

foreigners eftablifhed there, fay, that Tyrrhenus, who was the leader of the colony, gave his name to the nation That

he was a native of Lydia, and had, formerly, removed thither from the country, anciently, called Moeonia; and that lie

from Jupiter: They fay, further, that Manes was the fon of Jupiter, and Terra, and the firft king of that

was the

fifth

by Callirhoe, the daughter of Oceanus, was Cotys, who, by Alie, the daughter of earthborn Tullus, had two fons, Aiies, and Atys ; from the laft
country
;

and that

his fon

of

whom, by

Callithea,
;

the daughter of Choraeus,

came

Lydus, and Tyrrhenus
inherited his father's
called Lydia
:

and that Lydus, remaining there, kingdom, from whom the country was

But Tyrrhenus,

who was
Italy,

the leader of the

colony,
ix.

conquered great part of
TufiTif,

and gave the name
hloffffvv, ^

Tu^trftf.
23-f<jjM«p;^»v.

ZJV^yo?, ttrxf^^n,

*' MofvvoiKUt'

or

Moo-ui'.

nuf-

ufed

Hefychius. more than once,

This word

is

in this fenfe,

Xenoplion gives a very extraordinary account of tliele
you
Hefycliius.

by Xenophon,
Cyrus.

in his expedition
Jin,
Kt/g.

of

people.

A.af. B. V. p. 393, Edit, of Hutchiirf".

of

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
his

6i

of Tyrrhenians to
fays

followers.

However,

^*

Herodotus

that Tyrrhenus was the fon of Atys, who was the fon of Manes, and that the Maeonians did not come, voluntarily, For he fays that, in the reign of Atys, there was into Italy
:

And that the a dearth in the country of the Maeonians inhabitants, from a fondnefs for their native country, con:

trived a great

many methods
:

to refift this calamity

:

One

themfelves but a moderate fuftenance ; day, they allowed the next, they fafted But, the mifchief continuing, they divided the people into two parts, who were to draw lots

which fhould go out of the country, and which fhould ftay in it That one of the fons of Atys ftaid, and the other
:

went
*'*•

forth

;

and that the
ei^fjJtui.

*^

happier lot

fell

to that part of made
ufe of in
Aflt;^(j»-

H^oSola) Si

See his

firft

plain our author has
this relation.
?

book; chapter the
Ttjv oi[ji.^\u

94'''.

Herodotus

fays,

Tv^ijv

iKX,'^ (*!<!' x I

Cafaubon

has, with his iifuai fagacity, both dilcovered, and reformed the errors of
this paffage
:

Txg Si avluv rn; iri^vg i^avcii in rtjf ^c^oijc: Upon this foundation, I would read the whole fentence thus K»x>i'^K^ Si
:

He

has, very juftly, faid
:

[Advar iK

Si

Tijf

X'^^ag

tijv

irioxv i^nvxi
jW-Epij.
;

that

fKX<^^>if<xi

can,

appHed

to tlie

He

by no means, be people under Lydus
to
tsj?

advifes,
:

therefore,
Act;^^fft]i
CtfJielVCi)

read the
«ju« AuJoi
jU,«V«l*

pafTage thus
fAOI^X;
TIJl'

This and the reader will obferve that the words I have inferted, are thofe of Herodotus
^oijfjt.eilu\i

oiTroAax^ffotv Tav

tx

makes the

fenfe

complete

:

[Aty

T^X/,V^

i)i'X/^^y,f»t

h

lYiv

iTi^M, etc.

or

thus,

Befides, by reading (k Si ry,( x'^^xcy inftead of £it%w^ncr«/, there is little violence
^y,<Txi,

done

to the text

-,

and, as

iiixc<>-

Either of thefe readings makes the fentence agreeable to the refl of this I fhall, therefore adhere to hiftory.
part of Cafaubon's alteration ; and fupply the fecond from the words of Herodotus, many of which it is
the
firft

according to the prefent reading, belongs to the former fentence, there is a verb wanting in the latter to
lead to the confequenceof a3-oA«;^^«o-«v, the fenfe of which will, othervvife, be

too
is

much

fufpended

:

And

this

verb

fupplied by c^nvai, the very

word

B In Clio, c. 94.

th

{,2

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

J3ook

I.

the people, which was under Lydus, to remain in the country ; and the other left it, after they had received that fhare of their fortunes, which fell to them ; and arrived

on the weftern

parts of Italy,

which were inhabited by the
built thofe cities,

Umbri, where they remained, and were in being, even, in his time.

that

XXVIII.
have given fame terms

I

am

fenfible that feveral other authors,

alfo,

this
;

account of the Tyrrhenians ; fome, in the others, changing both the name of the leader

of the colony, and the time of their migration. For fome have faid that Tyrrhenus was the fon of Hercules, by Omphale, the Lydian ; and that he, coming into Italy, difpoffeffed the Pelafgi of their cities, though not of all, but of thofe only, that lay on the north fide of the Tiber.

Others fay that Tyrrhenus was the fon of Telephus ; and that, ^^ after the taking of Troy, he came into Italy. But Xanthus
the Lydian,
as

who was
;

any

man

acquainted with ancient hiftory and whofe teftimony ^^ may be as much relied
as

much

made

ufe of

by Herodotus,
ufed

which

anfwers

the other word,

imme-

diately before,

both by Herodotus, and our author, that is s^r" {|oJio t)j? I find the former makes the p^wf«5-. who was Atys, place himfelf at king, the head of that part of the people, which was to flay at home, and his
fon Tyrrhenus, or Tyrfenus, as he calls him, at the head of That, which was to leave their country.
**•

Lydia, which was taken by the lonians, and Athenians in his time, as Suidas fays from Hefychius. This happened in the 3"' year of the 70^'' olympiad, and the 4214''' of the Julian period ''.
this it appears that Xanthus writ before Herodotus,

By

^t^onulm uv aSmt the vVoJ'Efff^of vo;u,io&«f. tranflators has taken the lead notice of the potential word av in rendering this
Trt^^i zsral^mKcit

*''•

Not one of

H«v9of

hiftorian

This Lydian AvJof. was the fon of Candaules,
the capital of
*

paflfage

and a

citizen of Sardes,

word peculiar to the Greek and, language, very elegantly, made ufe of by our author upon tlus occafion.
;

a

Ufljer, p. 93.

on

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASS ENSIS.
his

63
his

on
or

in

That of

hiftory, either

know
;

in Italy
rlienia,

prince of the Lydians, any thing of the arrival of a colony of Maeonians neither does he make the leaft mention of Tyr-

own country, does name Tyrrhenus, as a

not, in

any part of

a Lydian colony, though he takes notice of feveral But fays that Lydus, things of lefs importance
as
:

and Torebus were the fons of Atys ; that they, having divided the kingdom they had inherited from their father, remained both in Afia, from whom, he fays, the nations, over which they reigned, received their names; his words " From are thefe from Torethe
;

Lydus,

Lydians, and,

*'

There is a little difbus, the Torebi are fo called. " ference in their language, and they ftill borrow many " words from one like the and Dorians."
another,
lonians,

the Lefbian, that the Tyrrhenians, who fays, were, before, called Pelafgi, received the name they are now known by after they had fettled in Italy. Thefe are his
Hellanicus,

" Phraftor was the fon of words, in his Phoronis; Pelafgus, " their king, by Menippe the daughter of Peneus ; his fon
;
:

" was Am-yntor Amyntor's Teutamides; whofe fon Vv'as " Nanas In whofe reign, the Pelafgi were driven out of " their country by the Greeks ; and, leaving their fhips in the
river Spines in the Ionian
;

*'

" town
*«•

from whence,
)'.«A»j!A?v;)»

gulph, took Croton, an inland ^^ advancing, they peopled the
plied himfelf,
:

T>!v vuv

Tuf ^jjvjav

«x1;(r«v.

folely,

to tranflate the

T/s batirent la Fille, qu'on nomme Tyrrbenie, fays le Jay : I will not fay that lie has miilaken the fenfe of the word
SKl.o-av

Latin of Portus, which he has mifunderftood Ea?n, quae nunc Tyrrhevia
vacatur,
ils

in this place,

becaufe
it

I
;

he never confidered

at all

dare fay but ap-

condiderunt, does not fignify batirent la ville, qu'on

mmme
coil

Tyr-

rhenie, but,

ils

feuplerent

le

pays, qu'on

mtry,

64

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
country,

OF

Book

I.

"
/ilus gives

now

is

Tyrrhenia." But the account MyrThe the reverfe of That given by Hellanicus
called,
:

he, after they had left their own country, were, from their wandering, called UeXaoyoi, that is. Storks,

Tyrrhenians,

fliys

as refembling, in that refpedt, the birds, called

by that name,

over in flocks both into Greece, and the country oi: the Barbarians ; and he adds, that thefe people built the wall
that

come

round the citadel of Athens, which is called the ^'Pelargian wall. XXIX. But I look upon it that all thofe, who take the
Tyrrhenians, and the Pelafgi to be one, and the fame nation, are under a miftake. It is no wonder they were, fometimes,

by one another's names; Unce the fame thing has happened to other nations alfo, both Greeks, and Barbarians ;
called

the Trojans, and Phrygians, who live near to one another Both which nations many have thought to have been but one, differing in name only, not in reality. And,
as

to

:

the nations, that have been confounded by being called by the fame names, thofe, that inhabit Italy, have not been

of

all

nomme

Tyrrhenie. In this fenfe, has ufed the word condo.

'

Virgil

the Etymologicon
it.

magnum

to fupport

Tantae mclis erat Romatiam condere

gen I em.
le Jay been a little more fkilled in geography, he would have known that there never was a city called Tyrrhenia , but, I imagine, he had a mind to build one. The other French tranf-

Had

add the authowho makes himof rity Ariftophanes, felf very merry with his countrymen for reprefenting Pallas all armed, and Clifthenes with a Ihuttle,

To

which

I fhall

Ew.

Kai m'?

at

tit

ysvoil

a» ijlaxls? 570^1?,

lator has rendered

nEI. Ti;

J'an

xaG:|«

T>i5 Ui-Xtfc';

to Tli>jt(y>Kiit^

;

it

'' Tj This Yli\oi^ytwv Y.xK)!fxevov. muft be the true reading, as Cafaubon
has, very well, obferved,
'

very well,

Upon which,
T«;^Of
^ E»
tv 7*1
ognfi.

the

Greek

fcholiaft,

very

juftly, obferves

oT»ASny_>j«-«

to neA«^j/ix»f

who
Aen.

quotes
i.

Axj07rOA«»

Virgil,

f. 33.

^. 830.

the

Bookl.
the leafl

DIONYSIUS HAL IC A RN A S SEN SIS.
fo.

65

For there was a time, when the Latines, the UmbrI, the Aufones, and many others, were all called Tyrrhenians by the Greeks; the remotenefs of the countries,
inhabited by thefc nations, making the exad: diftindion of them obfcure to thofe ^% who live at a diftance And
:

many

hiftorians
that, I

have taken

Rome

itfelf for

a Tyrrhenian city. So
their

am perfuaded thefe nations

but cannot be; they changed the place of their lieve they had both the fame origin, for this reafon chiefly,

changed ^' abode

name, when

among many
preferve

others, that their languages are difFerent,
leaft

and
For,

not the

refemblance to one another.
fays

"

"neither do the ^^ Crotoniatae,
s"'

Herodotus,

nor the

TcKarfoa-w.

a tautology, which
it is

This feems very like it was very eafy to
toi? u^o<ru,

words of Herodotus, that our author
contented himlelf with exprefllng his without confining himfelf to his words. It is, therefore, no wonder that he fhould call thefe people K^ainftcad of raivialai, in vulgar Greek, the Ionic K^tiiuviy^cii in Herodotus. It is plain that both Dionyfius, and
Cenie
'

remove, by leaving out
in the as
5rfor»,
it

as

Vatican manufcript,
ftands in
all

or t« the editions.

have not allowed myfelf this liberty in tranflating it, though I find the other tranflators have not been
I

But

fo fcrupulous.
''•
E-rret

v.at

^im.

that an alteration in

do not think the manner of
I
:

Herodotus mean the inhabitants of Croton in Italy. So that, I fee no reafon to correft Herodotus from our
author, notwithftanding the authority

living of a people is fufficient to give room for an alteration in their name But a removal from one country to

of Glareanus, and Cafaubon, and even " of Cluver, who all contend for that
correction.
laft tor it, is,

another
tills is

may have
I
:

this EfFeft.

And
/Sio?

The
that

reafon given by ih?

the fenfe

have given

to

in

Herodotus fpeaks of
called
Kp-.ifuv--

this

by magnum, which gives this fignification to the word among many others
:

In which I am juftified place the authority of the Etymologicum

a

town

in

Thrace
:

in his

feventh and eighth books. But this is a miftake For, in the feventh,

Herodotus
or, as the
"

calls

this town VL^v.^uvont:, Medicean manufcript has

9^'

comparing

It appears, by Oulf K^dftjualati. this quotation with the
1

it,

K^if^msit

;

and, in the eighth, he
but, in neither.

fpeaks of yi;
B.
1.

K^>i7t>jvix.y, ;

In Clio,

c.

57.

"Ital.Antiq

Vol.

I.

K

p. 575-

127.
((

Placiani,

66

ROMAN ANTIQJJITIES
Placiani,

OF

Book

I.

any of their neighbours By which, it appears that they *' preferve the fame language they brought with them into " thofe countries." " However, it is furprifing that, notwithftanding the Crotoniatae fpoke the fame language with
:

" "

who

fpeak the fame language, ufe the fame with

the Placiani,
originally,

who lived

Pelafgi,

near the Hellefpont, fince both were, the language of the former fliould be

quite different from

That
if

neighbours : Becaufe,
as

Tyrrhenians, their neareft confanguinity is to be looked upon

ot the

the caufe,

why two

contrary muft there is no room to think that both thefe caufes can produce It the fame effed:. may, indeed, be, reafonably, fuppofed,
that

nations fpeak the fam.e language, the occalion their fpeaking a different one : For

men

of the fame nation, living at a diftance from one
this
is

does he

call

town

in

Thrace

prcnnnt

the name, he gives "Kfijfwv, to this city in Italy a few lines before this paffage quoted by our author. 95 etc. TK> liciloi 6«U|M«!(j-H«v av Both the French tranflators have ftruck

which

que ks Crotomates ct ceux de Placiene., qui habitent aupres du Pelo-

ponncfc, parhjfent la mime langue comme ctant les tins ct ks cutrcs Pchfgues d'o~
rigine,
tine
el

qiCaii contraire

toiite

differente de

celle

Us en eujfent des Tyrrhethis gentle-

upon

the fame rock in rendering this The reader will obferve that paffage. our author fays the Placiani lived near in which he has folthe

nkns leursioifins?

Here,

man, firft, makes the Placiani live near the Peloponnefe, when our author fays they lived near the Hellefpont ; and then, he makes the Tyrrhenians to be neighbours to the Crotoniatae, in order

Hellefpont,
f

Herodotus. This circumftance thofe two tranflators have not attended to, which has led them into the miftakes they have committed. But I fhall myfelf be guilty of a difm-

lowed

and the Placiani.
to render his
after

Le

Jay,
ftill

miftake

more confpicuous,

mentioning

pardonable than a miftake, if I cenfure them without tranf* * * cribing their words. Thofe of
gcnuity,
lefs

M

the Crotoniatae, and the Placiani, calls the Tyrrhenians voifuu des uiis et des
autres.

are as follows

i

or ne fercit
»

il

pas furc.

In Clio,

57.

V

In Clio, c 57.

another,

Book!.
another,

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSEN SIS.
their neighbours,
it

ty

may, by converfation with fame dialect ; but, longer, prcferve the that people of the fame nation, living
in

no

cannot be imagined

in the

fame country,

fhould not,
language.

the lead, agree with one another in their

XXX.

For

this reafon, therefore, I

am

perfuaded that the

are a difierent people. However, Tyrrhenians, and the Pelafgi I do not think the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians : For they do not ufe the fame language with the latter;

be alledged that, though they agree, no longer, in that refped, they, ftill, retain fome other indications of
neither can
it

For, they neither worfl:iip the fame fame laws, or gods with the Lydians, nor make ufe of the inftitutions ; but, in thefe, they diiTer more from the Lytheir

mother country.

dians,

than from the Pelafgi
to the truth,

:

And

thofe feem to

come

neareft

who do

not look upon them as a

but as natives of the country ; fince they are foreign people, found to be a very ancient nation, and to agree with no other, either in their language, or in their manner of living :

no reafon why the Greeks may not be fuppofed to have called them by this name, both from their living in The towers, and from the name of one of their kings.
is

And there

,

Romans

give

them

different appellations

:

For,

from the

named Etrutria, they call country, they, once, inhabited, them Etrufci ; and, from their knowledge in the ceremonies relating to divine worfhip, in which tl" ey excel all
others, they call

them,

at this time,

though

lefs

accurately,

K

2

Tufci;

68

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
;

OF

Book

I.

* Tufci

fame accuracy, as the Greeks, However, they call Thyfcoi themfelves from the name of one of their leaders, Razenua.
but, formerly, with the they called them
:

fhew, in another place, what cities the Tyrrhenians inhabited ; what forms of government they eftabBut,
I {hall

power the whole nation acquired ; what adions, worthy of memory, they performed ; and what fortune attended them. The Pelafgi, therefore, who
liflied
;

how

''

great

were not deftroyed, or difperfed in colonies, there being but few left out of a great many, remained in thefe parts, as
where, in procefs of time, their pofterity, together with others, built the city of Rome. And this is the account hiftory gives of the Pelafgi.
fellow-citizens to the Aborigines
;

another colony of Greeks landed on ^* this Pallantium, a town of Arcadia, part of Italy from
after,
Ke^^^yim. They called them Thufci otiro ra 9-uav. It is to be obferved that the word Thufci is oftener
«(%a.(TiAOL\oi,

XXXI. Soon

i

Paufanias

f.iys

that Antoninus

Pius

ereded

this village into a city in

me-

mory of

the Arcadians,

who came

found
9J-

in

Roman

infcriptions without
it.

the afper, than with
It
is

Auvaf^iv re cVoo-jjv oi vifible that fomething
:

(rujnT«v7ff.
is

from thence, and fettled on the fpot, where the city of Rome was, afterwards, built and that he granted to
;

wanting

the citizens of Pallantium their liberties,

For neither complete the fentence the in Siiii^civ\o vulgar editions, nor in the Vatican manufcript, Sii7r^a.^(xvlo, which is much better, can be applied
to

and exempted them from paying

tribute.

He,

further,

fays that
his

the

town,

built

by Evander and

people

to this.
<r«i1i3,

I would, therefore read jxl*,which the learned reader will, I

near the Tiber, afterwards, changed its name by the lofs of the two letters

believe, think

not improper in this
furprifed that the

A and v. Which, by the way, fhews the corrednefs of the Vatican manufcript in a point, in which all the edi* * * tions are faulty. fays that all the palaces of princes have taken their

placc.

I

am

com-

mentators, who, often, labour points of lefs confequence, have taken no
notice of this,
S

M

name from
In Arcad,
c.

this

town, for which he

43.

about

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS ENSl S,
v/ar, as the
its

69

about threefcore years before the Trojan This colony had for themfelves fay.
faid to

Romans

leader Evander,

have been the fon of Mercury, and of feme Arcadian nymph, whom the Greeks call Themis, and fay (he was
infpired
:

But the writers of the

Roman antiquities,
^'

call her,

in the language of their country, the fame as dsaTriu^oC, in Greek,

Carmenta, which implies a Prophetefs ht verfe. For

the

Romans

call w(5«f, verfes^

Carmina. However, they agree

that this
in verfe,

by divine infpiration, prophefied, This colony was to the people of things to come.

woman,

pofleffed

not fent out by the

common
among

confent of the nation

;

but, a

the people, the fad:ion, which was defeated, left the country of their own accord. Faunus, a defcendant of Mars, happened, at that time, to have
ledition having arifen
*^

inherited the

kingdom of
I

the Aborigines, a man, as
I

it is

quotes Pliny, B.
fore nae

iv. c. 6.

Harduin's

Pliny,

have beand all I

can find in that place are thefe words,
Fiilanlium, unde Palatium Romae.
«'•
K«^/uei'';«D
Qvojji.»^>i<ri)i.

cannot omit taking notice of the truly poetical drefs Virgil has given to a plain hiftorical faft, viz. that Evander, and his Arcadians were fettled in the very fpot» where Rome, afterwards, flood, pajfimque armenta viJebant

It

appears

and many other paflages in our author, that he, and Virgil derived their accounts from the fame The latter makes Aeneas authorities. to Evander to miplore his affiftance go

by

this,

Romanoqueforo,
,,.

et

butts

mughe carinis \

^.^^

.^«,, j,

againft the

Rutuli.
afllft

had promifed to

After Evander him, and given

a€o?,j.,v.;v ^«^«A>;(pa,? one of all j^ ^j^e

„7, ^,„ i3«^,A««v rm * *» i **uvo..

M

him an account of

the ancient inha-

bitants of the country, he fays

\

the tranflators, only ^^^o has not expreffed the fenfe of the ^^^d j^«f«A.,cFa.?. Thofe, who are well acquainted with the Greek

language,

Mepulfumpatria,pelagiqueextremafequentem Fottuna omnipoUfis, et inelu£lahile fatum

know
tween
the

there

is

a great difference be-

AS;u€aveii',

and

ziroi^ocXiicfA.^cive'.v i

Hisp/uerr

locis :

rnatrifque egere tremenda

Carmmtiin^mphaemonha^etdeusauaor Apollo,
'

fimply, and the Other /o receive by inheritance. In
firft fignifies to receive
viii. ;^.

B.

iv, c.

6.

'

Virgil,

Aen,

333,

'

j^.

360.

faid.

70
faid,

ROMAN
of adivity, as

ANTIQjyiTIES OF well as prudence, whom the

Book

I.,

Romans,

in their facrifices, and fongs, honor, as one of the gods of This man received the Arcadians, who their country.

were but

kw

in

number, with great

friendiliip,

and gav^

And the lands as they defired. Arcadians, as Themis, by infpiration, had advifed them, chofe a hill, not far from the Tiber, which is, now, near
them
as

much

of his

own

the middle of the city of Rome ; and, at the foot of this built a fmall village, fufficient for the complements hill,

of the two
village

fliips,

in

which they came from Greece

;

This
all
its

was ordained by fate to excel, in procefs of time, other cities, whether Greek, or Barbarian, not only in

and the majefcy of its empire, but, in e\'ery other inftance of profperity ; and to be celebrated, above them all,
extent,

This village they long as human nature fhall fubfift. Howcalled Pallantium from their mother city in Arcadia
as
:

Palatium, time having intro-* duced this inaccuracy, which has given occaiQon to many abfurd etymologies.
ever, the
call it

Romans now

XXXII. But fomc have
Megalopolitan
is

written,
it

of

whom
fo,

one, that

was

called

Polybius the from a young

man, named

Palas,

who

died there; that he was the fon of

Hercules by Dyna, the daughter of Evander ; and that his raifed a monument grandfather by the mother's fide, having t)
for
this

him on
laft

the
"

hill,

called the place

Palantium from

this

fenfe,

Plato has ufcd the

word in the difcourre httwcen Socrates, and Cephalus where the former afks
•,

the latter, 3ro7?«v, w KtpetKc, uv t« stAhw sr«g£A«€£f, « tTrnilrjC-u.
B.
i.

MKlr,iTcn

"

In

CTo^iT.

p.

573.

youth.

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
have never feen any neither could I hear of any

ji

youth.

But

I

monument of
facrifices,
;

Palas at

Rome,

or any thing

of that nature, performed in memory of him family is not unremembered, or w^ithout

although
tliofe

this

honors,

with which divine natures

are worOiipped by men : For I find that public facrifices are performed, yearly, by the Romans, to Evander, and Carmenta, in the fame manner,
as to the other heroes,
altars raifed;

one to

and genius's ; and I have ittVL two Carmenta, under the Capitoline hill,

near the Carmental gate ; and the other to Evander, at the foot of another hill, called the Aventine hill, not far from

But I know of nothing of this kind the gate Trigemina. The Arcadians, therefore, beinodone in honor of Palas.
fettled all together

under the

hill,

planned houfes accordinoand, alfo,
built

to the

manner of
firft,

their country,

temples.
59

And,

they ereded a temple to the Lycaean Pan, by the
:

diredion of Themis
99'
A^scsfiri

For,

among
thefe

the Arcadians,

Pan

is

Tf x«« >-«§ S'sa'x «^p^otici7a7of

author of the T///iw1a1i-c derives the name of Heaven of hiftory
nav.
this gt)d,

*

The

two nations did not underfland one another. But, if we fhould read the Hebrew word, which that author
has brought to fupport this extraordinary etymology, as my truly learned friend. Dr. Gregory Shaipe, in his-

who was worfhiped by the " from an HeFgyptians at Mendes, brew word D'J3 Panlm, flgnifying
which the perfons, drelfed
like

tnajks^

curious difTertaton

on the Hebrew

Fauns, ufed to hang upon trees after the proceffions performed in honor of Bacchus. This etymology depends

language, fays we ought to read it, what will become of this etymological For he plainly fhews vfoxd, Panhn?

upon

a fuppofcd affinity bt-tween the

Egyptian
:

and

Hebrew

languages,

which, I dare fay, is, intirely, groundlefs For, I think, I have convinced note, that tiie reader, in a former
''

Hebrew words, where no vowel occurs, we ought to fupply it by an e. This he, very judicioully, confirms by reading N*^p ^/^r/nV^t, quera^ which all Iportfmen will acthat, in all
c.

*B.

i.

c.

17.

"

Herod. In Eutcrp.

46.

7

See

yz""

Ann.

the

72
the

ROMAN
mod
ancient,

ANTIQJJITIES OF
mod honoured
of
all

Book

I.

the gods Here they found a proper place for this purpofe, which the '°° Romans call the Lupercal, we fliould call it Avy.xiovt
:

and the

Lycaeum
all built

:

But the ground about the temple, being, now,
is

of the place upon, the ancient difpoiition

not eafy

to be guefled at. However, there was, as it is faid, formerly, '°' cavern under the hill, covered with a grove of a vafl

fpreading oaks
knowledge

;

deep fountains iffued from

tli£

foot of the
Romulus, and
great mitl.ike.
this deri-

of that bird. Inftead of Pantm, therefore, it mufl: be read, and written in Roman letters, Pi?ni7n ; and this, at once, deftroys both the etymology, and the fyftem, that
to be the call
is built

the wolf, that fuckled Remus, are under a

And,
in

yet,

I

have met with
fays

vation in fome authors, particularly,

Ovid, who
Ilia loco

of

this

wolf ^,

upon
^

it.

But there

is

another

nomen

misfortune, that attends this etymo-

Herodotus tells us, that the Egyptian word Mendes fignified both the god Pan, and a goat. And, for
logy.
this reafon,

Magna
It is true

fecit ; locus ipfc Lupercis. dati nuirix praemia la£}is habet.

he gives the true etymology
;

prefently after

and,

the Egyptian painters, after them, the Greek painters,

^lidvetot Arcadio

Faunm

in

of

with the face and legs reprefented Pan it is a goat. this, plain that By Pan was not the Egyptian name of

di.ffos a Alon'.e Lupercos? Arcadia temtla Lycaeus hahct.

There
fays,

hill in

Is it not, therefore, more this god. natural to fuppofe the word to be what a Greek word, it, plainly, appears, and to denote the univerfe ; and that

no doubt but the Lycaean Arcadia, on which, Paufanias the temple of Pan flood, gave
is
''

to the Lupercal, as, I dare fay, Lycaean games, there celebrated, gave occafion to the Roman Lupercalia.

name
the

the

Greeks, and, particularly, the Arcadians, in adoring Pan, paid a

'°''

ZTTtj^aiov vTio roi
v/ill

Aojw

fx;j/«, etC.

The

reader

obferve this defcrippoetical.
It fcenis

moft reafonable worfliip to the great Creator and Preserver of all
things ? '°°. Aux«/ov.
this
as
It is

tion to be a

little

very plain from

from many paflage, others in the bcft authors, that thofe, who derive the word Lupercal from
well as
In Euterp.
c.

by our author to inliven his narration. Le Jay, and the two Latin trandators have contented themf^lvcs with giving the naked fenfe of it. The other Frcnc h tranfldtor has rendered it with greater vivacity.
to be introduced
]i.
ii.

46.

Faftor.

t. 421.

^

In Arcad.

c.

38.

rocks

Bookl.
rocks,

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
and the
valley adjoining
ftately
trees.

73

to the precipices

was

fliaded

with thick and
altar to this

god, and

cuftom of

their country,

place, they raifed an performed a facrifice according to the which the Romans offer up to this

In

this

day, in the

month of February,

after the winter

folftice,

without altering any thing in the rites then performed. The manner of this facrifice will be related afterwards Upon the top of this hill, they fet'°^ apart a piece of ground, which to Vidlory, and inftituted annual facrifices to they dedicated be offered up to her alfo, which the Romans perform, even,
:

in

my

time.
fabuloufly,
fay
this

XXXIII. The Arcadians,

goddefs

joys,

was the daughter of Palas, the fon of Lycaon ; and that fhe received thofe honors from mankind, which fhe now enat the delire of Minerva, with whom fhe had been edu:

For they fay that Minerva, was delivered, as foon as {he was born, to Palas, by Jupiter, and that fhe was brought into Heaven. They built, up by him, till fhe was received the to whom, by miniftry of women, alfo, a temple to Ceres,
cated
I To Tt!j vixv;? Tt^ivof «|eAov7«. fhould have imagined that sleAovlfj, which cannot be apphed to a temple, and his might have taught Portus,
»"»•

when

it

is

ufed in the
it

fenfe

our aunvi ng
is

thor has given
T?jU.ev(jf,

upon

this occafion.
totto?

way

u.iixioiffj.ivog

Ti^^nv.

Hefychius.

And
fenfe
it
'

this

the

le Jay, that rsuevo?, not fignify a 'temple. That does place, be It often has this fignification cannot of the fenfe denied But the genuine word, and the only one it can bear here, is a place fet apart, and confecrated from is derived to z-iitory. Tejwsvo?

follower,

in this

fenfe,

and the only

can bear in

the following pafTage of

Homer,
^^ ^^^^^^

^^^.

:

^

^oJ'u^^.iojTEMENOSf.er^jtoTrf^^ov'Jff.

Sylburgius,and the other French tranfJator have rendered it very properly.

if/Avw,

which

fignification

it

preferves,
*

Odyf. ^.f. zg9v

Vol.

I.

L

they

74

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

'°^ facrifices without wine, according to they performed the cuftom of the Greeks ; none of which rites have been

changed by time to
called,
'""^

this

day.

Befides,

temple to the Hippian Neptune,

they dedicated a and inftituted a feftival,

by the Arcadians, Hippocratia, and, by the Romans,

Confualia, during which, it is cuftomary among the latter, for the horfes, and mules to reft from work, and to have
their heads

crowned with

flowers.

They,

alfo,

confecrated
;

many

other temples,

altars,

and images of the gods
according to the

and

inftituted purifications,

and

facrifices,

man-

ner of their

own

country, which, at this time, are performed

without any alteration.
•°'-

But

I

fhould not wonder if fome
Circenfes, after the

N>j<px\toi ^vff-iai.

Thefe

facrifices

Circus was built by
:

were performed wiihout any libations of wine, from whence they had tlieir

Tarquinius Prifcus They are, generally, fuppofed to have been inftituted

name.

There

is

a paflage in the

Oe-

by Romulus,
the Sabine
poffible

after the

ravifhment of
it is

dipus Coloneus of Sophocles, which, with the obfervation of the fcholiaft

women. Though

very

that he

might only revive

upon

it,

will

ferve to

clear

up

this

fencence.
a yav «y
rsoJi

Every one, who has read the of the Roman emperors, muft hiftoiy know with what magnificence thefe games were celebrated, and what heats
them.
the
(that

fondnefs for this, or that faftion was the term) created among the

Upon
Jiloii

which,
oi'JOf

the fcholiaft fays, he
aonnf, oV/ » (twev«AA' viui^' Sio xai
ai
(yrrovSai
oiuToiv.

calls the

Eumenides
avian,
xaA«v7ai

It is fpedators. thought that the chariot races, inftituted by Oenomaus

at

'

Elis,

gave the

firft

rife

to thefe

n;(p«A;«ei

After this explanation of
«(«(, the reader,
I

v))<paA<o< 9-u-

Circenfian games. But, as thofe races were, alfo, celebrated in s Arcadia fo

as

much

believe, will wonder as myfelf to find this paflage

tranllated

by le Jay, des facrifices qui n'eloienl point fuivis de repas. " Kavo-KixAia uTo P&)f*«(«u KiyofJ-iycc.
called
ii.

Thefe were, afterwards,

'

Ludi
'

Azan, the fon king of that as Evander was an and, country Arcadian, it is very probable that he inftituted thefe games in Italy after Thofe of his own country.
of Areas,
;

early as

the funeral of

the

fourth

^jr.

98.

Val.

Max. B.

c. 4.

Paufajiiasin Eliac.

c. lo.

E Id. in

Arcad.

c. 4.

of

Bookl,

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSENS IS.

^s
negle<5l-

of tliefe ceremonies, from their great antiquity, were
ed,

and forgotten by
ftill

are

pradrifed,

their pofterity. However, thofe that are fufEcient proofs of the cuftoms, for-

merly, in ufe

among

the Arcadians, of which

we

fliall

fpeak
faid,

more
of
'°5

at

large in another place.

The

Arcadians are

alio, to

have been the
letters,

firft,

who brought
lately,

into Italy the ufe

Greek

which had,

appeared

among them,
:

and inftrumental mufic, performed on the Lyre, and thofe '°^ For inftruments, called the Trigon, and the Lydian
'°'*
r^flj|Uf/a7&;v E\A.>)viicMi'
;^j^>;a"(i'.

This

be treated at large in the firfl on the fourth annotation forty book. In the mean time, it is not
fubjeft will
polTible for me to pafs by the tranflation le Jay has given us of this

Arcadians themfelves under Evander, according to him, had but juft learned
their language, before they
Italy.
I

came

into

widi

I

knew what language

thefe

paflage

:

His brethren of Trevoux
the

Greeks fpoke before they learned What would Dionyfius have Greek. faid, could it have been poffible for

will, I believe, find great difficulty to

interpret away Thefe are his words

abfurdity of
:

it

:

On

dit qu'ils ont

him to know that his judicious, learned, and elegant hiflory would, one day, be, thus wretchedly, mangled by a
man, who has been celebrated with the power of partial eloquence for
tranflation of
"'*•
it ?

apporte
eftoit

premiers en Italic Fufage de la langue Grecque, qui pour eux mefmes
les

all

his

alors toute nouvelle. Nothing can be plainer than that our author fays the Arcadians brought the Greek and not the Greek language, letters, into Italy. Has he not faid often

T^iymx
:

K»i AmSoi.

thefe muiical inrtruments

that the Aborigines, who were Greeks, came into Italy many generations before Evander, and that the Pelafgi, who were, alfo, Greeks of

enough

So that, by Pollux to look upon this as the true reading. As to the other, Cafaubon refers us to
the following verfe of Ion, mentioned

firft of mentioned we have reafon
is

The

by
it:

^

Athenaeus, and fays no more of

Peloponnefus, came into Italy fome
generations before
if

Evander

?

And, yet,
I

Jay, none of thefe Greeks brought their language into Italy becaufe, I fuppofe, thefe Greeks could not fpeak Greek Nay, the
believe
le
;
:

we

am

the

more

inclined to think Audo?

becaufe another place, that the Peloponnefians were taught mufic
'

the

name of

this inftrument,

Athenaeus

fays, in

B. xiv. c. 8.

'lb. c. ;:

L

2

the

76

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
They
are faid,
alfo,

Book

I.

the fliepherd's pipe was the only
in ufe.

mufical invention then
laws
;

to have inftituted

to

have brought mankind over from the favagenefs, which, to a fenfe of humanity ; and then, prevailed,
generally, likewife, to have introduced arts,

and

fciences,
:

and many

other things conducive to the public good And, for thefe reafons, they were very much cheriQied by thofe, who had This was the fecond Greek nation, that received them.
into Italy after the Pelafgi and, living in common with the Aborigines, fixed their habitation in the beft part

came

•,

of

Rome.

XXXIV.

A few years after the Arcadians, another colony
Italy,

of Hercules, then returned from the conqueft of Spain, and of thofe parts, that extend to the weftern ocean ; fome of his followers,
defiring Hercules to difmifs

of Greeks came into

under the

command

in this country

;

and built

them from his fervice, remained a town on a hill, proper for that

from Pallantium about three ftadia. This is purpofe, diftant now called the Capitoline hill, but, by the men of that time,
the Saturnian, and, in Greek,
hill.

The

of greateft part

may be thofe, who
it

called the Cronian,
ftaid

behind, were

and Epeii of Elis, who were, Peloponnefians, Pheneatae, delirous to return home, becaufe their country no
longer,
by
the Phrygians, and Lydians, who followed Pelops into Peloponnefus.

As

to the mufic exprefTcd
it

by

thefe

inftiuments, to inquire into

would be
it
;

a vain thi:

g

new inftruments, and new taftcs ; which made Anaxilas fay that mufic. like Africa, was every year, producing fome new monfter
:

becaufe the mufi-

cians, in all ages,

have been

grea.t

m-

/^«r<^.,, fci^TTi^

A^Cvn, ar^of

Tt.v

Baov,

^^

^,

novators, and were, ever, inventing

^^„,„ ^j- j^,^^7„ ^,^7^ ^^^,^„_

had

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
laid wafte in

yj

had been

Some the war againft Hercules. were mixed with thefe, who, in the reign of Trojans, likewife, Laomedon, had been taken prifoners at Ilium, when Hercules

And I am of opinion himfelf mafter of that city. that all the reft of the army, alfo, who were either tired out
made
with labor, or weary with wandering, having obtained a Some think this hill had, andifmilTion, remained here. the fame name, as I have faid, and that the Epei
ciently,

were very well pleafed with the lituation in memory of the Cronian hill in Elis, which ftands in the Pifaean country, near the river Alpheus ; and which the Elei look upon as
confecrated to Saturn
times,
;

they honour

it

and, affembling together at certain with facriiices, and other marks of

reverence.

Italian mythologifts,
<yiven to the place

But '^^Euxenus, an ancient poet, and fome other are of opinion that the name was
by the Pifaei themfelves, from
hill;
its

likenefs

to

their

Cronian

that the Epeii,

together with Herthis

cules, eredled the altar to Saturn,
»°'-

which remains, to

day,
to

Eu|evo?.

I

think Lapus was in

which gave occafion
call that

the right in reading Evvio; inftead of ''Voffius is of Ev^svof, though I find

to the poets aera the golden age :

another opinion. However, I do not was the ancient Ennius only think that our here meant author, but by poet the that following paflage in Ennius is the very place he alludes to
-,

Jureaqucutperbibaitjlloftibregefueyg
Saecula-Jic placiddpopidos inpaceregebat^

fays

Virgil, who, every where, Hiews he was, perfeftly, verfed in the antiIt is no wonquities of his country.
der,
therefore,

'

Saturnius

illi

that

the

fubjefts

of

Nomen

erat, de quo late Saturnia terra.

Saturnus, in gratitude for the happinefs they enjoyed under his beneficent

All authors agree that Saturnus reigned in Italy ; and that, in his reign,
his

government,
their country,

fliould give his

name

to

fubjeds enjoyed great profperity,
''Dehift. Graec. B.
'

iii.

p. 368.

Aeneid B.

viii. ji.

324.

at

jZ

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
to the Capitol
;

OF

Book

I.

at the foot of the hill near the afcent, that leads

from the

and that they inftituted the facrifice, which the Romans, even at this time, perform after the manner of the Greeks. But, from the heft conjectures I
have been able to make,
I

Forum

find that, even before the arrival

of Hercules in

Italy,

this place

was confecrated

to Saturn,

and called, by the people of the country, the Saturnian hill ; and all the reft of the coaft, which is, now, called Italy, was confecrated to this god, and, by the inhabitants, called Saturnia, as may be feen in the Sibylline books, and other
oracles delivered

by the gods

:

And,

in

many

parts of the

dedicated to this god, and many country, there are temples cities bear the fame name, by which the whole coaft was

known at that time And feveral places name of that god, particularly rocks, and
:

are called

by the

eminences.
Italy,

XXXV.
'°^

But, in procefs of time,

it

was called

from

of great power ; who, according to Antiochus, the Syracufian, being both a wife and good prince, and, having prevailed on fome of his neighbours by his eloItalus,

a

man

fubdued the quence, and
"'• Et' « J^of ivvxlu.
tranflaiors

reft

by

force,

he made himfelf

Both the Latin have rendered nn in this

it fignified in the time, or place, as if under the reign, as iTti AK^^av^^^, in

writes sti for a-n-o. They have, alfo, * * mifled *, who, in his marginal note, fays, cu foiis le regnc d'un prime.

M

Alexander's reign; and, to exprefs this fenfe of the prepofnion, they have both But they faid, fiib viro praepotente. ought to have con fidered that Dionyfius often imitates Herodotus in the ufe of this word, who almoft always

The Latin tranflators might have confidered how "Virgil has exprefled
himfelf in fpeaking of the fame thing
:

,

,

Italtamdixijfc, ducts ditiomine, gentcm.

^

mncfamammores
,

"Aeneid. B.

iii.

f. i6j.

mafter

Book!.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSiS.
all

79

mafter of
tine

that country,
;

which
Italus.

lies

between the
he
fays,

'°'

Lame-

and was

Scylletic bays

which

part,

that

called Italy

from

was the firfl, After he had pofTefled

himfelf of this trad, and had

many
at

fubjeds under his

com-

fubduing thofc nations, that lay contiguous, and united many cities under his goBut vernment ; he alfo, that Italus was an Oenotrian.

mand,

he,

immediately,

aimed

fays,

Hellanicus, the Lefbian, fays, that, when Hercules was drivto Argos, and, already, in Italy, a calf ing Geryon's cows left the herd ; and, running av/ay, wandered over all that
coaft
;

and that

it

fwam

over the intermediate ftreight, and

went

into Sicily ; that Hercules, following the calf, inquired of the inhabitants wherever he came, if they had feen it ;

and that they, underftanding but little Greek, and, from the he gave them of the animal, calling it by the defcription

known, he, from that animal, called all the country the calf had wandered over, Vitalia and he adds, that it is no wonder the name has been
Vitulus,
it is ftill
;

name of

by which

the like alteration has, changed by time, lince
109.
"

alfo,

happened to

rp^ ^j NixTiiTivii Koit ra

ZnyAtjIim*.

Cluver, plainly, fhews that we muft
Aafj^n^'v^

Portus Herculis. Here the and reaches to Scylletic gulph begins,
called,

read

and

SxuAAijIiic^

:

The

firfl

the promontory, anciently, called Scyl-

our author, gulph, here mentioned by at the promontory, anciently, begins called Lametum, or Lampetes, from
a neighbouring city, both thefe names that
:

laeum, now. Coda
"°*
°

della

Volpe.

OuiTs'Aou.

Timaeus, according to
:

by

was called This promonthe xoAtto?

Varro, fays that, in ancient Greece, bulls were called IxaAoi Graecia enim

tory, he fays,
•vano
;

is

now

called Capo So-

and, from

thence,

anliqua {ut fcribit Timaeus) tauros vocabat ItosAsc. Our author had great reafon to rejedt this of

etymology

A«|Uifl(vof,

now
In
Ital.

called,

fem'ia,

extends
»

to

Colfo di S. Euanother foreland,
iv. p.
1

Hellanicus, and to conclude that Italy received its name from Italus.
°

Ant. B.

290, and

1

294.

Varro de

re ruft. B.

ii.

c. 5.

,

many

So

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
the moft probable
in
:

Book
fays,

I.

many Greek names. But, whether, as Antiochus country took this name from a commander, wliich,
is
;

the

cah, yet, this, at
that,
Italia

leaft,

perhaps, or, according to Hellanicus, from the is manifeft from both their accounts,

Hercules time, or very little before, it was called For, before this, the Greeks called it Hefperia, and

Aufonia, and the people of the country, Saturnia, as I faid
before.

another fable related by the inliabitants, that, before Jupiter's reign, Saturn was king of this
is

XXXVI. There

country, and that the celebrated age in his reign, '"abounding in the produce of every feafon, was enjoyed by none
indeed, if any one, fetting afide the fabulous part of this account, will examine the merit of

more than by them. And,

any particular country, from which mankind, immediately after their birth, received the greateft enjoyments, whether
to the ancient tradithey fprung from the earth, according tion, or were formed by any other means, he will find none

more beneficent

to

them than

this.

For, if

we compare one

in my opinion, country with another of the fame extent, the beft, not only of Europe, but even of all others. Italy is fhall not be believed I am not ignorant, that I by

Though
many

many, v/hen they rcfled on Egypt, Libya, Babylonia, and But I do not confine the other "^fruitful countries.
'"• B'O! «V«(r( ^<«4/iX>)c, oVotroK &)>«( le Jay tranflated this has Thus <pvn<r.».
dance.

hard to fay which is moft extraordinary, liich an age, or fuch a
It is

fi for/i pafiage; tunfz, pendant lefquels tcutes les Jaijons de I'annie prodiiijoient me egale abon-

ces Siecies

mums,

et

tijnflation.

'"•

Xoi^of «uJ«i;/cv£f.

the Latin

tranllators

If, by feliciias, meant fertility,

richnefs

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
one
fort

8i

richnefs of the foil to

of

fruits

;

neither

am

I

fond

of Hving in a place, where there are, only,

fat arable lands,

and nothing, or

little

elfe,

ufeful
is

:

But

I

look upon that

the beft, country, as
generally,

which

the moft felf-fufficient, and,
:

ftands leaft in

need of foreign commodities

perfuaded that Italy enjoys this univerfal fertiand plenty of every thing ufetul beyond any other lity, country in the world.

Now,

I

am

contains a great deal of good arable On the land, without wanting wood, like a corn-country
it
:

XXXVII. "^For
much

which
dered
le

I

doubt, they have renproperly.
;

Upon
id

£t,J'««jMov6?

It is

plain

Jay did not think they took the
in

word

that fenfe
it,

becaufe he has

tranflated

lieux ft c'eUbres

par

les

delices qu^on

y

goiite.

That

iviai;^uv,

when

applied to a country, or to land,

which, Servius fays very well, The other French fertikm. eji^ tranflator has rendered it very properBut, if there could be any doubt ly. whether our author ufed the word in this fenfe, that doubt would be cleared up by what he fays in the next
fentence. "3- Ou yot^ a^H^ui iyn ayci^x;, etc.

will fignifies fertil,

not be doubted by
beft

any one, who has read the

Greek

authors, particularly, the poets ; and this fenfe of the word, the Latin wri-

This defcription of Italy
laboured
:

is

very

much

have, from them, given to felix; inftance of which we remarkable a in have Virgil ; who, in defcribing the derives the caufe fertility of valleys, of that fertility from the waters, which, in falling from the neighbouring hills,
ters

and

thoughts are fo juft, the exprelTions fo clofe, that I
it

The

am

apt to believe
pains:
deal
I
I

coft our author
it
;

fome

am

fure
it

to tranflate

coft me a great neither can I fay

convey into thofe valleys a fertilifing foil; a circumftance which all our
farmers are very well acquainted with
ytt
:

have fatisfied myfelf ; much lefs, I have I fatisfied the learned reader, after he has compared it with the The Latin tranflators have original. fenfe the of it, and thir is all. given
fear,

quae p'mguis humus ^ dulcique uligine laeta,

uberc campus, ^ilquefrequens herbis etfertilh cava montis convalle foLinus ^lalem faepc

Defpicere: bucfummis liquuntur rupibus ainncSy

Felicemque tvahunt itmum

''.

Jay his made a fl ^rid period, and given us fomething like the author's fenfe in very good language. The other French tranllator has given the whole fenfe j but as he has made three periods of one, the clofenefs of the
ii.
j!'.

Le

P

Virgil,

Georg. B.

Vol.

I.

M

184.

other

82^

ROMAN ANTIQJJITrES
foil is

OF

Book

I.

proper for all forts of trees, without being reduced to a fcarcity of corn, like a wood-land ; or, by yielding plenty of both, rendered unfit for pafture
other fide, the
:

Neither can

it

be faid that

it is
;

rich in corn,

wood, and pafas I

ture, yet unpleafant to live in

but abounds,

may

fiy,

in all forts of delights, and advantages. "* not with but

To what
;

corn-

country,

watered,

rivers,

with rains from
in

Heaven, do the plains of Campania yield
have feen land, that bears, even,
the length of it. defcription is loft in The reader w.ll obierve that I have ot aroAuxajfextended the
fignification
as
TTo;

which

I

"^ three

crops in a year,

to wood,

as well as corn,

in order

to

comprehenfive part as the other, which our author, certa'nly, defigned.

make

this

"4the

Thus I read it, after A'<^0;Mev>!f. Vancan manufcript, inftead of

ae^oi-rcvoc.

The
:

Latin

tranflators,

who

had never feen this manufcript, are to be excufed But the French tranQators,

who both

tran^ated,

as

they

and have given it to Thofe with which he compares it. Every one who has travelled in the fummer through hot countries, that are not well watered with rivers, muft remember how the corn languifhed, the grafs was burnt up, and the cattle pined for want both of food, and water. With thefe countries, therefore, our author compares Campania, and afks very juftly To what corn-countries, that are watered, only with rains, and not with rivers, do the plains of Compania yield ?
-,

themfelves fiy,from Hudfon's edition, in which the readings of this manufcript are all

"5'

T^ixcc^w<ii u^a^xf.

No

Englifli

along

let

down

at the foot

of every page, will not, I believe, be, fo eafily, excufed for having preferred
a reading that, vifibly, takes off from the merit of Campania, which our In the author is here commending.
firft

which

place, there is fcarce any country, is not a fen, or recovered from a fen, like Holland, that is watered

farmer would believe that any land could bear three crops in a year and yet there are no farmers in the world, who underftand agriculture better, or pradife it with greater fuccefs. HowStrabo fays the fame thing, ever, nay more, of the Campanian plains: For he fays that fome of them, even bear a fourth crop of cabbages, and other things of that nature. If Cam-,

"J

with more

rivers,

than Campania.
the
reader's

And

fecondly,

I defire

opinion,

whether our author would have omitted this circumftance fo favorable to the country he recommends,
%B.v.

pania is fo fertil, how comes it to pafs that we, frequently, fend corn thither ? The foil is not changed, but the

government
P- 372.

is.

bringing,

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.

83

to perfedion the winter, bringing, fucceffively, autumnal grain ? To what oHve-grounds are

fummer, and Thofe of the
others,
in-

Mefapii, the Daunii,
ferior
?

the Sabines, and

many

To what
;

wonderfully, kind to vines, and, with the leaft labor, produces plenty of the fineft grapes ? Befides the land, that is cultivated, Italy abounds in paftures
is,

and Falerhus

vineyards, where the foil

Thofe of Tyrrhenia, Alba,

and goats ; yet more extenlive, and more wonderful are Thofe affigned to horfes, and neat cattle For, not
for fheep,
:

only the marfli, and meadow grafs, which is very plentiful, but the infinite quantity of That, growing in "^uncultivated places, on which the cattle feed in fummer, by being

dewy, and moift, preferves them, always, in good condition. But, above all thefe things, the woods, growing upon prein vallies, and on uncultivated hills, are moft cipices, worthy of admiration ; from which, the inhabitants are, abundantly,
fupplied with "^fine timber for the building of fliips, and for all other works. Neither are any of thefe materials hard to be come at, or at a diftance from common ufe, but eafy
"*• T&)v S( To this word o^yaSoiv. ** * Latin the two tranflators, and (for le Jay has left it out) have given the fenfe of cultivated lands, which, I thinl<, it will not bear in this place

M

fignifies uncultivated places

overgrown
jcai

with bufies and
to,

trees.

O^-j/af )c«A«7«r

EITEPrAZOMENA.
»'?

XoxiJ^ooh ^cn o^ava, jcw^iw, OSev x«j yj
loicvly]

OTK
a^uoj
ttii^i

•,

o^yot.? z3-foa-wv<3ju,«o9t;,

m

Ms j
affa,

becaufe the grafs, growing on arable Jands, in fo hot a climate as That of Italy, can never be called, with any
propriety,
S^aai^ai,
tioci

iTrcMfAtitrotv aSijv«io! \liyoi^i\ic-i.
;

Har-

pocration
arc-^i

who
;

quotes Demofthenes,
it is

avvja^taif

where

plain that he

xxlaff\flo;,

dewy

ufes the

word

in this fenfe.
v«u;r)ij.)j<r<^,«.

but That growing in uncultivated places under the fliade of bufhes, and trees, may, very well, be

and

tnoijl

;

"7' K«( «aA)jc

Cafaubon

has obferved that

called fo.

And

I fhall

produce a very
that
e^j^a?

wanting to complete the fenfe But I think it may, very well, be uaderilood.
vKr.g is
:

great authority to

fliew

M

2

to

84

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
;

OF
is

Book

I.

to be employed, and all ready at hand the multitude of rivers, that water

which
that

all

owing to coafl; and

make

the carriage, and exchange of every thing the country produces, very convenient. Springs, alfo, of hot waters have

affording moft pleafant There baths, and of fovereign ufe in chronical diflempers.

been difcovered in
"^

many

places,

plenty of wild beafts for hunting, and variety of fea-fi£h; befides innumerable other things, fome ufeful, and others worthy of admiration But the moft
are
all forts,
:

mines of

advantageous of
itfelf

all,

is

the

happy temper of the

air,

fuiting

to every feafon : So that, neither the formation of fruits, nor the conftitution of animals are, in the leaft, injured by exceflive cold, or heat.

XXXVIII.

It is

no wonder,

therefore, that the ancients

looked upon this country, as confecrated to Saturn, jQnce they efteemed this god to be the "^ giver, and accomplifher of all to be called Cronos, with the happinefs ; whether he ought
Greeks, or Saturnius, with the
"^" MslaAA*
Tsra^lo-hTTix,

Romans

:

But, by v/hich

It

is

well
the

to inform his readers of the traditions,

known
metallum

that /AilaKKoy, in
in

Greek, and

Latin,

fignify both

mine, and the metal. The French tranflators have taken the word in the laft
fenfe
-,

I

have taken

it

in the

firft.

"9^a)7>)v.

M * * * afks,

Uoic-vii: (vSoiifjLoviai;

Solvi^x Y.UI

nM-

which prevailed among the people, whofe hiftory he writes. I have, in a former note, fhewn that Saturn was a king of Italy, under whofe reign his fubjefts enjoyed fo great a degree of happinefs, that their pofterity looked
the golden age. certainly, read Cronos iu the firft part of the following fentence, and Saturnius in the laft becaufe our

how

this

agrees

upon

that aera,

as

with the poets, and aftrologers, who thought that Saturn, and the planet, which bears his name, were thecaufe of evil. To this I anfwer, that our author was neither a poet, nor an aftrowho, with loger, but an hiftorian thinks himfelf reafon, obliged great
•,

We

rauft,

-,

author told

us,

a

little

before,

that

Cronos was called by the people of
Italy, Saturnius,

name

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSEN SIS.
is

d^
•.

name
It
is

foever he

called,
I

he comprehends univerfal nature
if

no wonder,

fay,

the ancients, feeing this country

abounding with univerfal plenty, and every charm mankind are fond of; and, judging thofe places the moft proper to be confecrated both to divine and human natures, which,
are moft agreeable to them, dedicated the mountains and woods to Pan ; the meadows and green lawns to the nymphs ;,

the

ftiores,

and

iflands to the

fea-gods

;

and

all

other places,
is

that were

moft agreeable to each

deity.

It

faid,

alfo,
it

that the ancients facrificed

human

victims to Saturn, as

was pradifed

among
And,

at Carthage, while that and city fubfifted ; the Celti, at this and other weftern nations :

day,

that

''°

Hercules,

deftring to abolifh the ufe of this

facrifice,

erected the altar

upon the Saturnian

hill,

and in-

ftituted a facrifice
fire.

And,

left

of unftained victims burning on a pure the inhabitants fhould make it a matter of
country,

to negled: the facrifices of their diredled them to appeafe the anger of the

confcience

he

god, by making

images, refembHng the
"°'

men

they ufed to

tie

hand and

foot,

Hf «xA«ai
who, by

(Tf,

etc.

'

Plutarch,

alfo, attributes this inftitution to

Her-

cules,

this

means, put an end

to that deteftable cuftom of facrificing human vidims ; and adds, that the

enmity, againft their neighbours, the Argivi, called thofe pageants by thaE name. If any thing can be ridiculous in cruelty, the method of facrificing

human
fo.
=

Romans
either

called thefe pageants, yfr^zTO;

vidtims by the Albani muft be Strabo fays, that the high-prieft

becaufe the Barbarians,
in

who
die

lived

thofe

parts,

called

all

Greeks, Argivi^ and put as many of them to death in this manner, as they could take; or, becaufe the Arcadians,

of Albania, a country near the Cafpian fea, pampered a man during a whole year ; and, having anointed him with precious oil, he facrificed him, with
other viftims, to the

moon, who,

it

under Evander, retaining
f

their ancient

feems, was their favorite goddefs.
^

In

Rom. Quaef.

B.

ii.

p. 768.

and

86

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
;

Book

I.

and throw into the Tiber

manner, to throw them the end that, if any fcruple remained in

and, drefling them in the fame into the river, inftead of men ; to
their

minds,

it

might be removed, the refemblance of the ancient tragical This ceremony the Romans fcene being ftill preferved.
j^erform, even, to this day, a Kttle after the vernal aequinox,

on the
the

ides of May
:

month

On

w^hich day they account the middle of which, after the ufual facrifices, the pontifs,
;

who

are the

moft conliderable of

their order, together with

the virgins,

have the care of the perpetual fire, the are allowed to afiifl: at praetors, and fuch of the citizens as thefe rites, throw, from the holy bridge, into the river Tiber,
thirty pageants,

who

refembling men, which they call Argivi. But, concerning the facrifices, and the other rites, which the Roman people perform, according to the manner both of
country, we fliall fpeak in At prefent, it feems requifite to give a more another place. account of the arrival of Hercules in Italy, and particular
the Greeks,

and of

their

own

to

omit nothing worthy of notice that he performed

there.

concerning this god, are, partly The fabulous account of his fabulous, and, partly true. arrival, is this ; that Hercules, being commanded by Euryfrelations,

XXXIX. The

theus,

among

other labors,

to

drive Geryon's

cows from

the work ; and, having pafled Erythea to Argos, performed of in his return home, came, Italy through many places alfo, into that part of the country of the Aborigines, which
lies

near Pallantium:
for
his

pafture

Where, finding a great deal of fine cows, he let them grafe and, being
;

opprefled

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

87

opprciTed

with labor, laid himfelf down to fleep. In the mean time, a robber of that country, whofe name was Cacus, happened to fee the cows feeding without a keeper,,
:

and longed to have them But, feeing Hercules lie there he imagined he could not drive them all away withafleep,
out being difcovered ; and, at the fame time, faw the thinpwould be attended with great difficulty So, he fecreted a few of them in a cave hard by, in which he lived, dragging
:

"' each of them thither by the tail, contrary to the natural This might have concealed all proof of of animals. gait

the theft, as the

way he dragged them, appeared contrary
But
thought
fit

!iro^«*f.

M * * * has
;

I

doubt not to convince the reader
it

to

that

leave out thefe words, and the reafon he gives for it, is, that the phrafe is ufelefs, and would be inexcufable in

does notfignify areculons; not an adverb, but a in this prepofition place, and, elegantly, joined with a genitive cafe, and
s,M7r«Aiv

and that

is

a Latin author

but

may

be excufed

governs

t^^ Tso^Him

:

If

it

does not, I
I

in Dionyfius by reafon of the copioufnefs of the Greek language ; and his
diffufed

would
then,
trary,

fain

know what
t/j.7ra>^iv

does.

fay,
fi-

that

here fignifies con-

But I can no more ftyle. in the excufe he makes him with agree for our author, than in the fault he imputes to him. For, in my opinion, the copioufnefs of a language can be no
excufe to a writer for introducing ufelefs phrafes. But I, greatly, fufp-6lthat the Latin tranflation of Sylburgius, and not the Greek text, gave that this phrafe genileman reafon to think ufelefs. Sylburgius has rendered sjwTraAiu, averfas,

which

I

fliall

prove from a

milar phrafe in Herodotus, who tells us, that he inquired of the Egyptian priefts, what might o. cafion the Nile to overflow its banks in the fummer, and to run low in the winter and, by what power, that river was of a nature contrary to That of other rivers.
-,

Ko(

TOi

EMflAAIN
Both
"

mi:$vKiv<xt

rav aKAojv
"

wolaf/.aiv.

and then adds, contra fo* * ammalium incejfum. Atter M* had traniiated averfas, a reculons, I do not wonder he looked upon what follititm

Livy, and Virgil relate this adventure of Cacus, the firft with all the elegance of an hiftorian, and the other with all the power of
poetry.

lows as not deferving to be tramlated.
J

In Euterp.

c. 19.

"

B.

i.

c. 7.

™ B,

viii.

.f'.

194.'

to

88

ROMAN ANTIOyiTIES OF
But Hercules,
arifing
;

Book

I.

to the traces of their feet.

from

fleep

foon after

many
guefs

and, having counted the cows, and found how were mifling, he was, for fome time, at a lofs to

and, fuppodng them to have flraved from paflure, he fought them all over die country: But, not finding them, he came to the cave, and,
;

whither they were gone

deceived by the traces, as not to though he was fo far rely much on their being there, he determined, neverthelefs, But Cacus flood before the door, and, to fearch the place.

'"

when Hercules inquired after the cows, denied he had feen them and, when he defired to fearch the cave, would not but called upon his neighbours for fuffer him to do it
;

;

afliftance,

ftranger.

complaining of the violence offered to him by d. Upon this, Hercules found himfelf in great

he thought of an expedient, which perplexity ; however, was to drive the reft of the cows to the cave. When thofe
within heard the well

known voice, and

perceived the fmell>

of

their

voice

companions, they bellowed to them again, and their difcovered the theft. Cacus, therefore, when his

robbery was thus brought to light, put himfelf upon his defence, and called out to his fellow-fhepherds. But,
Hercules, in a rage, killed
the cows
;

him with

his club,

and drove out

for thieves,
its

when, finding the cave a convenient receptacle he demolifhed it, and "^ buried the robber under

ruins.

Then, having purified himfelf

in the river

from

'^''

Ai&f7a'|U£vof*E^«n-«7a)U£v(jf. Suidas-,

who
port

quotes this very paflage to fupthat fenfe of the word.
ETTtxwIao-jtaTr'ei

'^3*

tw KAuni.

I

have

followed the Vatican manufcript, becaufe I do not think it very probable that Hercules fhould demolilh this cuvc with a Ihepherd's crook.

the

Eookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
which
is

89

the murder, he eredled an altar near the
the
difcoverer,

now

to place Jupiter at Rome, near the gate

god, in acknowledgment for his having found his cows. This lacrifice the Romans perform, even, at this day ; in which, they

Trigemina,

and

facrificed a calf to the

obferve

all

the ceremonies of the Greeks, in the

manner he

inftituted

them.
the Aborigines, and the Arcadians,

XL. When
at Pallantium,

who lived
and

were informed of the death of Cacus,

{aw Hercules, they thought themfelves exceeding happy, in
being rid of the former, whom they detefl:ed for his robberies ; and were ftruck with admiration at the fight of the
latter,

whom
fort,

poorer

The they looked upon as fomething divine cutting branches of laurel, which grows there in
: :

crowned both him, and themfelves with it Their kings, alfo, came, and delired Hercules to be their But, when he informed them of his name, his exgueft. tradion, and his achievements, they recommended both
great plenty,
their country,

and themfelves to

his

friendfhip.

And Evan-

long before, learned from Themis, that it was ordained by fate, that Hercules, the fon of Jupiter, and Alcmena, changing his mortal nature, fhould become imder,

who had

mortal by his virtue, as foon as he knew who he was, refolved to be the firft in rendering Hercules propitious to him, by paying him divine honors; and, through hafte,
ere6led an extemporary altar,

near which, he facriiiced an

unreclaimed

heifer,

having

firft

communicated the

oracle to

Vol.

I.

N

Hercules,

90

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
''*

Book

I.

Hercules, and deiired liim to
cules,

begin the facrihce.

Her-

admiring their hofpitality, entertained the people with a feaft, having facrificed fome of the cows, and fet apart the
tenths of the reft of his booty ; and, to their kings, he gave a large country belonging to the Ligures, and to fome others of their neighbours, the command of which they very much
defired, and, from which he had, before, expelled fome "5 lawlefs It is faid, alfo, that he delired the inperfons.

habitants,
his

fmce they were the firft, who had acknowledged would perpetuate the honors, they divinity, that they

"4-

Tm

li^uv

}c«7«§^«o9-«i.

I

Have

tranflatcd this, generally, to begin the to facrifice ; but that is not fufficient
let

could lead him to inform us, that this country was inhabited by a race of
giants
I
;

when, cafling
as

my

eye on this
thus
;

the reader

into the fenfe ot the

paflTage,

tianllated

by Sylburgius,
it

word

jc«7a^x«o9-«i,

which

is

thus ex-

found he had rendered

ex-

plained by Hefychius ynxlu^^acB-xi t« It feems, h^eiis, Twv r^i)(^(jiv ocTrocTrcKra,! this ceremony was not unknown to Homer ; who, in fpeaking of the
:

viris quibafdam immanipuljis prills inde bus : So that, he has tranllated the

facrifice

preparatory to the fingle com-

Latin trandation ; but with this miffortune, that he has applied immanis to the fize of thefe men, as well as to
their

bat between Paris, and Menelaus, lays

behaviour, which word,

I

am

of Agamemnon,

perfuaded, Sylburgius defigned to apply only to the latter : And yet this

But

this

Virgil in the infernal prieftefs,

is, more fully, explained by the facrifice performed by

gentleman has thought fit to conclude his preface with this remarkable period; which, by theway, vifiblyfquints
at Ic Jay's tranOation

Elifummas carpens media

inter cornuci feias,

quon

ne

; j'efpere au moms me convaincra pas d'avoir tra-

Jgnibus impofuit facris libamina piima".

duit fur Icsverfions hatines fans confilter It is certain that, le texte Grec. upon

tf'.vS^wTSf.

1

was wondering how M***

to render this pafl";ige, il en chajfa anciens les habitants, qui ti^ayant ni loix
ni police metwient

came

me vie anjji dcrcglce que
enorme
:

leur

taiile etcit

I

could not

conceive,

I

fay,

how
^^

the

Greek
3^.

text

he cannot be convitJed of tranflating the Latin verfion, becaufc he has miftaken it ; but it is as certain that he never confulted the Greek text; it he had, he would not have imagined that ma^oi.Moy.ai cui^uTrot could fignify men of an enormous /ize.
this occafion,
>•

Iliad. T.

273.

Aencid.

vi. ;{.

245.

had

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENS IS.

91

had paid him, by offering up, every year, an unreclaimed "^ heifer, and performing the facriiice with Greek ceremonies ; and, that he taught them thofe rites, to the end their
be acceptable to him, chufing two offerings might, always, : And that thofe, who were, noble families for that
miniftry
then, inftru£ted in the
Pinarii,

Greek

difcipline,

were the

Potitii,

and

whofe defcendants continued, a long time,
facrifices,

in the

adminift ration of thefe

the performing them in

manner he had appointed ; the Potitii prefiding at the fa''^ burnt-offering, crifice, and taking the firft part of the while the Pinarii were excluded from tafting the intrails,
and admitted, only, to the fecond rank in thofe ceremonies, which were to be performed by both of them ; and it is faid,
that this difgrace was fixed upon them, for having been late in their attendance ; fince, being ordered to be prefent, in the they did not come till the intrails
early,

morning,

the pofterity of thefe families have, no longer, the fuperintendance over thele facrifices; but "^flaves, purchafed with the public money, perform them

were

eaten.

Now,

126.

Ayi7ivotli(.
f^aruvlif.

Suidas.

Tx T)jf B-va-iXf i-rriliLe Jay has inverted

'-^'

A\Kot TS'dihi tn

tsj Sr,fxo<rf!i

uvijict

S^wtriv avlcif.

Tlai; vueffda.i kui

cm

SuK^.

the fenfe of this whole period : For, contrary to the exprefs words of the
text,
fire

Hefychius.

But

he has made the Arcadians deHercules to perpetuate the honors

the word zr^iJ's? Greek authors,

this fignification of is fo in all

common

they had paid him, and to do every thing elfe, which, in the text, Hercu]es defires them to do. "7Ta >c«io;U«vos «.
E/x7ru^«,

was, almoft, unnecefTary to fupport it by a quotation. After the example of the Greeks, the Romans gave this fenfe, alfo, to
the v/ord piieH, many inflances of which are to be found in their beft writers,

that

it

chius

;

whom

!sf

Hefy-

Portus has,

alfo,

quoted
y B.
i.

upon

this occafion.

Cicero fays to Atticus, puev fefiiTus anagmjtes nofter Sofitbms da-ejferat^
''

Epill. 12.

N

2

in

92

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
For what
reafons, this
this
I fhall relate

Book

I.

in their room.

cuftom was changed,

and how the god manifefted himfelf concerning
of the
priefts,

when

I

change come to that part of the

on which Hercules offered up the tenths, is called by the Romans, ara "'maxima, the greatejl aha?': It ftands near the market, called Boarium, and is held in the
hiftory.
altar,

The

grcateft oaths are taken,

veneration by the inhabitants

:

For,

upon
thofe,

that altar,

and agreements made by

who

are

defirous to tranfad: any thing unalterably \ and the tenths of different things are there, frequently, offered up, purfuant

to vows.
its

However, the
In

ftrudlure of

it is

much

inferior to

reputation.

many

other places,

alfo, in Italy,

temples
in cities,

are dedicated to this god, and altars ercded to
fervi mors dehere videmeque plus qiiam I am, therefore. ccmmoverat. that Sylhurgius fhould corfurprifed reft his own tranflation, unlefs he there
batiir,

him
it,

For he has

tranflated

des efdaves.

means to correct this error inGelenius, and fubftitute pueri, in the room of feivi ; which fliews he did not take
the fenfe pueri in
I

author fays he defigns, afterwards, to give an account of the confequences, that attended this fubftituting of (laves to officiate in the room of the Potitii ; as nothing of this kind appears in the eleven books, that remain, it in

Our

have mentioned,
affair

fome degree, be fupphed by

Livy, of the
ficiated

in

fpeaking of this very
calls the

who

Potitii,

men who

of-

extind
interiii

fays their tradito feri-is publicis folenni ;
:

may, ^ Livy, whole family became

in

their

which

fignifies,

puhlici; literally, uaiSz^ ik t«
this
is

room, [ervi

familiae minijlcrio, genus cmne Pctiiiorum

SviMSi^ anhi-

But

not

all

:

So them taught
'^9-

their religious prejudices to think.

For
rits

I o'-fervc that the faults,

and me-

of the Latin, communicate themfelves to the French, tranflators ; Syito

fervi burgius, by fubftituting pueri Aeneas : has mified M*** who has rendered it, de jeunes gens ; and Portus, by faying H<u.c mam huojiatuh; quae m^^mafemper has conduced his trannatcr, le 2),V,,„^ „,^;,^ ^, ^,;^ fervi, ^^^^ maxima /-////..r. to the true fenfe of the word Jay, » Aeneid. B. viii. »B. i. c. 7. :J. 271.
:

This circumftance, Mtyi^ou taken notice of by Virgil ; who, in fpeaking of Hercules, when he was in Italy, makes Evander fay to
alfo,
is
•''

and

Book!.

DIONYSIUS H ALiC ARN ASSENSIS.
fcarce any part of Italy, in
is

9^,

and highways, there being
this

which

god

not honoured.

And

this is the

fabulous tradition,

concerning him. XLI. But That, which comes nearer to the truth, and which many, who have written the hiftory of his adions, That Hercules, being the have imbraced, is as follows
:

of his age, and, at the head of a conthat lies on fiderable army, marched over all the trad, '2° monarchies, as this fide of the ocean, deftroying all fuch
greateft

commander

«oji^.ijw£vo(5.

I

obferve that

all

the tranf-

muft be taken Tu^avui? have here given it ;

in the fenfe

I'

lators

have rendered Tu^awi? Tyranny,

Etnio ya^ xSikhv ^^>:, TueavnJbf

zriii

witliout confidering that the

word in in a bad taken Greek is not, always, the than more fenie, and fignifies no
that is, a government of fingle perfon, it is 1 think, plain monarchy And,
:

This

is

faid

by Eteocles to

his

mother

had, in vain, perfuaded Jocafta, him to refign the crown to his brother

who

enoucrh that our author underftood it in this fenle here otherwife, he wou'd
•,

purfuant to
well
thefe

their

known

that

frefflve

not have faid that Hercules deftroyed fuch tyrannies, as were /3ajei«i k«i and op^.vTiy.Qxt To<? «f pi^o/^Evo.f, grlevous becaufe all to their fuije^s ;
tyrannies
It has

verfes,

It iS' agreement. Cicero has tranflated which, he fays, Caefar
'^

was often repeating

:

This tranOation

will pro^e, much better than I can, that the word ought to be taken in the

are fo

m

their

own
many

nature.
writers,

fenfc

I

am

contending

for,

been obferved by

of and, particularly, by the Icholiall in the argument of OediSophocles that this word is of a pus, the tyrant, later date than the age of Homer,

Namfiviclandtim eftjus-, regnandijrrt/M Violandum eft : aliis rchus pietateru colas.

But

I cannot omit the refledlion which Cicero makes upon this fentiment. Ca-

pitalis Eteocles, (ays he, vel potius

Euri-

and Hei.od, who never make ufe
It is certain that

ot

it.

pides, gut id unuiu, quod omnium feeleratif-

the

''

former, in fpe^k-

fimumfucrat,
like

exceperit.

ino of Echetus, the moft wicked of all men, calls him a king, and not atyrant;
Elf Exs'ov
^otffif^'ix,

aRoman,to whom the very nameof

This was fpoken

a king was odious. But, notwithftand-

^^olm (JijA^jUova
"

^»JIa>v.

In the following verfes of Euripides, which Caefar had fo often in his mouth,
>>

ing his authority, and That of all his countrymen, it is very probable that, if Rome had been governed by a limited monarchy, (heh^d never felt a
tyranny.
''

Odyfl". 2.

" jr.

84.

In Plioen.

;^.

527.

DeOfficiis, B.

iii.

c.

21.

were

y4

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

I,

were grievous and oppreffive to the fubjedl, and fucli commonwealths, as infulted, and injured the neighbouring ftates, mankind Uving, at that time, in a favage manner, and putdeath without any regard to juftice ; and, ting firangers to in their room, he conftituted monarchies, limited by law,

and well-ordered commonwealths, and introduced cuftoms Befides this, full of humanity, and univerfal companion
:

he mingled with Greek and Barbarous nations, as well thofe as thofe inhabiting the inland counliving on the fea-coaft,
try,

who,

till

then, converfed with diffidence, and a diftant
built
cities

behaviour

;

in

defert

places

;

turned

the

through
all

courfe of rivers, that overflowed the country ; cut roads inacceflible mountains ; and contrived other means,
land,

by which every
mankind.

and

fea

might
is

lie

open

to the ufe of

But he came not into
for,

a herd of cows;

neither
neither

Italy alone, or driving this in the road

country

from Spain to Argos, been paid to him, merely,

would

fo great honors
it
:

have
But,

for

paffing through

he came hither, at the having, already, conquered Spain, head of a great army, in order to fubdue, and reign over And was obliged to the inhabitants of this country
:

ftay

there the longer, both for want of his fleet, which was deweather ; and, becaufe all the nations of tained

by ftormy

Italy

did not, willingly, fubmit to him. For, befldes other Barbarians, the Ligures, a numerous and warlike people,

featcd in the paflliges of the Alps, endeavoured to oppofe, by arms, his entrance into Italy Upon which occaflon, a very great
:

battle

Bookl.
battle

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSE NSIS.

95

was fought by the Greeks, who loft all their '^' weapons in the light. This war is taken notice of by Aefchylus, one
of the ancient poets, in his Prometheus releafed For, there, Prometheus is introduced foretelling to Hercules every thing,
;

Geryon and giving him an account of the difficulties he was to encounter " You the verfes are thefe in the war with the Ligurcs *' of the Ligures; w*here, will meet with the intrepid army " warlike though you are, you will not find fault with the *' engagement For it is decreed that, even, your weapons.
that'

was to

befal

him

in his expedition againft

;

;

:

:

*'

fliall fail

you."
BsAof, in

'3i'

Tm liiXwv.
BsAor,

ielum,

in Latin, fignifies
fxct^ai^oc,

Greek, like a weapon,
uku.

generally.
fychius.

He-

Notvvithftanding this, both the French rrandators have thought fit to render it des flecbes, arrows, as if Hercules had commanded an army of
Indians.

which mentions the cloud fraught with a fhower of ftones ; and, as Strabo is the only author, that I know ol, in whom they are to be found, I fliall tranfcribe them for the fatisfadion of the learned reader
cularly, that part,
:

tragedy of Aefchylus, out of which our author cites the folStrabo, in lowing verfes, is loft. the coaft of difcnbing Languedoc, and Provence, fays the ground, where this battle was fouoht, lies betv/een Marfeillcs, and the mouth, or rather mouths of the Rhone ; and adds feveral other verfes of Aefchylus to Thofc quoted by our author. It feems this fpor, then, was, and now is, full of ftones, which Prometheus tells Hercules fliould be fent down from Heaven to fupply his army with weapons, after their own had failed them. As thefe verfes are written with
a fpirit peculiar to Aefchylus, parti=

The

EvIfliufi'lAEc3-«i

/a

Till"

fx j/aijjf AiSov

"

TzsocTKiov

2ry.(Tei

^^omoc, ok iTreflx

ffv

BaAitiv tTjjwo-H; faSiu; Aiyvij cpc^Ucv.

I

remember
in

field

have feen this ftony Provence, as I went from
to
to Aries
it
:

Marieilles

The

people of
ianguao-e,

the country call

in their

which
las

very different from French, craux. But a man of learnino- at
is
;

told me, the proper name of it was Le champ HercuUen which (hews that the of this tradition i-j memory
ftiU

Aix

prelerved.

B. iv. p. 276.

XL II.

96

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
XLII. After Hercules
had defeated
this
pafs,

OF

Book I.

gained the
their

fome deUvered up

people, and their cities to him of

accord, particularly, thofe, who were of Greek extra'flion, or had not forces equal to his ; but the greateft

own

part of them were reduced by war, and fiegcs. Among thofe fubdued by battle, was this Cacus, fo much celebrated

by the

Roman

fables

;

a very barbarous prince, reigning
:

over a favage people He, they fay, oppofed Hercules, trufting to the faftneffes, from whence, he annoyed the

neighbouring people
cules lay

;

and,

as

foon as he heard that Herfar off,

incamped

in

a plain not
fet

he furnifhed
;

himfelf like a robber, and
the

upon him on a fudden

and,

army being afleep, he made himfelf mafter of all their ^3* cattle, which he found unguarded, and drove them away. Afterwards, being belieged by the Greeks, and his forts
being taken by ftorm, he was killed after a ftout reliftance His caftles being dcmolifhed, the country round them was divided among the '" followers ot Hercules, the Arcadians
:

under Evander, and Faunus, king of the Aborigines.
there
'i^'
ctyiKti.

is

room

to believe that the Epei, the Arcadians,
r
I Toiv

And who

A««f.
ic

A«i},

^^Ejj.uoilav

'33"

Kulct

Helychius.

am

<r(pK? iji^ci.

There feems
irf^o,

fenfible that

lignities alio, any i^coly taken that this is the fenfe, in and war; which many authors ufe the word,

he

fays

to be fomething wanting here to cornIf we read xa* I plete the Icnfe
:

in

think

it

will

be clear enough.

The

reader will

But,

as

it,

particularly,

fignifics

a

booty confining of cattle, and, as our author has added «7r>)Aaa-j, I think the word cannot be applied, upon this ocFor whi h reacafion, to any other. * * * does not feem to fon, butin in iM

that the Trojans, mentioned in the next fentence, were thofe, who, as our author, before, told

remember

me

een taken prifoners by Herwhen he took Troy, and, after that, attended him in his expedition to Spain: For Aeneas, and his Trojans
us,
i

had

cules,

a proper trandation of Awoc.

were not yet arrived

in Italy.

came

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN A S SE N SI S.
Plieneus,

97

came from
were
left

and the Trojans, who
For,

all ftaid

behind,

to guard the country.

among

other adtions,

which Hercules performed, well becoming the general of an army, none was more worthy of admiration than his
employing, for fome time, in his expeditions, thofe he drew out of the cities he had taken ; and, after they had, chearfully,

aflifted

him

quered countries, had gained from others.
the

them in the conand beftowing on them the riches he
in
his wars, fettling

Thefe
in

adrions, they fay,
Italy,

rendered
pafTao-e

name of Hercules fimous
it,

and not

his

through

which was attended with nothing worthy of
fay,

veneration.

XLIII. Some

that he

left,

even,

two

fons,

by two
:

women,

inhabited by the Romans One of his fons was Palas, whom he had by the daughter of Evaain the places

now

der ; whofe name, they fay, was Launa ; the other, Latinus, whofe mother was a certain northern girl, whom he

brought with him as an hoftage, given to him by her father, and preferved, for fome time, untouched ; but, while he was on his
with her, he got her with child And, when he was preparing to go to Argos, he married her to Faunus, king of the Aborigines And, for this reafon, Latinus is, generally, looked upon as the fon of

voyage to
:

Italy,

falling in love

:

Palas, they fay, died before he Faunus, not of Hercules. arrived to puberty ; but Latinus, when he came to be a man,

fucceeded his father in the kingdom of the Aborigines ; and, killed in a battle his being againfl neighbours, the Rutili,

without leaving any male

ifliie,

the government devolved

on

Vol.

I.

O

Aeneas,

98

ROMAN
XLIV.

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

Aeneas,

the Ton of Anchifes, his fon-in-k\v.

But thefe

things happened at other periods of time.

After Hercules had fettled every thing in Italy his naval forces were arrived in to his and defire, according from Spain, he offered up to the gods the tenths of fafety
his
'^'^fmall booty, and built a
'34*

town of the fame name with
year following, he died on the ides of September, in the confuifhip of Flavius, and Pollio. But I fufpeft that either Xiphilinus, or his tranfcriber
has
is

This
fo

is

noAiJ^ii>)» izuvv^ov uvl)i yHtcoicthe unfortunate town, that was

years, afterwards, deftroyed by that fatal eruption of mount Vefuvius, in which Pliny the

many hundred

miftaken the name of the
:

firft

elder

particulars which, as they were feen, and felt at Mifenum, are defcribed by his ^nephew

perifhed.

The

of

conful

For, in the Fajli Confulares, he

called

M.

Plautius Silvanus, and his
Pollicx,

collegue,

M. Annius Verus

This horrible is mentioned conflagration by Suetonius in his life of Titus, in whofe reign it happened, and defcribed in all
in his letter to Tacitus.

who were confuls the 834''' year of Rome, which was the year Titus died.
Thefe circumftances,
convince
I

believe,

will

itsdreadtul circumftances by ^ Xiphilinus, the abftrafter of Dion CalTius.

Some
that

learned
the

men have

eruption

maintained, of Vefuvius, by

great eruption of Vefuvius muft have hap' pened in the firft year of his reign. Whatever diverfity of opinions there

the reader, that the

which Herculaneum was deftroyed, happened in the laft year of the reign of Titus But, though Suetonius has not mentioned the particular year, yet
:

might, formerly, have been concerning the fituation of Herculaneum, there can be none now, fince the difcoveries

made by

his Sicilian

majefty's order:

it

is

certain,

that

it

know both by of his reign. and Suetonius, Xiphilinus, that he reigned two years, two months, and twenty days-, and, by the latter, that
firft
''

We

happened

in

the

For, it, plainly, appears by the temple of Hercules, his ftatues, and many infcriptions there found, that this fubterraneous town was the ancient Herculaneum. I have heard it faid, and, moft heartily, wilh it may be true, that,

the great

lire,

which confumed

a vaft

among

the

many

curious

monuments

Number
ings at

of public, and private build-

this eruption

Rome, happened the year after of mount Vefuvius, while

of antiquity, there difcovcred, feveral manufcripts of the ancient authors have been found nay, I have heard
-,

Titus was abfent, and making a progrcfs through Campania to comfort,

it

aflerted,that anentircLivy
•,

is

among

them
''

and

relieve his afflifted fubjeds.
'

The
E

and why may we not hope, one day, to fee the nine laft books of
Sueton. Life of Titus,
c.
1 1
.

Pliny, E. vi. Epift. 16.

p. 225.

himfelf,

BookL
himfelf,

OIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
in the place

99

where

his fleet

being

now

inhabited by the

Romans,

lay at anchor (which, and lying in the mid-

way between Pompeii, and Naples,

has, at all times, fecure

havens) and having gained glory, worthy of '"emulation, and received divine honors from all .he inhabitants of
Italy,

he

fet fail for

guards, Saturnian

Thofe, who were left by him, both as and inhabitants, of Italy, and were fettled on the
Sicily.
hill, lived,

for

fome time, under a

feparate govern-

But, not long after, joining with the Aborigines in their manner of living, their laws, and tlieir religion, as the Arcadians, and, before them, the Pelafgi, had done ; and,

ment.

partaking of the fame

'^"^

form of government, they came
marian.
It
is,

to

our author ? If fuch manufcripts have been found, and his Sicilian majefty Ihould think fit to make tliem public, I will venture to affirm that he will, from that time, be looked upon as a

fays

he,

aj/aSa nio?

common
his

benefaftor to

mankind

;

and

Le Jay fliews he faw the diffiof culty rendering this word, by leavit out. The other French tranfing lator, has, in my opinion, faid with
^^X'f-

name

will be celebrated as

long as

thofe great authors, thus reflored by him to life, fliall be admired. '35- Zi)A!s. This is a very fignificant

great propriety, apres avoir donne deji beaux exemples de veriu.
xoivovfjo-tuvjit.

I

Greek, and not eal'y to be tranflated into Englifh The reafon it is ufed in a greater in is, that, Greek, latitude than our language will allow. For, though we fay, fuch a one deferved emulation^ we cannot fay, he gained for emulation^ which the Greeks can can be no reafon but which, given,
in
:
-,

word

this place, the fenfe

have given to woAn, in of aroAi7««, as it is,

beft authors, parAriftotle in this paflage, ToivuK o'ti nOAIS UK €5-; koivu'jim <pav£^ov roTTn. And, in this fenfe, the Latin
'

often, ufed
ticularly,

by the
ij

by

authors,

after

the

example of the
civil as,

Greeks, have ufed the word
as ^ Cicero calls
tatis genus.

that there

is

a

humor

in all languages,

which muft be cannot omit the
I

complied with. I given by Suidas of the word ^>;A<if, though
fine definition

monarchy regale civiFor this reafon, it is impoffible to know in what fenfe the Latin tranQators have ufed that word
in

rendering this
tranflator,
B.
iii. c.

paffage;
le

but

the

think

it

too philofophical for a
'IIeji woXil.

gramc. 6.

French
''

Jay, whole lan-

B.

iii.

DeLeg.

O

15.

2

be

100

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
So

OF
I

Book L

be looked upon as the fame nation.

much

thought

proper to fay concerning the expedition of Hercules, and the Peloponnefians, who remained in Italy. The fecond
the fifty fifth year, after the generation, and about departure the Romans themfelves as of Hercules, fay, Latinus, the fon of Hercules, and the fuppofed fon of Faunus, was

king

of the Aborigines, and in the thirty

fifth

year of his reign.
at '"

XLV. At
fled

that time, the Trojans,
after
it

who, with Aeneas, had
Laurentum,
the Tyrrhene

from Troy

was taken, landed

coaft of the Aborigines, lying on fea, not far from the mouth of the Tiber :

upon the

And, having

received

from the Aborigines fome land

for their habitation,

and every thing elfe they defired, they built a town on a it '^s Lavinium. Soon hill, not far from the fea, and called
guage leaves no room
for that doubt, his

own language
Kcfilviov.

•,

for

he fhould have

makes
city,

all

thefe nations live in the

fame

faid de la
'3^*

mcr Tyrrhhiienne.

though Dionyfius has, already,

defcribed the particular parts of the country inhabited by each of them. '37M*** fays that LauAta^ivlov. rentum is, now, called San-Lorenzo.

the Trojans built

Roman
this hill,

hill, on which Lavinium, is three miles from the fea; and, on
""

The

river

"

were the fprings, that fed the
haec fontis fiagna Numici.

Numicius,

But
this

'

Cluvcr fays that thofe,

who

call

town by that name, are miftaken; the modern name of it being Paterno. The fame tranflator has rendered thefe
words,
fur
les
i-ni Toi
Tijp'p'>iV(>£a)

Thefe fprings, and the cavern from whence th^y flowed, were, afterwards,
confecrated by the
defs,

TTSAaj'rt jtriuEiov,

de la Tyrrhcnie, is well known that Tyirhenia lay on the weft of the Tiber, and Laurencaies
it

when

called

Romans, Anna Perenna,
which
°

to a godin

whofe
;

honor there was a
the chearfulnefs of

feftival inflituted

tum on
la

and the

it, between Oftia, Numicius. But, if, by Tyrrhenie, he means the Tyj-rhenefea,

the eaft of
river

he was fo

thought it After he has defcribed
tells

fays well pleafed with, that he deferved to be related.
this feftival,

Ovid

he

he has exprefled himfelf
'Inltal. Ant. B.

iii.

ill,

even, in

us

who

this
"

Anna Perenna was.
Aen.
vji.

p. 88j.

" Cluver,

in Ital.

Ant. p. 893.

Virgil,

>^ 150.

faftor, B.

iii.

3^.

523.

after

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S I S.
changed
flie

loi to-

after this, they
and how
c-uillied
:

their ancient

name, and were,

flie

came
feems,

to be thus diilin-

It

than ylnna, the fifter nate Dido, her confident in her widi Aeneas, and a perfon,

was no other of the unfortu-

which is no great deviation from A>:na Perenna. As this place was held in great veneration by
the old

Santa Paroncl/a,

every one, who reads the Alter of Virgil, muft wifli well to. end of her the tragical fifter, larba, a

amour wliom fourth book

Numidian prince, whofe addrelies Dido had rejetted, took Carthage, and
fcnt

poor Anna

to feek her fortune

:

1 he firft place flie took reluge in, was the iCand of Malta, where Battus, who was then king of the place, as Ovid
fays,

received her very courteouHy

;

but, being threatened by Pygmalion, her implacable brother, he was forced to diimifs her. She then went to Italy ; and, at her landing, found her old
•was,

Romans, their fucceffors would, no means, lofe the benefit of that by veneration ; but chofe rather, to direft it to another objeift, by the fame kind of compofition, as they have changed the deftination of the Pantheum at Rome, and dedicate the fame temple to all the faints, which their predeceflors had dedicated to all the gods. And I am perfuaded that the fame reaion, which induced them to eredt a chapel upon a fpot of ground confecrated by the old Romans, induced them, alio, to coin the name of Pe1

tronella, in order to approach as near to the others in the name of the perfon

who, with Achates, walking by the lea fide. They were both much furprifed at tliis
friend

Aeneas,

then,

to be worfhiped, as they hac^done in the place where that worfliip had been

paid

:

And

unexpe<5tcd meeting.

neas

ali^'

r

Ibme

However, Aeukward excuies for
fifter,

me
is

of

this is,

the reafon, that convinces becaufe Santa Petrcnella

as fiC;titious a

perfon as her prede;

his cruel ufage

of her

takes her

ceflbr,

Anna Perenna

and deferves as
:

home, and recommends her to his wife Lavinia But Ihe, growing jealous of
:

much

to be unniched

For,

if

the

her,

Anna

was, again, forced to

fly

;

reader will troui.le himfelf to look into her life, among other abfurdities, he
will find, that !he
is

and, in her flight, the river Numicius in love with her, and made tlie fell
partner of his watery bed. After this, (he ^ fays to thofc, who were fent in
fearch of her,
placidi fum

faid,

without any

authority trom
at

fcripture, to have been St. Peter's daughter, and to have died

Rome
;

on the

laft

98'''

year of Chrift,
ii:

in

of May in the the reign of

vympha

NuKiici,

jimnaferennelatenSih.nnd.^txtnndLVocor.

Domitian when is well known that Domitian himlelt died in the c;6"' year
of Chrift
cefiTor,
;

and that

"5

But Anna's honors do not end here For fhe has, fince, had the good fortune to be canonized and there is, at
:
•,

after a reign

Nerva, his ilicof one year, four

this inftant,

a chapel erected to her

upon
V

the fame fpot under the title of
iii. ;>.

months, and nine days, was dead, and Trajan, his adopted fon, had fucceeded to the empire befoie the laft day of May in the year 98.
'

Faftor. B.

653.

1

Xiph. in Nei-va, p. 242.

Petav. Ret,

Temp.

B. v.

c.

4.

and

7.

gether

102

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
\\it\i
:

Book

I.

gether

the Aborigines, called Latines, from the king

of that country And, leaving Lavinium, they, in conjunction with the inhabitants of thofe parts, built a larger city,
\^hich

they furrounded with a wall, and called it Alba From whence they went, and built many other cities alfo, called the cities of the ancient Latines ; of which, the greateft
:

to this day. Sixteen generations part are inhabited, even, after the taking of Troy, they fent out a colony to Pallantium, and Saturnia, where the Peloponnelians, and the Arcadians

were,

firft, fettled,

and where there were

ftill left

fome

re-

mains of the ancient people ; there they built, and incomPallantium with a wall, which then, firft, received paffed the form of a city: This city they called Rome, from

Romulus, who was the leader of the colony, and the feventeenth in defcent from Aeneas. But, concerning the arri\^al of Aeneas in Italy, fince fome hiftorians have been ignorant
of
it,

and others have

related

it

in a different

manner,

I

with accuracy, and make ufe of the hiftories of thofe writers, both Greek, and Roman, who are moft credited. This is the account given of him.
fhall treat

being taken by the Greeks, either by the as Homer ffngs, or, by the ftrategem of the wooden horfe, the Antenoridae, or, by any other means, the treachery of of the Trojans, and of their allies, then in the
greateft part
city,

XLVI. Troy

were

flain in their

beds

:

For,

it

feems, this misfortune

when they were not upon happened to them in the night, But Aeneas, and his Trojan forces, which he their guard.
had brought from the
city

of Dardanus, and Ophrynium, to
the

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN AS S ENSIS.
many
others, as

103

the ailiftance of the Ilienfes, and, as

had early

notice of the calamity, while the Greeks were taking the lower town, fled together to the flrongeft part of

Pergamus,

and pofleffed themfelves of the citadel, which was fortified with a feparate wall, and, in which, were depofited the holy
things belonging to the religion of their country, together with a large quantity of money, as in a fafe place, and here, alfo, was the flower of their army : There they repulfed the

enemy,
citadel;

who were

endeavouring to force their

way

into the

and, fallying out, privately, through the narrow paflages, with which they were well acquainted, they fecured the retreat of thofe, who were efcaping from the taking

of the city : The number of whom was greater than That of the prifoners. By this difpofition, Aeneas checked the
firft

to put all '^^ the cifury ot the enemy, who defigned tizens to the fword, and prevented them from taking the
city

whole

But, confidering what was, reafonwould be impollible to preably, to be expedled, that it ferve a city, the greateft part of which was, already, in the

by ftorm.

thought enemy, pofTeffion was, to abandon the citadel to them,

of the

he

of this expedient

;

which

and fave the people,

the holy things belonging to the religion of their country, and all the effefts they could carry away with them.
'39-

OA^v
is

<f/iy,;^e>i(r«ii&«i

T>rj

T^oKiv.

licve, will
rtjv otoAiv,

Here woAk

taken for nroAi7a!/, accord-, to almoft that proverbial exprcfing
fion, iroAif,
«vJfSf, «
T«;^>;.

And,

in

imagine that, by <?;i»;;^o);(r«i>&ai and x«IaAi}(pO)ji'«i to «s-u, in the next- fentence, our author iTican=i the fame thing. The former, therc-

this

fenfe,

Sylburgius

has

rendered

this paffage,
fit

which

to leave out.

Jay has thought And no body, I bele

of the

fore, plainly, relates to the deftruftion citizens, and the latter to the

taking of the

city.

Having;

104

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
refolved, he,
firft,

Book

I.

Having thus

fent out the children,
all

and the

women, with

the

'-^^

old men, and

fuch,

whofe condition

time to make their efcape, with orders to required much take the road, that leads to Ida, while the Greeks, intent on taking the citadel, would never think of purfuing the who were efcaping out of the city. One part of the people, forces he appointed to convoy thofe he had fent away, to
the end that their flight might be as fecure, and as little ''^' would admit troublefome, as the prefent conjundlure
:

Thefe were ordered
of mount Ida:

to take poffeflion of the ftrongeft part With the reil, who were the choiceft men,

upon the walls of the citadel, and, while the enemy were diverted from the purfuit by affaulting the walls, he
he
flaid

rendered the retreat of thofe he had, before, fent out, the But Neoptolemus, with his men, having lefs difficult o-ained the afcent to part of the citadel, and all the Greeks
:

he abandoned the place; and, opening fupporting him, '*' the gates, through which the others had efcaped, he

marched away with the

reft in

him, in the beft chariots, his his wife, and children, and fuch other perfons, country, with and '^' things, as were moft valuable.
with >ioi^xStephens finds fault I cannot, indeed, fay that I ynecin*. ever met with the word before, but
i+o-

good order, carrying with father, and the gods of his

in

all

good authors,
to

that

I

think
it.

it

needlefs
ftipport

the fcnfe

bring any 1 have given to

authorities to

x.ala,-yij^(*rAu,andn(x!»yn^'Oi

are

common
by no

enough.
14.1.

potTible

h^- Tocj (puj.«<f«f aruA*?. It was not to tranflate this poetical ex-

E^

Tw

£vov7wv.
e

I

can,

predion

means, approve o^
ttite

praefaHc calami-

And, indeed, all literally. the tranflators have been lb modeft as
not to attempt
'43it.

of

le

an 1 much lefs, fuga^ in Sylburgius, out thefc words. leaving Jay's
is

Xjupa. See the 71" annotation.

This Greek expredion

fo

common

XLVII.

Eookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
the

105

XLVII. In
by ftorm
;

mean

time,
intent

the Greeks took the town

and, being

on plunder,

gave

thofe,

an opportunity of efcaping with great fecurity. Aeneas, and his people, overtook their companions on the road ; and, being, now, all together, they pofted themfelves on the ftrongeft part of mount Ida. They were joined not
fled,

who

a great only by the inhabitants of Dardanus, who, feeing and unufual fire break out at Troy, deferted their town, and
all

went

thither,

except thofe, who, under Elymus, and

Aegeftus, having prepared fome fhips, had left it before ; but, alfo, by all the inhabitants of Ophrynium, and of the
other Trojan
cities,

who were

defirous to preferve their liberty:

in a very fhort time, the were, very much, increafed.

And,

numbers of the Trojan forces, Thofe, who, with Aeneas,

had, thus, efcaped from the taking of the city, were, during their flay here, in hopes of returning home, as foon as the

enemy fhould
to flavery the

fail
'**

But the Greeks, having reduced inhabitants both of the city, and of the
away.

neighbourhood, and demolifhed the flrong places, were prewho were pofted on the mounparing to attack thofe, alfo, But the Trojans, fending heralds to treat of a peace, tains and defiring they would not reduce them to the neceflity of
:

making war, they called a council, and made peace with them upon the following terms That Aeneas, and his people '^^ effects fliould tranfport themfelves with all the they had
:

144- T))v aroXfv.

Here, HoAk

is,

again,

place,

I

cannot fay fo
;

much
ra?

of their
oij.(iMyia.(

taken for
'45*

ztoAiIoi.
x,^i;[Mii!a.
'

manner of tranflating
All the tranflators
this

y.ala.

in the next fentence

which,
I

have rendered ^Kuetlm properly in

they have mifplaced,

mean

I think, the Latin

Vol.

I.

P

faved

io6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Bookl.

faved in their flight, out of the territory of Troy within a limited time, and deliver up to the Greeks the places of
ftrength

the country in purfuance of thefe terms, the Greeks fhould allow them a fafethat, after they
left

And

had

condu6t by fea, and land throughout all their dominions. Aeneas, having accepted thefe conditions, which he looked upon as the beft the prefent conjundlure would admit of,
fent

away Afcanius,
greatefl: part

his eldeft

fon,

with fome of the
'*^

allies,

were Phrygians, to the Dafcyin which lies the Afcanian lake, he litic country, having been invited by the inhabitants to reign over them, where he ftaid not long For '*^ Scamandrius, and the other
the

of

whom

:

been difmified out of Greece by Neoptolemus, coming to him, he returned to Troy in order
Hedloridae,
to reftore

who had

th-m

to their paternal
is

kingdom.

And
As

this

is

all

the account,
after his fleet
tranflators only,

that

given of Afcanius.

for Aeneas,
reft

was ready, he imbarked with the

of his

for both the French tranQators have left out thofe words, The others have applied xceloi rat ofxo-

egakment pttiffants. All the trannators have rendered ix. rav mot^uv, in the next fentence, in the fenfe I contend for in
the 141'' annotation. h^- A«(rxuAi7))u
is
"

/io;).iat

to «<r(|>«A««v,
aTrnsa-i,

when

they, plainly,

which they, immethis wrong diately, follow ; and, by of the words, they have application at lead, and diffenfe the weakened
relate to

y>!v.

This country

in Bithynia, as is, alfo, the Afcanian lake, near to which flood Nicaea, the

capital of thofe parts.

jointed the period.
only,
left

Lc Jay

has, not
faid,

H7nerally,

Sjcaj^aa/Jfiof.

He

but has

out thefe words, as I tranflated the reft of

known by

the

is, more gename of Aftya-

this
I
•,

nax

;

but
:

Homer

fays

that Heftor,

fentcnce in fo cavalier a manner, that cannot forbear tranfcribing his words

his father,

gave him That of Scamano/

drius
^^^
^,

^ie
la

Ics

Cms

de

hur

coft'e

faciliteroieni

for tie d'Enee,

el lui prcjleroient
oii

mamp. 861.

^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ix^^^Jj.,,, «.7«j

«m.v

Ari/amxr".

mer forte fur tcrre et fur

ils

efloient
xii,

'Strabo. B.

^i]. z.

jf.

402;

Jons,

Book!.
fons,

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
and
his
father,

107

of taking with him the ''^Mmages his gods ; and, crofling the Hellefpont, failed to the next which Hes before '"^^ Europia, and is called Pallene. peninfula, This country was '^° inhabited by a Thracian people, named
'+^'

Kai

Tov

O'ctJi^oix.oii

l/ij

ruv

B'lcav.

K^ca-ffcihi.

The

fixme author fays that

I have, before, obferved, and fhall, often, have occafion to obferve, that Virgil, and our author followed the fame hiftorians in many things relating The former has ufed alto Aeneas moft the fame words in fpeaking of
:

the fleet of Xerxes,
failing to Greece,

when they were made the promon-

this

imbarkation of his hero,
firor exul in

tory of Pallene, called Canallraeum, and received (hips, and men, from the cities of Pallene, which, he fays, was, " Thefe Phlegra. formerly, called, cities he enumerates Their names
:

ahum
'.

are,

Potidaea,

Aphytis,

Neapolis,

Cumfecit s,
I

natoque,penatibus,

et rnag/ils diis

Aega, Therambos, Sciona, Mendas, and Sana. Voffius finds fault with our
author for ufing fuch expreffions, upthis occafion, as might induce his readers to think he meant the Thracian Cherfonefus inftead of That called Pallene. But Voffius ought to have confidered that Dionyfius fays he takes this account from Hellanicus, and did not allow himfelf to alter any part of

am

furprifed that Dionyfuis

made

Aeneas forget his wife, particularly, as he had told us before that he carried her, as well as his children, and his gods out of Troy. Virgil, indeed, had a very good reafon to difpofe of Creufa before Aeneas fet fail, becaufe Ihe would, moft certainly, have been
a very inconvenient peifon both in his amour with Dido, and in his addreiTes
to Lavinia.
'49'

on

his relation.

So
that

that, if there

is

any

word
der,

in

it,

may

miflead the rea-

H

TT^OKeiloti jMEU T>)f Euf«7rit)f.

So

this

word muft be read

as Voffius,

and there is but one, which is it muft be ifyi'^oc, placed to the account of Hellanicus, and not to That of our
author.
'5°'
ESi/of
<J'

quoted by Hudfon upon this occafion, has, plainly, proved. This country, he from Eurofays, was called Europia town of Macedon, mentioned pus, by many geographers, which was the

«;^^6v

£v «v7(j.

Thus we

muft read

this fentence,

with the Va:

The peninfula, called capital of it. at the time our author Pallene, was, inhabited by a Thracian fpeaks of,
people, calledThrufaeans, who are fuppofed to be the fame Herodotus means,

tican manufcript. AvJt;, in the vulgar is fcarce fenfe For, if it editions, can be fuppofed to relate to Pallene,
it is

a very ftrange
dvly,

way of fpeaking
inftead of
«9voc

to

«u''>]v.

»yiv H^it tSvof, But, in order, to enter into the accuracy of the Vatican manufcript,
fay

when he fpeaks of a country lying near the Thermean gulph, which he calls

we muft
place,

confider that «;^«v, in this
to

fignifies
c.

inhabit, in

which

Aeneid. B.

iii. ;f-.

ii.

In

Pol)h.

1*3.

P

2

Crufaei,

io8
Crufaei,
afTifted

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
who were
in alliance with the Trojans,

Book

I.

and had
than

them, during the war, with greater
therefore,
is

alacrity

any of their confederates.

XLVIII. This,

the moft credible account,

Trojan fame things by fome others alfo, which I look upon as lefs But, let every reader judge as he thinks probable than this.
proper.

concerning the flight of Aeneas, which is taken from Hellanicus, one of the ancient writers, in his hiftory of the affairs : There are different accounts given of the

in his drama, called Sophocles, the tragedy writer, Laocoon, reprefents Aeneas, juft before the taking of the removing with his family to Ida, in obedience to the
city,

orders of his father Anchifes,
tions of

who remembered

the injunc-

and, concluded from the prodigies, which had, lately, happened to the Laocoontidae, that the ruin of His iambics, v/hich are fpoken by the city was not far off.

Venus

;

another perfon, are as follows

:

"

Now

Aeneas, the fon of

" " "

the gates, bearing his father on his fhoulders, whofe back, ftruck with thunder, diftills on the goddefs,
his linen
is

at

garment

:

He
this

carries

with him,
Kux^«
^t

'^'

on

chariots,

fenfe,

it is is

taken' by the beft authors.

ufeof E^^Mv, the word the Latin writers have borrowed from the Greeks ;
oixcoy.

Hefychius. And

wcunnv owTwv uajj-vXyjOiav, obliged to depart from all the tranflators, both French and Latin, in rendering this verfe. And, notwith'5'-

I

am

^ Suare

(ipite, et,

,

,

pnmo

^

laeti

,

. cum

I rilumtne join,

ftanding
r>

r

\.

my
t

^eloca, 3u,'ve\i^h,:^r.thomlnes,ubimoe.iagen,u,
Vejligemus-;

Cafaubon,
^'^

who
It,

corrca:

I

great veneration for has taken great pains thuik the verlc, as it
\ i

fays

Aeneas

in

Virgil,

jufl after he

landed in

Italy.

the editions, carries with it a Had Cafaiivery obvious fenfe. bon attended a little more to the force
all
vii.

ftands in

"

Aeneid, B.

f. 130.

"all

Book
**

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
:

icg

There follow a multitude, but, not fo *' many, as you delire, and thofe who wifh well to this *' But ''" Menecrates, the Xanthian, Phrygian colony." that Aeneas betrayed the city to the Greeks, from his fays, enmity to Alexander; and that, upon the ftrength of this
all

his family

was allowed, by the Greeks, to fave his family. His account, which begins from the funeral of Achilles, is " The Greeks were delivered in thefe terms
merit, he
:

" with

opprefled

grief,
xujcAh,

and thought the army had
he would not have
to wkAoi^ alfo, to alit

loft its

head:

of the word
thought
ter the
TL\ix.>^siv

pourpre
ronne.

reluit de la lumiere

qui Venvi-

it

necefTary to alter

which has obliged him, whole ftrudure of the
fignifies /o curry

This has not the leaft pretence to a tranflation, and may be applied
to any other verfe in Sophocles, as

verfe.

which our author has, plained by telling us that Sophocles re-

on chariots^ himfelf, ex:

well as to this.

And prefents Aeneas a/«<ritsu«^a,u£K)v this is the fignification Hefychius, whofe
often quoted by Cafaubon, authority to the word. KuxA);(ro^£v, i(3?' gives
is

ignorance we are in concerning the perfon in this drama, who fpeaks thefe verfes, and the perto whom they are fon, addreiTed,

The

makes

it

impoffible to tranflate
:

them

elfxu^ut noXinfAiv.

Neither can
in reading

I

agree
for

with any tolerable beauty So that, it is the reader will content himhoped felf with a literal verfion of them.
firft of feldom mentioned,, and all we know of him is that he treated of the affairs of The Lycia. " fecond is as little known. Strabo fays he was born in a town near
rf^j'jjS/o!-,

with "Plutarch
vuJn,

/jt-ola

becaufe
is

fjt.o1o(,

which

fignifies

a

Uyytui-mrof.
is

The

"^

tent,

below the dignity of tragedy. This ti adit ion, that Anchifes was ftruck
with thunder,
followed by Virgil, fay to his fon, when prcfTing his father to accomis

thefe hiftorians

who makes him
he was

pany him
;

in his flight,

carled

«,'

W^yYih^.

He

Cuma,

writ of the
is

Jamfridem in'vifus dinjis, et i nut His annos Demoror en quo7!!e dmitm pater, at que hominum rex
Fulminis
afflavit
•vetitis,

Trojan

affairs.

known by

Hegefippus

more

et

conligit igni

*.

I

cannot conceive what

than by concerning him.

this palTage of our author any thing elfe v/e can find

As

to

le

Jay could,
the verfe

Hellanicus,
6,6,"-'^

mentioned a
annotation.

little

pofiibly,

mean by tranOating
y

before, fee the

before us in this manner, fa robe de
Aeneid. B.
ii. -p.

647,

»

Voffius de Hill. Grace, B.

iii.

»

B.

xiii.

p. 883,

p; 387,

ji-o
*'
*'

ROMAN
all

ANTIOjaiTIES OF
his

Book

I.

However, they folemnized

funeral,

and made war
taken

by the delivered it up to them. For treachery of Aeneas, who " Aeneas, being difregarded by Alexander, and excluded

upon

the

country,

till

Ilium was

"

" from the honours of the
*'

and,

having
fay,

priefthood, ruined Priamus ; done this, he became one of the Greeks."
at the fea

Others

that he refided, at that time,

port,

where the Trojan fhips lay : And others, that he had been fent, with a body of forces, into Phrygia by Priamus, upon

fome military expedition. Some
of
his departure.

give a

more fabulous account
ftill

But,

let it be, as

every one thinks.

XLIX. What happened
in greater doubt

after his departure creates

a

moft people: For, fome, after they have he died there Of which brought him as far as Thrace, fay number are Cephalo Gergithius, and Hegefippus, who writ
:

ancient hiftorians, and of concerning Pallene, both great Others convey him, from Thrace, to Arcadia, authority. and fay he lived in the Arcadian Orchomenus, and, in a
place, which,

of the

fens,

though in the midland country, and a river, is called N^aog, an
called '"

yet,

by reafon

ijland:

And,

that the town,

Capyae, was built by Aeneas, and the Trojans, and took its name from Capys, a Trojan.
153K«7ruij{(.

This town
in
''

is

called

by

the fame
it

name

Strabo,

who

fays that built by

was reported to have been

Aeneas, and called Capuae, from Capys; and that it flood near It appears, by Arcadia. Mantinea

many paflages in Virgil, that Capys was one of the companions of Aeneas i and = Virgil, alfo, fays that Capua in Italy received its name from him:
JT,r^^. ,. ;•
^^

n

^

j

.

l-

m

t

*

B.

xiii.

p. 905.

«

Aeneid. B. x.

jr.

14J,

Arifthus,

Bookl.
*'*

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
who
giv^e

211

Arifthus,
others,

has written of the affairs of Arcadia,
this
;

and,

account.

Some

affirm,
Italy,

that,

in-

deed, he
here,
as

came

hither
relate,

but that he died in
particularly,

and not

many
poet,

dian, the

who,

Agathyllus, an Arca" He came. in an elegy, fays thus :

"
** *'

and, in Nefus, married his two daughters Codone, and Anthemone : But he himfelf haftened to the
into Arcadia,

Hefperian land, where he begot Romulus."

The

arrival

of Aeneas, and the Trojans in Italy, is attefled by all the Romans, and confirmed by the ceremonies, obferved by '" them, both in their facrifices, and feftivals ; by the Sibyl's
books, the Pythian oracles, and many other things ; which none ought to rejed:, as contrived for the fake of embellifh-

ment.

Many monuments, alfo, evident to this day, are on thofe coafts, where fubfifting, even among the Greeks, they landed, and among thofe people, with whom they
'54-

A^iS-ofy Aj/afluAAoy.
is

Ariaethus,

no

or Arifthus
this paffage
alfo,
little

fcarce

known but by

of Dionyfius ; to which, Agathyllus is obliged for the we know of him.
2i€uAAt]f Tj
^

would convince us that thebooks were in profe. As for Thofe in Greek hexameter verfe, which have been, often, quoted by men of more zeal than learning,
other,
Sibyl's
are

'55'

f^oyia,

Kai

x?-r](r/xai

now known

they

to be pious frauds:

nu9/xoj.

Thucydides makes the lame

For
all

the author of

them

differs

from

diftindtionbetweenprophecies in profe, and oracles in verfe, when he fpeaks

other prophets,

not only in fore-

of the ominous figns, that ufhered in the Peloponnefian war; woAha /xiv
Aofios

iMyilo, T^aKKx

Si p^sijir^oAoj/oi.iJ'ov

:

The great Scaliger never mentions him without giving him this, or the like
As for known
appellation, fjeudofihyllinus the Pythian oracks,
hariolus.
it is

telling things, that are paft, but, alfo, in being, perte(5tly,free from obfcurity.

Upon
it

which, the Greek

fcholiaft,
to.

very
ma.^ot.

properly, obferves, h.cyict. sn T» S^ea Aiyo^ivoi K(xi»KoyaSni'
ohivic ijAjAil^wi Asj/ov?*;,

well

xi^'^l^"*

fju(jio^«jM5vuv

Tw» h.iyi)ylm.

This reafon,

if there
?

was
B.

they were delivered in verfe, at leaft, as long as they were in credic enough to maintain a poet,
S.

ii. c.

ftaidj

112
ftaid,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
when
ftorms,

OF

Book

I.

or

contrary winds detained

them

in

their harbours:

In

mentioning which,
poflible.

many,

I fhali

be

as fhort as

though they are They, firft, went to
:

'^"^ Pallene Thrace, and landed on the peninfula, called It was inhabited, as I have faid, by Barbarians, named

where they found a fafe retreat. There they ftaid the winter feafon, and built a temple to Venus upon one of the promontories, and alfo a city, called '^^ Aenea, where
Crufaei,

they left bear the

all

thofe,

who, from

fatigue,

were not able to

fea,

they were,

remain there, as in a country for the future, to look as their own. upon
or chofe to

This

city

fubfifted to the time of the

under the fucceflbrs of Alexander ;

Macedonian empire but was deftroyed in the

when '^^ Theflalonica was building : reign of Caflander, And the inhabitants of Aenea, with many others, removed
to the new-built city.

L.
being,
>56-

From

Pallene, the Trojans then, king of that ifland
fays, in his this pafTage, that this penin-

failed to

Delos, Anius

:

Here many monuments
^

^«^^l)v^).

M.

* * *

note upon
fula
different

was in Macedon, and, entirely, from That of Thrace called, alfo, Pallene; but that is a miftake ; this is the fame peninfula, which,
formerly, belonged to the Thracians, and, afterwards, to the Macedonians, That genrleman did not, I believe,

by Livy, in one place, Jenia^ and, in another,^WM; where, '^he fays, an annual facrifice was performed to
called

Aeneas, the founder of it. '5S- 0ctr<ra;Aov(xtj. ^ Strabo fays, alfo, that the inhabitants of Aenea, and of the neighbouring villages, were re-

obferve that our author, before, gave a fummary account of Aeneas's voyage, and now enters into a detail of it.
'57-

moved to Theflalonica by Caflander, who gave to his new-built city the name of his wife She was daughter
:

to Philip,

great.
Saloniki.
e

and filler to Alexander the This town is, now, called

rioAiv

Aiv««v.

This town
'

is

B. xliv.

CIO.

B.

xl. c.

4.

gpit. of Strabo. B.

vii. p.

ji.

i>{

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
arrival
this

113

of the
while

of Aeneas, and the Trojans, were to be feen,

ifland

was inhabited, and

'^^

floiirifhed.

Then,

another ifland, lying off Peloponbeing arrived at Cythera, Venus. While they were on nefus, they built a temple there to '^° their voyage from Cythera, and not far from Peloponnefus, one of Aeneas's companions, by name, Cinaethus, died, whom they buried upon one of the promontories, which, "^' Cinaethion. from him, is, to this day, called And, hav-

with the Arcadians, concerning ing renewed their affinity which I fhall treat afterwards, and ftaid a fhort time in thefe
places,
''^'

where they

left

Zacynthus.
friendly

The

people, they came to Zacynthii, alfo, received them in a

fome of

their

manner on account of their confanguinity (For Dardanus, the fon of Jupiter, and Eledra, the daughter of Atlas, had, as they fay, by Battea, two fons, Zacynthus,
Portus, and Sylburgius have, very juftly, obferved that ii'v/x,«, or oVt is wanting before ijvOh to comThe reader will replete the fenfe.
'59-

HvOrt.

high-priells Ihould be kings, but that kings fhould be high-priefts, that is, the heads of their churches. The
ifland of Delos is fo much celebrated both by the poets, and hiflorians of old, and of fo little confequence now, that both thefe are reafons for me to fay "^ "lore of it than that the modern Greeks, in their half Barbarous Ian-

member that ^ Virgil,
neas
to

alfo, carries

Ae-

Delos, where Anius, then,
rex idem homlnum Phoebiquefacerdos.

reigned, Rsx Jr.iu!,

imagine, Virgil defigned as a compliment to his patron Auguftus, who, like Julius Caefar, was pontifex

This,

I

guage,
i6o-

call it 'Sdilous.

KuS))^*.

This

ifland

is,

now,

maximus,
ceflbrs

a dignity,
till

which
'

all his

fuc-

called Cerigo. ^^^ K<u«(Sioi;.

injoyed very wife as not to accept

Gratian was fo
it,

which
fuffi-

''Strabo, alfo, mentions this place as lying near Taenaron,

a promontory of Laconia.
'6^-

many emperors have
cient caufe
to

fince
It

had

E/t Z«!tuvSov.

This

ifland

is

now

was, no doubt, a very wife inftitution, not that
lament.
>>

called Zante.

Aeneid. B.

iii. >•.

80.

'Zozimus, B.

iv. p.

250. Edit, of Opsf.

k B. viii. p. 552.

Vol.

I.

Q^

and

114

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
;

OF

Book

I.

one was the anceftor of Aeneas, In memory, and Zacynthus the founder of the ifland) therefore, of this confanguinity, and by reafon of the kind-

and Erichthonius

of

whom

nefs of the inhabitants,

they ftaid here fome time

;

and,

detained by ftormy weather, they offered up a being, alfo, facrifice to Venus, in a temple, built by themfelves ; which,
to this day, the Zacynthii perform in
celebrate games,
conlifting,

common,

and, alfo,

among
in

other exercifes,

of a

courfe to be run by
iirft

young men,

to the temple, gains the prize : of Aeneas, and Venus, and ftatues are

which, he, who comes This is called the courfe

ereded there to both

of them.
to Leucas,

From

thence,

the place

ftanding out to fea, they came of the being, yet, in the poffeflion
'^^

Acarnanes. Here,
ftands in the
:

alfo,

to Venus, which they built a temple

little ifland,

It is the city From thence, they failed to
'63E)cf<9ev ii HTEAaj-iov

between Diorydlus, and called the temple of the Aenean Venus.
that
lies
'^^

Adium,
eafl:
:

their fleet lying at

srainffu^iw tov

to the
this

They

chofe the latter; and
calls,

tranQated ai-Aiv. is, fadly, ** I'ancre Us kve la *. De ayant by M. I do imagine ci Leucade. terre prirent that Aeneas, and iiis people, could fcarce have failed, if they had not weio-hed anchor ; but, what becomes of ^sAaj-joc? They were to fail from Zante to the iOand of Leucadia, now

This fentence

is,

what our author
artActj^iof aA>if.

very

properly, the word is ufed by ^Thucydides, who, fpeaking of the Lacedaemonian fquadron, that failed from the cape Malea
to attack Melos, fays, stMuc-xi
av
a.1 vy,is

In this lenfe,

«to MaAja? zrxhmyicei,

which Hobbes

called, San(a Mnura, and had their choice either to fteer their courfe be-

has, with his ufual accuracy, trandated in the following manner, Thefe gallies
holding their courfe from the main fea.
>«4-

Malca through

tween Cephalenia, now called, Cefawhere the logna, an.l the continent, or to full of little illands ftreiglit is Hand out to lea, and leave Cephalenia
•,

This town is now called at the mouth ot the and ftands Figolo, Ambracian gulph, known, now, by
a^I.ov.

'B.

viii. c.

39.

anchor

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.

115

anchor off a promontory of the Ambracian bay. After that, to Ambracia, of which city '^^ Ambrax, was, they came He was the fon of Dexamenus, the fon of then, king
:

Hercules

:

And monuments

of their arrival are left in both

places ; at Allium, the temple of the Aenean Venus, and, near to it, That of the great gods ; both which remain to this ; and, in Ambracia, a temple of the fame goddefs,

day and a chapel, dedicated to the memory of Aeneas, near the little theatre, in which there is a fmall ancient ftatue, faid
to be of Aeneas, that
priefteffes,

was honoured with

facrifices

by the
near

by them, A[x(pi7:oXoi. LI. From Ambracia, Anchifes with the

called

fleet, failing

the ihore,

came

to

'^^

Buthrotum,

a fea-port of Epirus.

the nan:ie of golf de hart a. Oppofite to Aftium, Auguftus built a town, which he called Nicopolis, in memory of the fignal vi(!:T:ory he obtained off
that place,

of feveral iflands lying near the continent, particularly, Ithaca, which had produced UlyflTes, that formidable enemy to the Trojans, he arrives at

by the condufl: of Agrippa,

tony.

infatuated rival, Marc Anagainft his Ambracia retains its old name

with a fmall variation, being. now. called Ambrakia.
I find,

Buthrotum, now, Butrinto ; where he finds Helenus in polTeffion of the kingdom of Epirus. But Virgil defcribes this voyage of Aeneas fo much better
than
I can, that I fliall lay it before the reader in his own words "":

by a note

in

Hudfon,

that Pal-

Jam medio

apparetftuSlu nemorofa Zacynthos^

merius, after taking great pains to find out all the fons of Hercules, fays there is no fuch man as Dexamenus among them for which reafon, he is of opi•,

Dulichhimque^Sameque^etNerhos ardua faxis. Effugimus fcopulos Ithacae Laertia regna,

Et terram ahricem facv; exccramur

Ulyffis^

Mox
"

et

Leucatae nlmbofu cacumlna months
naut'n aperitur Jpollo,

Dexamenus is the perfon, who was fo much celebrated for his magnificent entertainment of Hernion, that this
cules.
'^^"
Bi!9fw''ov.

Et formldatus

Chaonio,

L'noraque Epir'i legtmus, portuque fubimus et celfam Buthrrji afcendlmus urbem.
ineredibilis

Aeneas,
•,

in

Virgil,

Hie

rerum fama occupat aures,
urbes,

and, having purfues failed within fight of Zacynthus, and
" Aeneid. B.
iii.

the fame courfe

Priamidem Helenum Graias regnare per
"
ir.

Conjugio Aeacidae Pyrrhifceptrifque potitum.

f. 270.

zgz.

0^2

But

ii6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF
:

Book

I.

But Aeneas, with the ablefl: men of the army, in two days, marched to Dodona, to confult the oracle There they found the Trojans, who had come thither with Helenus :

And, having

among
tions,

received anfwers concerning their colony, and, other Trojan offerings, dedicated to the god brazen
ftill

cups (fome of which are

extant,

and, by their infcrip-

which are very ancient, fliew by whom they were given) they joined their fleet, after a march of about four The arrival of the Trojans at Buthrotum is made days. manifeft by a hill, called Troy, where they,
they incamped. fhore, and came to a haven, which was, then, called the haven of Anchifes, but, now, its name is more '*^ obfcure ;

From Buthrotum,

failed

clofe

formerly, to the

where

alfo,

they built a temple to Venus
fea,

;

and, then, crofled

the Ionian

who

having for guides in their navigation, fome, accompanied them of their own accord, and took

with them Patron, the Thurian, and his men. The gi-eateft after the army was, fafely, arrived in part of whom, Italy,
returned

But Patron, with fome of his friends, beinoon by Aeneas to ingage in the colony, ftaid with prevailed
:

home

The
all

oracle of Dodona is much celebrated by the poets, and hiftorians in
it will be ages; and, for that reafon, the knaof both monument a lading of and the the of folly prieits, very the' people.

name of

wliich,

our author

fays,

was

buc Anchefmus; which he confirms by a ° pafTage in one of Cicero's letters to Atticus, where he fays, £;-«W///?/«»i'f. mmus vii. kal. Decemb. ufi tud felicitate
CaJJicpe,

become obfcure, was not

167-

NukTs

«(r«j)fc-«^i*i' e;^ovIo?ovO(W<)eiriav.

vavigafidi.

Ita belle nobis flavit ab Epiro

Cafiubon
fagacity,

has, with great learning, and fliewii that this haven, the
»

IcniJJwms Ariihcfmitcs.

B.

vii.

Epift. 2.

them.

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A RN A S S EN SIS.
'"

117

Thefe, according to fome, inhabited Alontiiim, In memory of this kindnefs, the Romans, a town of Sicily. '^'^ Anadoriiim upon the afterwards, beftowed Leucas, and

them.

Acarnanes, which they had taken from the Corinthians ; '^° and the former defiring to reinftate the Oeniadae, they to do it, and, alfo, to enjoy the produce of gave them leave '^' the iflands, called the Echinades, in common with the His people did not Aetoli. But, to return to Aeneas
:

all

go

afliore

at the
'^^

landed at the
168.

fame part of Italy, but moft of them cape lapygia, which was, then, called the
This
fervice

£y AKoiltui.

on the north of
the fea,

This town ftands from near the river Chydas, and is
far Sicily, not
^

try in favor

now

called Alontio.

Cicero accufes

Verres of having robbed the inhabitants of all their wrought plate.

of it ; he had married. From Oeneus, the people were called Oeniadae.
lyi-

Hercules did to the counof Oeneus, who was king and whofe daughter Deianira

Ex,ivoiioi?.

Thefe are fmall

iflands

iThis town ftands Avaiilofioi'. near to the Ambracian gulph, not far from the temple of Apollo at Aftium.
'69-

lying at

It

is,

now,

called I'onizza.

Strabo were of dides, and, after him, that thefe iflands would, one opinion
day, be joined to the continent by the
continually, brought down by: the Achelous, which, the former fays, is a It is faid. large, and turbid river. that this has happened to all thefe

mouth of the Achelous. ' makes them nine. ' ThucyPliny "
the

'"o-

Oii«aJa?.

Near

the

mouth of

the

riverAchelous, lay a country, that was " Strabo fliys, Paracbeloiiis, called, as by its being often overflowed by that
river
ries
•,

mud,

which confounded the bounda-

of the lands belonging to the Acarnanes, and their neighbours, the Aetolians ; and this produced frequent wars between thofe two nations. It is faid that Hercules, by raifing banks, inundation of the put a ftop to this river, and introduced plenty into a
country, that, before, was, generally, covered with water ; which gave occafionto the fable of Amaltliea's horn.
p
»

iflands,
'7-*

are, called, Curfolari, or Cuzzolari.
Ay.^a.\i la-TTvytciv.

but three, which

now,

Thus Cafaubon

reads it inftead oi xx^cvIaTrvyiai, which he, very properly, fupports by the authority
this

Thucydides, who promontory by that name. I
of
-^

"

calls

find,
di

alfo, that

Strabo
called.

calls it

xk^o. lairvyix.

It is,

now,

Cap

dl S.

Mana

Letica.
B. X. p. 703.
ii.

B.

Fourth Oration againft Verres. " B. X. p. 703. ii. c. 102.

S

Strabo, B. X. p. 691. w B. V i.e. » B. 44.

sB.

iv. c. 12.

p. 18.5.

Salentine

ii8

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Book

I.

'" Salentine cape

difembarked at a place, called '''^ Minervium, where Aeneas himfelf landed in Italy. This forms a harbour in the fummer, which, is a promontory, that from that time, is called the haven of Venus After this,
reft
:

The

the fhore to the ftreight, having Italy on they failed along one hand, and left in thefe places, alfo, fome traces of their
arrival
;

among

others, a brazen patera in the
is

temple of

Tuno, on which

infcribed, in ancient charadters, the
it

name

of Aeneas,
LII.

who

dedicated

to the goddefs.

they came near Sicily, whether they had any forced from their courfe by defign of landing there, or were which are common in thefe feas, they dilimbarked tempefts,
at that part of the ifland,
'73-

When

which
are

is

called '"
:

Drepana
now

:

Here,

H

ro^i

"ExXitl'm tMytli.

We

baeum

It

is

called 'Trdpani.

for obliged to the Vatican manufcnpt weft fouth The this corredion. part of this peninfula was inhabited by the whoTe territories ^ Strabo Salentini,

the fays, inckidcd

For which

reafon,

promontory lapygia. ^ it is called by PJiny

This town ftands in a peninfula, the fouth fide of which forms a fine port. Drepanum received its name from its which, figure, being curved, was to a fithe, in Greek, refcmble thought which figure gave name, A((7r<ii\iov ;
alfo, to Mefl^ana, another ciry in Sicily, v/hich was called Zancle, from ^<xyn\>!i another Greek word for a fithe. In

Sakntinum prcmontorium. This temple of Mi174- a9>;v«i!)v. nerva is mentioned by many ancient It ftood to the north of the authors. was called by the *cape lapygia, and

Drepanum, Aeneas,

Romans, Cajlrum Minervae, Ara MiHere,
alfo,

as Virgil fays, lofes his father Anchifes, and, for this reafon he calls it, a melancholy coaji ;
Hinc Drefani me port us
Aicifit.
et iltaetabilis ora

''

Mervae, and Minervium, and, novf, C^flro.

Aeneas lands

in

^

Virgil

•,

fortufque fa'efcit

Jam propior,

templumque apparet in arce Mineriat:
et

Here,

alfo,

he finds his countryman

Vela Ugunt focii,
'75*

proras

ad

litora

terjueiit.

A§E7r<xv«.

A town on
'

the fouth

weH: part of Sicily, not far from Lily^B. 111. C. I ;. y B. vi. p. 4^;.
fc

Acelles, called, by the hiftorians, Aegeftus ; and here was the coaft, where his brother Eryx had reigned.
»

Cluver,

Ital.

Aencid. B,

iii. :^.

530.

Cluvcr,

Sicil.

Antiq. B.

ii.

p. 236.

Antiq. B. iv. p. 1240. Acneid. B. iii. /. 707.
''

they

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASS ENS IS.

119

the Trojans, who, with Elymiis, and Aegeftus, they found had left Troy before them ; and who, being '^^ favoured

both by fortune, and the winds, and, at the fame time, not over burthened with baggage, had a quick paflage to and were fettled near the river '"Crimefus, in the Sicily,
country of the Sicani, who, out of friendfhip, had beftowed the land upon them by realbn of their relation to Aegeftus,

who had

been born, and bred in One of his anceftors, a accident
:

Sicily

by the following

man

of Trojan extradlion, being upon ill the king, feized him for fome reafon, and put him to death, and, with him, all his male children, left he fhould fufFer fome mifchief from them ; but, thinking it unbecoming

of diftin6lion, and terms with Laomedon,

him
'76-

to put his daughters to death, as they
01
T\)^>t; TtKcii 7gviviJi.x%(

were yet
But
is

virgins,.

n^m >iacannot perfuade myfelf that Qoy.i\iot. Gur author deligned s;^(« as an epitliet both for Tu;^))f, and trvsu^aalof, though I find the Latin tranflators have apphed
I
it

language,

is

applicable to both in a
sffio?,

figurative fenfe : pHed to fortune,

when ap-

and,

when
this

in the figurative ; to the wind, in a literal fenfe.

But
is

to both;
if

doubt,

and fo would Ovid, no he had tranflated it, as any

much below

epigrammatic way of writing the dignity of hiftory,
ic

and no author defpifes
Dionyfius.
tu;^);,

more than
is,

one may guefs,by the following diftich, which, is, pretty much, in the fame tafte, and which I have heard much admired
:

The

only difficulty
this

that

without

epithet,

may be

Demophaon

,

,

,
..

,

,

,...

wentis, et verba, et 'vela dcaifti : r, : , j.% ytla queror reditu, verba carerejide ',
is

thoug'it too general, and not to fignify good fortune : But this difficulty will be removed, if we confider the word, j u t i u m as txplamed by Helychius. Tuy)j, ' ^ "' ' ^
• • i

i"

This

the language of a witty poet,
loveficic girl,

'77-

K^ijunc-ct).

This

river,

is,

fome-

not of a

who would have
lefs

times,
tarch,

exprefi'ed

herfelf with

wit,

and

ca: led K§/,uf(ro<r, and, by'^Plu: It falls into the fea Kfji^wno-o?

more

If I have applied the paffion. v/ord favoured both to fortune, and the winds, it is becaufe favourable, in our
=

not far from Lilybaeum, on the fouth weft coaft of Sicily, and is, now, called
Balici.
'

Phyll. to

Demoph.

i.\

25.

Life of Timol.

and^

I20

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
fuffer

Bookl.

and unfafe to
delivered

them

to

them to marry any of the Trojans, he fome merchants, with orders to carry
:

them

to the

moft

diftant country

They were

attended in

their voyage by a noble youth, who was in love v^^ith one of the tv/o virgins, he married as foon as flie arrived

whom

in Sicily

;

and, during their ftay

among

a fon, whofe

name was Aegeftus ;

they had and who, having learned
the
Siceli,

the manners, and language of the inhabitants, after the death of his parents, Priamus being, then, king of Troy, obtained
leave to return

home

with the Greeks, '^^ he failed back again to Sicily, being accompanied, in city, his flight, by Elymus, with the three fliips, which Achilles

and, having allifted him in the war while thefe were employed in taking the
;

had
loft.

v/ith

which,

him, when he plundered the Trojan cities, and by their ftriking upon fome hidden rocks, he had

Aeneas, finding thefe
built

men

here, fliewed

them
'"^

great

kindnefs, and

two

cities for

them,

called

Aegefta,

'78I think AAinofAtvyii riit sroMoi^. la ville etant fur le point d''itre prife^'xn

M.

***, dues not exprefs the author's
i

fenfe

and fubmit

it

to him, whether
la ville
it

perpetual alliance, and friendfhip, bur, This town alfo, by confanguinicy. ftood near the river Simois, after it had been joined by the Scamander,

pendant qu'onprenoit be a clofer tranflation of

would not
in his Ian-

both Trojin names, and the ruins of
Tea port are ftill lobe feen at a Cluver flxys is, now, place whiv h This place lies called Cr?/?^/ ^/ wwr^. on the fouth weft coaft of Sicily. But
its
''

guage.
I79' A/j-tfav 1C04I EAuju*. The firfl: of thefe towns was, afterwards, called Segejia, by the Romans, and looked

this great

geographer, very unjuftly,
Virgil for
,
„. ^
t

upon by them to have been founded by Aeneas, b Cicero fays the inhabitants could prove this For which
:

cenfures
fay to

'

making
,.

Ilioncus

Dido,
...
^
..

, '
.

jreafon, they efteemed thcmfelves as united to the Romans, not only, by a
B
Ajgainll Verres, fourth oration.
'

..
-i

'

,

j

j

&

j
i. }'.

>

Sic. Antiq. p. 265'.

|

Aeneid. B.

549.

and

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.

121

ucli I and Eryx, where he left fome part of his army ; whi imagine, he did by choice, to the end that thofe, who were

tired

with fatigue,

or, othervvife, difliking the fea,
:

might

in-

joy

reft,

and a

fafe retreat

his fleet, part of

But fome write, that the lofs of which was burnt by fome of the women,
with wandering, obliged him to leave belonged to the ftiips, that were burnt ;
Et procitl cxcelfo
iniraius I'ertice montis
^idi'eii'um fociafqite rates,
^

who

were

diflatisfied

thofe behind,

who

before Aeneas had ever been in that iPiand For, fays he, the poet brings
:

occumt

Acejies,

him
gil,

thither after the death of

Dido.

From

Gratatur reduces.

whence, he concludes that Viris plain, therefore, that Aeneas had been in Sicily before he went to CarWhile he was thage, and faw Dido. there the fecond time, he built Aegefta-,

he fpoke of the

very much, forgot himfelf, when arrival of Aeneas at
in Sicily.
feries

It

Drepanum

had confidered the

But, ifCluver of Virgil's

narration with a little more attention, he would not have pafied this cenfure on him. Aeneas lands at Drepanum, where he lofes his father ; from thence, he fets iail for Italy ; but is driven, by a tempeft, on the coaft of Africa

and, having left the women there, and thofe of his people, who were not ambitious of a great name, he failed to Italy with the reft, who were few in

number, but eager for aftion
animos

'

;

near Carthage And ^ Virgil begins his narration with his hero's failing
:

Tranfcribimt urhi fnatres, populumque •volentem
Depo7iu>tt,

ml

inagnae laudis egentes,

from

Ipji tranjlra novant,

Sicily,

Exigui numero, fed

hello 'ui'vida 'virtus.

F^ix e conffeiiu Sicttlae tellurh in altiun

Vela dabant

laeti.

reader, who admires Virgil, will excufe this digrefTion in juftifica-

Every

Ilioneus, therefore, very properly, mentions Sicily, and Aceftes in his fpeech

tion of him.

Concerning the other

to

Dido

:

And

that Aeneas,
Sicily,

muft be fuppofed during his firft llay in
it
•,

had feen Aceftes

becaufe,

when he came to that coaft the fecond time, Virgil makes Aceftes furprifed
of his allies, who, he were in Italy, and 'conimagined,
at the

town, called, EAu//a, by our author, Cluver, very juftly, contends that we fliould read E^uxa, which he fupports ™ by the authority of Thucydides, who and were two lLyi':c. fays that E^u|

arrival

gratulating

them on
i.

their return^

Here belonging to the Elymi. Cluver fights with the arms of geography, in which he was better exercifed then in Thofe of criticifm.
cities

••Aeneid. B.

jr.

34.

122

ROMAN
for that reafon,

ANTIQJJITIES OF
could
fail

Book
their

I.

and,

no longer with

com-

There are many monuments of the arrival of Aeneas, and the Trojans, in Sicily but the moft remarkable are the altar of the Aenean Venus, placed on the fummit of mount
;

panions. LIII.

Eryx
firfl

and, a temple, dedicated to Aeneas, in Aegefta ; the his mother; and the being erected by Aeneas himfelf, to
;

left there by the fleet, who confecrated temple, by thofe the memory of their deliverer. The Trojans, therefore,

it

to

who

came
the

places,

hither with Elymus, and Aegeftus, remained in theie and continued to be called Elymi ; for Elymus was
in dignity, as being

firft

they

all

took their name.

of the royal family, from whom Aeneas, and his companions,
flrft,

and came, leaving Sicily, croffed the Tyrrhene fea, '^° to a port of Italy, called Palinurus, which, they
took
'^'

fay,

its

there.

name from one of the pilots After that, they came to an ifland, which
woman, who was
at that place.

of Aeneas,

who

died

they called

Leucofia, from a

and died

From

a relation to Aeneas^ thence, they came to an

anchor in a deep and beautiful haven of the Opici, which, '^' from Mifenus, a man of figure, who, alfo, died there, they
Virgil faid, UxXiva^cs. , , „ , ... locus ralinun nomen babebtt, Aetenmmque '
,.
.

'2o-

When

"

'^**

Mi(rt)v«.

Mifenus, the trumpeter

of Aeneas,
lea here

ri

into the li'-it^his much rival, liiton, by
.

who was thrown

is

he fpoke

like a

prophet, as well as a

celebrated by Virgil.

for this place is ftill called Papoet-, iifiuro, Vind the c^-pe. Capo di Palinuro. 'Si- AeuKco-io!. Tills is the name all

man, Drydcn, who was
lejrning,

a

Our countryman of great

authors give to this
called,

little

rocky

ifland,

now,

ia Licofa.

and very capable both cf and tafling, exprefling the beauties of is poetry, tranfported with the laft of the two following verfes, which, tliey

» Aeneid. B. vi. f. 381.

called

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
name
:

123

called by his

And, coming
'^"^

to the iiland,

'^^

Prochyta,
thefe places

and

they in the fame manner, defiring they fhould ferve as monuments of the women who died there ; of whom one, is faid
to have been a relation of Aeneas, and,

to the promontory,

Caicta,

named

the other, his nurfe.

they arrived at Laurentum in Italy ; where, coming to the end of their wandering, they threw up an intrenchlaft,

At

ment

;

and the
'^^

place,

time, called
°

Troy

:

where they incamped, is, from that It is diftant from the fea about four
coall,
this

Virgil added, while he was rethe Aeneid to Auguftiis, cicing
fay,
Mifeiium Aeoliden : quo non fracjlantior alter Aire ciere 'vims, Martemjue acccndere cautiiV.

could be faid to have come to
by chance

promontory

any more

than to any other. Caieta, ftill, retains its name with a fmall variation, it becalled Gaeta. Here, again, has followed the fame hiftorians Virgil with our author, and fays, this place received its name from the nurfe of

ing,

now,

This cape
I

is, ftill,

called Capo Mifeno.

have not followed the Vatican manuwhere this haven is called hifAnv fcript, v.ciY.ai ; becaufe, if it had been a bad haven, it would not have been the conftant ftation of the Roman fleer, of the Tyrprovided for the fecurity rhene iea which it, certainly, was, as may be feen in many ancient authors, in the letter, mentioned
-,

Aeneas,
7a

who

died here.
Aneia nutrix,
dedijii H.

qiioqus litoribus nojirts,

Aeternam moriem famam, Caieta,
'^5"

T^oi«.

"^Livy gives the fame
Sicilid
claffe
:

note, which Pliny the to Tacitus, giving him writ younger an account of his uncle's death. little iiland i83' U^oyjlr. lying off

particularly, in a former

A

Laurentum nomen agrum tenuijfe Troja The where Aeneas formed eft. place, his camp, muft have been between the lake of Oftia, and the eaft fide of the Tiber. Our author fays he was under
el

account.

Ab

huic loco

cape Mifenum, now,

called Procita,

and Procida.
'S4-

a necefilty of making this digrefTion concerning the arrival of Aeneas in
Italy,

Ax^w'^iigiw

KaiEiij.

Thus Cafau-

becaufe

many

hiftorians aiTerted

very judicioufly, corretled But I wifh he had left this pafTage

bon
out

has,

that

Aeneas never came

thither at

all.

:

I think, can have no I do not fee For why Aep'ace neas, when he was failing along this
T^yj'-,

which,

here.

This aflertion many modern authors of great reputation have revived, and and written, profelTedly, on that fubFor which reafon, I fliall follow jedt.
Aeneid. B.
vi,

Preface to Frefnoy's Art of painting.
I.

r

/. 164.

1

Aeneid. B.

vii. >!.

i.

fE.j. c.

R

2

fladia.

124
ftadia.
I

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
was under a

Book

I.

neceflity of relating thefe things, and of making this digreffion ; fince fome hiftorians affirm that Aeneas did not, even, come into Italy with the ;

was Afcanius, the fon of Aeneas; and others, that they were fome other perfons. There are, who pretend, that Aeneas, the fon of Venus, after he had fettled a colony of his people in Italy, returned
;

and fome, that it chifes, and Venus

Trojans was another Aeneas, not the fon of Anothers, that
it

home, was king of Troy, and, dying, left his kingdom to Afcanius, his fon, whofe pofterity injoyed it for a long time
:

the fenfe opinion, deceived, by miftaking of Homer's verfes. For, in the iliad, he reprefents Neptune, foretelling the future fplendor of Aeneas, and his pofterity,

Thefe

are, in

my

in this

manner

;

'^^

Oil great Aeneas JJjall devolve the reign^ And fucceeding fo7is the lajling line fujiam.

foju

Pope.
the example of our author,

and, alfo,

a digrefiion, to anfwer the obwriters. But, I eafily, ieftions of thefe forefce that a difiertation of this kind,

make

the Englifli language fliall be underfl:ood. He has a long note upon thefe

which he takes notice of the explication our author gives of them
verfes, in
in the pafTage,

which many things muft be anfwerbe much ed, and many eftabhlhed, will
in

now, before us

;

and,

too long to be inferted among the notes ; I fliall, therefore, give it a place by itfclf at the end of this book. '86- Nu» Si I have given Sy] Aiff)«o. of thefe verfes, which Pope's tranOation when 1 fhall always obfcrvc, any verles in the courfe of are of Homer quoted a be tranfFor muft this work. poet and tranflation his of a lated by poet
;

of Aeneas in Italy, as a chimera, invented both by Virgil, and our author, to

upon

the wliole,

treats the arrival

compliment Auguflus.

But,

I

fliall

confider his reafons at large,

Thofealledged by Bochart to Segrais, to which he refers. I hope no critic will find fault with his tranflation of thefe verfes, becaufc he has left out the word Troja>!s, which is the
very point in difpute
;

as alfo, in his letter

the Iliad will be admired as long as

fince, as

Homer

Thus,

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
Homer knew
thefe

123-

Thus, fuppofing that
Phrygia,

men

reigned in
if it

they invented the return of Aeneas, as

were

not poflible that, if they lived in Italy, they fliould reign it was not that over Trojans. he fliould But, impoflible
reign over thofe Trojans he had carried with him, thouo-h fettled in another country. However, other reafons, alfo,

may be

given for this miftake. LIV. But if this creates a difficulty,
is

that the fepulchre
in

of Aeneas

faid

to be,

and

is

fhewn,

many

places,

it

being impoffible for the fame perfon to be buried in more than one ; let them confider that this difficulty is common
to many,
particularly to

men

of

illuftrious fortunes,

and

wandering lives ; and let me inform them that, though only one place received their bodies, yet, their monuments were

many, through the gratitude of thofe, who had received fome benefits from them; particularly, if any of their
eredled in
family, ftiil, remained, or any city had been built by them, or if their refidence, among any of thofe people, had been All v/hich. long, and diftinguiOied by inftances of

humanity

:

agree with the

'^^

account,

For, having preferved

we have received, of this Troy, when it was taken, from
manner,
'

hero,.

utter

had; in the preceding verfe, mentioned Priam, the kingdom, that was to de-

Vii'gil

ha^ adapted diem to

his fyfrem. jjk domus A„eae cundis

volve on Aeneas, muft be underftood to be That of the Trojans. find, by Strabo, that fome read thefe verfes

We

Am.ahkur mV.

Et

nati

natomm,
^,

a

qui nc.fceuhu-

'

in this m

manner
An««o
the

.

Nuv

Si S„

^<^

HANTEZSIN
And,
.\iii.

«v«|«.
in this
t

the end of. ^^^ ^^,h annotation. AJl the tranHators ^^^^ adhered to the vulgar fenfe of the
My^oKoy^y.ivct.

''"T-

,9,

,,

01 See

ah

ilJu.
,

«

meaning

Romans.
«

word, without confidering the abfur-^ dity, that, vifibly, refults from it.
Aeneid. B.
iii.
jj-.

B.

p.

506.

g-/,

de-

126
deftruftion,
left

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
and fent away the Trojan
his

OF

Book

I.

allies fafe to

the

fon Afcanius to reign in Phrygia ; fame name with himfelf in Pallene
;

Bebrycia ; built a city of

;

married

his

part of his army in Sicily ; and, during his refidence in many other parts, vifibly, behaved himfelf with great humanity, he acquired the voluntary afFc6lion of thofe people, and, for that reafon, was honoured,

daughters in Arcadia

left

after

his death,
:

places

What

with temples, and monuments in many caufe, then, can be afligned for the monuin Italy,
if

ments ereded to him
parts,

he never reigned in thofe

refided there, or was, intirely,
?

unknown

to the inha-

point fhall be, again, difcuffed, and made manifeft, as often as the occafion fliall require it. LV. The reafon why the Trojan fleet failed no further
bitants

But

this

into Europe, is to be attributed to the oracles, which were fulfilled in thefe parts, and to the will of Heaven,

many

to them. For, while their fleet lay at anchor ways, revealed ofl* Laurentum, and they were incamped near the fhore,
iirft,

the

men, being

opprefl^ed

with
fay,

thirfl,
I

no water

in the place,

(what

I

and there being had from the inhabi-

tants) fprings

the earth fpontaneoufly,

of the fweeteft water were Teen riflng out of of which all the army drank, and

the place was overflowed, till the ftream ran down to the fea from the fprings, which, at this time, are not fo high as
to overflow
;

but there

is

a

little

water, contained in a holis

low
fun
J

place,

which the inhabitants fay and, near it, two altars are to be
to the weft
;

confecrated to the

feen,

one to the
;

eaft,

the other

both of Trojan

fl:rud;ure

upon

which.

Bookl,

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSENSIS.
fay,

iiy

which, they

Aeneas oiTered up

his

lirfl:

facrifice to

the

acknowledgement for the water. After that, while they were at dinner upon the ground, many of them ftrewed

god

in

parfley
fay,

under their viduals, inftead of a table ; but, others they made ufe of wheaten cakes, that they might eat
:

with greater cleanlinefs When all the victuals, that were laid before them, were eaten, one of them eat of the parfley, or cakes, that were laid under their viduals, and then
another
;

and one of Aeneas's

fons, as it

is

faid, or,

fome other

of the company, happened to fay. Behold, w^e have eaten As foon as they heard this, they all cried even the table
!

with joy, thiit the firft part of the oracle was, now^ fuliiiled. For, a certain oracle had been delivered to them,
out,
as

"^^

fome

fay,

in

Dodona;

a

town near mount
'88-

but, as others write, in Erythrae, '^^ Ida, where lived a Sibyl of that counthe interpreters. It Is certain, that,' in the Aeolic, or Doric dialeft, u-io; isSio^;

0;jue«v does not, Av«6ofv£»)<r«v to a£l diforderly, as it is always, fignify
generally,
fignifies,
io

iuppofed applaud:
:

It,

A

ibmetimes, remarkable
"

from whence came the oath, fo

inllance of

which we

find in

Demofxcci

much uled by the Lacedaemonians, who fpoke the Doric dialed, //« to.
; by which they meant the two brother gods, Caftor, and Pollux.. This very extraordinary prophecy, that

thenes
i«9-

;

ta^P.oi «!tssfl-«v7st euhvoi,

^a~

Sjw

juSwIf? wV o^Swj
SiEuAAa;.
is

Ajj/?]*;.

This Erithraean Sibyl celebrated by many authors, both ancient and modern, who have

much

the Trojans were to reft from their labors in the piace, where they fhould
eat thtir tables,
"

abufed their leifure in tianfmitting the impoftures of one age to the credulity

Virgil,

who would

Of all the etymologies of the next. of the word Sibylla, That, given by Servius, feems to come neareft the
truth; "'he iays the

omit no tradition, which had any thing marvellousin it, pAits into the mouth of the Harpy, who, we find, was, alio,
a prophettfs, o„v„ . ,.

name

is

derived

,

-j

,

trom Lot ^>iM,
of which.
'

It

the decree of Jupiter, feems, thefe ladies were
<"

^^„ ^,, dtra fames nojlracquc hjuria
Jmbcfsfubigat7nalisco„fuweyeme,fu.
"

catdis.

Philip. 2^.

On

the third book, Aerxid. f. 452.

Aeneid. B.

iii.

f. 25

j.

128
try,
till

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
they
this

OF

Book

I.

a prophetic nymph, who ordered them to fail weftward came to a place, where they fliould eat the tables :

And, when they found ioUow a quadruped, as

had happened, they
guide
;

fhoiild

their

and,

wherever the

phecy,

animal, fpent with fatigue, laid itfelf down, there they Ihould built a city. Calling to mind, therefore, this profome, by the order of Aeneas, brought to the place,
;

appointed by him, the images of the gods out of the fhip
others prepared
'^°

pedeftals,

and

altars lor

them; and the
:

women with fhouts, and dancing, accompanied the images And Aeneas, with his companions, when the facrifice was
with crowns on their heads. ready, flood round the altar LVI. While thefe were offering up their prayers, the fow,

which was the deftined vi6tim, being big with young, and near her time, when the priefts were '^' beginning the immolation, broke loofe, and, flying from thofe who held her, ran

up

into the country.

Aeneas, underflanding

this

was, cer-

tainly,

the guide

with a

kw

the oracle had pointed out, followed it, of his people, at a fmall diftance, fearing left,
to Aegina to bring away the ftatues of Damia, and Auxefia, fays they endeavoured to take them from their pedeftals, t« ctyaAi^alx Tx^m, zatt^xv m
Ttuv SaSfwi/

This prophecy, which feemed to threaten fo dreadful a famine, he folves, alfo, in the fame harmlefs manner with our author ;
rr
I

^

.

r
:

/

•,

r

7

£^«v«cr7r jiv.

Le
"^""'^
'

Tav feems
^'''

Kec plura allude,,. Frima tuUt fmcm.
'90-

ea vo;c audita lahorum

B«Sf«. This
Iv.x

is

^ox^
it is

pedefials

;

the proper Greek and, in this fenfe,

'^^V'" ^T\ ^''^f^l^'^^ The other ^eafon, he has left It out. French tranflator has faid des marchepeds, which is not the term in his

^hich

language.
'9'-

ufed by 'Herodotus, who, fpeaking of the perfons fent from Athens
y

not des piidcjlaux ? See the ii:^^^ K«7«^;to/A£>aiv. annotation.

Why
c.

Aeneid. B.

vii. ;^.

u6.

»

Jn Terpficb,

8j.

being

Bookl.
diftiirbed

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

129

by her piirfuers, flie might be frightened from the The fow, having gone courfe fate had prefcribed to her. about four and twenty ftadia from the fea, ran up a hill,
tired,

where, being
oracles feemed,

Ihe lay down.
fulfilled)

But Aeneas

(for

the

obierving the land to be barren, and at a diftance from the fea, where, even, the

now, to be

road was unfafe, found himlelf in great perplexity whether they ought, in obedience to the oracle, to fettle there, where

of perpetual mifery, without any While injoyment, or go further, in fearch of a better foil.
life

they were to lead a

he was

in this confideration, accufing the gods,

on a fudden,

they fay, he heard a voice, which came from a wood, the perfon, who uttered it, not appearing, by which he v/as

commanded
and
not,

to ftay there,

and build a

city,

immediately

;

by giving way to the uncertainty of his prefent opinion that he was going to fettle in a barren country, to his future, and, in a manner, For, rejed: prefent happinefs it was decreed, that, forth from this barren and fmall iffuing
:

habitation, he fliould, in procefs of time, acquire a fpacious and fertil country; and that his children, and pofterity fhould be mafters of a vafl: empire, which fhould laft for

ages; that, for the prefent, therefore, this city fhould be a retreat for the Trojans ; but that, after as

many

many years,

as the

fow fhould bring forth young ones, another large and

fhould be built It is faid, by his pofterity. that Aeneas, hearing this, and looking upon the voice as
jdourifliing city

But, fomething divine, did, as the god had commanded. others fay, that, while he was oppreffed with anxiety, and Vol. I. S had

130

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
(o far

OF

Book

I.

had

abandoned himfelf to

grief, as neither to

come

into

the camp, nor take any nourilTiment, but laying himfelf down to reft that night, where it overtook him, a great and wonderful

him in '^* his fleep, in the fhape of one of his houfbold gods, and gave him the advice, juft before, mentioned. Which of thefe accounts is the trueft, the gods,
phantom appeared
to

know. The next day, it is laid, the fow brought forth '" ones ; and that, according to the oracle, as thirty young many years after, another city was built by the Trojans,
only,

concerning which I fliall fpeak in a proper place. LVII. Aeneas facriiiced the fow, with her young,
his houfliold
'5'^

to

wooden

gods, in the place, where, now, ftands the hut, which the Lavinicnfes look upon as holy,
it

and preferve

inacceiTible

to

all

but themfelves

:

Then,
he

to ordering the Trojans

remove

their

camp

to the hill,

of his gods in the beft part of it ; and, placed the images with the greateft alaimmediately, began to build the town and, going down to the country round him, took ;
crity
ir--

Evvirviov.

This word

is,

here,

Hk
Ex

locm urlh er'!t,requ!eseacertalahorum:
quo
ta- der.is

taken adverbially, as in the following C fa W(^ ner
f.

m-bem ,edcuntibu> annis

Afcanius claii condet cognomhiis ^Iham.

ivAvn-,
'93"

vm«

,

u

>

f-

5

T^Kjcxoi/lo!
"^

Xf j'f'?*!

;/oi^s<<,

etc.

This

like our auprophecy, Virgil, who, with met it in the no doubt, thor, had, old Roman liiftorians, makes the river Tiber deliver to Aeneas
;

I know this word, '94. KaAiar. fometimes, fignmcs a chapel, but, ottener, a tvoodcn hut, from kxXo'j, wood. *** have Portus, and M. given it the former fenfe ; le Jay has faid une fetite retraite,

which

is

fomething like
is


/.
(T
. .

...
.

^

.

I.

t:

I-

,,//
f
,

i/

r?

.

\:

,

„„},;,.
nati.
''

Albajoh recubms,

albi

cinum ukera
» II.
/?.

the only one, Sylburgius rendered it properly, cafa If it had been a chapel, our h?nea. author needed not to have laid that ic was looked upon 3S holy.
the fenfe.

who

has

i>.

56.

Aeneid. B.

viii.

,"*.

\z.

from

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS

II

AL IC A RN A S SE N SIS.

131

grievous to the owners, fuch as iron, timber, and inftruments of acfriculture. In the mean time, Latiniis, who was, then, of the

from thence fuch things, as were of ufe to him the lofs of which was hkely to be the mod

in building,

king

war with a neighbouring people, called country, the Rutuli and, having fought fome battles with ill fuccefs, received an account of what had pafled, in the moft terribeing at
-,

fying manner,

as,

that

all

his coafl:

was

laid wafte

by a foreign

he did not, immediately, put a ftop to their depredations, the war, with his neighbours, would become more grievous to him. Latinus was flruck with this news ;

army

j

and,

if

and, laying afideall thoughts of the prefent war, he marched the Trojans with a great againft army: But, feeing them armed after the Grecian manner, drawn in order,

and prepared
it

to receive

up good him with refolution, he did not think

prudent to hazard an immediate ingagement; fince he faw no probability of defeating them at the firft onfet,
'" as

he had expelled, when he
:

firft

marched out
it

them

But, incamping on a

hill,

he found

againft convenient to

recover his troops from their prefent fatigue, which, from the length of their march, and the eagernefs of the purfuit,

he had paffed the night there, to attack the enemy by break of day. Having

was very great

:

And

he refolved,

after

taken this refolution, a certain genius of the place, appearing to him in his fleep, ordered him to receive the Greeks, as cohabitants with his own fubjeds ; adding that their ar'95-

Ka9'

y,v

^(7^1 So^otv.

The

Vatican

manufcript has, wonderfully, reftored

this fentence, which in all the editions.

is

very imperfeil

S 2

rival

132
rival

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF
to

Book

I.

would be attended with a great advantage

a

perfuade

benefit to the Aborigines. The Aeneas's houiliold gods, appearing to him, advifed him to Latinus to grant them a fettlement, of his own

common

him, and fame night,

accord, in that part of the country they defired, and, to ufe the Greek forces, rather as allies, than as enemies. However,

the dream hindered both of them from beginning an ingageAs foon as it was day, and the armies were drawn ment.

up

in order of battle, heralds

came

to the

commanders from
;

both, defiring that thefe might have a conference together which was complied with.

*

Latinus complained " of the fudden war, they had made upon his fubjeds, without any pre-

LVIII. And,

firft,

'

vious declaration

;

and defired Aeneas would
'^^

let

him know

'

'

*

'

plundering the he could not be country, without any provocation, fince ignorant that all, who are attacked, have a right to repel the invader And, that, when he might have obtained, in
was,
:

who he

and what he meant by

'

^

a friendly manner, and by the confent of the inhabitants, whatever he could, reafonably, defire, he had chofen to
take
it

'

by

force, contrary to the right of all nations,

and
After

'

with greater dillionor, than credit to himfelf
this,

"

he had faid

Aeneas anfwered; "

We

are natives of
I

»96The Ayr) x«i ®ff« Id %,a^\x. Latin tranlhuors have rendered this, very properly, hy agereet ferre^ which, like many otlier Latin expreflions, is, derived from the Greek. originally,

enough. Neither do
fcs terres,
tor,

think that

/'//Ar

in the other
far

French

tranfla-

though better

than the other,

exprefTcs ay«v

xaj (Pi^m fo well as the

exprefTion our language has fupplied

Des
in

ailes d'hoftiUte

quon
is

le

Jay,

I

think

avoit excrcez, fcarce ftrong

me

v/ith.

*'

Troy,

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A RN A S S ENSIS.
the '"
F.KXYiiri.

133

"

famous among Troy, a city
'97El'

Greeks; cf which

M. ***,

in his note

blames our author, upon for making Aeneas call the violently, Greeks EA/tjus., which name, he fays, the people of Greece were not known
this paflage,
till many ages after the Trojan war; and, even, not fo early as in That, in •which Homer lived, who never calls all the Greeks Eaa-^ves-, but only gives that name to the inhabitants of Phtlii-

fpeaks of the city of Argos, that wr.s built by Pclafgus in ThtHaly, he diit the name of nsA^a-jiftinguilhes by
xov A^j/of, as
"

by

in

which, he has been followed by the But I fliall leave congeographers.

jeftures to thofe,
I

otis,
I

who followed Achilles to Troy. have read what Thucydides, and ^ Strabo have laid upon this fubjeft but I do not think the arguments,
"=

;

who want arguments, have undertaken to prove that the general name of the Greeks was eaAhvw many years before the Troj n war; and, confequently, that our author was guilty ot no anachronifm, nor deferved
Cenfure for calling them fo. In the fixth epocha of the Parian marble, the time is mentioned, when Hellen, the fon of Deucalion, reigned in Phthiotisj.

cncluhve as alledged by the latter, fo drawn from chrobe that others, may that the Greeks, in to prove nology,
general, were
EAAtjvf?

known by
years,

the

name of

many

nay, fome ages,

not only, before Homer, but, even, But I mud, before the Trojan war. if the cenfure, obferve that, previoufly, thrown upon our author by that gentleman, is well grounded, Virgil is, fince he calls alfo, included in it;

and the Greeks, who had, till then, been known by the name of r^^ocoj, were called eaa^jve?. The year, there
fet

down,

is 1

the taking of I'roy the year, let down,

257. In the 25''' epocha, is mentioned, and
is

945.

If,

there-

Achaemenidcs, Graius^

in

the fame
in
";

tore, from 1257, we dedud 945, it will be found that the people of Greece

period of t.me, in which, Aeneas, our author, calls the Greeks Eaaijvk
Confertum tegmenfpinis
:

at caitera Grains.
*"

were called EAAijvtf, 312 yeais before the taking of Troy. This is confirmed by the moft celebrated chronologers

I

am very fenfible,
fays,
t'

that

Homer, when
v.a».\.yviaix.cc,

he

0(

fiX"

*9>vii',

»:"

E^^a:Ja

Mv^jiiSmoi

y

fXaAa.1'.,

xat E^Xhk;, xai Ax^'oi,

agree that I'roy v/as year of the Julian, 'period, 1184 years before Chrift ; and that the flood, in the time of Deu;

who

all

taken

in the 3530''^

calion,
''

means only the inhabitants of Theflaly
;

but
fays,
ra

I

am

not fo clear thar,

when

he

s

A»5'50i

J-.Aco;

iv^v Kuff

EAAaAA,

xai m£(t« A^yof,

happened 1529 years before and in the 3185'''' year of the So that, the interval, Julian period between the flood of Deucalion, the father of Hellen, and the taking of
Chrifl:,
:

he means any particular country, or becaufe, when he city of Theflaly
;

Troy, muft, according fift of 345 years.
B.
iii.

to

them, con^- 4981 1
.

^B.

i.

c. 3.

"B.viii. p. 568.
I'lliad.
I?.

'

A eneid.

f. 594.
''

^

Iliad.
i.

(3.

sOdyfl". a.f. 344.

/.

68(

Ufher, p. 26.

Petavius, B.

c.

and

7.

((

bein g:

134
''

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
after

Book

I.

a ten years war, " we wander up and down, through the want both of a ' ' and a country, where we may Hve for the future ; and city, " are come hither, in obedience to the commands of the

being deprived by the Achaeans,

"
gods;

The

oracles affuring us that this land alone

is

re-

taken from the country thofe lately, things we wanted, " with greater regard, indeed, to our '^Hmfortunate fituation,
(C ((

" ferved " '5^

for us, as the

haven of our wandering.

We

have,

than to decency, which we very much condemn But will compenfate them with many good fer\ices, in
;

we

yielding

<(

you our perfons, and our minds, well difciplined againft " dangers, to employ them as you think proper, in
to

preferving
ailifting

((

your country from the inroads of enemies, and
'9^-

in

This word muft, cerbeen have mifpUced by the tainly, tranfcribcrs and I make no doubt but our author writ e7ro^i^<j^e9«f*£v i/sair', etc. to which a^«4/0;U65«; Jf, in the next
New^i.
-,

dangerous to give them good the confequence of which, he tells them, will be, that, whoever gave them fuch advice, would, not only, fuffer, unjuftly, himfelf without doing
it

made

advice

-,

fentence, anfwers very fully.
'99'

them any

This

^U^V^i^i^OV |(/«A\OV ixnr^ini^i^ov. is oppofed to xnr^iov /xxKhoy
t]

>)

fervice, but, alfo, render it, for the future, ftill more dangerous to propofe fuch things to them, as were

K:x^Alov,

with which Latinus had reBut here is an unproached Aeneas.

mofl: for their
TO hoivav

'

MAAAON

advantage,
sli
ij

«AAa

xai «?

v\i\i

to t« peAliya

common expreffion, that, very well, deferved the obiervation of the commentators and, that is, the ufe of
•,

Aj^«v *0BEPnTEP0N Tsroiy^fjii. It is very extraordinary that the latin writers fhould imitate the Greeks in this un-

a comparative However, |M«A\ov with I hive met with it in the beft writers ; one inftance of which I fliall quote inner from Demofthenes, with whofe of writing our author fliews, by his critical works, that he was, perfeftly
:

common manner
it is,

of fpeaking but fo and many inflances might be
;
-,

m

given of this alfo I fhall content myfelf with one from •" Juftin, who, fpeaking of Lycurgus, fays, ncn inventione eanim (legum) exmagis
quar.i

well,

That great orator acquainted. the with having Athenians reproaches
'

emplo clarior.

Olynth.

i.

B. iii.c. 2.

((

you

Bookl.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALIC AR N A S S ENS

I S.

^35

"
" "

to conquer theirs. We, youj with alacrity, humbly, intreat you not to refent what we have done, affuring yoiirrelves,
that "°

we

did

it

not through contempt, but neceffity
is

:

And
:

"' " So that, you ought not to take any refolution to the " If you fliould-> prejudice of us, who are your fuppliants " we muft beg the tutelary gods, and genius's of this country *' and to forgive us what we are, even, compelled to do
: ;

every thing, that

involuntary, deferves forgivenefs

" endeavour to defend
*'

aggreflbrs in this
greateft

war

ourfelves againft you, which be the will not ;
^""^

who
firft,

are the

nor the
Latinus
I

*'

heard

this,

"
*'

we have been When ingaged in. " he made anfwer I can afilire you,
;

have
;.

" and
"
if I

great benevolence towards the Greek nation, in general the inevitable calamities of mankind give me a real

concern

fhould be very folicitous for your prefervation, were convinced that you came hither in fearch of a
:

I

"^ contented with a " habitation fliare of the and, that, ; " land, and injoying what is given you, in a friendly manner,
^°°'

Our
"

A7r»y it fvyvufjinf »^iov TO dKiKTiov. author, often, adopts the ethics of

^°3-

oiTro'X,^yic^

yr,^ jj-oi^ac.

I

Ariftotle,
fTtxiiuv,
Koii

who

fays,

iv i/.io

tok

U^a-ioi;

have never met with ocTrox^y.a-'^, or a-roxi'^'Tic, as the Vatican manufcript
has
this
it,

\l^c-yu)v

yiyc^ivm,
etc.

ii

To<f

in
;

any author, or lexicon, in
for

«xa<rjoif (Tvfyvuifxy,;,

fenfe

which

Latin vfxoig, tranDators, and commentators have
K«i
Set

"•

reafon,

I

(lia!!

The

venture to

make

a fraall alteration in
it,

the text, or, rather to reftore
believe, our author writ
f^noi te ytif fMn^ct
:

as, I

been, very
this period
202.

much, puzzled
:

I

up imagine none of them
A7roAau«,
ovx.

to clear

it,

uno^^y^a-c-

had feen the Vatican manufcript.
A7roA«uo-«i|t-(£v.
T&'v
*i7£fti»

read Herodotus,
«ti
tci*

Tw»

1J.0VCV,

uhhx nm mi
"

Every one, who has muft have found more than once, madeufe ecjro;^^ (Xo&«/, ot to fignify what is meant here, that
is, to

tv«i1^M»

jetTliiifi,

Suidas.
B.
iii.

k

contented,

c.

I.

you

136
**

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
will not endeavour,

Book

I.

"
*'

you

by

force,

to deprive

me

of the

"

fovereignty ; and, if the affurances you give me, are real, I defire to take fureties, which will preferve'our give, and

league inviolate."

LIX. Aeneas, having accepted this propofal, a treaty was made between the two nations, and confirmed by oath, to
that the Aborigines fhould grant to the Trojans as much land as the that of about is, fpace they deiired, forty ftadia round the hill ; that the Trojans fliould aflifi: the
this effed:
;

Aborigines in the war they were then ingaged in, and join them with their forces, upon every other occafion, when

fummoned
as advice.

;

and that both nations fhould aid one another,

to the utmofl: of their power, as well with their affiftance,

After they had concluded this treaty, and fecured the performance of it, by delivering their children as

hoftages, they marched, with joint forces, againft the cities of the Rutuli And, having foon fubdued all opposition there,
:

they went to the town of the Trojans, which was half finiflied ; and, haftening the work with one mind, they This town Aeneas called fortified the town with a wall.
themfelves fay, from the daughter of Latinus, whofe name, according to them, was Lavinia ; but, as fome Greek hiftorians have aflerted, from the
La\'inium, as the

Romans

daughter of Anius, king of Delus, whofe name was, alfo, Lavinia ; and who, dying of ficknefs, while the iirft city was where fhe died, the building, and being buried in the place
city

was

fo called,

in

memory of her.

She

is

faid, alfo, to

have imbarked with the Trojans, and to have been given by
lier

Eookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

137

her father to Aeneas, at his deiire, as a prophetefs, and a
wife

woman. While Lavlnium was

building, thefe prodigies

A fire breaking happened to the Trojans. out, fpontaneoufly, in an adjoining wood, a wolf, they fay, broiio-ht fome fuel in his mouth, and threw it upon the £re ; and an eagle, flying thither, fanned the flame with
are faid to have

the motion of his wings

:

having moiftened his tail the Are ; and, fometimes, thofe, that were kindling tinguifli and, fometimes, the fox, that was trying to it, ;
prevailed
it

In oppofition to thefe, a fox, in a river, endeavoured to ex-

put

out

:

And,

at laft, the

former got the better, and the

other went away, unable to do any thing further.

Which,

Aeneas, obferving, faid, this colony would become famous, be worthy of admiration, and very much celebrated ; but,

would be envied by, and grievous to, its neighbours However, that it would overcome its adverfaries ; the favor of Heaven being more powerful to fupin
its

increafe,
:

of men to oppofe it. Thefe were the port it, than the envy evident flgns of the incidents, that were to happen to this
city
:

Of which

there are

monuments, now, ftanding

in the

market-place of the Lavinienfes ; thefe are brazen images of the animals, which have been preferved for many ages. LX. After the city of the Trojans was built, both nations
were, extremely, deflrous of injoying the mutual benefit of And their kings fet the example, and their new alliance
:

mixed the dignity of the
contract of marriage,
to Aeneas
:

native

and foreign

families

by a

Latinus giving his daughter Lavinia After which, the refl:, alfo, had the fame in-

VoL.

I.

T

clinatioii

138
clinatlon

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

with their kings ; and, by a fvvift union of their cuftoms, their laws, and rehgious ceremonies ; by interof their cities ; marriages, and a communication of the rights

by mingHng all together, and by calling themfelves Latines, from Latinus, king of the Aborigines, they adhered fo fevered them firmly to their league, that no time has, yet,

from one another.

The

nations,

therefore,

which were

and from gathered together under one form of government, whom the Roman people derive their origin, before the
city they,

now,

.

inhabit,

was

built,

are thefe

:

Firft,

the

out of thefe parts, and were Greeks, originally, of Peloponnefus, the fame, who, with Oenotrus, removed from the country, now, called
Aborigines,

who

drove the

Siceli

Arcadia, according to

my

opinion

:

Then, the

Pelafgi,

who

came from ""^ Haemonia,

as it was, then, called,
' •

now, Thef-

-=4See the 51* annotation, AiiJLovix;' IdonotthinkthatatranQatoris under tlie fame obligation with regard to his

r,uthor,

as the lawyers fe.m to think themfelves under in relation to their that is, that he is to defend clients
•,

member any paffage in Homer, which " ,^ fhews that the Greeks, and Trojans were armed after a different manner ; but he defcribes them as going to the charge under very different circumthe firft advancing with a ; confufed noife, like cranes going to
ftances

Dionyfius is right, or wrong. the that to were, Trojans prove going
originally, Greeks,
juHified
-,

him

in

which he

is

by

luftorians of the beft au-

the Pygmies ; and the other in filence breathing ardor, and a refolution to fupport one another °;
T^'Wff jWJU KXocfyil
t', El'OTTlJ t' IffOtV,

make war upon

but I thority that will juftify

doubt much whether

him

in faying,

as

he

O^nGcf

ajf.

Oi i xPx

tffotv

did a few pages before, that the Troafter the manner of jans were armed
the Greeks
;

(yiyyi

uimx

Trvetali;

A^aioiy

Ev ^u^uw fAfixxoPif oiAf^ijMv «^^^,^0l^|.
I

and,
all

much lefs,
that he

in

making

believe

Evandcr tell Aeneas
aSedtion for
the latter

had a great

his

men

fliould

no general would dcfire that go on to an attack with

the Greeks, even, atter him that they informed had
I

a truer fpirit than
fcribcd.

Homer has

liere

de-

were Trojans.

do not, indeed,

rey'.

° Iliad, r. f. 2.

P.

%:

Book!.
faly
:

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
:

139

Thirdly, thofe, who came over into Italy with EvaiiAfter thefe, the Epei, and der, from the city of Pallantiiim

Pheneatae

;

who were

part of the Peloponnefian

commanded by Hercules, with whom fomeTrojans,

army, alfo, were

mixed: And, laft of all, the Trojans, who, with Aeneas, had efcaped from Ilium, Dardanum, and the other Trojan
cities.

LXI. That the Trojans were a nation, truly Greek, which, formerly, came from Peloponnefus, has been, long lince, afferted by fome authors, and fhall be, briefly, related by

me
the

alfo.
firft

The

account concerning them

is

this.

Atlas was

by of one whom ; Jupiter married, and had by her two fons, '°^ Jalius, and Dardanus Jafms lived unmarried But Dardanus married Chryfes, the daughter of whom he had two fons, Idaeus, and Dimas, who, Palas, by
the

king of the country, now, called Arcadia, who lived near the mountain, called "^ Thaumalius This man had feven daughters, faid to be placed among the ftars,
:

name of the
:

Pleiades

:

fucceeding Atlas in the kingdom, reigned fome time in Arcadia. Afterwards, a great deluge happening in Arcadia, the plains were overflowed, and, for a long time, incapable

of being
-°5-

tilled.

The
This

people
Is

(for,

as

they lived upon the

®x\ifAX(no-j

o^oc.

fliev/n

by Glareanus

true reading, bccaufe Paulanias fpeaks of a moun-

to be the

her prleftefTes were fuffered to enter, -°'iThis mud be the true i«a-,„„. reading; which gih
is

tainofthat name in Arcadia. This mountain, I find/ Paufanias fays flood near the river Molofilis ; and on the top of it, there was a cavern confecrated to Rhea, into which none but
P

confirmed by^Vir-

/
laf.ufque ^j. "'
'.

n
,

j

paur.
.,.

'''

^'^°'

"^'^^ ^"'""^ ^y

,,

,

Strabo.

In Arcad.

c.

36.

1

Aeneid. B.

iii. y-.

T

167.

'Epit. B. vii.p. 51 1.

2

moun-

140

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book!,

mountains, they laboured under a great fcarcity of pro\'ifions) confidering that the land, that remained, would not be fufficient for the fupport of them all, they divided themfelves

into

two

parts

;

one of which

ftaid

in Arcadia,

and

created Dimas, the fon of Dardanus, their king ; the other, left Peloponnefus on board a numerous fleet ; and, failing along the coaft of Europe, they came to a gulph, called
''°'

Melas, and happened to land on a certain ifland of Thracia, but I am not able to fay whether it \vas, before, inhabited,

They called this ifland, Samothrace, a name, compounded of the name of a man, and of That of the
belongs to Thrace, and the founder of it was Samon, the fon of Mercury, and of a nymph of Cyllene, called Rhene Here, they ftaid not long, becaufe they found
place
;

or defert:

for

it

:

themfelves under great difficulties with regard to their jflipport, as having a barren land, and a boifterous fea to contend
leaving fome few of their people there, the greateft part of them, removing again, went to Afia, Dardanus bemg the leader of their colony, (for Jafius died in the ifland,

with

;

but,

being ftruck with thunder, for defiring to go to bed with
Ceres) and,

difimbarking in the ftreight, now, called the

Hellefpont, they fettled in that country, which was, afterIdacus, the fon of Dardanus, with wards, named Phrygia.
part of the army, inhabited the mountains, which, from ^^7- Ek To» M?Xoiv«xoA.7rov* The gulph pofite to the mouth of the Hebriis, Melas lies on the north weft ot the known, now, by the name oHa Marifc?.
Thracian Cherfonefus
:

And

the ifland

o(S.xmothrAce, is at the entrance of this gulph, op5

now

called Samandraki,

the fame account of and Dardanus, Jafion, and adds tliat Samothrace was, before, called Samos.

'

Strabo gives

Epit. B. vii. p. 511.

him,

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
are
called the Idaean mountains,

141
built

him,

where he

a

temple to the mother of the gods, and inflituted myfceries

and ceremonies, which are obferved, to this day, throughout all Phrygia ; and Dardanus built a city of the fame

name with himfelf, in

a country,

now,

called Troas, Teucrus,

who was king
and,

of

it,

giving

country was, anciently,
particularly,

him the land, from whom, that named Teucris. Many authors fay,

quities,

that this

Phanodcmus, who writ the Attic antiman came into Afia, from Attica, where
diviiion, called
:

Xypete ; and of this They add that, being mafter they bring many proofs of a large and fertil country, and but, thinly, peopled, he
Dardanus, and the Greeks, who came with him, in hopes both of their afTiftance in his wars

he was chief of the

"^

was glad

to

fee

the Barbarians, againft cultivated.
20S.
^utt/i*)!-.

and that the land might not be un-

This is, certainly, the and the name of this true reading,
divifion of the tribe of Cecropis, as we find in Harpocration ; though it is otherwife in all the editions, and ma-

than fufpicious; and, tlierefore, chano-ed it into Tivofjand, tofupport his corredtion, quotes this very palTage of our

author, which he has accommodatt-d to the words of Strabo, as he took

Suidas, nufcripts, and, alfo, calls this divifion of that tribe, Hu7rf"osi>i.

in

who

them,

and made our author
fuppofing that

fay

iy^y.^

Bvzriavoi;,

='u7rs7fwi',

in

apalTage in Scrabo, which, though faulty in another refpeift, will lead us to the true reading in this, » Strabo fpeaks there of this very mioration of Teucer from Attica to Afia;
is

But there

the former, was the name of this divifionof the tribe of Cecropis But that
:

great

man was

miftaken

in this, as
;

we

have fetn by Harpocration
S'u;i-e7aiwve<-,

fays, alfo, that this

who, in was the

and fays, «aaoi S'ik tus Ailiy.Yii a.'pi^^xi tiix Teuk^cv dfxcty i-A Sy;fjiis T^couv, o? \\jv a ZuTTiliaiv Aiyc'di. Calaubon, in his note

name of
fion.

the individuals of that divi-

Phanodemus, whom our author quotes upon this occafion, is, often,
cited

upon
fible

this paffage of Strabo, was fenthat the word T^uun was more

we know
p.

by other authors, but that of him,

is all

'B.

xiii.

901.

Lxn,

1^2

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

LXII. But, it is, now, requifite to jQievv how Aeneas was defcended ; which I ihall do, alfo, in few words. Dardanus,
of Chryfes, the daughter of Palas, by whom he had his two firft fons, married Batea, the daughter of
after the death

and, by her, had Erichthonius, who is faid to have been the moft fortunate 'of all men, having inherited both the kingdom of his father, and That of his grand-

Teucrus

;

father by his mother's fide.

Of Erichthonius, and CaUirhoe,

the daughter of Scamandrus, was born Tros, from whom the nation has received its name ; of Tros, and Acallaris,

the daughter of Eumedes, AfTaracus; of him, and Lytodora, the daughter of Laomedon, Capys; of Capys, and a nymph,
faid to

have been a Naid, Anchifes; of Anchifes, and Venus, Aeneas. Thus, I have fhewn that the royal family of the

Greeks. Trojans, were, originally, LXII I. Concerning the time, when Lavinium was built, there are different opinions ; but the moft probable feems
to be That,

which

'°^

places

it

in the fecond year after the
:

departure
209'

of the Trojans from Troy
uuly,v.

For

''"

Ilium was

$;^oii7£f

Cafauboii

has

fhewn, from very good
that ipi^Mv
is

authorities,

ing le Jay has followed. However, I have the fatisfaiftion of finding myfelf
fupported in reading s^^of againfl: thefe
great authorities, by a
1

a term,

by chronologers, thor has given it in this place.
2'°fctcoi;.

particularly ufed in the fenfe our au-

much

greater,

mean That of Cafaubon, and
But, betorc
I

PetaI

Ixicv

fj^iv

yoio y.KuniKivlai'lo; y.Stna

vius.

give

my

reafons
mufl:

Thus, I am confident thispalTage
to be

for reading ?a^of inftcad of&ff^f,

read, contrary ought opinion of Portus, and of Dodwell, who contend for ^i^a?, in which they *** and, alfo, are followed by M.
•,

to

the

take notice of the glaring abfurdity in * * *, that Troy was faying, with M. taken on the twelfth of June tcivards
It is well known the end of fummer. that the year of the Greeks was luni-

contrary to the opinion of Sylburgius,

who, would have

it aiai-lif,

which read-

folar,

and that the Athenians, whole

taken

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSENSIS.

143

taken at the end of the Spring, ieventeen days before the fiimmcr folftice, and the eighth of the endinc^ month Thargehon, according to the computation of the Athenians; there flill remaining twenty days, after the folftice, to complete

that year.

The

taking of Troy, I lating the affairs of the
thofe,

feven and thirty days after the imagine, the Greeks employed in
lirfl

regu-

in receiving embaffies city,

from

who had withdrawn

themfelves,

and

in

concluding a
fell

Jovvs,

To

computation our author fiiys he folby the direflion of Solon, aligned twenty nine, and thirty days, alternately, to their twelve months by which, it happened, that there was, every year, a deficiency of eleven days between their year, and the folar year ":
;

month Thargelion,
on the twenty
:

out, thatyear^

of May, and the fummer folftice on the twenty eighth of June''-' So that, the twenty third ot Thargelion was the twelfth of June, which, as our author fays, was fevenfirft

fupply

this deficiency,

Meton,

af-

teen days, that is, inclufively, before the fummer folftice And, from the
:

terwards, found out the cycle of interin nineteen calating feven months
years.

Solon, alfo, introduced,

among

twenty eighth of June, to the nineteenth of July, on which day, the new moon of their month Hecatombaeon
fell out, there are twenty days, which he, alfo, fays, remained to complete the year For, it muft be obferved that the Athenians their on
:

the Athenians, the method of counting the ten laft days of the month back-

wards, and called
tvti V.CH yitu,

(he old
I

of which,
caufe the

the thirtieth day and new: Thereafon imagine to have been, bevifible

began

year

the

firft

new moon

after the

fummer

new moon becoming

folftice.

The

only evening of that day, part of it was thought to belong to the old month, and part of it to the new. Dionylius fays that Troy was taken on the eighth day of the ending month
in the

Troy

being,

aera of the taking of thus determined, it will

be no difficult matter to find the number of years from that aera, to this
prefent year 1755. Dionyfius will tell us from Cato that Rome was built 432 years after the taking of
.

Thargelion, that is, the twenty third ; feventeen days before the fummer folftice, after which, there wanted twenty

From
^""e

Troy:

thence, to the birth of Chrift 753 years ; to which, if we add

days to complete that year.

Let

us,

1755, ^hcre

account agrees with the courfe of the fun, and moon, that

now,

fee

how

this

from

year. The confequently, the firll

Troy

found 2940 years the twelfth of June, on which was taken, to the twelfth of
will be
this prefent year.

memorable
"

new moon, and,
day of the Attic

June of

Sir Ifaac

Newton.

Cliron. p. 75 and 76,

w Petavius, B.

ii,

c,

10. partiii.

treaty

144;

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
with them.

OF

Book

I.

treaty

The

next year, which was the

firft after

the Trojans, fetting fail about the autumnal equinox, crofied the Hellefpont ; and, landing in Thrace, paffed the winter feafon there ; during which, tliey
received the fugitives,

the taking oF the city,

who

were, continually, flocking to

them, and prepared every thing, that was neceilary for their voyage And, leaving Thrace, in the beginning of the fpring,
:

as tar as they failed

Sicily.

While they

ftaid

there,

that

and they paffed the fecond winter year was accomplidied ; in affifting the Elymi to build cities in Sicily. They fet fail

from that

ifland, as

foon as the feafon would allow

it

;

and,

croffmg the Tyrrhene fea, arrived, at laft, at Laurentum, on the coaft of the Aborigines, in the middle of the fummer
:

And, having
Lavinium
events.
;

received the ground from them, they built the fecond year from the taking of Troy, being,

now, completed.

And

this

is

my

opinion concerning thefe

Aeneas, having, fufficiently, furnifhed the city, with temples, and other ornaments, of which the greateft remain, even, to this day, he, the next year, which was
part

LXIV.

the third after his departure from Troy, reigned ov^r the But tlie fourth year, Latinus being dead, he Trojans only fucceeded him in his kingdom alfo j not only in confidera:

'" tion of his near alliance to him, Lavinia being fole heirefs,
-'•
ETTHcAtj^'i?.

The

fenfe

of

this

a:u7ij

otJA^s*
this

>;

it

a-hnj
'^

word

is,

very well, explained
V.TriKKK^oi; jwew fr'»
r\

by Harnti uatli
|U>)

In

fenfe,

alfo,

iwiyM^PrS. Virgil makes

kcxi

pocracion.

Drances fay
xi. /.

to

Turnus,
ejf.

Tj) KKf.^f o«^»v>) K»lx\e\n[j.fAivr„
"

enof
369.

Ji adeo dotalis rtgia cordi

Aeneid. B.

after

Book!.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
of Latinus, but,
alfo,

145

after the death

by

reafoii

of his being

general of the army, in the war againft their neighbours : For the RutuH had, again, revolted from Latinus, and made •choice of a certain deferter for their leader, who was a re-

Amata, the wife of Latinus, and whofe nan-ie was Turnus. This man, exafperated at the father-in-law of
lation of

Aeneas, for marrying his daughter to a ftranger, in prejudice
and, being incited by Amata, and incouraged by others, went over to the Rutuli with the forces
to his relations,
""^

he commanded.
plaints,

The war

being begun upon thefe

com-

and a fharp battle infuing, Latinus, Turnus, and many others were flain. However, Aeneas, and his people, gained the vidory Upon which, Aeneas fucceeded his
:

father-in-law in his

kingdom

:

And, having reigned

three

years after the death of Latinus, in the fourth, he loft his For the Rutuli, raifing an army compofed life in a battle : of the joint forces of all their cities, marched againft him ;

and, with them, Mezentius, king of the Tyrrhenians, who For the great increafe thought his own country in danger.

of the Grecian power had, long

fince, given

him

offence

:

a fevere battle being fought, not far from Lavinium, and many flain on both fides, the armies were parted by the coming on of the night, and the body of Aeneas, no

And

where, appearing, fome concluded that he was tranflated among the gods, and others, that he perifhed in the river,
ThispafTagefhews that Aniata, and Turnus, in Virgil,
AwaltjTvfvof.
*»i-

from the Roman hiftorians, works are, now, loft,

whofe

are not imaginary perfons, but taken

Vol. L

U

near

145

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
: :

OF

Book

I.

near which the battle was fought And the Latines built " -'^ 'Yq the a chapel to him with this infcription father,

" and god of
" the
river

this

country,

who

prefides over the waters of
fay this chapel

Numicius." But fome

was eredled,

by Aeneas, to Anchifes,
It is a fmall

who

died the year before this

war

:

mound, furrounded with

trees, regularly, planted,

and

defer ves to be feen.

having left this life, about the feventh year after the taking of Troy, Euryleon, who, in the flight, had changed his name to That of Afcanius, fucceeded him in
the government of the Latines As for the Trojans, they were, at that time, befleged, the forces of the enemy in:

LXV. Aeneas

creafing daily ; and the Latines were unable to afTift thofe, who were fhut up in Lavinium. Afcanius, therefore, lirft,
invited the

enemy

to a friendly

and reafonable accommo-

dation

But they, paying no regard to him, he was reduced to the neceflity of fuffering them to put an end to the war
:

But the king of the Tyrrhenians, among other intolerable conditions, which he impofed upon them, as upon a people, already, become his flaves, com-

upon

their

own

terms.

manding them

to carry to the Tyrrhenians, every year, all the

wine, the country of the Latines produced, they looked upon this, as a thing not to be borne, and, by the advice of
*'v
Iloi'oo^,

etc.

''Livy fpcaks, alio,

who were
names
;

canonize(\ to change their

of this apothcofis, or canonization of Aeneas Si/us eji, quem-tmqae eum did
•,

as the popes,

who

call tlK*n:»

jus fafqm

eji^

fupir Numicium fumoi,

felves Chrift's vicegerents, generally, change their names upon their elevar

Jovem

It was, it ladigctem appellant. leemsj the fafliion for thefe gentlemen,
y

tion to the papacy,

R

i.

c.

2.

Afcanius,

Bbokl.

DIONYSIUS H ALICA RN AS SEN SI S.

147
;

Afcanius, voted the fruit of the vine to be facred to Jupiter
then,
tlie

exhorting one another to fight bravely, and praying
aflift

in their dangerous enterprife, they a dark and fahied out of the city : And, pitched upon night, immediately, attacked that part of the enemy's camp, which

gods to

them

the city, and, being defigned as an advanced lay neareft to poft to cover the reft ol: the army, was ftrongly fituated, and

defended by the choiceft youth of the Tyrrhenians, who were commanded by Laufus, the fon of Mezentius : Their attack,
being unforefeen, they, eafily, made themfelves mafters of the place: While they were employed in taking this poft, the reft of the army, that lay incamped on the plains, feeing

an unfeafonable

light,

were

killing, left

and, hearing the groans of thofe, who the flat country, and fled to the mountains
:

Upon
their

this occafion,

army enemy would, every minute,
were
in

there was a great hurry, and tumult, marching away in the night, and expeding the
fall

upon them, while they
broken.

diforder,

and

their ranks

The

Latines,

had taken the place by ftorm, and heard the reft of the army was in diforder, preflid upon them, killing, and purfuing ; while the enemy were fo far from endeaafter they

was not, even, poflible for them to know the evils they were furrounded with; but, through confuflon, and irrefolution, fome were forced
that vouring to defend themfelves,
it

down
foners

ingaging
:

the precipices, and dallied to pieces; while others, themfelves in unpaflable vallies, were taken pri-

But moft of them, through ignorance, treated one another, in the dark, like enemies ; and the greateft de-

U

2

ftrudlion

148

ROMAN ANTIQJJITIES
mean
himfelf of a
hill

OF

Book

I.

ftnu^ion of

them was occafioned by mutual
time, Mezentius, with a few of his
;

flaughter.

In the
fefled

men, pof-

and, being informed of the death of his fon, and of the numbers he had loft; and, finding how untenable the pake was, in which he had fhut himfelf up,,
heralds to Lavinium to treat having no other refource, he fent "+ ufe of a peace: And Afcanius, advifmg the Latines to their fortune with moderation, he obtained liberty to retire
in fafety with his
forces, in

confequence of the treaty they

concluded

and, from that time, laying afide all enmity tor the Latines, he continued their conftant friend. LXVI. The thirtieth year after the building of Lavinium,
;

Afcanius, the fon of Aeneas, according to the oracle, given to his father, built another city, and transferred both the
inhabitants of Lavinium,

and the other Latines, who were

delirous of a better habitation, to his new-built city, whicli he called "^ Alba, which word fignifies, in Greek, Asvxy],
This is a more and ufed, very happy cxprelTion, There is than once, by our author.
*H'
TajwiEvfc&asi
Ty,v

tu;^kv.

adver^iy, to fuhmit to nothing, that

is

mean.
*>5'

AkQu.

a pafTage

of this ' Suidas is which by quoted hiftory, not fo much, I dare fay, for the fentiin

the eighth

book

that

y//^i7/w2g-rt

It is, generally, thought ftood in the fame

place,

where Albano now ftands
is

;

and, what

more extraordinary,
the inhabitants of
fully

'

Cluver fays

ment, which mofl: dcferves the expreflion i 2:ai(pjoi'ai' «?-i»

it,

as for

that
fo

Albano were

etvS^wTroiv,

oT«v juw^aTlfii; SiKuiri, T«/Ai5i/£i>9-«4 Ti/yaf" oTKv i' «f T«Tttv«f, )t«i (pauAay
t>9a'(ri, p.>.6fy is

Taf

perfuaded of this, that they over the gate, that leads to placed
a ftone, on which was reprefented the fow with her thirty young ones. However, this great geogra-

Rome,

V7ra,ui\inv
its

uyiwiiu

As

this

proper place, I iliall the fenfe of it here ; // is the only give when in profperity, to part of wife men, it with moderation ; and, when in ttfe
tranflatcd in
»

pher has, plainly, proved from Livy, Cicero, and our author,, that Jlba lor,ga
ftood two
Antiq. B.
iii.

Roman
2Ci,

miles to the eaft

of

c.

48.

'

Ital.

p.

Bookr.
TVhite:
ilime

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN A S SEN SIS.
And,
to diftinguifh
it

149

from another

city

of the

name, an epithet was added to it, taken from its figure ; and it is, now, called Alba longa^ a name compounded of This city is, now uninhabited. both, that is, Asvhyi (jiuh^x.
For,

Tullus Hoftilius was king of the Romans, fhe, for the fovereignty, feeming to contend with her colony was demolifhed ; and Rome, having deftroyed her mother-

when

city,

But thefe things happened in afterAlba flood between a mountain, and a lake, which times. ferved as fortifications to the city, and rendered it difficult
received
its

citizens.

to be taken

:

For the mountain
deep and
large,

is

extremely ftrong and high ;
fluices

and the
opened,

lake,
is

which, when the

are

received by the level, the inhabitants having it intheir power to hufband the water, as they think proper. The plains, below the city, are beautiful to tlie and
eye, of all forts of in in the no rich fruits, produce degree inferior to the reft of Italy, particularly, of what they call the

Alban wine, which

is

fweet,

and of a beautiful color

;

and,

except the Falernian wine, certainly, excels all others. LXVII. While the city was building, a great prodigy is For a temple with a fanduary having faid to have happened
:

been built
it.

for the

images of the gods, which Aeneas had
take
^

The Alban lake, and mountain make a confiderable figure in the Roman hiftory, the former having been
the fubjedt of a prophecy, uttered by a Veian captive, and confirmed by no than the Delphic lefs an autharity
oracle, that the

Veil, till they liad water of the Alban lake,

let

out the
Albaii

The

mountain was famous

for the Feriae

laiime inftituted by Tarquinius Supcrbus, and celebrated in the temple of JufiUr Latialis^ that flood on the

Romans

fliould never
''

top of
c,
!

it.

Livy, B. V.

J,

brought

i._$o

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book

I.

brought with him from Troas, and placed in Lavinium, and the ftatues having been rem.oved, from the temple at Lavinium, into this lan6luary, the doors being then, particularly, well fliut, and the walls, and roof unhurt, the flatues changed
their ftation, the follov/ing night,

and were found upon
thither again,

their

old pedeftals.
fupplicatory

And, being brought

with

and propitiatory facrihces, they returned, in like manner, to the fame place. Upon this, the people were, for fome time, in doubt what they fhould do, being unto live feparately from the gods of their fathers, willing either At lafl:, they found out or to return to their old habitation an expedient, which feemed, well enough, to anfwer both thefe purpofes ; this was, to let the images remain where
:

of their own people they were, and to fend back fome from Alba, to Lavinium, to live there, and take care of them.

*'^

perform this holy office, were fix hundred ; they removed thither with their The families, and Aegeftus was appointed their chief.
Thofe,
,

who were

fent

to Lavinium,

to

Romans
word
births

call thefe gods,

Penates

:

Some,
it

who

tranflate the

into the

Greek language, render
\

notl^uagy

The gods
Mvx,i8C,

of their fathers
;

others, FsvsSAia;,
YClYiaisc-,

The gods , who prefde aver
;

and

others,

: Gods of the fa?t8iuary ; i^iclofure Each of thefe has, probably, given them their name from

The givers of riches and E^yMi;-y Gods of the

nS-

F,7r3i)tk:?.

This word
'

is

ufed in

the

id and

;

a^la>v

the fame fenfc by Thucydides, where he fays that the Athenians, having inhabitants ot Aegina, lent ejeftcd the fome of their own people to inhabit
''B.
ii.

Upon which word,
makes
Attomh
the
j^tv,
o!
fa

um-lxvlt; croiy.in;. the Greek fcholiad

following
f^);/*a)

obfervation

:

tcttw

aT£UTU|U£io«

oai!<r«i" iTrotKoi St, oi
c.

«f waAef,

utm^

»uv.

27.

fome

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC AR N A SS ENS I S.
their fundlions
:

^51

However, they all feem, in fome degree, to exprefs the fame thing. Concerning their and appearance, Timaeus, the hiftorian, gives this, figure,
fome one of
that the holy things, preferved in the faniluaries at Lavinium, are iron and brazen Caducei^ and a veffel of

account

;

Trojan earth This, he fays, he learned from the inhabitants. For my part, I cannot think it right, in me, to give an account of thofe things, which it is lawful neither for all
:

to fee, nor to hear
I mufl:

from

thofe,

who
is

have feen them.

And.

blame every man,

who

defirous of inquiring after,

or of knowing, morer than the laws allow.. LXVIII. But the things which I myfelf

know, by having

feen them, and concerning which, no fcruple forbids write, are as follows. They fhew you a temple at

me to Rome

not

far

from the Forum

in the ftreet, that leads, the neareft

way, to the Cari?7ae ; which is fmall, and darkened by the This place, is called, by height of the adjacent buildings
:

the

Romans,

in their

own

language, Veliae

;

in this temple,

are the images of Trojan gods, cxpofed to public view, with "^ this infcription, A A 2, which fignifies Pe?iates: For,

EM

2'7'
all

Asvsif.

This

is

the reading

of

n

that bears the leaft refemblance to

the editions, but, certainly, not the true one. Scaliger, in his notes upon the Chronicon of Eufebiiis, number 617, takes notice of this infcription
-,

a A.

And

I

am

perfuaded thar,

if

Scaliger had feen the Venetian and Vatican manufcripts, he would have

order to explain it, fays that there mufl have been a n of fuch a fliape as to refemble a A. But he does not fay what kind of a n this was
ar.d,

in

•,

rejeded this reading, inftead of endeavouring to explain it. It muft be ohferved that Feimtes is a Latin word, and derived, as v/e know from ^ Cicero, either irom penns, or psninis : So.
that,
all

neither

is

there

among

the

many

an-

cient alphabets

he has exhibited, any

Greek
ii.

attempts to reconcile tins mufi: infcription with Penates
27-

^De

Nat. Deor. B.

c.

according-

15^

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book

I.

letter 0, being not, yet, found according to my opinion, the the letter A. Thefe out, the ancients expreffed its power, by are two youths, in a fitting pofture, each of them-holding a have ancient workmandiip. ; they are pieces of

fpear feen many other ftatues, alfo, of thefe gods in ancient temples ; and, in all of them, they reprefented two youths in military
habits.
It
is

We

lawful to fee thefe,
;

and

to hear
^'^

what others
Calliftratus,

fay

concerning them
Befides,
is

and to write what
ters,

be vain.
v/ords,

as

the

following

the Greeks

'

made

ufe of the af;

now. Hand

in all the editions,

Dionyfius n, not being, as yet, found out, the ancients expreffed its power by the when he, no doubt, knew, letter A and certain it is, that the H, as well as the A, was among the fixteen, or, as
•,

made

to fay that the letter

pirate for examgle,

H

after

n and K and writ, THTEAAA, HHTAAON,
T,

KHPTIOI,

in which they have been followed by the Romans, as I fhall fliew in another ^ place. The Carinae a
ftreet in

was

Rome,

called

fo,

as

others fay, the feventeen letters brought into Greece, from Phoenicia, by Cad-

Servius fays, from the refemblance of the houfes to the keels of fliips ; which^

however,
agree,

may

be

much

doubted.

I

mus. The Hudfon's notes, has As^a?, on the margin of which was written, as he
Venetian manufcript, in
fays,
/aiaic.
«i/7(

reading

B-ii^oci'

tk

A

avu

m

j<ra!-

the Vatican
S-£,uif,

further, explained by manufcript, which has and the following fentence ftands
is,

This

with Cafaubon, and fliall add to the realbns, given by him, to fupport that reading, which may be feen in Hudfon, that our s author himfelf calls this hill OujAia, where he fays that
intirely,
o\ii?\ixi,

in

Valerius

Publicola

built

a

houfe,

thus
I

-,

m

^{Ix
J'tjAav

fJt.>j7r)S

Ttjv £jt«v«

y^auy-xlog fJ^ij/ztViJ JuviXjUiv TO iihld; which

which,

have made no
:

in the text

difficulty of following For, whether the infcrip-

gave um^ to And the brage Livy, people fpeaking of the fame fail, fays of Va-

from

its

fituation,
:

lerius aedifcahat in
*'^'

fummd

Velid.
A^iJivof.

Aj|W«f or Ai/m^, the reafon, alledged by both the manufcripts, is iuft. Since the letter© was nor, in rea-

tion

was

K«AA«5-fix7of,
I

Zo^u^o?,

know not that any other author made mention of Calliftratus, as
writer of the Samothracian
'

has the

lity,

one of the Cadmean

letters,

but

hiftory.

long after, by Simonides, together with the two other afpirate
invented,
letters
<t>

Satyrus unlefs he

is
is

not

much more known,

the fame with the bio-

and X

;

which

is

before the invention of
'

fo true, that, thefe three let-

grapher,
the

who

father

writ the life of Philip, of Alexander the great.
6 B. v. c. 19.

f See the 4i'*.innot. on the fourth book. Mar. Viflor. Voffius Hill. Graec. B.iii. p. 410.

""B.

ij.

c. 7.

the

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.

153

the author of the hiftory of Samothracc, and Satyrus, who has coUedted the ancient fables, with many others, have related

among whom the poet, Ardlinus, is the moll ancient we know of. This, therefore, is the account they give That Chryfes, the daughter of Palas, when flie was married
; :

to Dardanus,

that

is,

of Minerva, brought, for her dowry, the gifts the Palladiums, and the"' images of the great gods,
feveral

That of Demofthenes, and of

Suidas fays that other eminent men. a Arflinuswas Milefian, and a difciple of Homer for which he quotes Artemon of Clazomenae.
-,

Jay, moft: aflliredly, faw the difficulty of tranfiating thefe words, and, to avoid But this it, has left them quite out.
difficulty purfues him : For, a few lines after, our author fays that Dar-

="9-

T« h(»

Toiv fisoiv.

Here

is

a dif-

danus confulted the oracle
isjMv
T>)t

mm mv

whichthetrandators have either ficulty, It is not feen, or have diffembled certain that, when our author fays that
:

not to

However, he reiblves be troubled any more about it,
(puA«x>if
:

and has,

alfo,

left

out thefe words.

her dowry, Chryfesbroughtwithher,as befides the Palladiums, t« h^x twv Biu'j, he means theftatues of
[Aiyxhuv the great gods^ which both the Latin tranllators have rendered facra magnorum deorum, and the two French tranfdes
:

The other French

tranflator, has,

moft

certainly, the merit of having attempted to tranflate them ; and I forry, for that reaibn, that, fur Ic fcin qii'il devoit avoir du culte des dieux cannot be al-

am

lowed to exprefs the
lioav
Tijf (f

fenfe of

ixa^i

rav
as

And lators ksfiatues grands dieux author our when certain it is as that, when he went into fays that Dardanus, &£«v in Samoru'j T« left Afia, U^* the ftatues mean not does he thrace, of the gods ; but only the myfteries And here, their worlhip relating to
:

uAax))?

:

It is,

however,

well as de affervandis facris in Sylburgius, or de facrorum cuftodia in Ponus.
It is plain that the oracle related to the prefervacion of thefe ftatues, upon which the fate of the town, he was

faa-a et myjleria, rendered les myfteres des dieux et les : 1 wilh I knev/ what he chofes faintcs les chofes faintes. They could means
:

Latin tranflators have faid again, the M. * * * has

which

by not be the Palladiums, nor the ftatues For, all thefe our author of the o-ods next fentence, Dardathe in tells us, him into Afia. Le with carried nus
^ Petav. B.
ii.

going to build, and, afterwards, of The oracle, 1 roy, was to depend. that was dL-livered to Dardanus, is, if the auihorit'es, our author quotes, have not miflcd him, of the higheft fince it was given to him antiquity before he founded the kingdom of Troy, which happenfd in the 3251.''' year of the Julia period, about fifty after the Ifraelites came out of years
•,

"^

1

c. lo.

pa

t iii.

ardB.

i.

c.

1 1

.

Vol.

I.

X

part

i.

in

154

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
had been inftruded
:

Book

I.

in wliofe myfteries fhe

That, when

the Arcadians, flying from the dehige, left Peloponnefus, and fettled in the ifland of Thrace, Dardanus built there a

names he difclofed to temple to thefe gods, whofe particular none, and performed thofe ceremonies to them, which are That, when he obferved, to this day, by the Samothraces
:

of his people into Afla, he left tranfported the greateft part the myfteries, belonging to thefe gods, and the ceremonies

with thofe,

who remained

in the ifland

;

and carried with

him

upon

the Palladiums, and the images of the gods: And that, confulting the oracle concerning his fettlement, among

other things he was informed of, he received this anfwer

of the images of the gods ; " Rerelating to the cuftody " member to eftablifli, in the city, which you fhall build^ " worfliip to the gods, and to honor them with
perpetual
Egypt, and a little before the death of Jolhiia ; and 296 years before that city was deftroyed by the Greeks, in the reign of Priamus. It is very remarkable that this oracle is in very good hexameter verfe, and the Ianguage, not at all, different from That of Homer, who writ above five hundred years after this period; nor from
the language of thofe poets, who writ five hundred years after Homer. However, there is an exprcrffion in it, in

Sylburgius has faid
ferfetutim, which

much

better cultum
;

is

the fenfe

Jay,

whom

I,

always,

commend
it
;

and le with
other

pleafure, when I can do has given it this fenfe
:

with

jiiftice,

as the

French trandator has, alfo, though more explicitly This is the fenfe, in which Homer applies thefe words, «;f9(1o» «/«, more than once, to the
'

fccpter of
»

Agamemnon,
,

^'^*^' " «.,^7fo.t.«1...«v

y

-1

r

1

/^
«<F«-7=v

«;«.

rendering which the tranflators, I find. are divided: It is this, c-s€afa(?'Si7ov «iH, which Portus has tranflated cullum
incorrupt!!!)!

Upon
this

which the Greek

fcholiaft

obfervation: To ^tv «6«va7a»
to
Jli

makes tm
a(f>9iVj

?ju4-u;taiii oi (fiAcjctpcj T«<rirB»-«'

altered

it

jemper, and Hudfon has to cultum purum femper.
'

im

«v].v;;^w)(.

Iliad, g. .^. 186.

'*

n^fe-

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HA LICARN ASSENSIS.
:

JS5

" and choirs For, while thefe venefafegiiards, facrifices, " rable of the daughter of Jupiter to your wife fhail gifts " remain in your country, your city fhall, for ever, be im"
pregnable."

LXIX. That, upon
city,

which

the images in the he founded, and which received its name from
this,
left

Dardanus

him: That, Ilium, being, afterwards, built, the images were removed thither by his defcendants ; and that the Ilienfes built a temple, and a fandluary for them in the citadel, and
preferved
fent

them with

all

poilible care, looking

upon them

as
:

from Heaven, and as the pledges of public fafety That, while the Greeks were employed in taking the lower
Aeneas, being mafter of the citadel, took, out of the and the Palladium, fandluary, the images of the great gods, which, yet, remained (for the other, UlyfTcs, and Diomede,

city,

coming into Ilium by night, ftole away) and, him out of the city, brought them into carrying them with But Ardinus fays that one Palladium was given by Italy.
they fay,
to Dardanus, and that this remained in Ilium, hid Jupiter in the fandluary, till the city was taken: That, from this, a was made, in every refpedl, like the original, and ex-

copy

the view of the public, on purpofe to deceive thofe, pofed to who might have a delign to fteal it; and, that the Greeks, having formed this defign, took that away. I fay, therefore,
authority of the perfons above mentioned, that the into Italy by Aeneas, were Thofe of the images, brought to whom the Samothraces, of all the Greeks, great gods,

upon the

X

2

pay

156

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

I.

and the famous Palladium, pay the greateft worfliip, which, they fay, is kept by the holy virgins in the temple of Vefta, where the perpetual fire is, alfo, preferved: Concerning

whom,

I fhall

fpeak afterwards.

befides thefe,
initiated.

which

are

There may be other things, kept fecret from us, who are "'not

And

fo far

concerning the Trojan gods.

Afcanius dying in the eight and thirtieth year of He was his reign, Silvius, his brother, fucceeded him born of Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, after the death of
:

LXX.

Aeneas, and, as they fay, brought up on the mountains by the herdfmen. For, upon the acceffion of Afcanius to the kingdom, Lavinia, fearing left the name of a ftep-mother,

might draw upon her fome
'-°-

feverity
^^'-

from him,
Bi6>jXc(f.

flie,

being,

UxWccSiov.

Many

authors have

written of this famous Palladium, but none of them have taken fo much their readers of all the pains to inform circumftances, relating to this folemn

This word is, very rendered by the Latin tranfproperly, ants: But I think not fo well \^\oxs. prof
by the French
profanes
:

I

am

tranflators, nous culres fenfible that, in their

feems, the the art underftood pagan priefts, early, of raifing the veneration ot their votaries by fecreting the objeft of it.
farce,
as

Dionyfius.

It

language, des auteurs profanes is faid in oppofition to des auteurs facrez ; but
I leave it to

them

to conlider

whether

I find

Herodian

is

quoted by the com-

they fay des gens profanes in oppofition to des gens d'eglife ; for that is the fenfe

mentators, upon the occafion of this Palladium, for faying that, in the reign of Commodus, the temple of Vefta

was burnt, and the Palladium cxpofcd to public view for the firft time. But ™ Tacitus, who is much more to be
credited, fays, in fpeakingof the public fire buildings, that were confumcd by
in Nero's time, Acdefque Statoris Jovis vota Romido, Nunuuq^ne regia, ct delubruni Vejlae

of the word in this place, which is explained in Hefychius by «/Aut;1jf. It is well known thatkaf, ««? ffe /3cte)jAo(, " which Virgil has tranQated
frocul,
frccul,
ejle,

frofani,

were what they

ci\\ foknnia verba, and to their religious ceremonies. previous The explication Servius gives of pro-

fani,

cum pciiatil'us populi Ro">

in this verfe, agrees, exadly, with That of Hefychius, qui non eflis
initiati.
"

mani

exufta.

Annal. B. xv.

c.

41.

AeneJd. B.

vi.

)t,

258.

then,

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALI C ARN AS SENSI S,

157

then, with child,
niis,

who
:

put herfelf into the hands of one Tyrrhewas fuperintendant of the king's fwineherds, and
devoted to extremely, Fie, carrying her into the defert woods, as one of and, taking care fhe was not feen by any one,
her,

whom

£he

knew

to have been,

"'

Latiniis

the vulgar,

who knew
wood,
ing
But,
it,

fupported her, in a houfe he built in the which was known but to few And, when the
:

child was born, he took care of

it,

from the wood,

Silvius,

and brought it up, callthat is, in Greek, T'Koi.iog
:

in procefs of time,

fearch after the

woman,

finding the Latines made great and that the people acculed Af-

canius of having put her to death, he acquainted them with the whole matter, and produced the woman, and her fon

out of the wood.

From

this incident Silvius

had

his

name,

which, afterwards, became common to all his pofterity. After the death of his brother, he fucceeded him in the

kingdom, though not without a contefl with
eldefl:

liilus,

the

fon of Afcanius,

who

claimed a right to his father's

kingdom. But the people rejed;ed his claim; to which they were induced by many confiderations ; but, chiefly, by this, And to that his mother was fole heirefs to the kingdom
:

inftead of the fovereignty, a certain holy power, and honor was given, preferable to the royal dignity, both for
Iiilus,
^''^^

nf3<r»i5'0(o<'

w^cfficuniTtjf.

Hefy-

chius.

This

dare fay,

ther familiaris,

of the word will, I convince any one that neiin the Latin tranflators
fcnfe
;

Aalivw. Befides, I am that the reader will not think perfuaded the intimacy, they have created befignify
nr^(3f;jj/!i^ov

dans ks bc7ines graces de Latinus, in le amis de Latinus, Jay ; nor des plusfideles
in the

tween the king, and the overfeer of his fwineherds, very agreeable to the rules of decency.

other French

tranQator, can

fecurity,

158
fecurity,

ROMAlSr ANTIQJJITIES OF
and
eafe
;

Book

I.

which"'

his pofterity enjoy, even, to this

day, and are called Julii from him: This family became the moft confiderable, and, at the fame time, the moft illuftrious

of any

we know

of;

and has brought forth the
have been fo

greateft

commanders, whofe

virtues

many proofs
what
is

of their nobility. Concerning requifite in another place.

whom, we

fhall fay

having been in poflellion of the kingdom twenty nine years, was fucceeded by Aeneas, his fon, who reigned one and thirty years. After him, Latinus reigned iifty one Then, Albas thirty nine After Albas, Capetus reigned
Silvius,
:

LXXI.

:

twenty

fix

;

then Capys twenty eight

petus held the

kingdom
:

After Capys, CalThen Tiberinus thirteen years
:

:

The laft, it is faid, was {lain in a battle, reigned eight years that was fought near the river ; and, being carried along with the ftream, gave his name to the river, which was, before,

called Albula.

reigned
2-3-

Agrippa, the fucceflbr of Tiberinus, one and forty years: After Agrippa, Alladius, a
«f ([Ai TO i^ AxjJis ytvof relates to Julius Caefar,

Hv

ill Kcti

«!<a!f5r«7o.

This

has taken occafion, from this paragraph of our author, to fay that he was paid by Auguftus for writ ng his hiftory.
I

adopted fon, Auguftus, who, •were both potitifces maximi, as it is well known-, the laft being inverted with that dignity upon the death of Lepidus, in the "confulfhip of Tiberius, and
his

and

own

I fee

no rcafon

for that

exfufpicion. of for the caufe liberty, throughprefles out his work, does not look as if he

The warmth Dionyfius

Quintihus Varus, which,
confulares,
is

in the Fq/li

the 741** year of

Rome,

This I mention, becaufe Torrentius, andCafaubon, in their notes upon Suetonius, for what reafon I cannot guefs,
fay that

was paid by an ufurper. If, in defcribing the battle of Aftium, either he, or any other author had tranfformed the feather, on the cafk of
''

Auguftus was created pontifex
in the year

maximus

711.
6
1

" Dio. B. liv. p.

9.

Auguilus, into a blazing ftdr, they might well be faid to have been paid M. * * * by that prince. P See Boileau's Ode on the taking of Namur.

tyran-

Bookl.
^-*

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENS IS.

159

and odious to the gods, reigned ninetyrannical prince, teen. He, in contempt of them, had contrived machines
to

imitate both

thunderbolts, and the noife of thunder,

with which he propofed to terrify mankind, as if he had But a ftorm, fraught with rain, and thunder, been a god
:

near which it ftood, falhng upon his houfe, and the lake, an unufual manner, he was drowned with his fwelling, in

And, now, when one part of the lake is low upon the retreat of the water, and the bottom calm, the ruins of porticoes, and other traces of a habitation appear.
whole family.
Aventinus, from whom one of the feven hills, that make the city of Rome, received its name, fucceeded, and part of
reigned thirty feven years
:

:

After him, Procas, three and

Then, Amulius, having, unjuftly, poflefled himfelf twenty of the kingdom, which belonged to Numitor, his elder But Amulius being brother, reigned two and forty years.
put to death by Romulus, and Remus, the fons of a Veftal, as we fliall, prefently, relate, Numitor, the grandfather of the youths by the mother's iGide, refumed the fovereignty,,
which, by the laws,
belonged to him.
-'^

The

next year,

Attic elegance, which our author was, mafter of. Ariftophanes, perfedly, all the Attic writers, often, indeed, and, One pafufe this kind of expreffion the former, I fhall quote, beof fage caufe the obfervation of the Greek
:
"^

Imroi; o-Troiviov ti x^^F'*^^5- Toi /e?*;; {l.^T>if

No.udco^oj

a^,-^.;;-,

etc,

Dionyfius is, upon this occafion, cenfured by Dodwell, as inconfiftent with himfelf As M. * * * has tranflated the reafons, given

by Dodwell

in

fcholiaft

upon

it,

will explain this

At-

ticifm

J

TO x,?>;^» TOJv wkIuv, iaoi

Ani^<iiiv.

fupport of this cenfurc, though without faying a word from whence he had them, I fhall endeavour to anfwer Dodwell, without taking notice of his

which

i6o

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

which was in the reign of Numitor, and the four hundred and thirty fecond after the taking of Troy, the Albans,
tranflator
;

and doubt not to prove

ftars.

This difcovery was important
:

that the realbas, alledged by Dodwell, are inconfillent with his own chrono-

to aftronomy, but fatal to ancient chro-

nology
that

For,

Hipparchus thought

In logy. ferve that

the
it is

firft

place,

I

mull ob-

dern vided with the neceflary materials, to cenliire the approved authors of antiquity, who fore them.

a bold attempt in mochronologers, who are unpro-

the aequinoxes went backwards one degree in about an hundred years ;

had

all

thefe materials beit

which gave occafion to the Greeks ta place the Argonautic expedition three hundred years earlier than they would have done, had they known, what Sir
Ifaac

Were

modern chronologers

poflible for our to have recourfe

Newton knew,

that the aequi-

noxes went back a degree

to Fabius Pidor, Cincius, Cato, Era-

two

years.

The

tofthenes, and many other authors, fo often quoted by Dionyfius, I fee no

this error afi^edts

in leventy reader will fee that every other great aera,

why they Ihould not be allowed to form as true a judgement of chronoreafon

But, when they of every one of thefe deprived them all ; when no and had he helps, author ever pretended to accufe him of the \v3nt e;ther of diligence in confulting them, or of capacity in making life of them, I mufl: think it very unreafonable to give more credit to our
logy, as Dionyfius
are
:

Argonautic expedition. But does not belong to my fubjecV. I am only to reafon from hiftorical fadls, and to llievv that Dionyfius, in fixing the aera of the foundation of Rome, is confiftent with himfelf ; and, that the
fince the
this

reafons alledged by Dodwell are not confiftent with his own chronology.

In order to eftablifh thefe two points, I do not think it necefi"ary to confider whether the aera of Cato, or That of

modern chronologers, under

all

thefe

Varro,
is

is

the beft founded

•,

becaufe

it

difficulties, than to him, with all thofe I allow, will, indeed, advantages.

that where chronology depends upon aftronomy, the modern chronologers

impoftiblc for us to know the reafons, that induced eithtr Varro to place the foundation ot in the third

Rome

year of the fixth Olympiad

;

or Cato

have the advantage over the ancient ; becaufe, aftronomy, is now, very much improved. This gave occafion to our
great
Sir Ifaac

to place it two years later ; that is, in the firft year ol the feventh. Our author has thought fit to follow Cato,
for which, I dare fay, he had good fince he fays that he publilhed a treatile upon this fubjcft, which is,

Newton

to correft the

Greeks, by corredlchroholcgy aftronomy ofHipparchus, who, irigthe firft, difcovered the preceftion of the
aequinoxes
ligibly,
;

ot the

reafons

•,

or,

to fpeak

more

intel-

that the aequinoxes

had a mo-

loft. Before I go on, I cannot ' help taking notice that Sirllaac Nrivton has faid that P^arro placed the bu.,d-

now,

tion backwards in refpeft to the fixed
Chron. p. 25. and 94.

ing of Rome on the firjl year of the feventh
sChron.
p. 129.

having

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.

r6i

of Romulus, having Tent out a colony under the condu6l and Remus, built Rome the firfl year of the feventh
olympiad.

he would perfuadcd that fmall this have correded miftake, if his to he had hved chronology. publilh But, to return to That of our author
I
:

am

Rome was built fays, then, that after the death of Amulius, and in the in the 432" year reign of Numitor, from the deftrudlion of Troy, and the

He

And, that this was the old Roman way of counting, appears from their calling June, which was the fifth month from the firft of Maich, ^lintilis., and Auand the following months, guft,6"^A7/7;j, their place from that to according day, OSlober., November, DecemSeptember.,
ber.

Thefe things being premifed,

let

of the feventh olympiad, in which Daicles of Meflene won the prize of
firfl:

us fee

how

the

number of years,

attri-

the ftadium, and Charops entered upon the firft year of his decennial archThe firft thing, here, to be
onll-iip.

confidcred is the number of years contained between the deftrudtion of Troy,

and the building of Rome. Dionyfius has, already, told us that Troy was taken on the twenty third of the Attic

buted by our author to Aaneas, and to each of the Alban kings, agrees The Trojans, with his computation. he fays, built Lavinium juft after the expiration of the two firft years after The third year, the taking of Troy Aeneas reigned over the Trojans only ; the fourth, he fucceeded Latinus ; and,
:

month Thargelion, that is, the twelfth of our June Confequently, the 432 till the years will not be completed in the of year, Thargelion twenty third in which the building of Rome was Now, the day of the month, begun. in which this happened, is very well
:

having reigned three years after the death of Latinus, he died the fourth This fame year, Afcanius fucyear. ceeded him, and died in the thirty eighth year of his reign. Sylvius fucceeded him, the fame year, and reigned
twenty nine ; Aeneas, his fon, thirty one Latinus, fifty one; Albas, thirty
-,

known

-,

becaufe the

Romans

cele-

nine

brated a feftival on that day, called of that Palilia, or Pariiia, in memory
feftival was celegreat event ; which brated on the eleventh of the calends of May, that is, the twenty firft of to be confidered April. Another thing in our author's chronology, is, that, when he fpeaks of the years, each of

Capetus, twenty fix Capys, twenty eight Calpetus, thirteen ; Ti-, -, •,

berinus, eight Agrippas, forty one Allades, nineteen ; Aventinus,
-,

;

thirty

feven

•,

Amulius
find that

Procas, twenty three ; and The reader will forty two.
all

thefe

numbers, added to:

Alban kings reigned, he computes according to the old Roman method
the
-,

gether, will make four hundred thirty two. This year was a very bufy year For, on the fifteenth of the calends of

that
firft

is,

he begins the year with the

of March.

For Romulus, who

had a mind to be thought the fon of Mars, began the year with that month:

March, the fifteenth of February, on which day, the Lupercalia were celebrated, Remus was taken and, about the beginning of March, on the firft day of which the Roman, not the Attic
;

Vol.

I.

Y

olympiad,

j62

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Bookl.

of Meflene won the prize of the olympiad, in which Daicles ftadium, and the iirft year of the decennial archonfliip of Charops at Athens.
flain After year, began, Amulius was whofe death, Numitor fucceeded ; and, having, as our author fays, employed
:

account of the decennial archons before him, when he writ this If thefe,
:

by any accident, governed only

fixty

government, lie, frefently, thought of founding a new kingdom for his grandfons, and of enabling them to build a new city. This city they began to build, accordingly, on the eleventh of the calends
the twenty firft of April following ; which, the reader fees, was feveral weeks before the twenty third

a jhort time to

fettle his

eight years, inftead of feventy, it will be found that Charops entered upon
firft year of his decennial archonfhip in the firft year of the feventh olympiad. It is well known that Creon

the

was created the
firft

firft

annual archon the

of

May,

of Thargelion, on which day, every year, from the taking of Troy, was
thefe partiaccomplifhed. culars are explained, I believe, I need not employ many words to anfwer the
all

year of the twenty fourth olympiad ; and, if, from twenty three olympiads, we dedud fix for thofe elapfed before the building of Rome, the

remaining feventeen will make juft
fixty eight years.

After

But,

I

think,

I

have

a ftronger objeftion againft his chro-

nology, than

thi":,

or any other he has

The firft he ohjeftions of Dodwell. makes to the chronology of our author, is that Creon being the firft annual archon, who was created fuch at Athens in the firft year of the twenty fourth olympiad, it cannot be that cither Charops, or any other, fhould have been in the firft year of his decennial archonlbip in the firft year of I own I have the feventh olympiad.
this

urged againft That of Dionyfius. fays that Rome muft liave been
in the 433'' year

He

built

Troy

;

for

after the taking of which he quotes Solinus,

and the author of the Progenies Augufti, under the name of Meflala Corvinus. Thefe, he thinks, are authors fit to be
oppofed to the authority of Dionyfius of Halicarnalfus. The firft was a grammarian, and a wretched tranfcriber of other authors,

not comprehcnfion enough to fee that is a necefTary confequence. For,
generally, fappofed that the feven decennial archons (of whom Charops was the firft) governed ten

of Pliny

;

and

'

particularly, Scaliger, in his notes

though

it is,

on
is

F.ufebius, calls

him, with great
:

rea-

fon. Script or em levijfwium a fiditious writer, as

The

other

it is well known that years apiece, yet of the our account decennial, is not fo as That of the annual, arch-

every body knows, and Dodwell himfelf owns. But, even this fyftem of Dodwell will

complete ons ; and
that

might Dionyfius had
it

very well happen a more complete

not agree with his own chronological tables For, by placing the building of Rome in the firft year of Numitor,
:

«P. 126.

LXXII.

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSENSlS.

163

But, there being great difputes concerning both the time of the building of the city, and the founders of it,

LXXII.

thought it incumbent on me, alfo, not to give a curfory account of thefe things, as if they were, uni\'erfilly, agreed For Cephalon, the Gergithian, a very ancient writer, on.
I

fays

tlie

city

was

"""^

built,

the fecond generation after the
:

Trojan war, by thofe,

who
it

That

the founder of
:

efcaped from Troy with Aeneas was Remus, who was the leader of
fons
;

the colony

That he was one of Aeneas's
fons,

and that

Aeneas had four
or,
in other

Afcanius, Euryleon, Romulus, and
end till the return of the twenty third of Thargelion, which fell out feveral weeks after the twenty firft of April.
It will,

words, by allowing notables to the reign of thing he has made the total of Numitor,
in his

the reigns to

amount 10432

years,

as

From whence, they, certainly, do. he concludes that the forty fecond year of Amulius was the 432'* from the
taking of Troy
:

that

Rome

therefore, necefTarily, follow was built the 432"^ year

In this
the

I

agree with
firft

of Numitor was the 433* from the taking

him

:

Then,
:

fays he,
I

of Troy

This

deny

:

And,

I

believe,

taking of Troy, as our author and not the 433^ as Dodwell fays, would have it. The reader will excufe a repetition, which I find I have been The neceffity guilty of in this note. I was under, firft, to ftate fafls, and,
after the

the reader, from what I have faid, will anticipate my reafons for denying it.

Amulius was flain, and Numitor fucceeded him in the fpring of this year For, we find, by our author, that Amulius was not flain, till fome time
:

then, to apply them, obliged me to it; and I chofe rather to be prolix, than obfcure. "^' Ai^i^xyivtiz. I cannot conceive how Portus came to tranflate thh^nno
fecundo, inftead o'i the fecrmd generation, as the words, plainly,
as
le

and after the fifteenth of February flain time was he that enough for to fettle his to fucceed him, Numitor
-,

obvious as

this

miftake

But, fignify. is in Portus,

Jay, his faithful follower, has tranf-

and fend out Romulus government, and Remus fo early, that they began to build Rome on the twenty firft of

lated

him,
is

and

faid la feeonde annee.

This

we have, April of this year 432. Now, from our that feen, author, already, on the twenty third taken was Troy
of Thargelion
;

convincing proof, if this proof were wanting, to fatisfy every one that le Jay, inftead of tranOating Dionyfius, has tranDated Portus. Hudfon cannot be excufed for not correfling this miftake in his edition.

a

confequently, the 432=^

the taking of Troy did not year from

Y

2

Remus.

i64

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
'''^

OF

Book

I.

Remus.

Demagoras,

agree with the colony.

him

Agathyllus, and many others, in relation both to the time, and the leader ol
alfo,

author of the hiftory of the prieftefles in Aro-os, and of what paffed under each of them, fays that

But the

"^

Aeneas, coming into Italy from the Moloffi, after Ulyffes, was the founder of the city, to which he gave the name of

one of the Trojan women, who was called Rome ; and that and the reft of the Trojan fhe, tired with wandering,
In this, her inftigation, fet fire to the fhips. "9 Damaftes, the Sigean, and fome others agree with him. '5° Ariftotle, the philofopher, writes that fome of the But,

women, by

=''?

At-aavo^a:

not

known

was a poet, ther was an A'cadian poet
author, as

It Aj/aSuAAw. whether the firft of thefe The oor an hiftorian.
xsti
-,

"

IS

fophers, with many other things ; and that he was a difciple of Hellanicus. ^3°' A^i^oliKr.i. As this account, taken

and our

from

we

fhall

lee,

cites

fome

that are

vcrfcs of his.

Concerning Cephalon,

fome of his works, not pollible to know whether^ Plutarch, who tells this ftoAriftotle,
is

in

loft, it is

fee the 152'' annotation.

The
it

author of tliis hiftory
:

is

not men-

tioned by Dionyfius

It is poflible that

whom
tions.
*^9'

n-iay fee the

be

Hellanicus,
66^"

concerning

and 6y'^ annota"

without faying from whom he had and makes thefe people, who came from Troy, to have been Trojans or whether our author, who lays they were Greeks, had moil reafon for his aftertion Though, by the fequel of the ftory, they muft have been Greeks;
ry,
it,
•,

:

fince the
Sij^fuf. A«jMa'i;f faid by our author to

Trojan women, who

fet tire

This

hifto-

rian

is

have lived

to the fleet, were their prifoners. The proinontory, formerly, called Malea,

a

little

He

before the Peloponnefian war. was of Slgeum, a promontory,
called,

now, Cnpo Malio^ be.'ongs to Lacoiiia, and forms the louth eaft point of the
ancient Peloponnefus, now, theMorea. read of many fliips loft in

and a town of Troas, now,

Suidas lays he writ two Janizzari. books concerning the parents, and anceftors of thole, who warred at Troy, and a catalogue of nations, and cities ; as concerning pocis, and philoalfo,
" Vofi". Hift.

We

being doubling the cape this dangerous is taken notice of by Virgil,
;
>'

fea

Maleaeque Jcquacibus undis.
*

Grace. B.

iii.

p.

351

.

'"Xls^t XH'^''^-

©"""J-

Tmx\x. ar'.

y

Aencid. B.

v. f.

igj.

Greeks,

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALI C ARN A SSEN SI S.

165

Greeks, in their return from Troy, while they were doubling the cape of Malea, were overtaken with a violent ftorm j
and, being, for fome time, driven out of their courfe by the winds, wandered over many parts of the fea ; till, at lad,

they came to

which belongs to Opica, called Latium, lying on the Tyrrhene fea That, being plcafcd
this

place,

:

with the fight of land, they haled up their (hips ; ftaid there the winter feafon, and were preparing to fail in the beginning

of the fpring But, their fhips being fet on fire in the night, and they, unable to fail away, neceflity obliged them, againft
:

where they had landed: And, that this was brought upon them, by the captive women they were carrying with them from Troy ; who burned the fhips, left, when the Greeks returned home, they fliould
to fettle in the place,

their will,

the adlions of Agathorcles, fays that one of the Trojan women, who came into Italy with the reft of the Trojans, called Rome, married Latinus, king of the Aborigines, whom, fhe had two
flaves.

become

'^'

Callias,

who

v/rit

fons,

by and Remus, Romulus, who, building a
their

city,

gave

it

the

name of

mother.

Xenagoras, the hiftorian, writes
fons,

that UlyfTes,

and Circe had three

Ardeas, who, building three cities, own names. '^' Dionyfius, the Chalcidean, owns, indeed, ^3'- KaK?a«;, The age other, is, that he writ one treatife conEivayo^ct?.
of the firft is known, by his having been a penfioner, and flatterer of Agathocles, the tyrant of Sicily, as we learn from ^ Suidas, who has tran-

Remus, Antias, and called them after their

cerning chronology, and another concerning idands.
^i^Aioiua-io?
0*

XaAxiJ'tu?

.

We know

fcribed Diodorus, in every thing reAll we know of the lating to him.
'

no more of this hiftorian, than that he writ five books of the oricrins of
^

cities,

Voffius Hift. Grace, B.

iii.

p.

422.

»

Id. ib. p. 358.

that

t66
that

ROMAN ANT
Remus was

I

QJJ

I

TIES OF

Book

I.

the founder of the city ; but, then, he fays, that he was, according to fome, the fon of Afcanius, and,

according to others, the fon of Emathion. There are others, who affirm that Rome was built by Remus, the fon of
Itahis,

and of Ele6lra, the daughter of Latinus.
I

could quote many other Greek writers, who aflign different founders of the city ; but, not to appear

LXXIII.

prolix,

I fliall

come

to the
as

Roman hiftorians.

The Romans
^^'

have not

fo

much

one ancient

hiftorian, or

orator

;

but each of their hiftorians has taken fomething out of the
ancient relations, that are preferved in the ^^"^holy records. Some of thefe fay that Romulus, and Remus, the founders

of Rome, were the fons of Aeneas

:

Others, that they were

the fons of a daughter of Aeneas, without determining

who

was
=33-

their father
Aoyoy^x(pc^.

;

and that they were
thefe to

delivered, as hoftages,

M.

***, very juftly,

cenfuresGelenius,andPortus for tranf-

do not has he why fpared Sylburgius, fince he has fallen into the fame error, as well as le Jay. In opa writer pofition to them, he has laid, in general ; though, by the very authorities he quotes, he ought to have rendered it either an orator, with Plutarch, or, an hiflorian, with ThucyAs our author has, already, dides. mentioned an hiflorian, I have chofen
Jating this, a writer offables. I

have been what the Romans which contained the treaties made by them with other
called libros linteos,

undcrftand

and, alfo, the names of their magiftrates, and the times of their
nations-,
^ becaufe, I find that Livy calls them Ubros viagiflratuum, and //'-

creation

;

bros lintecs
et in foedcre

:

Licinius

Macer au^or

efi,

Ardeatino,

et in linteislibris

ad Monetae invent a. And, again, quodque magiftratuum libri, quos linteos ia
aede repofitos Monetae, citat identidem auEiores

Macer Licinius
'.

The

epithet

to tranflate Koyoy^a(pof,

in this place,

an

orator, in which I am Aipported, not only by the authority of Plutarch, but, alfo, by that of Hefychius ; Ac^34-

of by our author upon Iff «», this occafion, inclined me to think that he might mean the lih'i pontificales ; but thefe related, purely, to
ufe

made

religion,

and to public and private

Ev

If^txK

eifCioii.

I

look upon
^B.iv.
c. 7-

facrifices.
'

lb. c. zo.

by

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S ENS

I S.

167

when the by Aeneas, to Latinus, king of the Aborigines, was made between the inhabitants, and the foreigners : treaty

And
good

that Latinus received
offices,

them

kindly, did

and, dying without male children,

them many left them his

fucceflbrs in

fay that, after the death of Aeneas, Afcanius, having fucceeded him in the

fome part of his kingdom. Others

fovereignty of the Latines, divided both the country, and the forces of the Latines, into three parts ; two of which
intire

Romulus, and Remus That he himfelf built Alba, and fome other towns ; and that Remus built a city, which he called Capua, from Capys, his great grandfather; Anchife, from his grandfather Anchifes ;
he gave
to his brothers,
:

Aenea, which was, afterwards, called Janiculum, from his father ; and Rome, from his own name That this lafl:
:

city was,

that,
fent,

fome time, deferted by the inhabitants; but upon the arrival of another colony, which the Albans under the condud of Romulus, and Remus, it was
for
its

former condition: So that, according to this account, there were two foundations of Rome; one, a little
reftored to

generations But, if any one defires to look into the earlier accounts, even, a third Rome will be found, moreafter the
firfl:.

after the

Trojan war;

and the

other,

fifteen

which was founded, before Aeneas and the Trojans came into Italy. This is fupported by the teftimony of no vulgar, nor modern author ; but by That of Antiochus, the Syracufian, whom I mentioned
ancient than
thefe,

before:

He

fays

that,

when Morges

reigned in

Italy

(which,

i68
('^5

ROMAN

ANTICiUITIES OF

Book

.

I,

which, at that time, comprehended all thefea coaft from ''^ Tarentum, to Pofidonia) a man came to him, who had " After been baniflied from Rome ; his words are thefe
:

" "

In his reign, Merges reigned there came to him a man, who had been baniiLed from " Rome, andwhofe name was Sicelus." According, thereItalus

was grown

old,

:

fore,

to the Syracufian hiftorian,
is

fome ancient

city,

called

Rome,
fame

found,

ev^en, earlier

But, as he has
place,

left it

than the time of the Trojan war. doubtful whether it was fituated in the
city,

where the

other place was called
I

now, ftands, or whether fome by the fame name, fo, neither can
to
it.

form any conjecture relating
faid, to

Concerning, thereI think,

fore,

the ancient foundations of

Rome,

what has

been

be

fufficient.

LXXIV. As
city
;

or,

by
ii

to the laft reinhabiting, or building of the what name foever we ought to call it, Timaeus,
IrxKici.

»35-

Hv

Toli

Cafaubon
*

Strabo, fays, upon upon the authority, alfo, of Antiochus, makes Italy much lefs extenfive.

this paflage, that

both of Cafaubon, and the other commentators M. * * * has taken, without giving the leaft hint from whom he had them.
^i^' This was the Ax?' n:(r«fon«f. Greek name of a town in Lucania, called by the Romans, Paeftum, which Sinus Faeftanus, now, lay in the

have looked into that place of Strabo, and find it to be fo. Upon this, he a£ks whether the words of Antiochus may not be, lefs accurately, quoted by Dionyfius, than Strabo ? To this
I

called,

Golfo

di Salerno.

It

is

very

anfwer that it is more probable they did not both quote the fame paiTage, and that Antiochus might, in one of one defcription of place, fpeak at one time, and, that prevailed Italy, in the other, of another defcription,
I

pofTible that Antiochus,

whole words

our author quotes, might mean the

promontory Pcfuioniwn, or Pofidium^ lies to the fouth of the town, and is, now, called, Capo di Licofa, as a more remarkable boundary on the
that
"

that prevailed at another time.

Some-

thing like this he himfelf feems to infinuate. This, and many other notes,
••B. vi. p. 391,

weft, to anfwer the large city of rentum on the eaft.

Ta-

Cluver,

Ital.

Antiq. p. 1258.

the

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

169

the Sicilian [by what '^^ computation I know not) places it at the fame time with the building of Carthage, that is, in the before the firfl olympiad ; Lucius Cincius, tliirty eighth yeaia

Roman
;

piad
piad.

about the fourth year of the twelfth olymand Quindlus Fabius in the firli year of the eighth olymfenator,

Cato Porcius follows no Greek account
in colleding

;

but, being as

careful, as

any writer, places the building of

ancient hiftories, he

Rome
Troy

four hundred and thirty
:

of years after the taking

And

this time,

two being com-

'^^ Eratofthenes, falls pared with the chronological tables of I have in with the firfl: year of the feventh olympiad.

fliewn,

in another treatife, that the canons of Eratofthenes

are to be

depended on, and,

in

For I chronology is to be reduced to did not think it fufficient, like Polybius of Megalopolis, to that I believe Rome was built in the fecond year of fay,
:

what manner, the That of the Greeks

Roman

only,

the feventh olympiad

;

nor to leave the unexamined credit
fingle infcription
able one.
b

of

this affertion

upon a
y.Kvovi

on a

table,

pre-

*37-

OvK

oii'

o'tw

^^>;<ri)iiJ.(vo;.

Wonderfully
fa>!S

tranflated
auteiir.

by

le

alkguer aucun
that

It is

Jay, well

known
rule
;

Kavm

fignifies

a workman's
tranflated
fignifies a as a rule

He was a geographer, a chronologer, a grammarian, a philofopher, a poet, an aftronomer, and an Of all thefe he gave ample hiftorian
:

to

from whence, it was chronology, where it

computation of time to ferve
for hiftory.
^38Ef«I<js9-evi)f.

proofs in his writings, which are, often, quoted, with great approbation, He was a Cyby the beft authors.
renaean, and fent for from Athens

He

was a

man

of

viniverfd learning, notwithftanding the

by Ptolomy Euergetes, who made him He died under Ptolomy his librarian.
''

cenfure of ''Strabo,

who looked upon

him

though he lived fo before him, and, by his bitterlong rsefs, fhews he thought him a formidas

a rival,

Epiphanes in the firftyearof the 146"' olympiad aged eighty, as we find in Suidas ; but Lucian fays he was eighty two when he died.
' ''

f
'

B.

i.

in various places.

6

Harpocration, Suidas.

Voffius de Hill. Graec. B.

i.

p. ic8^

In

Max^C
I.

Vol.

Z

ferved

170

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

I.

lerved by the Anchifcnfes, and tlie only one of its kind ; but chofe rather to expofe the reafons I myfelf have produced, to be canvallcd by any one, who thinks fit to examine

them: In that treatife, therefore, an exadl chronology is deduced ; but in this work, thofe things only, that are
""^^

moft neccffary,
thus
''^°
:

will

be taken notice

of.

The
in

matter ftands
city of

The

irruption of the Gauls,
is

which the

Rome
^39*

was taken,

happened,
Av!»
rot

agreed, almoft, on all hands, to have during the archonQiip of Pyrgion at Athens,.
avatyKdioroiloe.

I

am

tranflated without

mentioning him)

furpriled that
tators

none of the commenhave explained the force of the
-,

fays that our author did not, without reafon, mention this aera in comparing,

word

avla, in this place

and, parti-

certaincularly, that Cafaubon, who, both the underftood beauty, and ly,

the chronology of the Romans, with That of the Greeks ; becaufe Plutarch
fays that, foon after

ftrength of the Greek language as well as any man fince it has been revived, ihould be filent upon this occafion. Ati7«, here, fignifies jjovm, as may be proved from many paflages out of the beft writers ; but I fliall content myone from ^ Ariftophanes, felf with whofe language is full of Attic ele-

Rome was taken by the Gauls, the Greeks had fome obfcure knowledge of the Romans j for which he quotes Heraclides Ponticus, and Ariftotle. Upon looking
into this palFage of Plutarch, furpriled to find that he fays
'

I was Hera-

gance

;

Ponticus was not much later than the time, when Rome was taken by the Gauls, » aroAu twv ;^^cv£eiv exfivoiv
clides
»-jiihHTTCfj.iic(
;

when

it

is

well

known

Hevwu

zaxpovliAiy Ttjv zroAiu xocitwf Asj/w.

by other authors, as well as by Laertius, who has written the life of this
Heraclides, that he was a difciple of Ariftotle, and, confequenily, could not have Hved near the time when Rome

Upon

which, the
olot

Greek

very well,
a\))jiy,if;^tiiv.,

MONOI
^ivaiv.

fcholiaft fays ASiiv^eioip^iu^if twk

kmi

After

this,

I

wonder the Latin tranQator of Arillophanes fhould fay, nam nosfumus, ftead of nam foli fumus.
240'

was taken ; fince his mailer Ariftotle, who muft be prefumed to have been,
confiderably, older than his difciple, died aged no more than'" fixty three, in
the third year of the 1 14''' olympiad, that is fixty eight years after the aera

in-

'H KsaI«»

his annotation * * * has,

M.

Cafaubon, in upon pailagc (which according to his cullom.
f<pooo«.

this

we fpeak
"

of.

Diog. Laert. Life of Ariftotle.

the

Bookl.
the
iirft

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN A S SE MS

I S.

171

year of the ninety eighth olympiad : Now, if the time before the taking of the city, be brought back to Lucius

and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, the firft Junius Brutus, confuls at Rome after the expuhion of the kings, it will comprehend one hundred and twenty years. This appears
by

many monuments
-4'"

;

but, particularly, by the
Thcfe

''*'

records of the

Tav

Tfjwtjliitwv viroy,v>juixlm.

Greek

records of the cenfors were, no doubt, very good materials for fupplying our

writers, who writ before, and feveral years after this period, do not fhew, in any part of their works, that

author with

the

dates

of the mofi;

confiderable events in the Roman hiftory, and as fuch he refers to them.

they were much acquainted either with the Romans, or their affairs. I have
read his lordfhip's works with fo
pleallire
;

The
fift

difficulty, therefore, does not conin the want of the authenticity of

I

have been

fo

much much charm-

thefe records, but in the pofllbility of their having been preferved, when the

town was facked by the Gauls.
have, often, heard,

As

ed with the vivacity of his ftyle, and inftruded with the variety of his learning, that it would be a kind of ingratitude in

I

mcr- of learning

argue againft this poffibility ; and, as " the late lord Bolingbroke, in one of

thought

ages of Rome for authentic hiftory, and has made ufe of the authority of Livy to fhew that the

on the ftudy of hiftory, has to call thofe men, pedants, who would impofe all the traditions of
his letters
fit

me to fay any thing in deof either. The point he has rogation in view, in this letter, is, to fhew that the old Roman authors were annalifts, and not hiftorians, which I allow ; and, I, alfo, allow, that they did not write
hiftory in that fulnefs, in which it muft be written to become alelTon of ethics,

the four

firft

and

politics ; but they might leave fufficient materials to enable others to

and private was monuments, deftroyed in the fack of Rome-, I fhall, without fearing the imputation of pedantry, confider wheall public greateft part of

do
in

very glad that Livy, fpeaking of the public and private
I

fo.

am

°

monuments,

that perifhed at that time,

ther there

not a neceffity of allowing that fuch an account of all the reis

fays p/eraeque interiere : For, if he had faid omnia, I afraid it would have

am

markable tranfaflions precedent to the taking of Rome, was, by fome means,
or other, preferved at that time, as to furnith materials for an authentic hi-

me to have of it. If all, impolTibility or fo many of the public and private
been of
little

fervice to

fhewn the

monuments
to leave

no

periflied at that time, as traces behind them, how

This is all I ftory. fenfible that the

contend

for.

I

came Livy
kings,

to

know

the
at

number of the
;

am
till

Romans had no

who

reigned

Rome

the reall

hiftorians,

nor any writers but annalifts after this period, and that the long
"

markable incidents of each
"

reign-,

the particulars relating to their^expulB. vi. c.i.

Let. V.

Z

2

cenfors,

172
cenfors,

ROMAN ANTIQJJITIES
which the fon
receives in fucceflion
his

OF
from the

Book

I,

father,

and takes great care to tranfmit to
rites.

pofterity,

Hke family
I

And there are famihes, who preferve

feveral ilkiftrious

men

of cenforian
find that

thefe records

:

In which,

the year before the taking of the city, there was a cenfus of the Roman people, to which, as to the reft of them, there "In the '*' is affixed the date, which is this ; of
confulOiip
fion
•,

the creation of the tribunes of

the people, and al! the circumftances relative to that great event ; the appointment, and dilTolution of the dethe laws enabled by them ; and obfervcd after, the taking of Rome and every other tranfadlion he relates in his firft five books ? It may be faid that he took all thefe fadts

among whom were the three who had been lent ambaflTadors
Gauls
;

Fabii, to the

and, contrary to the laws of

cemvirs
before,

nations, had charged in the army of the Clufini, when thefe engaged them.

-,

This was the fatal year, in which Rome was taken-, and thefe were the confular tribunes, under whole government that
calamity befel the Ronians. The cenfus, theiefore, which our author fays

from
him.
rians

the hiftorians,

who

writ before

But where had
thofe fadts
?

thefe old hifto-

From none who
:

writ before the taking of Rome ; beSo that, thefe caufe there were none

old hiftorians muft either have had them from the monuments, and annals that were then preferved, or they muft But this no man have invented them
:

was performed in the confulfliip of Lucius Valerius Potitus, and Titus Manlius Capitolinus, muft have been the year before the city was taken. I cannot end this note without takin" notice of two things, that furprife me in the words quoted by our author out
of thefe cenfurian records; the firft is, that one of the confuls of this year is called by Livy, and the Fqfii confularcs^ Marcus, not Titus Manlius and the other, that he was not called Capitolinus, till the following year,' after he
-,

will fay,

therefore, I

think, the other

muft be granted.
x«i TiIh

Ma^Afs

Kx7itlu)hiv>s.

nothing of

this cenfus, tions the death of Caius Julius, But the elegance, of the cenfors
:

Livy fays tliough he menone and

^

had laved the capitol

pompous
ferves

of that hiftorian dcbe admired, than his exadnefs. Thefe confuls, being ill of a pefiilential diftemj^er, abdicated and fix confular tribunes were created
ftyle

And Livy, in fpeaking of the confuls of this year, fays, creati confides L. Vakrius Potitus,
:

more

to

M.

-,

The following year, the fame year. fix confular tribunes were chofen, aifo,
pE.

Manlius, aii Capitolino poftca fuit This dcferved to be taken cognomen. notice of by the comrnentafors But they are, often, very liberal of their affiftancc, when it is not wanted, and forfake the reader, when it is.
:

V, c.

51.

" Lucius

BookL DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS, 175 " Lucius Valerius Potitus, and Titus Manlius Capitolinus, " the hundred and nineteenth after the of
year expulfion of the the the kings." that, Gauls, which irruption we find to have fallen out in the year, that followed the
*'

So

happened when the hundred and twenty years were If, therefore, this interval of time is found accomplifhed.
cenfus,

to confift of thirty olympiads,
firft

it

mufl; be allowed that the

confuls entered

upon

their magiftracy in the firft year
j

of

the fixty eighth olympiad

the fame year that Ifagoras waS'

archon

at

Athens.
if,

from the expulfion of the kings, thetime is brought back to Romulus, the firft king of the city, that period will be found to comprehend two hundred and;
forty four years.

LXXV. And

This

is

known by

the fuccefiions of the
:

kings, and the number of years each of them reigned Romulus, the founder of Rome, is faid to have
thirty

For

reigned

feven years And, without a king : Then, Numa Pompilius, by the people, reigned forty three years
:
:

after his death, the city

was a year who was chofen
:

After Numaj-

Tullus Hoftilius, thirty two And, his fucceffor, Ancus After Marcius, Lucius Marcius, twenty four Tarquiniusy
:

called Prifcus, thirty eight

:

Servius Tullius,

who

fucceeded

him, four and forty

Lucius Tarquinius, a tyrannical his from contempt of juftice, called Superbus, prince, and, having put Servius to death, extended his reign to the twenty The reigns, therefore, of the kings fifth year. completing the number of two hundred and forty four years, and of fixty one olympiads, it follows, that Romulus, the firft
:

And

neceflarily,

kins;

174

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
his reign in the firft year

Book

I.

king of the city, began
olympiad,

of the feventh

and the
:

firft

Charops at Athens

year of the decennial archonfhip ot For this the computation of the years

: And, that each king reigned fo many years, I have requires Hievvn in that treatife. This, therefore, is the account, given me, conthofe, who lived before me, and adopted

by

by

the building of this city, which, at cerning the time of preworld. As to of the the founders of miftrefs who is fent, it,

they were, by what turns of fortune they were induced to lead out the colony, and what other incidents are faid to

have attended the building of it, has been related by many, and, the greatefi: part of them, by fome in a different manner
;

and
:

I, alfo, fliall

mention the mofl: probable of thele
:

relations

Thus

it

ftands

Amulius, having, by his power, excluded his elder brother Numitor from his paternal dignity ; and, thereby, poffeffed himfelf of the kingdom of Alba, among

LXXVI.

many
he, at
*43*

things,
laft,

contempt of juftice, iffue, attempted to deprive Numitor's family of
abfolutely, in
^'^^

done by him,

E§))fte« j/svKjTov

oittov

T(iv>]o,a(7&ifo?

could have

hindered

him from de-

fiTiG^Kiva-i aro<i;<r«i.

I

am

obliged tode-

all the tranflators in renderpart from Boih the Latin, and, this pafTage ing the French tranflators, after them,
:

ftroying his niece, as he had deftroyed his nephew ? But, inftead of that, he, only, fought to deprive her of all hope of ilTue by making her a vefl:al, left fhe

have

faid,

that

Amulius

refolv^d to

deftroy

family: Which fenfe is not to be fupportcd, either by the Greek text, or the rclation of this tranladion: For the Greek

Numitor's

whole

words do not
tor's fn;nil)\

fignity to dcjlroy

Numiiffue.

but

IJad Numitor

deprive defigncd the

to

it

of

might, one day, bring forth an avenger of the wrongs done to her family. tu j^svh, as our author [Ayi tsxij Tifxu(cv will fay prelently. I'he moft fpecious pretence Amulius could make ufe of to avert this danger, was to make his niece a veftal under the notion of doing her honor, which
is

firft,

what

agreeable to

in

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
iifurpation,

\js

in order to Tecure himfelf not only

was due to his
dlfpolTeffed

from the pimifliment,that but, alfo, from being, at any time,

of the fovereignty. Having, long, refolded upon this, he, firft, obferved the place, where Aegeftus, the fon of Numitor, who was juft arrived to manhood, ufed to hunt;
and, having placed an ambufli in the moft hidden part of it, he caufed him to be affailmated, while he was hunting and, after the fa£t was committed, contrived to have it re;,

However, ported that the youth had been flain by robbers. the rumor, thus propagated, could not prevail over the truth,
that was concealed

tured to publifli
affaffination
;

But many, not without danger, venthe fad:. Numitor was informed of the
:

he
a

but, his reafon being fuperior to his concern, affefted ignorance, refolving to defer his refentment to

dangerous opportunity : the murder of the youth was,
:

lefs

And
ftill,

Amulius, prefuming a fecret, made ufe of

another practice
mitor, or, as

He

conftituted iHa, the daughter of

Nu-

fome

write, Rhea,

furnamed

Ilia,

who was, then,

marriageable, a prieftefs of Vefta, lejft, if fhe were married, before he had fo difpofed of her, £he might bring forth an Thefe avenger of the wrongs done to her family.
virgins,

who
and

are intrufted with the cuftody of the perpetual fire, with the performance of thofe rites, that are appointed

to be adminiftered by virgins for the profperity of the
the account given of this
tranHiftion
Silviae,

com-

per fpeciem honoris, quuravejiakgijfet, -per-petua

byiLivy:
tiat
:

Pulfo fratre, Amulius reg-

km

earn

virginitatc

y^ddit fceleri fcelus : Stirpem frairis virikm interimit: Fratris fiHae Rheae

fpem partus
i.e. 3.

adimit.

iB.

monwealth,

1-76

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book L

'^ five nionwealth, were obliged to remain, not lefs than Amulius did this, under fpecious preyears, unmarried.
tences, as if his intention was, to confer honor, and dignity, fince he wa.s neither the author of 'on his brother's ;

family

this law,

which was common to

all,

nor his brother the

firft

had obliged to yield obeperfon of confideration, whom he dience to it: It being both cuftomary and honourable,
the Albans, for maidens of the beft quality to be chofen prieftefles of Vefta. Numitor, finding thefe pradices from no good intention, diflembled of his brother

among

liis

proceeded refentment, left he fhould incur the
alfo, ftifled his

and,

LXXVII. The
'grove,

complaints, upon fourth year after this,

will of the people this occafion.
ill

j

Ilia,

going to a

confecrated to Mars, to fetch pure water for the ufe
facrifices,

of the

that the fadl
his pafiion
;

fome body raviflied her. It is faid by fome, was committed by one of her lovers to gratify others make Amulius himfelf the author of it,

who, defigning to ruin her, rather than to fatisfy his defire, had fecured himfelf with fuch armour, as might render him the moft terrible to the fight, and, at the fame time, But the greateft in the moft effedual manner difguife him
:

this fabulous account of it ; that it was a fpedlrcj part give the place was confecrated ; the god, to reprefenting that this adventure was attended, among they add, alfo,

whom

144-

n£v1a«7s(f

Si

ifK

(KcLTu

x.?0Kiu.

Numa
tell

made many

alterations

in the
will

rules of the vellals, as

our author

thefc inftitutions agree with thofe, as Glarcanus, and Portiis would corredt M. * * * has followed in
it,

whom

Jiis

us in the next book.
text

Greek

So that, the muft not beakeredto make

tranllation,

•Other

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN A S S EN SI
:

S.

177

other heavenly figns, with an eclipfe of the fun, and a darkThat the fpectre far excelled nefs fpread over die Heavens
the appearance of a man, both in ftature, and in beauty ; and that the ravifher, to comfort the maiden (from whence

he was a god) they conclude
all,

commanded

her not to be, at

concerned

at

what had happened,

fince fhe
;

had been and
that,

united,

by

this

by marriage, to the genius of the place violence, fhe fhould bring forth two
excel
:

fons,

who

fhoiild far

all

men

in virtue,
faid
this,

plifliments

And, having

and military accomhe was wrapped in a

cloud, and, being lifted from the earth, was borne upwards This is not a proper place to confider through the air. we ought to entertain of thefe things, whether what

opinion
fince

we

fliould defpife
;

them,
is

as

human

frailties,

attributed to the

incapable of any fundlion, that is unworthy of an incorruptible, and happy nature; or whether we ihould admit, even, thefe relations, upon a fuppoiition
o-ods

God

that

and

the beings of the univerfe are of a mixed nature that, between the divine and human, fome third
all

;

being

exifts,

which

is

That of the

genii,

who, fometimes, mingling

with the human, and, fometimes, with the divine nature, fabled race of heroes. This, I fay, bec^et, as it is faid, the
is
^*5

not a proper place to confider thefe things, and what the
philofophers
^45'

have

faid

concerning

them

is

fufKcient.

l^^tx.^n.

Afica re oira. (pif.oimPoii srs^i atf^uv By thefe philofophers, our aufol-

thor,

moft certainly, means the

demons, one of wliom he was weak enough to fay, at his trial, often, diffuaded him from doing any thing, that

lowersof''Plato, who had, often, heard his mafter Socrates difcourfe of thefe
'

might be
that
of Socrates.

prejudicial to him.

If fo,

demon was very

forgetful in not

Plato's Apol.

Vol.

I.

A

a

Ilin,

178
Ilia,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
after this violence,

Book

I.

pretending ficknefs (for this her mother advifed with regard both to her own fafet)', and to
the worfliip of the gods) aflifted, no longer, at the iacrifices; but her duty was performed by the other virgins, who were

joined with her in the fame miniftry.

LXXVIII, But Amulius, induced

either by the

know-

ledge of what had happened, or by a probable fufpicion, inquired what might be the real caufe of this long abfence To fatisfy himfelf, he fent fome from the facrifices.
licians to her,

phy-

the

women

he, chiefly, confided in ; and, becaufe fecret pretended her indifpofition mufl: be

whom

kept

from men, he

left his

wife to obferve her.

womens

conjeftures, difcovered
it;

what

She, having, by was a fecret to others,

informed her hufband of
livered in private
(for

who,

left

fhe fhould be de-

flie

was, now, near her time) ap-

pointed her to be guarded by armed men : And, fummoning his brother to the fenate, he, not only, informed them of the deflowering of his niece, with which, the refl: of the

world were unacquainted, but accufed her parents of being
diffuading

him from making
This

that ac-

followed

knowledgment.

notion

Plato

improved-, and, with more poetry, than philofophy, made them the neceiTary inftrumcnts of the fupreme Being, in the creation of the univerfe;
it feems, that, if Goo had created every thing in it Himself, his creatures might have been immor-

Tivi<Ba), kxi sjfulj? But, to confider Plato, in the only light he ought >o be conlidcred in, upon this
it,

'^

for fear,

be nothing more than his poetical, defcription of Jiipiter riding through the heavens in his winged chariot at the head of the gods,
occafion, there can

and demons: His words are

thtfe

;

'O

i*iv

tal, like

Himself.
is

How much more
word

in /jnya; >y([xm
cc^f^»

i<i

a^atu Zjuc,
uyc^ivilxi
toi

ar7tjii(;v

tAauyuv,

ar^alay

philofophical

inMofeSj and

all-creating the fwift obedience, that

that

hxM(T(A.wt arai1«, xai i'iniT*! s-f*!'* B-tuv
3.

cmfuf^iif^iiics'
x.ai

n

iui^otiuit.

Genefis

i. )^.

'In *«iJ.

her

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

179

her accomplices, and ordered
to bring all to light.
;

him to conceal nothing, but Numitor faid he was furprifed at
his

what he heard and, protefting that was alledged, defired time
it.

innocence of every thing to inquire into the truth of
and, being

Having obtained, with
by
his wife,

difficulty, this delay,

informed,

of the whole, in the manner his

daughter had, at firft, related it, he acquainted the fenate with the violence committed by the god, and alfo, with what he had faid concerning the twins, and deiired the

^hat he had advanced might depend upon the event, by which it would appear whether the fruit of her For the time of delivery was fuch, as the god had foretold
credit of
:

her

delivery being near at hand, the fraud, if any, would, To fupport what he faid, he ^'^^ offered that foon, appear.
yu^ Tt)i' xo^t;v o,«x zi hvxi rco This, and the next fentence are omitted in the Vatican manufcript, I fuppofe, by the fault of the tranfcriber.
K.XI
•cix^iiv.

""^^

^4^"

2+7The Latin tranflators Tloc^iSiS^. have rendered this word, very properly, ad quaejliomm offer ebat. As S'ihai Tffoi^aiiiovui up a Jlave to

Both Sylburgius, and Cafaubon have
attempted to change the ftrudture of
this phrafe.
I

fo

Siiha\i

thsGreakterm (0 deliver be quejlicned by torments ; i^xileiv is the term to demand a
is

believe the reader will

Jlave for that purpofe.

There
to

is

think it runs very well in the manner I have altered it from the editions ; particularly, fince I have only changed the order of the words, which, as they, were unharmonious. before, flood, Ous is very Attic Greek for ify\jf^ as will be feen both from the following paflTage of Ariftophanes, and from the

example of both in " Demofthenes En
-,

this fentence
Si
aroaj^ja'

an of

m
tok

iliMy^oii

^y^iav,

EHHTHSEN
like the

«v

y.i

Tiraiix Tov

HAPEAIAOTN, Le Jay did not
for that

y^a(povli» Tusf fAa.^\ipicii, iV, et Succicv Aiyinv iio^mv. i^vtSiv

word, and,
left
it

reafon,

he has

out.

The

Greek
O

fcholiaft's obfervation
Jr,>i!>5

upon

it

;

KMio^lo;

avluv, J;

OMOT

other French tranQator has given fomething like the fcni'e of it Thus he has faid ; et qu'on proceddt a Vexamen de
:

ar^o^frni/.-iii:}''.

cette

affaire

par

toutes les

voies qu'on

Upon which the fcholiaft AeJ'Ss-iv AAxoj «f7« Ts ifyvi.
"

fays, to

ofjus

a propos. Jugeroit

hrir.

f. 245.

A

a

2

the

iSo
the

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
women, who attended
his

Book

I.

daughter, might be examined
to e\'ery

upon the rack ; and fubmitted
:

lead to the difcovery of the truth. infifted that his pretenfi.ons by the fenate But Amulius

method, that might This was approved of
all

were, highly, unreafonable, and endeavoured, by
to deftroy his niece.
thofe,

means,

While

thefe things

were

in agitation,

at the delivery, appointed to keep guard account that Ilia was brought to bed appeared, and gave an of two male children. Numitor, then, prefled, vehemently,

who had been

what he had, before, alledged, fliew^ing the whole to be the work of the god ; and begged that no violent fentence might
his daughter, pafs againft
fide,

who was

innocent.

On

the other

Amulius pretended that, even, in the delivery, there was fome human contrivance, and that the women had
provided another child, either

unknown

with

a great When the fenators found the king was inexorable, purpofe. in the manner he delircd, that the they, alfo, determined, law fhould be put in execution, which provides that a veftal,
their afliftance
:

And

to the guards, or deal was faid to this

be whipped with rods, and put to death, and her offspring thrown into the river, "-'^ Now, the pontifical law ordains that fhe fhall be burieei
fufters herfelf to

who

be defiled,

fliall

alive.

LXXIX.

Hitherto, the
very
little,

grcatefi:

part

of the hiftorians
;

ao^ree, or differ,

from one another
:

nearer to fables,
in

what

follows.

and others to probability Some fay that Ilia was put
jufvlj),

fome coming But they differ

to death

imme-

mS- Nov

etc.

Sce the 244'** annotation.

diatcly

;

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSlS.
;

i8i

diately

others,

that ihe remained

in

a

^"^

fecret prifoii

under a guard ; which made the people believe fhe was put to death privately The fame authors fay, that
:

Amulius condefcended
dauo;hter,

to this, at the earneft defire of his
life

who

beg-ged the*

of her coufin

:

For, being:

brought up together, and of the fame age, they loved each And that Amulius, in favor to her, as other, like fnT:ers flie was his only daughter, faved Ilia from death, but kept
:

her confined in a fecret prifon ; and, that flie was, at length, fet at liberty, after the death of Amulius. Thus, do the an-

However, both opinions I carry with them an appearance of truth ; for which reafon, have, alfo, made mention of them both. The reader himfelf will know which to believe. But, concerning her children,
cient authors vary concerning Ilia
:

Lucius Cincius, Cata Porcius, Calpurnius Pifo, and the greateft part of the other hiftorians have followed, writes thus ; " That, by the order *' of Amulius, fome of the king's officers took the children, Quinclus Fabius, called Pidlor,
*'

whom

in a
^+9-

'^^

cradle,

and carried them to the

river, diflaiit

from

Ev ii^x'f-^ aiy.hw. Portus, and !e have this rendered an obfcure priJay which is For it was fo>?, equivocal
:

and both the Latin tranflators have, very judicioufly, lollowed him. Wliea I call it a cradle, I do not mean a
wicker,
are,
ftill,

not thecblcurity, that

is,

the darknefs,

but a wooden cradle,
very
I

whicii
;

of the prifon, which made the people believe fhe was put to death ; but the fecrecy of it. Sylburgius, and the other French tranflator, have rendered
it

common
have
Jay,
le

abroad

Oit

therwife, fame error with

fliould

fallen into the

who
is

calls

un panier, a
well

very well.
-50'
"^

calculated

bajket, to f.oat, fltiitare,

which

not very
in

Sicwif

1).

Livy,
qiio

in

fpeaking of
,

this

adventure, calls this, alveiu

quum
erant
;
"^

Livy, and v>);^sc&ai in our author. otherFrench tranOator, has, alfo,
ed
i.

The
rall-

fiuitantcm

alveum,

expofiti

it

un bcrcecu.

pucri, tenuis in ficco aqua

deftituijfet

B.

e.

4,

a the

182

ROMAN

x\

NT QUI TIES OF
I

Book

I.

" the city about a hundred and twenty ftadia, with a delign. <' When they drew near, and perto throw them into it. *' ccived that the Tiber, fwelled by continual rains, had
exceeded
its

came down
*'

natural bed, and overflowed the plains, they from the top of the Pallantine hill, to that part

of the water, that lay neareft
further)

and

fet

down

they could advance no the cradle upon the flood, where it
(for
hill
:

"

w^aflied the foot

of the

The

cradle floated for

fome

"

time;

then,

as the waters retired

n
((

utmofl: verge, flriking againfi: threw out the children, who lay crying, and wallowing in the mud. this, a flie-wolf, that had juft whelped,

by degrees from the a ftone, it overturned, and

Upon

her teats being diftended with milk, gave appeared ; and, (C them her paps to fuck, and, with her tongue, licked " off the mud, with which In they were befmeared.

" the mean
"

time,

fome

fliepherds

their flocks to pafl:ure (for
paflTable)

happened to be driving the place was now become

" "
*'

and one of them, feeing the wolf, thus, cheriflifor fome time, ftruck dumb with ing the children, was, and difbelief of what he faw: Then, aftoniflimcnt,
together as

" going away, and getting " the who
fhepherds,
*'

many

as

he could of

*'

kept their flocks near at hand (for believ^e what he faid) he carried them to they would not When thefe, alfo, drew near, fee the fight themfelves
:

" and faw the wolf the children, as if they had cherifl:iing " been her on her, young ones, and the children hanging "as on their mother, they imagined they faw fomething
''

divine,

and advanced together, hallooing, to

terrify the

"

creature

:

Eookl.
''

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS ENS
The
wolf, not

I S.

183

creature:

much

frightened at the approach

" of the men, but, as if flie had been tame, withdrew, gently, (( from the children, and went away, greatly, dcfpifing the It For there was, not far off, a holy rabble of fhepherds.
covered with a thick wood, and a hollow rock, u from whence fprings iffued : This wood was faid to be
((

place,

<' *' *' (( ((

confecrated to Pan, and there was an altar, dedicated to When fhe came to this place, flie hid herfelf. : that

god

This grove is, no longer, extant ; but the cave, from whence
the fountain flows,

and to be {een. " and near (lands a temple, it,
reprefenting
251-

contiguous to the Palatine buildings, in the way, that leads to the Circus ;
is

in
is

which a
a
''^'

ftatue

is

placed,

(C

this incident:

It

wolf fuckling two

AvKuivst, etc.

This groupe,

re-

prefenting

the wolf giving fuck to
certainly, not

Romulus and Remus is,

adjicmn ruminalem fimulacra infantium conditcrum iirbis fub uberihus liipae pofueri'.nt \ he means Cneius and Quintus Ogulnius,
aediles.

^ the fame with That, faid, by Cicero, with ftruck been have to lightning in the confulfhip of Cotta, and Torquatus, who were confuls two years before him, that is, in the year of Rome 689 ; becaufe, he fays, That flood in the capitol, and the other, we find, by our author, was placed in the temple, •which ftood near the cave, that was

The
flill,

cero,

is,

were, then, ciinde llatue, mentioned by Cito be feen in the capitol,

who

with one of the hinder legs hurt with lightning ; and was defigned to have been here reprefented This wolf is
:

very unlike the common wolves, and feems to be the kind of wolf they call
in France, un loup cervier, AuzoT^vSti* : It is a fierce animal, and does a vail:

of the Palatine joined to the buildings
hill.

This temple was the temple of
fo called, as
"

deal of mifchief.

As

there were,
it

no

Romulus, ereded near the Fkus Ruviinalis,

doubt,

many

ftatues reprefenting this

Pliny fays, quc-

very extraordinary event,

cannot be

niam fub ed inventa eft lupa ir.fcintibus praebens rumen, ita i:ocabant mamivam, miraculo exaerejuxta dicato. This groupe of figures v.'as placed here in the confulfhip of Quindtus Fabius Rullus, and Publius Decius Mus, in the 446''' ^ year of Rome, as we find by Livy,
rCat.
iii.

known which

"

Virgil refers to in this

fine defcripcion

of

it

:

\

geminos huic libera circw'tLudere fendentes pueroj, et lambere rititrem,
Impa-Tjidos
:

illam tereti cermice rfflexam
si

Muhere
c.

alternos,

cerpora fvgere lingud.
viii.

c. S.

'^

B. xv.

c. i8.

"B. x

''

23.

AcneiJ. B.

:)?•.

" children

615.

5

184

ROMAN
;

ANTICVyiTIES OF

Book

I.

"
*'
'^ '^

they are in brafs, and of ancient workmanfliip This place is faid to have been confecrated by the Arcadians, who, with Evander, formerly, built their habichildren
:

wolf was gone, the fhep" herds took up the children; and, as the gods feemed to " interefc themfelves in their perfervation, were very defirous
tations there.
as the

As foon

" to There was, among them, an overfeer bring them up. " of the was Fauftulus, a king's fwineherds, whofe name " man of humanity, who had been in town, upon fome " the time, when the deflowering of neceffary bufmefs, at " were made and her And, after
"
**
(C

that, public delivery when the children were carrying to the river, he, going divine appointment, went the fame road to Pallantium,
Ilia,
:

by

This man, without carrying them notice to the reft that he knew any thing giving the leaft " of the affair, defired the children might be delivered to him ;
\^'ith

thofe,

who were

:

*' *' *' *'

and, having received them by general confent, he carried them home to his wife Where, finding her juft brought
:

and grieving that the child was dead, he comforted her, and gave her thcfe children to fubftitute in its " room, informing her, from the beginning, of all the cir" cumftances And, as they grew up, he relating to them. *' of Romulus, and to the other. That gave to one, the name " of Remus. When they came to be men, they fliewed ** themfelves, both in dignity of afpeft, and elevation of
to bed,
'*

mind, not

like fwineherds,

"
•**

might fuppofe thofe to

be,

and neatherds, but fuch, as wc who are born of royal race, and
tlie

looked upon as the offspring of

gods

;

and

as

fuch
they

"

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
ftill,

185

Romans, in the hymns of their country. But their life was That of herdfmen ; they lived by their own labor, and, generally, on the mountains in cottages ^^^of one ftory, which they built
they are,

celebrated, by the

with wood, and reeds Of which, "" one, called the cotto this day, in the corner, tage of Romulus, remains, even,
:

you turn from the Palatine hill to the Circus ; which is preferved holy by thofe, to whom the care of thefe things is committed, who add to it no ornaments to render
as
it

more augufl
it,

ftorms,
reftore

But, if any part of it is injured either by or time, they repair that injury, and obferve to
:

former condition. When Romulus, and Remus, were about eighteen years of age, they had fome difpute, about the paflure, with
as
its

near as poffible, to

Numitor's herdfmen, whofe oxen were ftationed on the Aventine hill, which is opposite to the Palatine hill. They/

"

one another, either of feeding thofe frequently, accufed that did not belong to them, or of paftures, appropriating to themfelves Thofe, that were common, or of
any thing
'-5»-

Au7(i^o(j;»f.

The Latin
this

tianfla-

The

laft

was the

vn% have rendered
idld

very well,y?w

vius fays

upon

curia calahria, as Serthis verfe, ad ca-

qmm
is

contignatione. tranflators have left
-S3-

Both the French
it

out.
)]v

lal^atur, that is, vocal?aiurfe>7aius. other Hood in another part of the city,

The

iiv

ill

x«f

eii jjus

Tig.

This

is

as

we

find

by Dionyfius.

It

very

not the cafa Romtdi, that flood in the
capiiol,

to

which

'

Virgil alludes in

pofTible that the veneration the mans had for their founder,

Rothe
-

might

the following verfes.
Jnfummo ruJ}o> farpe.ae Manbusard,
Stabatfro
n,r.plo, e,

have ingaged them to

erect,

in

caf,u.a

celfa ten.bat,

Capitol, a cottage refembling the for ^^^^ -phis in the Capitol WaS burned j^ ^^^ ^j^^ ofCaefaf, afterwards ^ Au-

gultus, and in the 7

1

6^^

year of

Rome.

Aeneid, B.

viii,

f. 652,

^

Dio, B.

xlviii. p.

437.

Vol.

I.

B b

«
elfe,

i86

ROMAN
that offered

ANTIQJJITIES OF
From
this altercation,

Bookl.

"

they had re" courle, fometimes, to blows, and, then, to arms. Numitor's
elfe,
itfelf.

men, having received many wounds from the youths, and " loft fome of their people, and being, now, driven, by force, " from the in conteft, they formed a ftrategem againft places
*'

" them And, having placed an ambufcade in the hidden " the valley, and concerted the time of the attack with part of " thofe, who for the youths, the reft, in a lay in wait body, " aflaulted their folds. It that Romulus, at that
:

<*

" the

happened called Caenina, to a was time, place, gone together with
chief

men

of the

village,

to offer facrifices for the
:

But country Remus, being informed of their coming, armed himfelf " in all hafte, and, with a few of the villagers, who had,
public, according

to the cuftom of the

"
'*
•*

out to oppofe them But they, got together, went "^'^ order to draw him inftead of receiving him, retired, in
firft,
:

by facing about, they might attack " him with Remus, being unacquainted with advantage " the them a great way, till he paffed ftrategem, purfued
:

to the place, where,

*54-

T7i-«j/0|WeK)i.

This,

Cafaubon

-srHoxi^xi

tuc v!oKiy.i)tt

«?

evzSpci;

TflAvvjien

fays, very juftly, fignifies hojiemallicere. I mention this in juftice to him, as I

FEIN.

Ic is

remarkable that uVo,
generally,

placed before verbs, lubfcantives and
adjectives,
I

have, always, mentioned every author,

have made ufe of. To his authority I fhall add fome obThere is a fervations of my own. in a treatife of Xenophon, in-

implies

deceit.

whofe adiftance

I

paffage

which, it is fuppofed, he writ for the inflrudion of his fon Gryllus, that fecms calculated to exof OLir author IL-nk ru [mv plain this
titled lTT«^jiixo?,
:

cannot put an end to this note. without taking notice, that le Jay is the only tranflator, who has expreiled the fenfe of this word He has faid pour rattirer dans P ambufcade. I wifh
:

that, inftcidof leavmgoutvVo,-f«vj/;sv7£f,

he had rendered it by an exprclTion, which his language would have furnilhed

xjuTilutf s%ov1i (pvAotKui i^isui y.iv <p,j(vf^oK

him

with, I mean, en faifant

oKtym

TUY fu,Tr^o(^u

K^vTflttv

<f

wA*i1ovli»

volle-face,

" the

Bookl.
**

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.

187

" " faced about ; and, having furrounded them, they over" whelmed them with ftones, and took them prifoners : " For their mafters, to bring they had received orders from *' the youths to them alive. Thus, Remus was taken, and
**

the place, where the reft lay in ambufh, who, upon that, rofe up, and, at the fame time, the others, who had fled,

carried away."

LXXX.

But Aelius Tubero, a

man of great

fagacity,

and

very careful in colled:ing hiftorical tranfadions, writes, that Numitor's people, knowing, beforehand, that the youths

were to perform an Arcadian facriiice to the god Pan, ^" purfuant to the inftitution of Evander, called Luper255-

Au««i*.

M.

* * *

quotes Plu-

tarch, in his life of Romulus, to prove that this fcftival, called by the Romans
Liipercalla, received its Ihe wolf, that fuckled

name from the Romulus, and

tium, long before Romulus and Remus were born. This is confirmed by 'Livy, whofe authority, joined to That of our author, will be fufficient, I fhould
think,
to
•,

ftop

have that pallage in Plutarch, now, before me and all, he fays
I
•,

Remus.

miftake

he
:

is

the currency of this fpeaking of the fame
in Palatino mojite
;

tranfaftion

Jam turn

to favor this opinion, is, that it is polTible this feflival may have received its name

Luper cal hoc fiiiffe ludicrum ferunl

et

a

from the (he-wolf becaufe the Ltiperci begin their courfe from the place, where it was faid that Romulus had But he fays, in the been expofed. fame place, that the name of this feftival was Greek; and, for that reafon,
^

PallanteourbeArcadicaPaUanHum,deindi Palatinum montem appellatum : ibi Equi ex eo genere Arcadum niulante tempefiatibus ea tenuerai loca, folenne alldtum ex Arcadia injlitui£e, ut nudi juvenes, Lyceum Pana venerantes^

vnudrum,

tis

per
'

lufmn

atqjie

lafciviam

ciirrerent.

the feftival feemed to be very ancient, and derived from the Arcadians, who

came
its

indeed,
find,

into Italy with Evander. And, there is no room to doubt of
:

This Lycaean Pan, in whofe honor this feftival was celebrated, was called fo from the Lycaean mountain in Arcadia, which gave name to this feftival, called by the Greeks, Aux^ia-, which word cannot, with any propriety, be derived from Aux«/v«, a Jhe-

For we being derived from them this of our author, by pafiage that this was a cuftomary feftival celebrated by the inhabitants of Pallan•B.
i.

wolf.
c.

c. J.

f

Paufanias in Arcad.

Bb

38.

2

calia.

i88
caliay

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
took the opportunity of
at the time,

OF

Book

I.

this facrifice to

lay in wait

the youth of Pallantium, were, after facrifice, to proceed from the Lupercal, and run round the village naked, wearing about their middle, a cofor

them

when

the fkins of the vidims, newly, facrificed. This ceremony implies a certain cuftomary purification of the inhabitants, which is performed, even, to this day, in the fame manner. Thofe, therefore, who had a delign upon the youths, took this time to place themfelves in

vering

made of

ambufh
thefe
firft

in a

narrow way, in order to

feize

them

:

While
the

were

employed

in

the facrifice,

and,

when

band with Remus drew near, That with Romulus, and the reft, being behind, ( for they were divided into
bands,

three

and ran

at

a diftance from
fet

one another
fhout, and

)

without ftaying for the others, they
fell

up a

all

upon the

firft;

and, furrounding them, fome threw
ftones,

darts

at them, others, in their hands
:

and

others,

whatever they

had

attack, againft

and

at a lofs

Thefe, furprifed at this unexpected how to behave themfelves, unarmed
eafily,

armed men, were,

taken.

the power of the enemy, was carried to dition, he was in, when taken; or, as Fabius relates,
chains.

Remus, being in Alba in the conin

When Romulus

heard of

his brother's misfortune,

he refolved to follow, immediately, with the

ftouteft

of

the herdfmen, in hope to overtake Remus upon the road. But Fauftulus, feeing the folly of the undertaking, diffuaded him from it For, being looked upon as the father
:

of the youths,

he had, hitherto, kept every thing a

fecret

from

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
left

from them,

J&9 fhould venture upon fome hazzardthey

ous enterprife, before they were in their prime. But, now, being compelled by neceflity, he took Romulus afide, and

acquainted him with tlie whole. When the youth heard, from the beginning, every circumftancc of their fortune, he was penetrated both with companion for his mother, and folicitude for Numitor; and, having long confulted with
Fauftulus, he determined to defift from the prefent undertaking, and, with greater preparation of ftrength, to free
his

whole family from the opprefTion of Amulius;

re-

the greateft dangers for the fake of' the greateft rewards, but to ad in concert with his grand-

folving to ingage in

and to do, whatever he ftiould dire6t. LXXXI. Thefe meafures being looked upon as the moft advifeable, Romulus called together all the inhabitants of the village, and defired them to go,
father,

immediately,.

gates, nor in a body, to prevent any fufpicion in the citizens; and, having appointed them to ftay in the market-place, and be ready to do whatever they fhould be ordered, he went, firft, into In the mean time, thofe, v/ho had the the city. charge of Remus, brought him before the king, and informed

to Alba,

but not

all

at the

fame

him of

all

the abufes they had received from the youths,
^^^

their wounded, and threatening, if they producing found no redrefs, to leave their herds. Amulius, deftring to both the country people, who were come to him pleafe
256.

T§«ujM«'i«f.

I

do not underftand
as if

why
ed

the Latin trandators have render-

had written the French
fit

r^ciuy.ctla.

However, both
have thought

tranflators

this

word vukera,

our author

to follow

them.

in

190

ROxMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book

I.

and Numitor (for he happened to be as injured in his clients) prefent, and looked upon himfelf and longing to fee peace reftored to the country, and, at the fame time, fufpedling the boldnefs of the youth, and
in great numbers,

the

intrepidity,

that appeared

in his difcourfe,

he gave

judgement againft him: But left his punifhment to Nu" that he, who had done the injury, could be mitor, faying, " fo as by him, who had received juftly, puniilied by none

While Numitor's herdfmenwere carrying away Remus, with his hands bound behind him, and infulting him>, Numitor followed ; and, not only admired the graceful*'

it."

and majefty of his perfon, but, alfo, obferved the oreatnefs of his mind, which he preferved, even, in diftrefs, not fuirig for mercy (which all do under fuch afflidlions)
nefs,

but, with a
as they

becoming

filence,

were arrived
;

at his

As foon meeting his fate. houfe, he ordered all the reft

to withdraw

and Remus, being left alone, he afked him, who he was, and of what parents ; as not believing fuch a man could be, meanly, born. Remus anfwered, that he
only

by the account he had received from the who brought him up, that he, with his twinperfon, brother, had been expofed in a wood, as foon as they were born; and that, being taken from thence by the

knew,

herdfmen, he was brought up by

them.

Upon which,

Numitor, after a (liort paufe, either fufpecHiing fomething of the truth, or Heaven defigning to bring the matter to " I need not inform faid to him; you, Remus, that light,
*'

it

depends upon

me

to punifh

you

in fuch a

manner,
<'

as I

think

Bookl.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
fit;

191

and, that thofe, who have brought you hither^ having received many dreadful injuries from you, are, " extremely, defirous you fhould be put to death : All this

think

*'

fhould free you from death, and " every other punifhment, would you acknowledge the
:

"

you know

But, if

I

"

" an

when I defire your afliftance, in obligation, and ferve me, affair, that will conduce to the advantage of us both ?"
having, in anfwer to him,
faid

The youth

every tiling

which the hopes of life pronf^t thofe, who are in defpair of it, to fay, and promife to the perfon, on whom their
be taken off; and, commanding every body to leave the place, he acquainted him with his own misfortunes; that, Amulius, thoughhis brother, had deprived him both of his kingdom, and
fate

depends,

he ordered

his chains to

his children;

that he

had
his

ailaflinated his fon,

while he

was hunting, and kept
and,
his flave.

in all other refpefts,

daughter chained in prifon, treated him as a mafter treats

and accompanied his difcourfe with great lamentations, he intreated Remus to The youth, revenge the injuries done to his family. the overture, and chearfully, embracing deiiring his command to begin the adion immediately, Numitor, after he had commended his alacrity, faid ; "I will take upon
faid this,
*'

LXXXII. Having

me

" "
**

to find a proper time for the enterprize ; in the mean while, do you fend, privately, to your brother, and ac-

quaint
to

him that your life is come hither in all hafte."

fafe,

and that you
this,

defire

him
was

Upon

a proper perfon

192

ROMAN
fent
;

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

I.

who, meeting Romulus not far from the city, deHvered his meffage; with which the other, being, exceedingly, rejoiced, made hafte to Numitor ; and, having imbraced them both, he gave them an account in what manner they had been expofed, and brought up, and of all the other circumftances he had learned from Fauftulus They, who defired this relation might be true, and wanted not many arguments to induce them to belie\'e it, heard what he faid with pleafure ; and, as foon as they
was
:

another, they confulted together, and confidered what means, and what time might be the moft proper for the execution of their defign. While they were, thus, em: For, being ployed, Fauftulus was carried before Amulius apprehenfive, left the information of Romulus might not

knew one

be credited by Numitor, in an affair of fo great moment without manifeft proof, he, foon after, followed him to

town, taking the cradle with him as a token of the exof the children. While he entered the gates in pofition
taking all poflible pains to hide what he carried, one of the guards obferved him (for an incurfion of the enemy was apprehended, and the guard of the gates
great diforder,

committed
the

to thofe,

who were
hold

in the greateft truft

with

king)
his

and

laid
it
:

of him;

and,

infifting

upon

knowing
back
found the

what

garment

was he concealed, by force, threw As foon as he faw the cradle, and
confulion,

man
an

in

he defired to know the
lie

caufe of his diforder,
privately,
utenfil,

and what
that

meaned by carrying, In required no fuch fecrecy.
the

Bookl.
the

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN AS SEN SIS.

193

mean time, more of one of them knew the
children in
it

the guards flocked to them, and cradle, having himfelf carried the
;

to the river

of which he informed thofe,
they feized Fauftulus
;

who were
carrying

prefent.

Upon

this,

and,
that

him

to the king himfelf, acquainted

him with

ail

had

Amulius, threatening the man to put him to the torture, if he did not, willingly, tell the truth, firft, afked him, if the children were alive ; and, finding they were, he
pafled.

what manner they had been preferved. After tlie other had given him a full account of every thing, " as it happened, Well, fays the king, fince you have, hi" therto, fpokenthe truth, fay, where, they may, now, be *' found For it is not juft that they, who are my relations, " fhould, any longer, live, inglorioufly, among herdfmen; *' fmce the gods themfelves have taken care of particularly,
defired to
in
*^''
:

know

*'

their prefer vation."

Fauftulus, fufpeding, from this unaccountable kindnefs, that his defigns were not agreeable to
his profellions,
** *' *'

LXXXIII. But

anfwered him in

this

manner: " The youths

are to

upon the mountains, tending their herds, according their way of life; and I was fent, by them, to their
;

mother, to give her an account of their fituation
hearing that fhe was in your cuftody, daughter to bring me to her :
I

when,

*'

propofed to defire
I

"

"

your

And

cradle with me, that
^57.
AXuSfuffflj? 6;^«f.

I

mJght fupport

my

brought the words with a
recolledl

This

is

Attic

Greek authors,

elegance for rM^i^<^»?reader,

The

will, eafily,

learned

many examples of

this Atticifm.

who

is

acquainted with the bill

Vol.

I.

C

c

" mani-

194

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
Since, therefore,

OF

Be ok

I.

" manircft proof. " have the
* '

you have determined to

"
*'

youths conveyed hither, I not only rejoice at it, but defire you to fend fuch perfons with me, as you think proper:

fhew them the youths, and they fliall acquaint them with your commands." This he faid in order to delay their
I

will

death, hoping, at the fame time, to make his efcape from '^^ who were to bring the youths to the king, as foon thofe, as he arrived on the mountains. Amulius fent,

immediately,

fome of his guards, in

whom

he,

chiefly,

confided, with

whom

to feize, and bring before him, the perfons, private orders, the herdfman fliould {hew to them. done this,

Having

he, prefently, determined to lay his brother under a ''^'gentle reftraint, till he had ordered the prefent bufinefs to his
fatisfadion
;

and, in that view, he fent for him,

upon fome

Both the Latin ctyovlx;. have tranflators applied thefe words to the men, who were to be fent by Amulius, in order to ronduft Fauftuliis: Not a word of which has been menOn the contioned by our author. was to c^nducT: them Fauftulus trary, to the place, where they might fee the
»58-

Txf

term in ufe among the Romans for this kind of cuftody The method of which was, for the perfon fufpefted to be delivered to fome magiftratc, or fenator, who was to fee him forth " Thus, we find, in Saluft, coming. that Catiline's accomplices were dif:

pofed of: Senatus decentit, ut, abdicato
magiftratn, Lentnlus^ itemque caeteri^ in liberis cuftodiis habeantur : Ilaquc Lentiiius,

youths,
:

in

order to h'ing them to the
to

king Both the I have appHed thofe words. French tranilators have followed the
others.
»59'
Ev(pi>Xoi.y.yi aiffffAU'.

And,

them,

in this capacity,

P. Lenlulo Spntheri,
ere.t
;

fion

is

very

common

in

This exprefthe Greek
ac^ufxa) tt^i.

Couifcio ; Cethegus, Statilius, C. Caefari; Gabiniits^M. Craffo\ Ceparius, Cn.'Terentio fcaalori, traduntur.

aedilis

^

qui turn

authors.

And,

thus, ^Thucydidcsfays,
sv (pvKay.vi

that n*;^))f IwTri^v

rendered thefe words, pretty Lejay well, le garder a veiie. His countryman has tranflated them very unfortunately,
has
le

The
it in

Latin tranflators have rendered libera cujiodid, which was the very
EB.iii.
c.

garder dans une prifcn

libre.

34.

''DcBell. Cat.

c.

47.

Other

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICARN A SSENSIS.

195

other pretence : But, the meflenger, induced both by his affeAion to the perfon in danger, and commiferation of his of Amulius. fate, informed Numitor of the deiign Upon

which, the former, having acquainted the youths with their them to behave bravely, led them danger, and exhorted
together with a confiderable number of his clients, and friends, and fuch of his domeftics, as he on Thefe were joined by a ftrong party of the could

armed

to the palace,

rely

:

the market-place, who had, before, country men, from entered the city with fwords, concealed under their clothes
:

And, having, by a general attack, forced the entrance, which was defended by a few of the guards, they, eafily, flew
Amulius, and, afterwards, made themfelves mafters of the This is the account Fabius gives. citadel.
hold that every thing, which has the appearance of a fable, ought to be banifhed from maintain that the expofition of the children, by the

LXXXIV.

But

others,

who

hiftory,

contrary to their orders, is void of all probability, and laugh at the tamenefs of the wolf, that fuckled them,
officers,

as

an incident, fraught with theatrical abfurdity Inftead of which, they give this account of the matter That Numi:

:

tor,

child, procured other new-born children; and, after flie was brought to bed, fubftituted thefe

finding

Ilia

was with

in the

room of the

others, ordering thofe,

who, attended her

to carry to Amulius the fuppofititious children delivery, their fidelity by money, or contrived (having either fecured
this

exchange by the help of women.) Thefe children, being brought to Amulius, he, by fome means, or other, made

C

c 2

them

196

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
As
to thofe,

Book
Ilia,

I.

them away.
grandfather,
prefervation,
this

that were born of
all

their

who

was,

above

things, folicitous for their
:

delivered

them

to Fauftulus

They
:

add, that

Fauftulus was an Arcadian by extraction, defcended from That he thofe Arcadians, who came over with Evander

had the care of Amulius' on the Palatine hill, and demains That he was prevailed on by his brother, named Fauftinus, v/ho had the fuperlntendence ot Numitor's herds,
lived
:

^"°

that fed

on the Aventine
:

hill,

And ing up the children them, was not a fhe-wolf, but
woman, who was

to gratify Numitor, in bringthat the nurfe, who fuckled
(as

may

well be fuppofed) a

wife to Fauftulus, by name, Laurentia, v/ho, having, formerly, proftituted her beauty, was, by the inhabitants of the Palatine hill, furnamed Ltipa ; which was

an ancient Greek appellation, given to women,
ftituted themfelves for gain,

who

are,

now,

procalled, by a

who

more decent name,
were ignorant of

ETui^ai,

Friends:

And

that fome,
*^'

who

this,

invented the fable of the ftie-wolf ;

that wild beaft being called, in the Latin language,
-^°'
Evii/.i\fici\/

Licpa:

5%3vlas

Toiv

Au><xiis

do not underftand why the xy.fioilaiv. two French trandators, and Portus,
I

have rendered

this fentence, having care of the JJocks of yhiulius ; thzthe'inir the fenfe in their refpedive languages,

How much better has
dcred
^tifjixla
it,

Sylburgius ren-

what Dionyfius means and th it PIutarch reafons better, when he fays, in the life of Romulus, that the Latincs called Lupas not only Hie-wolves, but women of ill lives. This confirms, rather than contradifts what our auFor the Latines, at the thor fays.
-,

res Atnulii procurajfe ? That has this extenfive fignification
;

time of Romulus, at lead, the del'ccndants of the Greek colonics, certainly,

be tctn in Hefychius tx vVj««;^ci1<x. fays he, a^avlu

may

xlij/iaJoj,

fpoke Greek

»6'-

A'JTTCiv.

M.

**•*

fays,

occafion, that he does not

upon this comprehend

which appears by an; other paffage of Plutarch, quoted by himfelf in the fame note, wiiere it is

faid that the

Greek language,

in

the

They

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC A R N A SS EN SIS.
fay, alio,

i-a-r

They

that,

after the children

were fent by

thofe,

who

Jiad tlie

were weaned, they charge of their education,.

to Gabii, a town, not far from Pallantium, to be inftrufted in Greek learning ; and that, there, were

by fome
courfe of

perfons, with
liofpitality,

whom

they brought up Fauftulus had a private inter-

where they employed their time, till they arrived to manhood, in learning letters, mufic, and the. ufe of Greek arms And that, after their return to their
:

fuppofed parents,

a difference arofe

between them, and
:

Numitor's herdfmen concerning their common paftures That, upon this, they beat Numitor's men, and drove away
their cattle

the intent

That they did all that it might ferve
:

this as

by Numitor's diredion, to a foundation for his com-

fame time, to the herdfmen, as a pretence to come to town in That, after this, Nugreat numbers mitor raifed a clamor againft Amulius, faying he was, feverely, ufed, and plundered by the herdfmen of Amulius;.
plaints, and, at the
:

defiring, likewife, that, if

would

deliver
:

tlielavvs

up That Amulius, being willingtoclearhimfelf of this,

the abufe, he the herdfman, and his fons, to be tried by
fliare in

he had no

accufation, ordered, not only, thofe, who were complained of^ but all the reft, who were accufed of having been prefent at
thne of Romulus, which was fpoken, 2S he owns, by the Romans, and Albans, was not, yet, corrupted by l!a-

from fome French

him

trnnflation, induced to think, that Plutarch is not confjftent with himfelf. If, therefore, the

For fo that gentleman have rendered th.it paflage of Plutarch, who does not fay rm Aalivav, as he has tranQated it, butTwv lT«Ai)(.£tfv:
liuK

words:
to

ought

Latines called a common woman /k^^?, it muil have been an old Greek woid, as our author fays And, that it is fo,
:

.

And
is

this miftake,

which

I

am

afraid

autliority,

appears from a writer of undoubted. I mean Hefychius, who exAvttix,

owing

to his

quoting

this palTage

plains

by

Itxi^ci, vco^vr,.

thofe

198

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
trial
:

Book

I.

thofe tranfadtionsj to come, and take their

before

Nu-

that great numbers coming to town, together with the accufed, to attend this trial, the grandfather of the

mitor

And

them with youths acquainted
fortune
;

all

the circumftances of their
if ever,

and, telling

them
he,

that

now,

was the time
the attempt

to revenge themfelves,

prefently,

made

upon Amulius with the band of herdfmen.
fore,

Thefe, therebirth,

are the

accounts,

that are given of the

and

education of the founders of

Rome.
happened
ftill

LXXXV. As
time of
its

to the events, that
(for

at the very-

foundation

this

now, begin
bis

to relate them.

remains) I fliall, After Numitor had recovered
part

the death of Amulius, and had fpent a little time in reftoring the city, from the late ufurpation, to its

kingdom by

former

flate, he, prefently,

thought of providing a particular

At fovereignty for the youths, by building another city. the fam.e time, the inhabitants being much increafed in
number, he thought
of them
enemies,
je6ls.
;

it

good policy

to difpofe of

fome part
his fub-

particularly, of thofe,
left

who

had, before, been his

he might have caufe to fufpe6l any of

Having, therefore, communicated this defign to the and they, alfo, approving it, he gave them thofe youths,
territories in fovereignty,

where they had been brought up

in

their infancy

people,
but,

and, for fubjecls, not only, that part of the which he fufped:ed of a defign to raife new troubles,
;

alfo,

fuch,

as
it,

v/ere willing

to

leave their

country.

ufually, there were out) great numbers of the

Among

thefe (as

happens, when

colonies are fent

common

people

;

and
not

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
alfo,

199

not a few,

who

of diftinguiflied rank, and oftliofe Trojans,. were efteemed the moft conliderable for their birth

remain to this day) coniifting of (fome of whofe pofterity The youths were fupplied with about fifty famihes.

money, arms, and corn, with flaves, and beafts of burden, and every thing elfe, that was of ufe in the buildAfter they had led their people out of ing of a city.
Alba, and intermixed
ftill,

them with
:

the

inhabitants,

that,

remained in Pallantium, and Saturnia, they divided This they did, in hope the whole body into two parts ofraifing an emulation, to the intent that, by this conteft
with each other, the work might be the fooner finillied. However, it produced the greateft of evils, difcord For
:

each divifion, celebrating their
as

the proper perfon to

own leader, extolled him, command them all. And they

themfelves, being,

now, no longer, unanimous, or enter-

taining brotherly fentiments for one another, but, each affeding to command the other, they defpifed equality,

and aimed

For fome time, their ambition broke out, on the followlay concealed; but, afterwards, They had not both made choice of the fame ing occafion
at fuperiority.
:

place for the Palatine hill,

building of the city
to

;

Romulus chofe

the

which he was induced, among other reafons, by the fortune of the place, where they had been Remus pitched upon the preferved, and brought up
:

This place is ground, now, called from him, Remuria. very proper lor a city, being a hill, not far from the liber,
dijftant

from Rome, about

tliirty

ftadia.

From

this contefb,

their

200
their

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
'^"

OF
fhevved

Book

I.

unfociable

love of rule,
that,

presently,

itfclf :

which foever gained the afccndant, on this occafion, he would preferve it, on all others. LXXXVI. Some time having been, thus, employed, and
For
it

was evident

their difcord, in

no degree, abating, they agreed

to refer

the matter to their grandfather ; and, for that purpofe, went He advifed them to leave it to the determination to Alba
:

of the gods, which of them fliould
the
day,

Q;ive

name

to,

and have

command

of,

the colony

:

And, having appointed a

he ordered them to place themfelves, early in the morning, at a diftance from one another, in fjch ftations,
of

as eacli

them fhould think proper

:

And,

after

to the gods the cuftomary facrifices, the mofi: the aufpicious birds : And, that he, to favourable, firft appeared, fhould have the command of the
offered

up

they had to obferve

whom

colony.

The

youths, approving of

this,

went away

;

and,

according to their agreement, appeared on the day appointed : Romulus chofe, for his ftation, the Palatine hill, where he
the colony ; and Remus the Aventine hill, propofed fettling to others, Remuria A guard contiguous to it ; or, according attended them both, to prevent their reporting things, When they had taken otherwife than as they appeared.
:

their refpcdive ftations,
a6»-

Romulus,
that,

after a fhort

paufe,

from

^iKd^x"*- Nothing can be more iieautiful than the fliort refleftion of
'

Livy upon the ambition of

thefe

two

-brothers.
tionibiis

InUrvenit deinde his cogita-

avitum maliiw, regui cupido. I need not obferve to the learned reader,
i

when Livy calls the ambition of Romulus and Remus, ^n hereditary evil, lie alludes to That of Amulius, which led him to defeat Numitor, who was, alio, his brother, and their
grandfather, of his right to the crown.
i.

B.

c. 6.

eacrer-

Eookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSENSIS.

201

and envy to his brother (though, poffibly, Heaven might have as great a fhare in it as envy) before he faw any omen, fent meflengers to his brother, deiiring him to come, immediately, as if he had, firft, feen aufpicious birds. In the
cagernefs,

mean

time, the perfons he fent, making no great hafte, as afliamed of the fraud, fix vultures appeared to Remus,

from the right : He, feeing the birds, greatly, rejoiced. And, not long after, Romulus' meffengers, taking him from
flying
his
feat,

brought him to the Palatine

hill

:

When

they

were together, Remus aiked Romulus, vi'hat birds he had, firft, feen ? To v^hich he knew not what to anfwer. But, at the fame time, twelve aufpicious vultures were feen
feeing thefe,

flyino-.

he took courage ; and, Upon fhewing the birds " to Remus, faid, what happened Why do you defire to know " " before? This Remus Since, you fee thefe birds yourfelf refented ; and, complaining, violently, that he was deceived to by him, protefted he would never depart from his
right

the colony.

This increafed their animofity, each of them, at fecretly, aiming fuperiority, and, openly, ufing thefe For their grandarguments, not to yield to his antagonift father had determined that he, to whom the moft favour:

LXXXVII.

able birds,

"*^

firft,

appeared, fhould have the
people
:

command
trifling to

of

it. He is fpeaking here of two perlons only ^ conlequcntly, would not have been fo proper sp-^Jlov It is very poflible this as nr^ile^ov.

*«3I cannot, upon this n^oTfjov. occafion, omit pointing out to the reader both the exadtnels ot the Greek language, and our author's attention

obfervationmay appear

fome

But

I

defire

them

to confider

in obferving

that thefe ditlinftions are the parents perfpicuity. And that this diftinflion is not 'mav

of elegance, and

be proved from Philoftratus
w^ol^ov,
zx^ulov i-m

imaginary
:

to
rd

uiv

fays he, AiyiUi

itt,

<?•..&.,

h

wahKuy.

Vol.

I.

D

d

the

202
the colony

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
:

OF

Book

I.

the fame kind of birds having been feen the advantage of feeing them the firfl: ; by both, one had The and the other, That of feeing the greater number.

And

their quarrel ; and, having armed people, alfo, efpoufed themfelves without orders from their leaders, began the

and a fharp en both fides In
w^ar
;
:

battle infued, in

which,

this battle, Fauftulus,

many were flain who had brought

up

the youths, being defirous to put an end to the contefl: of

the two brothers, and, unable to fticceed in it, as fome fay, threw himfeif, unarmed, into the middle of the combatants, It, feeking the fpeediefl: death ; which fell out accordingly.
by fome, that the lion of f!:one, which flood in the principal part of the Forum, near the roftra, was placed over the body of Fauftulus, where he fell, and had been buried
is

faid, alfo,

Remus being flain in this adion, by thofe, who found it. Romulus, who had gained a moft melancholy vidory, ftained with the blood of his brother, and the mutual {laughter of his
people,

buried

Remus at Remuria,

fince,

when

alive,

he had

been fond of building there. And, as to himfeif, being opwith grief, and repentance for what had happened, he prefTed
^^^cafL
life.

himfeif upon the ground, and was lofb to

all

regard of

But Laurentia, who had received them, when, newly, born, and brought them up, and loved them no lefs than a mother, intrcating, and comforting him, he rofe up, at her
*64}^^lvJCf

n«ij«f

f«u7ov"

Uoi^eic,

fwiKala-

K«i
1

ara^tHs jjiilou

uVo

AfTrijc, fxeilo.

becaufe the have left out this tranflaors Frcnch
Suidas.
this,

mention

defcribed by our author, a few lines after, by awj« ai. For, as they did not think fir, with the text, to make Ko-

mulus
rife

lircutnftance, alfo, to leave out another cirtumftance,

which obhged them,

cafh himfeif upon the ground, could net, polhbly, maivc hiia they

up

again,

rcqucfl:

j

Book

I.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
;

203

requeft

and, gathering together the Latines, who had not been flain in the late battle, being, now, little more than

three thoufand, out of a very great number, of which they, at firft, confifted, when he led out the colony, he built a city

on the Palatine

hill.

This,

therefore,

feems to

me

the

moft probable account of the death of Remus. However, if any other differs from this, let That, alfo, be related.
having yielded the command to Romulus, thouo-h not without refentment, and indignation at the im-

Some

fay that,

pofition,

after the wall

was

built,

Rem.us, in order to fliew

the flio-htnefs of the fortification, faid

"
;

Methinks, any of

"

your enemies might,

over this, as I aseafily, leap

do :" And,

it. That, upon this, Celerius, immediately, jumped over one of the men, who flood upon the wall, and was furveyor

" But any of us might, very eafily, " chaftife that enemy ;" and, ftriking him on the head, with a pick-ax, killed him on the fpot. This, therefore, is faid
of the works,
faid
;

to have been the
brothers.

^^'

event of the quarrel between the two

LXXXVIII. There
building of the city,
after

-remaining,

now, no obftacle to the
a day, in which,

Romulus appointed

atonement made to the gods, he deiigned to begin the work ; and, having prepared every thing, that was
neceflliry
To ,u3v The firft TsAcf, etc. the death of of Remus feems account moft the probable. However, Livy lias followed the laft with fome varia^^5"
<5'>!
''^

Rctnumnovcs tranjilulije muros : bids ah Romnlo (qutm verbis quoque increpitans adjecijfet, fir. deindc quicunque
irato alius
tranfiliet

moeraia

mea)

if;::r-

tlon

:

Vulgatiorfatmeftjiidihiofratris
^

fcclum.
i.

B.

c.

7.

D

d

2

for

204
for the

ROMAN
facrifices,

ANTIQJUITIES OF

Bookl.

and the entertainment of the people , when the day came, he, himfelf, began the facrifice ; then, ordering all the reft to perform the fame according to their

made ufe of the augury of eagles After that, having commanded fires to be made before the tents, he caufed the people to come out, and leap over the flames,
abilities, he, firft,
:

in order to expiate their crimes. every thing was performed, which he conceived to be acceptable to the gods, he called ail the people to a place and defcribed

When

appointed,

a quadrangular figure about the hill, tracing, with a plough, ^^^ drawn by a bull, and a cow yoked together, one continued

furrow, defigned to receive the foundation of the wall : From whence, this cuftom remains, among the Romans,

of tracing a furrow with a plough, round the place, where to build a city. After he had finiflied thefe they defign

and the cow, and, alfo, '^' begun the immolation of many other vidims, he fet the people to work. This day, the Romans, even at prefent, celebrate, as one of their greateft feftivals, and call it every year,
things,

and

facrificed the bull,

'^^Pariha.

On

of the fpring,
»''*•

that day, which falls out in the beginning the hufbandmen, and offer a

fhepherds
!/n

up

Eoof

ftp'p'evof «'ja«{ 9-i)A.e<«

^ivp^OivJct

renderedlt,

tafireau,zndnot,tai heuf.
condit, tauro et

vV

This cuflom is, often, «^ Jfov. but mentioned by the Latin authors no where, more particularly, defcribed
;

^d
aret

urbem novani
:

vaccd

ubi aravtrit^murum faciat : ubi portam vult eje, aratrum fujiollat, et

There
Ihew
0.V,

than by Dionyfius upon this occafion. is a fragment of Cato, which I fliall lay before the reader, in order to
that, by /Sar ap>'>i» is not meant fl» but a bull and, confequently, that
.,

portam
^^i-

vocet.
Kmla^^otfxivo;.

See the 124*'' an-

notation.
-^^n.ct^iXi;t.

See the 225"' anno-

tation.

the French tranflators ought to have

facrifice

Bookl.
fl^crifice

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

205

of thankfgiving for the increafe of their cattle. But, I cannot, certainly fay, whether they chofe this day, as, for that reafon, anciently, a day of public rejoicing; and,

looked upon
or,

it

as the propereft for the building

of the city

;

whether the building of it having been begun on that and dedicated it to the worfhip of day, they confecrated it,
thofe gods,

who

LXXXIX.

are propitious to fliepherds. Thefe, therefore, are all the particulars conI

cerning the origin of the Romans, which
to difcover, after great application,

have been able

and reading many books,
this

written both by Greek and

Roman authors upon

fubjed:.

So

that,

from

this

time,

the fentiments of thofe,
barians, fugitives,

every one, for ever, renounce who make Rome a retreat of Barlet

and vagabonds ; and let him, confidently, affirm it to be a Greek city, the moft communicative, and humane of all others Which he will do, when he confiders
:

that the Aborigines were Oenotri, and thefe, Arcadians ; and remembers that the Pelafgi, who inhabited the fame

country with the former, were defcended from the Argivi
and,

;

Theflaly, came into Italy : And, on the other hand, calls to mind the arrival ofEvander, and of the

having

left

Arcadians,

who

inhabited the Palatine

hill,

which place

the Aborigines had yielded to them ; and, alfo, the Pelointo Italy with Flercules, inhabited ponnelians, who, coming the Saturnian hill : And, laft of all, Thofe, who left Troy,

and were intermixed with the former : Since, he will find no nation, that is more ancient, or more Greek, than thefe.
For the mixture of Barbarians with the Romans, by which,
they

2o6
they
after.

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
loil

Book

I.

many of
this

their ancient inftitutions,

happened long

may well feem a wonder to many, who make proper reflexions upon tilings, that they are not become, intirely. Barbarous, by receiving the Opici, the Marll, the Samnites, the Tyrrhenians, theBrutii, and many thoufmds
of Umbri, Ligures, and
Iberi;

And

and, befides

thefe,

in-

numerable other nations, fome of whom came from Italy itfelf, and fome from other places, all differing from one
another both in
their language,

and manners

;

and

Vv'ho,

as well as thefe, and difagreeing in every thing being mixed, one fuch into diffonance and collected body, may well be
^^' ancient fuppofed to have caufcd many innovations in their form of government Since many others, by living among
:

a fhort time, lofl every thing, that characterizes the Greek nation ; fo that, they, no longer, fpeak the language of the Greeks ; obferve their inftitutions ;
Barbarians,

have,

in

acknowledge the fame gods ; ufe the fame humane laws, by which, chiefly, the temper of the Greeks differs from That of the Barbarians ; or agree with them in any thing what-

The soever, that relates to the private commerce of life. *'°Achaei, who are fettled near theEuxine fea, are a fufficient
^'^9-

T>i

OT«^«lx M^iMs

Tuf

^<ro^£W{.

HeiT

again, taken for woAi?ti«; conctrning which, fee the 1 36'" an'oAi? is,

notarion.
ly,

This fentence, is, certainimperfed in all the editions, and
;

Thefe Achaei were of the Orchomenii, who ietcolony tk-d near the Euxine fea, under lalmeOur luis, after the taking of Troy.
»7o'

A%<3£i&)v.

a

author, very juftly, calls

tiic

Orcho-

manufcripts becaufe there is a vifible I have entautology in all of them. deavoured to preferve the fenfe, with-

menii,

from

whom

the Achaei were
fince they,

defcendcd,

FJ^KviKulalac,

were a very ancient Greek people, an^
fo wealthy, that

out falling into thu inconvenience.

Homer makes

.^chiji-

'Strabo, B. ix. p. 637.

proof

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
all

207

proof of what I advance ; who, though a nation, the moft Greek, of all others,
the moft favage of all Barbarians. XC. However, the language of the
intirely,

defcended from

arc,

now, become
is

Romans

neither,

Barbarous, nor, abfolutely, Greek; but a mixture of both; the greateft part of which, is'^'Aeolic; and the
les fay to UlylTes, that, non would give him as
if

Agamemvaluable

many

the Attic, the Ionic, the Doric, and Aeolic. But I fhould chufe rather to

things, as went to Orchomenus, and the Egyptian Thebes, he would not
aflift

make them only
Aeolic
:

the Greeks,
£{Oj,'^<i^Mfvovar^(/7ii'ioae3/si'<5iV«0iiCa'-f

two, the Ionic and In which, I am fupported by the authority of" Strabo, who fays that
the Ionic dialed: was the fame with the old Attic, and the Doric, with the Aeolic. Some lines after, he adds a

Cu^'aV

-7i'

Hf

i;iv

>)

arA&ift'v

AioA/f.

Upon

thing,

that will, clearly,

Fludfon quotes a fhort cut of Quintilian, to fhew paflag.that many words in the Latin language were derived from the Greek, and declined after the Aeolic manner. This pafiage both the French tranflators have rendered in French, which, I imagine, fince they laid no more, they
this occafion,
'^

this fimilitude

account for between the Latin lan:

which guage, and the Aeolic dialed is, that the Arcadians fpoke Aeolic. Now, we have feen that the Aborigines, and Ocnotri were Arcadians,
as well as thofe, who came into Italy with Evander, and lived on the Pa-

latine

hill,

where Romiius,
It is,

after-

thought fuSicient to point out to their readers the fimilitude between the Latin language, and the Aeolic diaI wiih. that either they, or Hudor fon, any other of the commentators,

wards, built Rome. no v/onder that :he

therefore,

Romans

fpoke,

led.

originally, the fame language with the Arcadians, that is, the .'i.eolic ; and,

always,

retair.ed

a

great deal

of

it.

had thought
litude.

fit

to explain this fimiI

If they had,

fhould have

their affiftance, and,

thought myfelf obliged to them for moft chearfuUy, have acknowledged it. But, fince they have all contented themfelves v/ith this quotation, I muft peribrm this tafk
myfelf, the grammarians, whom I have read, both ancient and modern, divide
in the beft

now, bring this matter to the teft, and compare a few words of the Latin langua2,e with others of .its mother tongue, the Aeolic Faifia,
us,
.

Let

:

(pay.a

:

PIdgn, Tshayx

;

%«(«; Maltim,
Tu., TJ.

fA.«.?^iiv;

The
:

Machhta, (/.xMater, fjixly;^;
find

re-ader

will

manner

I

am

able.

more

many

inftances

of this fimilitude in

AW
e

Greek language anguage
f
Ili^d
i.

into four dialecls,
1

Theocritus But thefe, I believe, will be fufficient to fupporc this aficrtion Oi our author.
f B.
viii.p. 513,

f. 381

"B.

i,

c. 6,

and 514,

only

2o8

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Bookl.

only difadvantage they have received from their intercourfe with thefe various nations, is, that they do not pronounce all ^'^ vowels properly But all other indications of a Greek tlieir
:

For it is origin they preferve, beyond any other colony: not lately, fince fortune, by fhowering down her favors
hand, has taught them humato pra6life it ; nor fince they, nity, that they have begun ^" aimed at the firfl:, conqueft of countries, fituate on the

on them with a

liberal

have departed from in rendering this word. Three of them have fiiid, in their languages, -words, and le Jay, termes. I am not fo very confident of
272'
^Sofj/c/f.

I

the fame manner, as
li,

all

the tranflators

m tube,

we pronounce

the

lute,

etc.

Had

Dionyfius

fufpedted that his hiftory would have outlived the Latin language, as a liv-

tranllation as to cenfure theirs-, becaufe I know that <pav»;fv7<x is the

my own

word, generally, ufed

to fignify voivels:

that, if JfCpSor^/Of fignifies a double vowel, as it, certainly,
I, alfo,

But

know

does,
It
is

(f&ofyo?

muft fignity^

Jingle one.

pollible,

indeed, that the

Ro-

mans might not pronounce
fonants like
the

their con-

he would, probably, have told us in what the impropriety of the Romans confiftcd. If he had done this, I dare fay, it would have been found, that no nation, now, upon the face of the earth, pronounces Latin like the old Romans, and our own lefs than any other unlefs we are pleafed to imagine that one of the moft diftant
ing language,
;

what,
fered

I

fuppofe,

Greeks, which is, our author calls,
I

provinces of the Rom.;n empire, has
retained the true pronunciation of that language, when all the reft of Europe,

improperly.

But,

imagine, they dif-

in the pronunAs the Roof their vowels. ciation mans had no ij, and, as their ^ was a fhort vowel, I do not fee how they could properly pronounce thofe words, that were derived from the Greek, in Their fhort o is which there' was an liable to the fame objection, v/hen they As to the letter were to pronounce an
i).
fti.

more from them

and, even, the Italians themfelves have
loft it:

And

yet, fince

we pronounce

the Latin vowels, differently, from all other nations, we muft maintain this

extraordinary pofition, if we are refolved to maintain our own pronunciation.
*73'
D.oiyJiviTiiv rKc ^ix-jovlia.

This
le

is,

great reafon to believe they pronounced it, as the Italians, now,
//,

there

is

indeed, fadly, tranftatcd qu'ils eujjent pafse la mer.

by

The

Jay, other

French

tranflator

has not laid

much

which muft have pronounce been very different from v, as pronounced by the Greeks if thefe pronounced it, as I imagine they did, in
it,

oo,

better, qu'ils fe font reudus tnaitres des pais d'audelii de la titer. O^^yiS-xi

•,

means no more than
£^.fluMf<.

to

aim

at. O^iyilai.
is

Mefychius.

But there

a

other

Bookl.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN A S S ENSIS,
;

209

other fide of the fea
fion of

the objedb of which was the fubver-

and Macedonian empires ; but, from the time they were aflembled in the fame city, they and do not attempt any have lived Hke Greeks thing more illuftrious in the purfuit of virtue now, than,
the Carthaginian
''''*

;

have innumerable things to fay upon this fubje6l, and many arguments to alledge in fupport of what I have advanced, together with the teftimonies of credible
formerly.
I

authors ; but

I referve all thefe for that

part of this hiftory,

I fliall, propofe to treat of their government. now, refume the thread of my narration, after I have premifed, in the following book, a recapitulation of what is
I

wherein

contained in

this.
^"+'

in the next fentence, great difficulty, which I wonder Calaubon did not take

K*i

a^iv
>)'

fx.ir^iiTis'i^ov (jrilijaiiJOvlit

notice of
Ai/o-ailff is

;

it is

this

:

The word

sr^of «f£7tj»

x«7«-

lieve

to

me

place.

Are we

unintelligible, in this to fuppole that the

I, Verily, bethis oblique refiedion on the loft virtue of the Rowill reconcile M. * * * to

yvv

jTfolf^o)'.

him

;

and hope

mans,

our

Romans

did not aim at the conqueft of the countries, lying on the other fide of the fea, till they had lubverted
the Carthaginian,

author, and convince him that he did not write his hiftory with a view 10
flatter either

and Macedonian empires, both which empires lay on

the other fide ot the fea, with re? This cannot fpedl to the Romans is the this be ; and, yet, fenfe, and the

only fenfe of the word y.«7«Avff-«v1fj. But, if, inftcad of that, we read koIx-

Auguftus, or his people; Since he could not, confiftently with decency, fiiy, more plainly, that the Romans had degenerated from the virtue of their anceftors, than by faying that they did not, at all, diftinguiih themfelves in the purfuit of virtue

more

As I Auco.Ik, the difficulty vaniflies. have no authority for this alteration,
but

in his time, than formerly.

But

his refleftion

my own
it

conjecture,

I

would not
it

infert

in the text,

but fubmit

to

the determination of the learned reader.

does not ftop here-, it reaches, even, to the throne of AuSince the Romans could not: guftus a give greater prooFof thatdcgeneracs', than by fubmitting to his ufurpation.
:

The end
Vol. L

of the

firft

book.

Ee

A

DlSr-

A

DISSERTATION
CONCERNING
The
AM
arrival

of

AENEAS

in

Italy.

fenfible of the

I

Hfts

with two

difadvantages I lie under in entering the of the greateft men of the laft age, Cluver, and

many

who have botli treated the arrival of Aeneas in Italy as a and exhaufted the whole flore of their learning, which I ownfable, to have been very great, in fupporting this affertion. However, in. this unequal conteft, I have the fatisfadlion to find, that the united
Bochart,
ftream of the Greek and

Roman

hiftory runs in

my

favor

;

which

makes me hope
to

that an affedlation of Angularity will rather be

imputed

having oppofed the authority of fo many great authors, than to me, for oppofing That of the two great men I am to contend

them,

for

w^h.
Bochart, in his
lays great rtrefs
letter to Segrais,

the French tranflator of the Aeneid,

paffage in Homer, which I fhall confider preupon fently, as decifive againft the arrival of Aeneas in Italy ; and, after he has all the arguments he can find to fliew the a

employed

impoffibility

In order to do having brought him thither this the more effedtually, he gives a long lift of Greek and Roman

of

it,

juftifies Virgil for

:

authors,

that Aeneas

moft of them quoted by Dionyfius of Halicarnaffus, to prove did, really, land in Italy, and was the anceftor of the

Alban kings, from

whom

the founders of

Rome

were defcended..

If Bochart did not do this to fliew

how much

learning he could dif-

he muft have been very inattentive play on both fides of the queftion, to his fubjedl, not to fee that the authorities he has quoted to juftify
Virgil,

abfolutely

dellroy the arguments he had, before,

made

ufe of

to

DISSERTATION,
to contradict the arrival

etc.

211
I
fliall

of Aeneas in
will be,

Italy.
firft,

The method
to

ob-

examine the objedlions made by Cluver, and Bochart, which are, nearly, the fame ; and then, to give my own reafons in fupport of the fyftem I have adopted. Their firfl objedion is drawn from the verfes in Homer, which ^ Strabo's comment on have, already, been taken notice of, and from them.
ferve in treating this fubjed,

To

this

objedion
''

it

may

be anfwered that,

if,

as I

have,

before

obferved,

we

read,
crj

Nw h
The

KimM

I3it]

IIANTESSIN

uva^a,

reading is not to be found in any of the manufcripts, or editions of flomer, which are, now, " Strabo that it was, formerly, in fome of extant, yet we know from them, TivBi y^utpaa-.v are his words. But, if, at all events, we ;nuft read
:

difficulty vanifhes at

once

And, though

this

T^ui<r<nvy

inftead of

•zs-etfliaa-iv,

the anfwer our "author has given to this
:

The fenfe of which is, that objedion feems, very well, founded Aeneas, and his pofterity, might, as properly, be faid to have reigned over the Trojans, who followed him into Italy, as if he, and had
they,
Itaid in

Phrygia. I am fenfible that Strabo lays ii was reported, hiygjcti, that the defcendants of Scamandrius, the fon of Hedtor, and of Afcanius, the Ion of Aeneas, reigned for many ages in Scepfis, a city in Phrygia : this he himfelf But, obviates, by faying that, if we are to objedlion
'^

read

T^uicra-iv,

there

is

an end of this fucceflion to the

Scepfis place,

in the family

of Scamandrius.

He

fays, indeed,
ftill

kingdom of in the fame
arrival

that thefe verfes in
in Italy
;

Homer

contradidl,

more, the

of

Aeneas
treats

v/ord to

which reafon, fome write z3-«v7e<r(ni/, referring the the Romans, However, let it not be imagined that Strabo
for

the arrival of Aeneas in Italy as a fable ; fince, in account of that part of Italy, where Aeneas landed, he

giving
fays,

an
fo

in

many
tvcic^a
»

words,
Sc ^loi
Tr,\;

that

majiy places there
iyriOTjy.ici,)/

ivere ennobled

by

bis

prefeiice,

Aivem yiyoviv
firft

'.

See the

186'''

annot. on the

book.

l>

Iliad v.

;?•.

307.

« B.

xiii. p.

goC.

''

lb.

'B.v.p. sjj.

E

e 2

It

212
It is,

DISSERTATION CONCERNING THE
next,

objeded by Eochart, that Teftus quotes Agathocles C7zicenus for faying that Aeneas was buried in the city of Berecynthia. The reader will, I believe, think that a quotation of three or four words from an author, whofe works are, now, loft, cannot add any great force
to
his

argument
in his
it.

j

which

is, ftill,

leflened

by

this

confideration, that

Strabo,

very accurate

defcription of that country,

makes no
be-

mention of
caufe

He, then,

fays that Afcanius,

muft have remained

in Plirygia,

many

as the lake Afcanius, places in that country,

a river of the

fame name, a part of the country, and a little ifland near adjoining, received their names from Afcanius, the fon of Aeneas. This argument 1 have met with in feveral authors of a more modern
date than Bochart,

from whom,

I

believe, they took
firft

it.

However,
and

it

may

be, eafily,

anfwered.

In the

place,

this lake,

river, are

not in Phrygia, but in Bithynia, or, as fome have thought, in Myfia, as will appear, evidently, from the following words of Euphorion,
^

quoted by

Strabo,
'uTx^'

MTI^OIO
This
is

v^AiTiv kffKmieio.
^

confirmed by

Homer, quoted,
n,
Mo^cH' B'

alfo,

by

Strabo,

upon

this

oc-

cafion,
Tlc(,K{JLvv,

ASKANION
ASKANIHS

um

IttttoIi^vo;^

Oi y' iZ

i^iQuXuKOi
firft,

vjhdov ajtto«^o;.

Thefe

verfes, particularly the

will fupply

me

with another anfwer

This Afcanius was not the fon of Aeneas, but one to this objedlion. of the leaders of the Myfians, or of the Phrygians, if you plcafe, for border on one another, who came to the alfiftince and
Mvfia, Phrygia And, by the of'the Trojans.
laft veife,
it

is

this country, plain that

this name in the and, confequently, the lake, and river were known by Afcanius, time of, and, very probably, long before, the Trojan war. thefe places, therefore, the fon of Aeneas, could not give his name to

the name of I faid it was after the taking of that city. probable that Afcnnia had been given to this country long before the Trojan war ;
bccaufe,
if

of names, any confequence can be drawn from a fimilitudc
'

In voce Rcma.

B B.

xii. p.

*>

849.

Iliad.

..

>\ 792.
it

ARRIVAL OF AENEAS
'

IN ITALY.

213

not improbable that fJ3t:»K Afchenez, or, as the Septuagint calls him, A<rx,civa,^, the fon ofGomer, the fon of Japhet, the fon of Noah, might have reigned over this country many ages before the Trojan
it Is

war, and have given his name to it. And this opinion, I find, Bochart himfelf efpoufes, when he is to account for the peopling of the earth

by the defcendants of Noah For, there, he derives the name of this ^ But, when he has another objed: in view, country from Alchanaz. and is to fhew that Aeneas never went to Italy, he fhifts the fcene,
:

and country received their names from I fhall not dwell Afcanius, the fon of Aeneas. long on the next objediion, becaufe I think it may be anfwered in a few v/ords. Bochart
'ays that this lake, river,

and

he woulc|, certainly, have introduced there the worfliip of Venus, and Apollo j the firfl being his mother, and the other his protedlor, to Homer and he ; according that both thefe deities were unknown to firfl the fays, Romans, and
fays, that, if
Italy,

Aeneas had come into

their anceftors.

As

to the

worfhip of Venus
:

;

'Strabo

tells

us that there

was

a temple

antiquity of which will appear by this; that the care of this temple was derived to the Ardeates from their ancertors ; i7ni/.i^iiv]cti ^' avja Sia, And the antizs-^oyovuv A^SeocJcei-.

dedicated to her in Lavinium

The

quity of the worfliip, paid by the old Romans to Apollo, is proved by a pafiage in "" Feftus, where he fays, that he was, formerly, called at ente cortind ob eo dabantur. Rome, quod fat aperta refponja
I

do

not, indeed, find that
is

Cybele (which

any worfhip was paid by the Romans to the next objedion) till the year of "Rome 550,

when

this

goddefs, wiiich, by the way,

brought to Rome from Pefrmus,a city in But it mufl be obferved, that this ridiculous goddefs was a local deity,, and worfhiped at Petlinus, not at Troy. His next argument, that Minerva, and Vefla, who are acknowledged to have been Trojan deities, were not known to the firfl Romans,
turns,
iaid,
fi.itly,

was nothing but a flone, was Phrygia, with great ceremony.

by

all

Becaufe the Palladium, which Aeneas is hiftorians, to have brought with him into Italy from Troy,
againft
:

him

plainly,

refutes his objedion concerning
c.

Minerva

:

And

the inflitution.
'"

'Genefis,

X.

"*

;^.

3.

Geogr.

facr. B.

iii. c.

9.

'3. v. p. 355.

Jn voce c/f//^.

"Livy, £. xxix.

c.

11,

214

DISSERTATION CONCERNING THE

of the Veftals among the Albans, the anceftois of the Romans, as to Vefta. This order of effedtiially, deflroys the other relating ° derived was from the we find, by Livy, Albans, j^lbd, prleftefles
criundtdn facer dothwi.
tliat

And

our author will

tell us,

in the

fecond book,

there

was an ancient temple of Vefta
to the laft objeftion
ftrefs
;

at

Alba.

I

come now
this
:

of Bochart, upon which he feems
in

to lay the greateft
Jt
is

though,

my

opinion,

it

leafl deferves

it.

language, fays he, has borrowed many words from the various nations, with whom the Latines had any commerce,
Latin

The

To prove this, he has ranfacked all but none from the Phrygians. of the old Greek lexicons, and fcholiads, to find Phrygian words number. amalTed a I it a reafonable look upon as which he has very
;

lucky circumftance that both the Phrygian language, and charadlers are, fo abfolutely, loft, that no trace of either appears j otherwlfe, it is Bochart's manner, that we fliould have been overwhelmed plain, from
In this mafs of Phrygian with an innundation of Phrygian learning. words, he owns that, though none of them were borrowed by the
Latines,

many were adopted by

the Greeks.

This conceflion, which

is

of many authors, is all I dcfire : For, if fupported by the teftimony the Greeks ufed any of thefe Phrygian words, it is certain that the firft Romans ufed them alfo ; fince both the language, and the charadiers of the

Romans were the fame with Thofe of the Greeks. That the language of the firft Romans fliould be Greek will not be wondered at, when it is confidered that the inhabitants of Latium
firft

were, for the moft part, originally. Aborigines, an Arcadian colony; and that the people, who then lived on the fpot, where Rome was after-

wards built, were, alfo. Arcadians, who had fettled there with Evander. This Dionyfius has, already, informed us of, and his account is confirmed by all the Greek and Roman hiftorians. Their language, afterwards indeed, received an
words,
that,

by the mixture of many Italian by degrees, corrupted the Greek language, Vv'hiph the
alteration

Romans

had, originally, ufed ; uTrca rajs toi; EXXfiviKoif cvcf^ci<rt tuv ItccXixuv ^ of the language, fpoken by tTTiMx^yAvuv, fays Plutarch, in fpeaking If their language was Greek, the Romans in the time of Romulus.

the charaders of

it

muft,

alfo,
c.

have been Greek
rLife of Romulus.

;

and., that

they were
fo.

B.

i.

20.

ARRIVAL OF AENEAS
fo,

IN ITALY.

215

a paflage in our ''author, where he fays that the terms appears by of the alliance, entered into by Tullius with the Latin cities, were
a brazen pillar in Greek charadlers, fuch as were, aningraved on in Greece j which pillar, he fays, flood in the temple of ciently, ufed

Diana, in his time.

Having anfwered,
of Aeneas
I

I

hope,

all

in Italy, I Ihall,

now,

the objedlions urged againft the arrival offer fome proofs in fupport of it. If

to quote the authority of Virgil, the plan of whofe formed upon this fadl, I fuppofe it would be faid that he

was

Aeneid
is

is

a poet,

and, confequently, not tied down to hiftorical truth. But, is not Homer a poet alfo, and has not his authority been infifted on to prove that Aeneas, and his pofterity reigned in Phrygia after the taking of Troy ? And why may not Virgil be prefumed to have been as well informed

of what pafled in Italy, his own country, immediately after that event, as Homer, of what pafled in Phrygia at that time, a country, to which he had no fort of relation ? Let Homer, therefore, and Virgil be laid
out of the cafe, and
the truth of a point of hiftory be, as it ought The reader has, already, feen that Dioto be, tried by hifforians. nyfms, and all the Greek and Latin hiftorians he has quoted, affirm
let

and the authority of Dionyfius, as founded on That of thofe authors, ought to have the greater weight, becaufe he had their works before him, and the modern writers, who deny it, are deprived of
this faft,

This being the fl:ate of the cafe, it feems to me little that advantage. the latter to cenfure Dionyfius for having advanced this lefs abfurd in

on the authority of thofe hiftorians, without having read their be in a judge to condemn a man without hearwritings, than it would had to ofl^er in his defence. he the proofs ing
fadt,

of thefe hiftorians has deprived me of many proofs in favor of Dionyfius, it has, however, faved me the trouble of quoting a long lift of Greek and Latin authors, whofe reafons we may, and ought
If the
lofs

to

fuppofe,
all

would have the fame
other hiftorians,

him, and

this fubjedl ; that the us of of a fadt, which the lofs iSj reality of thofe authors, and, poftibly, the affedlation of erecting great edifices with few materials, have, of late years, brought into difpute.

upon us, who have written upon

effed:

as

they had upon

they would convince

1

B.

iv. o.

26.

I.(hall.

ii6

DISSERTATION CONCERNING THE
whom

therefore, content myfelf with quoting two authors, Dionyfius might have quoted, and did not ; and, after them, feme of
I fliall,

tiiofe,

who writ after he publiflied his hiftory. The firft I (hall mtrntion is Salkift, wliofe
his flyle has
:

authority was never,

I

think, called in queftion,

been cenlured by men of^ though more delicacy, than judgement Nothing can be more explicit than what he fays in his Catilinarian war; urbem Romam (frcut ego accept)
'

condidere atque habuere initio 'Trojani^ qui,

Amed

duce, profugi, inccrtis

fedibus vagabantur.

The
lived.

next

is

Varro, the

greateil:

He
'

mentions the

arrival

antiquary of an age, in which Cicero of Aeneas at Laurentum in Italy, as
I believe,

attended with a circumftance not heard of before, nor fince,

but once.

quo die Trojd ejl egrejfus Aeneas Fefieris, eiim per diem quotidie Jiellam vidijfe, donee in agrum Laiirentem 'veniret, in quo earn 7ion viderit nlterius ; qua re cognovit terras ejfe fafales.

Ex

This
•who

hiftorical fad:
it

was too remarkable

to efcape the notice

of

'

Livy,

peculiar to himfclf j fed ad uwjora iniiia rcrum ducentibusfatis, primo in Macedoniam [Aeneam] isenije ; inde in Siciliam quaerentem fedes delatum ; ab Sicilid, clajfe Laurentcm agrum
relates
in a

manner

Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of the Aborigines ; the building of Alba by Afcanius, the fon of Aeneas, and all the other incidents, which
tenuijje.

He, then, mentions the marriage of Aeneas

Nvith

Cluver, and Bochart have thought fit to treat as fabulous. After this, I would afk, whether any hiftorical fadt of an ancient
date can

be attefted by authors of greater authority ? And whether an attempt to fubvert the credibility of a fad, fo attefted, by conjectures, forced ccnftrudions, fcraps of quotations quoted by other authors,

and vague
is

unfupported by the teftimony of a fingle hiftoall rian, hiftory into romance, to deftroy the ufe, by deftroyingthe credit, of it, and to deprive mankind of the beft guides both in public and private life, examples ?
aflertions,

not an attempt to transform

have feen what the opinion of the Roman hiftorians was concerning the arrival of Aeneas in Italy, and the defcent of the Romans from the Trojans. Let us, now, examine what opinion the leading

We

men among

the

Romans, and the Roman
fC.
6.
I

fenate
'B. i.e.

itfelf,
i.

entertained of

Rer. divin. B.

ii.

thefc

ARRIVAL OF AENEAS
thefe events.

IN ITALY.

zirj

In the 564''' year of Rome, Lucius Scipio, and Cains Laelius being confuls, the former, who was brother to the firfl Scipio Africanus, pafTed the Hellefpont with his army in order to carry oa
the

war

againft Antiochus.

In his

march, he came

to

IHum, the

ancient Troy, where the Ilienfes, and the Romans congratulated one another ; the former faying that Aeneas, and his generals went from thence ; and the latter, that they were defcended from the Ilienfes :

And

the joy of both was as exxeffive as That between parents, and The Ilienfes were delighted to fee their children after a long abfence.

defcendants, after they had conquered the weft, and Africa, come to claim Afia, as their hereditary kingdom ; adding, that the deftrudlion of Troy was a deflrable event, fmce it was followed by fo
their

happy
their

a

refurredtion.

The Romans, on

the

other

fide,

could not
"

their defire fatisfy

of

vifiting their paternal habitation,

the nurfery of

anceftors,

and the temples, and images of their gods.
Ilion

Cum
ac

ingrefji

Afiam Romani

venijjent,

miitua gratulatio Iliefijium

Homcinorum futt.
fcSios;

Ilienfibui

Acneatn, caeterofqice

cum

eo

duces,

dfe pro-

procreates referentibus. T'anfaque laetitla inter omnium fuit' quanta cjfe pojl longum tempus parentes et libcrosfolct. occidefjte et Africa domitd, Afiam ut avitum yuvabat Ilienfes ncpotes fiws,

Roman! s fe ab

his

regnum

viiidicare;
:

optabiletn

T^rojae

ruinam fuife,

dicentes,

ut tarn

feliciter renafceretur

Contra, deorum ac fimidacra inexplebile defderiiwi videndi tenejorum, templaque bat. After the defeat of Antiochus, the Roman fenate fent ten perfons, the moft confiderable of their body, into Afia with particular inftructions

Romanos, avitos lares, et incunabula ma--

concerning the terms of the peace, which Antiochus had folicited,. ^ and with full powers, libera mandat a, with regard to every thing elfe..
After their arrival in Afia, they rewarded, or puniO^ied the cities that country according to their merit towards, or their offences
the
in

againft,

And, as none of their ads were, afterwards, people. altered refcinded, or, even, by the fenate of Rome, they muft be looked upon as the a6ts of the fenate itfelf. others, who

Roman

Among

received

marks of favor from
not fo

thefe

embaffadors, the Ilienfes were
fays,

dillinguiriied,

much,
"'''

as

"

Livy

on account of any

late fer:

vices they
»

had done to the Romans,

as

in
c.

memory
"

of their origin
c.

Juflin. B. xxxi. c. 8.

Livy, B. xxxvii,

56.

B. xxsviii.

50.

F

f

In

2i8

DISSERTATION CONCERNING THE
free; Ilienfibus Rhoeteum, et Gergithum addiderunt
;

In confideration of which, they added Rhoeteum, and Gergithum to For the fame reafon, they made the inhabitants of their territories.

Dardanum

non tarn

oh recentia merit a,
liberandi caufafuit.

quam
It is

origin

um

memoria.

Eadetn

et

Dardanum

remarkable that
^

was Lucius AemiUus PauUus,

one of thefe ten embaffadors the worthy fon of Aemilius Paullus,

who

loft his life in

the fervice of his country, at the unfortunate battle
fon,

twenty two years after this embafTy, being conful for the fecond time, overcame Perfeus, and reduced Macedon ' He was mafter of all the Latin and Greek to a Roman province.
of Cannae.

^His

learning,

and took particular care

to

inftrud:

his fons in

both

:

He

had, alfo, a great tafte for fculpture, painting, and all the liberal arts. Thefe things are mentioned to let the reader fee the improbability, that

fuch qualifications could be impofed upon in fo eflential a which deduced the defcent of point of the Roman hiftory, as That, The reader will remember that the the Romans from the Ilienfes.
a

man of

they granted thefe favors to this people, were an affembly of the wifeft, braveft, and moft learned men, then, in the known world, unawed by any power, either foreign, or domeftic, and could be influenced, in this determination, by nothing but the notoriety
fenate,

Roman

when

of the

fadt,

decree of

This was not the only their piety to their anceftors. the Roman fenate in favor of the Ilienfes, though we are

and

not acquainted with the particulars of the
others of the like tendency,
liftratus
^
':

reft:

But, that there were

appears by the following words of Calet

Ilienfibus et

propter inclytam nobilitatem civitatis, et propter

conjundlionem
I lay

originis

Romanae, jam

antiquitus,

fenatus-confultis,
eji.

€t conjlitutionibus principiim plenijjima

immunitas

tribiita

on the conftitutions of the Roman emperors? the firft of whom, Julius Caefar, had a mind to have it thought that he derived his defcent from liilus, one of the followers of Aeneas, if
not the leaft
ftrefs

not his fon

:

I fay,

I lay

no

ftrefs

on the conceflions made

to

the

Roman fenate were, then, fo far far degenerated from the noble and had fo awed by power, freedom of their anceftors, as to beftow the grofleft flattery upon every
Ilienfes in Caefar's time,

becaufe the

his illegal

whim, which
y Paterc. B.
i.

the wantonnefs of his exaltation could fuggeft to
c. 9.
*

him

:

Plutarch's

life

of Aemilius.

^

Id. ib.

l>

In lege.

1

7.

And,

ARRIVAL OF AENEAS IN ITALY.
And,
as

219

he had free liberty to derive his defcent from any hero of he pleafed, if he had thought fit to derive it from Alexander, antiquity or his horfe Bucephalus, they would have decreed him to be defcended,
in a right line,
I

from either of thofe heroes. have, already, lamented the lofs of the many Greek and

Roman

whom Dionyfius has quoted to prove the arrival of Aeneas and in Italy ; mufl, now, lament the lofs of Sifyphus Cous, Corinnus, Dares Phrygius, Dictys Cretenfis, and Syagrus, whom he has not
hiftorians,

quoted ; and of whom the four firft lived in the time of the Trojan war, and writ the hiftory of it ; and the lafl: treated the fame fubjedl
in verfe

many

years before

Homer.

As

their writings were, probably,

in being at the

time Dionyfius writ his hifi:ory, if they had contradidled authors he the quotes, he could not have failed to mention this contradidion ; though he was under no neceffity of mentioning their

conformity.

V

f 2

THE

THE

ROM^N ANTIQUITIES
O F

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
THE SECOND BOOK.

TH
which
ftadia.

E

city

Italy,

fituated in the weftern parts of clofe to the river Tiber, which falls into the
is

of

Rome

Tyrrhene
fea,

fea

about the middle of the coaft
is

;

from

the city
firft

diftant

one hundred and

twenty

The

known

pofTefTors of this fpot were certain

Barbarians, natives of the country, called Siceli, who were, and of whom not alfo, mafters of many other parts of
Italy,

a few
are,

vifible

monuments remain

even,

fome names
they,

to this day ; among which of places, faid to be Sicelian names,

which fhew

Aborigines, ' the fea coaft from Taras to Pofidonia, drove out this people, and poffefled themfelves of the place. Thefe were the holy

inhabited this The country. defcended from the Oenotri, who inhabited
formerly,

Annotations

Tt)v

on the Second Book.
Scc the 235*'' annotation on

«7ro

T<zji*v7cf o!;^ji lloc-ttouiusis 2j-«f«A(«f.

-the firft

book.

youth,

Bookll.

ROMAN
^

ANTICVUI TIE S,

etc.

221

youth, confecrated to the gods, according to their cuftom, and fent out by their parents, as it is faid, inhabit that

M

the god fliould give them. The Oenotri were an Arcadian nation, who left the country, then, called

country, which

Lycaonia, and, now, Arcadia, of their own accord, in fearch of a better under the condud of Oenotrus,the fon of Lycaon,

from

whom
were

the nation received
in poffeflion

its

name.

While the Abo-

rigines

of thefe

parts, the firft,

who

co-

habited with them, were the Pelafgi, a wandering people, who came from a country, then, called Haemonia, and,

now, Theflaly, where they had lived fome time. After the Pelafgi, came the Arcadians from the city of Pallantium, who had chofen for their leader, Evander, the fon of Merof the cury, and one of the feven

nymph Themis Thefe
:

built a

village

upon

hills,

that flands near the middle of

Rome,

calling the place Pallantium, from their mother city in Not long after, Hercules, coming into Italy, in Arcadia.

home, with his army from Erythea, fome part of it, which was left behind, confiding of Greeks, fettled near
his return

Pallantium, upon another of the
Sure the Latin had forgotten what our author faid in the firft book, concernthis cuftom of confecrating the iiig youth to fome god, and then fending
T^ro ra A«(,«ov'(».
••

hills, that,

now, make part
iS.xiij.aviov

des dicux, generally.
juoiv

or Aa!i-

tranflators

explained by our author himfelf in the place beforementioned, J
is

^m

Y.ot}ovoy.oi(&eii\i

a7n^a\jyoui\ioi,

i/je

whom

god, to
before

they

had been

confecrated,

of the country that them otherwife, they god fliould give v.'ould never have rendered this paflage,

them out

in fearch

they were fent out.

As moft

of the

•,

The

country, ^vbich fortune fhould give

them.

*** has followed However, M.
le

remarkable things, relating to the original hiftory, of which this is only a recapitulation, have been, already, explained in the
will give
firft

book, the reader

them-, and

Jay has not fucceeded

me

leave to refer

him to

thofe

much

better in faying yi'aj laprote£lion

annotations,

of

222

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
Rome
:

Book

II.

of the city of

This was, then, named, by the inhabitants, the Saturnian hill ; but is, now, called the Capitoline hill, by the Romans. The greateft part of thefe were

the city of Elis, had been laid wafte by Hercules.

Epei,

who abandoned

after their

country

II.

The
'

Albans

iixteenth generation after the Trojan war, the built upon both thefe places, and furrounded them
:

with a wall, and a ditch For, till then, there were only cottages of neatherds, and fhepherds, and huts of other
the land thereabouts yielding plenty of grafs, not for fummer paflure, by reafon of the only, for winter, but, alfo, rivers, that refrefh, and water it. The Albans were a mixed

herdfmen

;

compofed of Arcadians, of Pelafgi, of thofe Epei, who came from Elis, and, laft of all, of the Trojans, who, with Aeneas, the fon of Anchifes, and Venus, came into Italy
nation,
after the

taking of Troy.
alfo,

barians,

who

probable that fome Barlived in the neighbourhood, or the reIt
is

mains of the ancient inhabitants, were mixed with thofe But all thefe nations, having loft their national Greeks.
appellations,

were

called,

from Latinus,
city, therefore,

who
was

by one common name, Latines, had been king of this country. The
built

dred

and

thirty

by thefe nations, the four hunfecond year after the taking of Troy,

and

The leaders of this colony Olympiad. were twin brothers, and of the royal fitmily ; Romulus being
in the feventh
3-

luyoiiti^af/.

This word

is

rendered

by

all

who
had

the tranflators, except le Jay, has left it out, as if our author
o-iivo;ica(rij

faid

which is not enough

:

For the Albans did not only inhabit thefe two hills, but /W^^/i-i them within the walls of their new city. And this is the fenfe of the word avnm^ui.

the

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALT C ARN AS SEN SI S.
one, and

223

the

name of

Remus of

the other

:

By

the mother's

fide they

were defcended from Aeneas, and, confequently, Dardanidae. It is hard to fay, with any certainty, who was
:

their father

been the fons

However, the Romans beHeve them to have of Mars. But a conteft arifing between them

about the command, they did not both continue leaders of the colony For, one of them being flain in the battle,
:

Romulus, who furvived, became the founder of the city, and called it after his own name. The great numbers of
colony had, originally, confided, when fent from Alba, being, now, reduced to a few, the remainder amounted to no more than three thoufand foot, and three hundred

which

this

horfe.
III.

After the ditch,

therefore,

was

finiflied,

the wall

perfed:ed,

the neceflary ftru6lure of the houfes completed,

and the juncture required they fbould condder, alfo, what form of government they were to eftablifh, Romulus called
the people together by the advice of his grandfather,

who
that,

indeed,
*'

had fuggefted to him what he was " the it
city, confidering ficiently,

to fay,

and told them

was, newly, built, was, fufedifices
:

adorned both with public and private

" But he defired they would all confider that thefe were " not the moft valuable For, neither, in things in cities *' and high walls fufiicient foreign wars, are deep ditches,
:

*'

to give the inhabitants an

'^

undifturbed afiTurance of their
is as little exadl with regard to the thought, as to the Greek words, Un rempart entierement filr pour metre les

Aa-f otj/juov*

(rw7t)f («j uVo^vjvJ/iv

Kr«f«-

afraid,

Tlie tranflatcrs have exprefled ff%«v. this fentence differently. Sylburgius
has faid certamfpem afferre, which
I

am

Bourgois a couvert, in

M.

***,

is

liable

" own

224

ROMAN ANT
fafety,

I

QJJ

I

TIES OF

Book

II

" own
'*

but

orrly

to fecure

by a fudden incurfion of the " commotions, can private houfes afford a

them from being furprifed enemy ; neither, in civil
fafe

retreat;

" thefe

being;

contrived for the comfort of leifure,

and

" "
*' *'

tranquillity,

and neither prevent mifchief

in thofe,

who
city,

^praclife

it

nor give confidence againfh their neighbours,
againft

''to thofe,

whom

it is

pradifed:

That no

hitherto, fupported, alone, with thefe decorations, ever attained to greatnefs, and alafting happinefs ; nor, from a
either in public, or private build:

" want of magnificence,
ings,

was ever hindered from being great and happy But, he told them, there were other things, that pre" In foreign wars, ftrength in ferve, and aggrandize cities " arms which is ; acquired by courage, and exercife ; and, " in civil commotions, unanimity among the citizens. This, " he faid, the temperance, and juftice of each particular
:

*'

citizen would,

moft

effectually, adminifter to the

whole

"

body: That thofe, who employ themfelves in the exercife " of arms, and, at the fame time, are mafters of their paf-

"
fions,
to the
laft

are the greateft ornaments to their country
of thofe exceptions.

;

and
the

On

7ie

of

iTti^nKiv^v,

as

it

ftands in

all

devoit pas compter d'etre enfeilrete, is It is certain that better in le Jay.
eulii^iUi uVoAij^/K

in a has, editions, cleared up the fenfe.

great meafure, But there is one
fuf-

fignifies

more than
Ca-

word, which that manufcript has

fafely,
^'

it

Ti

fignifies fecurity. £;rie«/£uov, etc. Stephens,

fcred to remain, and 'which none of thofe learned men have thought of
altering,

faubon, and Portus, after great pains to reftore this I'entence, have left it The reafon is, they had out of joint. never leen the Vatican manufcript,

that

is,

3i£t;«va/,
:

have nothing to do here
reafon,
its
I

which can For which

would

fubllitute ^iQiUKi\»t ia

room.
*'

which, by reading

£7ri6»A£v«v,

inftead

thefe

Bookir.
*'

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN AS SEN SIS.

225

men, who provide both the commonwealth " with impregnable walls, and themfelves with a lafe retreat. *' That the form of government fupplies thofe, who have, " prudently, inftituted it, with Snen of bravery, and juftice, " and who other on
thefe are the
pradlife every

virtue;

while,

the other

" fide, bad inftitutions render men cowardly, and rapacious, " and the flaves of foul defires. He added, that he had
(C
((

been informed by
hiftory,

men

of age, and great knowledo-e in

that of many

numerous

((

countries,

fome, by
;

colonies, planted in fruitful falling into feditions, had been, im-

a
(C cc ((

mediately, deftroyed
to'

others, after a fhort refiftance, forced

become

fubjedt to their neighbours,
fruitful
:

and

^

to exchancre

both their

country for a barren land, and their

liberty for fiavery

While

others, lefs

numerous,

fettled

" in not altogether fertil, have, in the firfl places, place, " continued to be free themfelves, and, afterwards, to com*'

mand
*•

others:

And

that the misfortunes of the

numerous

etc. Hudfon has (?£, tranflations of us various Latin given
M<xp(;ij7<xf

of thefe interpretations is beft fupported by the words of the text.
I

this fentence

;

two
the

followed

fuppofes that our author intended to make the men of bravery, and juftice ierve
as
I

by But every one of

ot which have been French trandators.

thefe verfions

which
this
T!;v

have taken a liberty in this place, I have, very feldom, allowed

myielf.

There
T\JX,ijv

is

fuch a falfenefs in

expreftion,
^H^ovoi

«v7( tij;

models to the

form

underftand of government,

legiflators : Wliereas, his fenfe to be that the

K^enlovo; X^flaf iixKAx^aS-ai, that I

cannot think our author,
juil a critic,

who was

fo

inftituted

by

thefe legiQators, will infpire the others with bravery, and a love of juftice.

a writer, could ever fufter this expre.Tion to efcape from his The fmail pen.
alteration I

as well as fo accurate

And

this,

I

think,

is

confirmed by

would make

in

reading

what he

fays prefently after, that the
will,

happinefs, or unhappinefs, of colonies is owing to nothing fo much as to
their different

this

hope, be thought to correft inaccuracy of expreftion, witiiouc
I

forms of government.

making any

alteration in the fenfe.
((

But

the reader will determine

which

Vol.

I.

Gg

colorlies.

226
colonies,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

II..

and the happinefs of thofe, that were lefs flowed from no other caufe than the form of their

fo,

re-

therefore, there was but one If, fpedive governments. fort of government received by all men, and calculated to

happy, the choice v/ould not be difficult: But he was told, he faid, there were various forms of government both among the Greeks, and Barbarians ; of all
render
cities

which, three were, chiefly,
:

commended by
*

thofe,

wlio

had experienced them However, that none of them was perfect, each having fome inbred evils, that accom-

which created great difficulty in the choice. He, therefore, deflred them to deliberate at leifure, and let him know, whether they would be governed by a Angle perfon,
pany
it,

or

by a few;

or,

whether they would,
:

^

under proper
to

laws,

commit

the adminiftration of the

commonwealth

the whole body of the people vernment foever you fhall think
'
K«( thImm vatfMUv
w^octivtxi
I eiuxi

And, which form of gofit

to eftablifh, fays he,
mh;
T^chilfiei;
JviiixfA.iv

I

rui moxPieiuii
xi'^jif

lybius fays, Tlav
xai
y.oclct,

olnAar,

lAiK^iv);,
<rvfji,0v1>i(.

Si

Tivoif iKXsvi

[mixv avvs^riKitic

tTic^aAff
ziohiltim

do not

fo

much wonder

yiyvilai.

And,
I

again,

Tuiv

hat the other commentators have not

cv^ynilatt «a1«

sTuf/v

akcn notice of the analogy between our author, and •'Polyi'ius, in treating this fubjed, as that Cafaubon, v/ho has
of the publiflied a very fine edition
latter,

tk xawa.
that,

beHeve

x«i ua^cTrelxi jj, the reader will find

ka?

both

is

notwithftanding the thought in the fame, our author has much

fhould not remember
as
I

it

:

How-

the advantage in the expreffion. 9- Ers vou^c >caV5-)}ir«uEKn, etc. If the

ever,

have

tianflate
it

;

that frag-

ment of Polybius,
cufable in

would be inex-

me not to lay that paffage before the reader, that he may fee in what manner our author his taken the
fenfe,

reader pleafes to compare the text, as in the Vatican it ftands manufcript, with the reading of the editions, he
will fee

how much we

are beholden to

that manufcript for the reititution of
this

without taking the words.

To»

period.

B.

vi. p.

458,

«
lliall,

Book

II.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSENS IS.
comply with
it,

227

"
*'

{hall, readily,

and neither think myfelf
obey.
I

unworthy to command, nor

refufe to

am

fatisfied

" pointing me leader of the colony, and, afterwards, by " For, of thefe, neither a giving my name to the city " foreign war, nor a civil diffenfion, neither time, that " of all nor other
:

" with the honors you have conferred on me,

firft,

by ap-

*'

"

ftroke of angry deftroyer great things, any fortune can dcpriv^e me But, thefe honors, both living, and dead, I fhall enjoy for ever."
:

IV. This was the fpeech, that Romulus, by the diredtion, as I have faid, of his grandfather, made to the And people they, having confulted together by themfelves, returned this
:

anfwer

We do not, at all, deiire a new form of govern" ment, nor to change That, which our anceftors have ap" proved of as the beft, and delivered down to us In this, we
:

"

:

*'

fhew, both a deference for the fenfeof our elders, whofe great " prudence we admire in eftablifhing it, and our own fatif-

"

"
"

fa6fion in our prefent condition: For we could not, with reafon, find fault with an inflitution, that has afforded
us,

under our kings, the greateft of " and the command of others. liberty,
*'

human

blelTmgs,

This, therefore,

is

" And " as
*'

our refolution concerning the form of government : this honor, we conceive, none has fo good a title to, yourfelf, by reafon of your being of tlie
royal family,

of your virtue; but, above all, becaule you have " been the leader of our colony, and have convinced us of
as well as

"

**

your great fpirit, and great prudence ; not fo much by your words, as by your adlions." Romulus, hearing this,

G

g

2

faid

;

228
faid
*'
;

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
"It was a
:

OF

Book

II.

worthy " that honor
*'

great fatisfadion to him to be judged of the kingdom But that he fhould not accept
until the gods Ihould,

by favourable omens,

confirm their choice."

V.
in

And

which

they, alfo, approving of this, he appointed a day, he defigned to confult the gods concerning the
:

And, when the time was they had offered him come, he rofe by break of day, and went out of his tent : Then, {landing abroad, '°in a void place, after the cuftomary
he prayed to Jupiter, the king, and to the reft of the of this colony, gods, whom he had chofen for the patrons that, if it was their pleafure he fhould be king of the city,
facrifice,

command

they would reveal it by fome heavenly figns : This prayer being ended, a llafh of lightning ran from the left to the The Romans, upon the information, either of the right. Tyrrhenians, or of their anceftors, "look upon the lightning,
'°"

whether

M. ***
.

Ev x«6«pw %wf(M. I much doubt this fignifics en un lieu fur, as

an

aufpicious

omen,

is

much more

has rendered

it,

after the ex•,

to the aftronoplaufible (according then received) than that gram-

my

ample of the Latin tranflators becaufe, our author lays nothing conccrning the confecration of the place, I have chofen rather to render it a yo/J
place, that

''

matical

who

Plutarch, reafon, given by is derived from that f.nijler fays
It

/mere.

muft be obferved that the
the figns, that

Romans looked upon

flru^ion

•,

a place free from any obin the lame manner as Ais,
''

vy

riftophanes fays fv KaSagai ; and as "^Liufes the word purtis, Pojiero die

fignis collaiis dimicaiurum
tenti campo.

^uxo ac paetc.

appeared on their left, to be favourable; and that the Greeks looked on Thofe, that appeaix-d on their right, to be fo The reafon of which difference, was, that the former turned their faces to
:

'•

TiMai h

Pujitixici,

reafon, given

by our author, looked upon the lightning, that appear, don the left hand, to be

The why the

the eaft in performing thefe augural ceremonies; and the latter, to the

Romans

This paffagc of our author I fhall add proves the firft; to which • another, out of Livy, relating to the
north.
''

I'ExxAj). ^.

320.

'B. xxiv.

c.

14.

Rom.

Qu.icf.

'B.

i.

c.

iS.

that

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.

229^

that paffes from the left to the right, as a happy omen : Their reafon is, according to my opinion, that the beft feat,

and

ftation

for

thofc,

who make
well as

augural obfervations,
;

is

That, which looks towards the
the fun, and

moon

rife, as

from whence, both the planets, and fixed ftars;
eafl:

and the revolution ol the heavens, by which
tained in

all

things con-

them

are, fometimes,
it,

above the earth, and, fomeits

times, beneath

from thence begins
left

circular
eall:,

motion

:

Now,
right
;

to thofe,

who

turn their faces to the
;

the northern

parts of the

world are on the

and the fouthern, on the
as

and the former are looked upon
:

more honourable

than the latter
axis,

upon

For, in the northern parts, the pole of the which the earth turns, is elevated ; and, and of

the five

circles,
circle,

the ardlic

which incompafs the fphere. That, always appears on that fide ; while,
the other,
called

called in the
is

fouthern parts,
deprefled,

the antardic circle,
is

and

invifible to us.

There

reafon, therefore, to
air,

look upon thole figns in the heavens, and the
beft,

to be the

which appear on the

beft fide
eaft,
:

:

And

fince, thofe parts,

that are turned towards the
inauguration

have the pre-eminence
And,
faces

of

Numa
ejus,

Pompilius

eaft.

that the
to

Greeks turned

Augur ad lacvam
fedem
cepit,

capite velato, dextrd manti bc.culum f.ne

their

the north,

upon

thefe

oc cafions,

may
^

be proved by

many

nodo aduncum tenens, quern lituum appellaverunt. Inde ubi profpe^u in urbem

pailages out of their moft approved writers ; but I fhall content myfelf

agrumque capto, deos precatus, regionem ab oriente ad occafum determinavit ; dextras ad meridiem partes, laevas ad
feptentnoncm this, appears that his face was turned to the
f.Iliad fi.

with This of

Homer, who makes
Polydamas.
.

Heftor
„ „
f.zi%.
>

fay thus to
^

- "^

.,

,

el e

dixit.

Bv

it

».,
^
,

^ ^

^
'

'^
.

'

.

-

over

£3o

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
But fome write that the

Book

II.

over the vveftern parts, and of the eaftern parts themfelves, the north-eaft are higher than the fouth-weft, thofe oudit
to be efteemed the beft.
ancefl:ors

and, before they had learned it from the Tyrrhenians, looked upon the lightning, that came from the left, as a happy omen For, they that, when

of the

Romans long

ago,

:

fay,

Afcanius, the fon of Aeneas, was warred upon, and befieged bv tlie Tyrrhenians under the command oi Mezentius, their
king, and
iaft

upon the point of fallying out of the town for tlie time, his affairs being, now, defperate, he prayed to
and
to the reft of the gods,
fally
it

Jupiter,

with lamentation, to
';

incourage this
fky being clear,

with fome happy omens

and,

the

lightened on the left ; and that this battle, his pofterity, ever being attended with a mofl: happy event,
after,

looked upon

this

lign as fortunate.

VI. After Romulus, therefore, had, upon that occafiion, received the fanftion of heaven, he called the people together

and, having given them an account of the aufpicious omens, he was chofen king by them, and inftituted this
;

cuftom to be obfervcd by

all

his fucceffors,

that none

of

them fhould accept the

dignity of king, or any other maeven the gods had given a fign of their apgiflracy, until, And this cuflom, relating to the aufpices, conprobation: tinued to be, long, obferved by the Romans, not only, under
"•
Ai9^i«f
i<(r»)f

fx

TMn afiff^wv «ffa4'«i
d'cjfay

by Remulus.
fays,

Afcanius addrefles his

»ov Kfavcv.

This tradition Virgil has
of Afcanius,
befieged by the Rutuli, by Turnus, and infulted
E

prayers to Jupiter, after which, ^Virgil
Juciiit,el caeli genitor de parte ferend

adapted to the coup

when he was

commanded

Intonuit laevum.
ix. ^.

Aen.

630.

their

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS H A LICA RN ASS E NSIS.
after the diflblution

251

their kings, but, alfo,

of monarchy, in

the ele<5lions
ip.agifi:ratcs
:

of their confuls, praetors, and other legal But it is difufed at this time, the appearance
:

of

For, thofe, who being preferved only for form fake are designed magiftrates, pafs the night in tents, and, riling;
it

by break of day, perform their prayers in the open
then,
'^

air

;

fome

oi

the augurs prefent,
flaili

public, declare that a

by the of lightning from the left, which
are paid

who

had not happened, fignifies the approbation of the gods ; and they, having, by this report, received the omen, depart,
in order to enter

upon
;

their magiftracies.

Some looking

upon this alone as fufficient, that no contrary, or forbiddinoomens had appeared others, even, in oppofition to the will
of heaven prohibiting their election, and, fometimes, by receive their rather than which violence, feize, dignities By
:

means,
'3"

many
Si

armies of the

Romans have

been, utterly, de-

Tccv

7ra^i\'l<iiv

Tiusf o^viSoo-jtoTTwv,

This fundion of the augurs to obferve the heavenly figns, was called,
etc.

of any defign to flatter Auguftus, fince no man ever ufed greater violence than
he,
in

extorting his
fenate.

firft

by the Romans, fervcre de cocio : The diR.fe of which is cenfured, witii great
fpirit,

from the
ol

He

confulfhip
at the

was

head

by

^

Lucan,
/ica
:

Nee co,\^m krv^r^

t=>u,t

augurefin^o,
.

an army, rai fed by his country to oppofe the ambitious defigns of Marc Antony, when he fent fome of his
fenate to
^f^'^^''^

El laetaejurantur a^va, bubone ftmjlro

The

dif.ife

of this farce was, indeed, of
:

no great confequence
lence, ufed in eleftions,

But the viowhich our au•,

than to defire the confuliliip. This im.pcrioiis manner of applying to tlie fenate, being received with the indi^na.tion it deferved, one of thefe oflfcers
'

^°,^he

demand,

rather

thor, prefently, complains of, proved as it fatal to the liberty of Rome

laid his

muft be to That of every country, where it is praftifed. By this time, I
hope, the reader will acquit our author
* B. V. >\ 395.
.

" •'^If the infolence to fay to the fenate, " You will not the give conlulHiip to " Caefar, This Ihall."
c.

hahd upon

his fword,

and had

Suetoii. life

of Auguftus,

z6.

k

Dion

Caffius, B. xlvi. p. 363.

flroyed

232

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
;

Book

II.

ftroyed at land

many

fleets

have been

loft,

with

all their

people, at fea; and other great and dreadful calamities have befallen the commonwealth ; fome in foreiorn wars,

and others
and the
Crafftis, a

in civil diflenfions

:

But the moft remarkable

greateft

man

happened, even, in my time, when Licinius inferior to no commander of his age, led his
will of heaven,

army againft the Parthians, contrary to the and in contempt of the innumerable omens,
expedition.
this time.

that oppofed his

But a great deal might be
prevails

faid

concerning the
people at

contempt of the gods, that
VII. Romulus,

among fome

was, thus, chofen king by the concurrence both of gods, and men, is allowed to have been a man of great military accompliiliments, and perfonal bravery, and, ''^extremely, capable of inftituting the moft perfedl fort
'4-

who

noAil«<xii

(^yiyy,(rot<Bcii

ly.M

k^kIi^kv

0^oviuuiixloi.

Portus,

and

the

two

French tranflators have given this fcnie to thek words. Ofgreat prudefice in the This I do not government of the Jlate. this paflage ; of the fenfe be take to though
dides
I

which, though it does not quite come up to our author's fenfe, is, vailly, nearer to it, than the other tranflations. Tlie reader will obfervc, I dare fay, with fatisfaftion, that our author calls
the government, inftituted by Romulus, the moft perfeft fort of govern-

know
the

that i^nynth-ai
firft

Tt;t

Ui-

'/.orrovmo-ov in

book of Thucy:

fii^nifies

But,

if

we

govern Pelcponnefas are to give that fenfe to the

to

ment and this we find to have been mixed government, compofed of monarchy, ariftocracy,and democracy,
;

a

word

in this place,
I

what becomes of

This
tolled

is

the confticution fo

much

ex-

have, therefore, tranfry,v xpxli^Kv? lated it according to the explication
to t^»iyy,(i-a,Suidas gives of the word o'l tav ts oS-ai, ufAUi Myeiv otyvo>icrj crsji
•,

dKuBilci,

nxi

^iSjc'iTxeiv

ct\^hi

wf^i

lit

sruK-

by 'Polybius, and other great writers of antiquity, and is, nearly, the fame with That inftituted by Lycurgus at Sparta, about a hundred years before, which lafted no lefs than feven
hundred, without any confiderable
teration.
al-

t«uov7«<.
licd

Sylburgius has faid in repaidcpimc injtituendd prudcndjfmnis ;
I

B. vi. 458.

of

Book

II.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSENSI S.
I fliall relate fucli

O 1

•^

of government.
ailions, as

of his

civil,
:

and military

be thought worthy of And fliall, hiflory firft, fpeak of the form of government he inftituted, which I look upon, of all others, to be the moft felf-fufficient, to

may

the ends both of peace, and war. This was the After he had divided all the plan of it people into three he appointed a perfon of the firft rank to be the parts, chief of each of them : Then, he fubdivided each of thefe

anfwer

all

:

three parts into ten others, and appointed as braveft men to be the leaders of thefe alfo :
diviiions

many The
;

of the
greater
as

he called

ini>es

;

and the

leiler, curiae

they

Thefe names may be, thus, are called, even, at this day. tranflated into Greek ; a Tribe, by '^ (^yxvi and and j
T^itJvc
'? $uAi5 !t«i Tjnlur. There is no a tribe. But but doubt (pv\>i fignifies a third a tribe : part of fignifies
Tfiruf
Tf<7ov /Afjof t*)? (puAij?. T^nlv; ffi So that, cur author Harpocration. muft have taken this word for the third part of the Roman people, which it, certainly, was. I find a note
Ti! /3 TO) 5r

gentleman quoted
tarch,
as

I xe'^y-ivoK. this

am

afraid

That

well

as

TO

Hudfon, upon this occafion, in which *" Graevius is quoted to prove
in

me in a former from fome French tranflatlon, and not from the Greek text, which he could not, poflibly, have miftaken. ^5«7ji«, which follows, is, beyond all doubt, the third part of a tribe, ^^ctlgix,
taken notice of by °
note,
t9t TO r^tlc) iJ.?Po; T>ij (puA.>)f.

pafTage of Pluanother, already,

Plarpocra-

that the Aeolians faid Tfiw^ruf, inftead of T^irJuf, from whence, the Romans

had
this,

their

word,
* *
*,

tribus.

To

confirm
this

M.

after

mentioning

obfervation of Graevius, quotes Plutarch to fhew that the Aeolians made
ufe of j3 inftead of tt.
I

But this muft be underftood of the Athenian tribes For it is certain that a Curia, which our author has explained by the word (p^oil^ix, was the tenth part of a Roman tribe. This
tion.
:

fubdivifion of the tribes into Curiae

have

this place

of Plutarch, now, before me, and find he fays juft the contrary, viz. that the Aeolians ufed n infteadof 3 his words
;

admits of no doubt. The firft divifion of the people into tribes is not, fo generally, allowed; becaufe ^Livy calls

are thefe,

P

"

1x0.^' i^y.iv tois AioAEUff-iv,
"SuftTTOcr.
i,

«»]<

He calls equitum : them, again, by that name in relating
them
°

centurias

"i

Rom.
B.
i.

ant. Praef.

B.

vi. p.

c.

13.

lB

694

See the 261* annot. on the

firft

book.

c.

36.

Vol.

I.

Hh

a Curiay

234-

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
curiae,
'^

Book

II.

by $uA^^%oi and the comf72a7iders of the

a C'uriay by ^^ul^iu and Aoyjx; ; the commmiclefs of the Tribes, and Tptjvxpxoii whom the Romans call Tribuni'y

by ^^xl^ic^yoi and Aoyjxyoiy

whom

they call Curiorics ;

thefe curiae were, again, divided
gives of
that
it.

the affair of Attius Navius. But, we are not to wonder that Livy contradicfts our author, when he contradifts

And

Plutarch

promoted
augurs,
Luceres.

himfelf: For, in fpeaking of the Jaw, by the tribunes concerning
the creation of four pontifs, and five
all
"

divided ail the people, who were of an age to bear arms, into legions ; and that each legion confifted of three thoufand foot, and tliree hun-

Romulus

fays, only,

dred horfe.

plebeians,

he calls them
I'itienfes,

tres antiqiiae tribus,

RamnenfeSy

As Graevius has not mentioned the place in Polybius, to which he refers, itmuft be in the ' fixth book,
fpeaking of the military Romans, he fays

where, in

conftitution of the
TTfo? envy.

There
^

is

a note in

Hudfon,

in

which

upon

Graevius is, alfo, quoted, this occafion, for faying that our

they divide the horfe into ten turmae, which he calls tAa,i ; and, after he has given an account of their method of

author aliquid hutnani pajjiis eft, and that no hiftorian but himfelf mentions this divificn of the curiae into decuriae ;

chufing their
officers

officers,

are

called

he fays dccuriones ;

thefe

from

whence,
curiae,

and that Polybius, and Varro, fay the turmae were divided into decuriae. M. * ** has tranflated liteThis
note
I will fuppofe that no other author mentions this divifion of the Is he not the only author, curiae. alfo, who menrions many other parti-

I fuppofe, Graevius concluded that the turmae were divided into de-

rally.

which, I dare lay, was fo. But Polybius fpeaks, all along, of the military inftitutions, that were in ufe in his time ; and this can have nothing to do with the original divifion of the

culars relating to the original conftitution of the Romans ^ And, are any of thefe difoelieved becaufe he alone
relates

The pafpeople made by Romulus. fage Graevius refers to" in Varro,. though he has not mentioned it, can be no other than this ; "Turma, terma
eft
:

them

Graevius

Certainly not. mentions himfelf
?

Even many

E

in

U ailit: ^icd terdeni equitcs ex

tribus tribubus
et

authings, that rely, folely, on his horn I know no author, thority. whom we could have expefled an ac-

Tatienfium^RhamnevfMin,, Lucerumf.cbant. Itaque primifingularium decurinrum decurtones dtSi: qui ab eo figulis iurmis funt etiam nunc terni.

count of

this originil

divifion of the

This paflage of Varro proves that the
tnrniae

Roman

people,
life

but Livy, and Plu-

tarch in his

As to of Romulus. in the feen we have the firft, preceding note, what a contradidory account he
'

were divided into decuriae-^ but it does not prove that the curiae were not, alfo, divided into ^m/mf:

However,
'P. 471.

it,

plainly,

fliews that the
iv. c.

B. X,

c.

6,

t

Praef. to Vol.

i.

Ant.

Rom

"^Deliiig^Lat. B.

16.

by

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS
parts,

PI

ALIC A RN ASSENSIS.
its

235

by him into ten

each having

the language of their country, he divided thus, diftributed into tribes, and curiae,

own leader, called, in The people being, Decur'w.
the

land into thirty equal portions, and gave one of them to each curia, having, firfl, fet apart as much of it, as was
fufficient, for the facrifices,

and temples, and,

alfo, referved

This v/as fome part of the land for the ufe of the public. one divifion, made by Romulus, both of the men, and the land, which eftabliflied the greateft equality among them
all.

VIII.

The

other was of the

men

only,

and diftributed the

good
o-ive

offices,

the honors, and dignities, of which
:

an account

He diftinguifhed
and celebrated

thofe,

now, who were eminent
I

fhall,

for their birth,

for their virtue,

and

whom

he knew to be rich in the account of thofe times, and had children, from the obfcure, the mean, and the poor. Thofe
of the lower rank, he called Plebeians^

whom

the

Greeks

would

call ^nfxojixoi,
;

common people

;

and thofe of the higher,
others,

Fathei's

either becaufe they

were elder than the

or

becaufe they had children, or from their high birth, or for
'^atienfes^RhamnenfeSyZndiLuceresvitrt

not centuriae equitum, as Livy calls have feen from them, but tribes.

each tribe confided of iioo men; Each of thefe tribes he, again, divided
every curiae^ thereof no men: Thefe, he fubdivided into ten ducuriae, confifting each of ii men: Now, as the number of horfe amounted to 300, take one man out of each decuriae, and you have the 300 horfemen. 33^0. 3 tribes, each 1 100 30 curiae, each iio=:3joo. 300 decuriae, each 11 3300.
into

We

ten curiae
confifted

-,

our author, and Plutarch, that the number of men, originally, confifted of 3300: Three hundred of which

fore,

were horfe.

Now,

this precife

num-

ber of three hundred horfe feems to have been derived from the divifion I fliall exof the curiae into decuriae.

Romulus plain myfelf 2300 into three tribes; confequently,
.

divided thefe

Hh2

= =

all

236
all tliefe

ROMAN
reafons
;

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

II.

having, probably, taken the example from the fyftem of government, which, at that time, prevailed at For the Athenians divided their people into two Athens.
parts,
birth,

and called

thofe,

who were

and fortunes, EvTrcKJ^i^cHy miniftration of the government was committed ; and the reft of the people, who had no fhare in it, Ay^ouoi^ Hufbandof : in men But, time, thefe, alfo, were admitted to procefs
the magiftracy. Thofe, who give the moft probable account of the Roman government, fay, that, for thefe reafons,
called Fathers, and their perfons were pofterity, Patricians : But others, confidering the thing in the liglit

diftinguifhed by their well-born ; to whom the ad-

thofe

'^

their
as if

own envy places

it,

in order to calumniate the

Romans,

were not called they were, ignobly, defcended, fay they Patricians, for the reafons I have alledged, but, becaufe thefe
their fathers ; as if all the reft were fugitives, only could name To and unable to fhew that their fathers were free men.

prove which,
proper

their kings thought they fay that, whenever to aflemble the Patricians, the cryers called them

both by their

own

names, and the names of their fathers

;

while officers, appointed for that purpofe, fummoned the Plebeians all at once to the aflemblies, by the found of oxens
horns.
cryers,

But neither
any argument

is

the calling of the Patricians, by the of their nobihty, nor the found of the
:

horn, any
'7-

mark of
C«<r(

the ignoblcnefs of the Plebeians
tfvJ(;«f

The

K\ijO)jva<

Tyy

i^mi
im* B.
i.

braced, Patres arte ah honcre, palri-

This opinion

"-"

Livy

has,

alfo,

c. 8.

former

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS H ALICA RN ASS ENSIS.

237

former being deligned for an honor, and the latter for exSince it was not poffible, in a fliort time, to call pedition.

name. ev^ry one of the plebeians by IX. After Romulus had diflinguiflied thofe of fuperior rank from their inferiors, he inftituted laws, by which the

He appointed the patricians duty of each was prefcribed. to be priefts, magii-trates, and judges, to affifh him in the
adminiftration,

-y'

of the
as

city.

and dedicate themfelves to the government The plebeians were excufed from thefe duties,

unacquainted with them, and, from their fmall fortunes, wanting^ leifure to attend them; but direded to apply themfelves to agriculture, feeding of cattle, and the exercife
of gainful
trades
;

left

they fliould

raife

feditionsj

as it

happens in other
tlieir

cities,

when

either the magiflrates abufe

their inferiors, or the
fuperiors.

He

people, and poorer fort, envy placed the plebeians as a truft in the
'^

common

hands of the patricians, by allowing every plebeian ehufe any patrician he himfelf thought fit for his patron
'8•

to

:

In
we

term
ya^

Nf/AHv in ufe

?r^a5-«7v;v.

This was the
the Athenians,
A\oi.ynci.Kjv
iiroAi7>)»

patrons,

as

well

as

the

M/Jocto;,

among

we ought

{\^x\\'i-^\x\s^to chiife
>)v

apatron.
f/.SoiY.m

£x«fw Twv

tiv*

A^r.vxiuv usju«v

OTfOfaltji/. Harpocration. In default of which, they were liable to an aflion, called, ATTfos-ao-ioi'. I am fenfible tlrat Dionyfius does not compare the Mfloam at Athens with the Roman clients, but the Q^i^ ; and, becaufe we find nothing in the Attic writers to convince us that the ®,^.^, later times, obliged to have •were,

from thence, to conelude, with fome learned men, that they Were not, originally, under that which is all that our auobligation thor fays. This I know, that, if there had been no fuch cuftom at Athens, ^ Terence would have been guilty of a
not,
-,

great incongruity in makin'>- Chaerea lay in the Eunuch, the fcene of which
is

laid at

Athens,

m

ji,,, ^,,,,y, ccnm.uda'.if , in clicntcUm
i^ohis dcditfe.,

HMmv

"

Aft. V, Scene o.

this.

238
this,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
the Theffali, and, originally,

OF

Book

II.

he improved an ancient Greek cuftom, long

in ufe

among

among

the Athenians.

For the former
poiing on

treated their clients with haughtinefs,
offices

im-

unbecoming the condition of freemen ; and, if, at any time, they difobeyed their commands, in all other refpefts, as if they beat them, and abufed them, had purchafed. The Athenians they had been flaves they •called their clients, Qy^zQ^fervaMs^ from t!^€\x fervitude : And

them

ing

the Theffali called theirs, Ilsvsraij poor meri^ plainly, reproachBut Rothis name, with their condition. them,

by

mulus recommended the thing by a handfome appellation, over the poor, and meaner fort, calling this pre-eminence a Patronage: And, by propofing good offices to each of them, he rendered their connexion full of humanity, and fuch as became fellow-citizens.
by him concerning pacontinued in ufe among the Romans, tronage, have, long, and are as follows The duty of the patrons was to explain to their clients thofe laws they were ignorant of; to take

X. The

laws,

then, inftituted

:

the fame care of them,
for

when

abfent,

as

prefent

;

doing

them, that parents do for their children, every thing with regard both to money, and the contradls, that relate to
it
;

to
El

fue for
TK
(ihciTrloHo

their clients,
zs-Efl/

'?

when
it

injured,
is

and defend

*9'

Tx

ffv^CoKixici.

which

I

am

convinced

that this fentcncc
It is a

was

inferted

by fome tranfcriber to explain
the former.

often ufed, and not laid, generally, fbcir accufers, as all the other tranOators have rendered it.

ciiix^ixivuv in

plain

And,
better

in this fenfe, to
it.

I

think,

it

anfwers pre-

tautology ; and I wonder none of the I have commentators obferved it.
confined iyKx^aciv to a legal fenfe, in

^««f

h»y;^oi\eiv,

that

cedes

them.

V

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS S ENSIS.
fued
;

239

them, when
all

and,

to

fum up many

things

in

few

words, to procure them, both in private, and in public afthat tranquillity they, chiefly, flood in need of. The duty of the clients was to aflift their patrons in providing • fortunes for their daughters, if the fathers wanted
fairs,

money

to pay their ranfom to the enemy, if any either of them, or of their children, were taken prifoners ; to bear their

pa-

and difcharge, out of their own purles, the fines, payable to the public by thofe, who were condemned, which the clients were to look upon as a benevotrons
lofl^es

in private fuits,

lence, not a loan

;

to aflifl their patronsin fupporting the charc^e

of their magiftracies, and dignities,, and all other public in the fame manner as if were their relations. expences, they
It

was impious and illegal both for patrons, and clients to accufe each other in courts of juftice, to bear witnefs, or

give their votes againft each other, ^°or to be found among, each others enemies And, whoever was convicted of any of thefe crimes, he was guilty of ^' treachery by virtue of a
:

Mi^oi Toiv fj(^9^wv E^«1«^fo9-at. I have pafied by in filence many odd tranf-

*°"

that word, in their language, fio-nifies
treachery,

not
fit

treafon,

which

they

Jay but his verfion of this fentencr is too extraordinary to be
lations ot
le
;

exprefs by lezc majefle.

Had Livy

thought

to

mention
fliould,

this fine infti-

omitted-, this it is, de rien faire qui Jift foup^onner desinlmitiez entre eux. The

tution, in his

account ot the aftions of
certainly, ha\'e

Romuhis, we

other French tranfiator has faid very well, fe ranger dti parti des ennemis : I wilh he hadfupported his tranflation in any other manner than by tranflating, literally, the note in Hudfon

known w hether ^?W/V/c, which is the word made ufe of by the Latin tranflators, was the name given by the Romans to this crime. So far is certain, that ^r(7^&o was the name they
gave to a private correfpondence with' an enemy. This crime the citizens of Nolahad been guilty of ; for which
realbn,Marcelluscaufed

without any acknowledgment.
^"*-

U^oiotia(.

Both

the
this,
j

French
^rahibecaufe

tranOators
Jon,
I

have rendered

think, very properly

many of them

240

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
inftituted

OF

Book

II,

law

by Romulus, and might be, lawfully, put to death by any man, as a vidim devoted to the infernal JuFor it was the cuftom among the Romans, to devote piter: thofe they had a mind fhould be put to death witli
perfons fome divinity, and, particularly, to the infernal impunity to Which Romulus put in pra6tice upon thofe occafions. :
this

gods

means, the connexion between the patrons, and their clients continued for many generations, differing in nothing from the ties of blood, and defcended to their childrens

By

\

children

:

illuftrious

was a matter of great praife to men of families to have numerous clients, and, not only

And

it

'

;

to preferve the fucceilion of hereditary patronages, but alfo, It their own virtue, to add the acquifition of others.

i

by
is

',

incredible

patrons,

there was between the great a conteft and clients, each ftriving to furpafs the other in

how

\

benevolence, and not to be outdone in good offices; the clients being, ever, ready to render all poffible fervice to
their patrons ; and the patrons avoiding, by all means, to their clients any trouble ; and admitting of no pecuni-

!

;

i

,

give

ary prefents.
pleafure
;

So

much was
-

their behaviour fuperior to all

I

and

virtue,

not fortune, was the meafure of their

:

'

happinefs.
to be put to death ; ^ fupra feptuaginla damnatos Proditionis fecuri percuffit.
*

Virgil

has, alfo,

ranked the delin-

Servius fays, ex tabularum diiodecim venit ; in qtiibus lege Patronus, eft, fi cUentifraudem fcripttim

Upon

this occafion,

'

j

j

quents, mentioned byDioHyfuis,among the greateft criminals ;
.
.

feccrit, facer cfto.

But

it is

well

known,

that

,.

..

etfraus tnnexa
TB.

things

cltentt.

decemvirs enafted many confirmatory of old laws, as ^^j °^^ introduftory of new ones.
the
Acn. B.

'

j

j

xxiil. c. 17.

»

vi. j>.

609.

XI.

It

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
It

24.

was, not only, in the city itfelf that the plebeians were under the patronage of the patricians, but every Ro-

XI.

colony, and every city in alliance, and frienddiip with " them, and, alfo, every conquered town chofe fuch protectors, and patrons among the Romans as they thought fit.
the fenate has, often, referred matters in difpute, in thefe cities, and provinces, to their patrons, and confirmed
their determination.

man

And

And, indeed,
its

fo

firmly was this har-

mony, which owed
lus, eftabliflied

birth to thefe inftitutions of

Romu-

among
cities,

the

Romans,

that,

though,

as it often

happens, in
political

both great and fmall, many great contefts have arilen between the people, and their
all
^^

magiftrates,

they never,
years,

within the courfe of fix hundred

and twenty

proceeded to blood (hed, and mutLial
bunefhip of Caius Gracchus. mull, therefore, read e^Ko^ri, inftead of and Tiberius, inftead of r^tocKonloi, Caius Gracchus. M. * * * feems to

We

In proportion as the Romans extended their conquefts, thele clien'ixxsy,.

telae

became more

extenlive.

Thus,

the Bonomenfes'wert clients of the AntoJiii ; the Lacedaemonians of the Clauof the Marcelli ; the dii ;

and the Puteolani
^3Ev7i>f

Syracufians o^Caffais,
i^aKO'Ttm
xoct

and Brutus.
eiKociv
iraiv.

triumph in having difcovered that this cuftom of the Romans, in making an amicable end of their contefls, did not laft above 620 years. I wifh he would let us know what nation, what govern-

Our author, moft certainly, knew that Tiberius Gracchus was tribune of the flain during his tribunepeople, and in the the in year of Rome 621 fliip Minucius P. of Scaevola, confulfhip and L. Calpurnius Pifo ; and that his brother, Caius Gracchus, was killed So that, he could ten years after neither fay that no civil blood was
:

ment ever

fubfifted half that

time,

without being ingaged in civil wars, and mutual flaughter. This is not the
place to enter into the merits of the

Agrarian law:
till

I

(hall referve

That

we come

to the affair of Spurius

who, firft, propofed it; or, rather, firft attempted to reflore the obfervance of a law, as old as their conCaffius,
ftitution,

drawn
till

in

any political conteft

at

Rome,

but, long fince, filenced

by

the year 63a-, nor date the beginning of thefe barbarities from the tria Suet, in Aug.
c.
1

power.
c.

7

id. in

Tib.

c. 6.

Liv. B. xxv.

29.

Cic. Phil.

ii.

c.

41.
;

Vol.

I.

I

i

fiaughter

242
naiighter
;

ROMAN ANT

I

QJj

I

TIES OF

Book

II.

but, by perfuading, and informing one another ; by lubmitiing in fome things, and receiving a vokintary fubmiflion in others, to their difputes in they put an end

fuch a manner, as became fellow citizens. But, from the time that Tiberius Gracchus, while tribune of the people, difiblved the harmony of the government, they have been,

one another, and perpetually, deftroying, and banifhing the fuperiority. But the refraining from no excefs to gain
relation of thefe events
fliall

be referved to a more proper

place.

regulated thefe things, he determined to form a fenate in order to aflifl: him in the
as

XII.

As foon

Romulus had

With this view, he government. chofe a hundred perfons out of the patricians, according to the following defignation: He himfelf chofe one out of
adminiftration of the

he judged to be the moft worthy of that diftinclion, and whom he thought fit ^* to intruft with the government of the city, whenever -he himfelf
their

whole body,

whom

fhould be obliged to lead the army out of the Roman territories He, then, ordered each of the tribes to chufc
:

three perfons,

who were

of an age the beft qualified for

their birth. After prudence, and, alfo, diftinguillicd by thefe nine were chofen, he ordered each curia, likewilc, to
"4-

T«f

xalof crcAiv

cncvcf^iM.
''

This

Praefctlus Kr^/j by Tullus Hoftilius
:

;

magiftrate was

called, by the

Romans,

Tacitus fays Praefetlus urbis ; and that Denter Romulius was the pcrlbn
invefled with this dignity by

and Spurius Lucretius by Tarquiniiis Maecenas, every body Supi rbus knows, injoyed this poll under Auguftus.

Romulus:

That

Numa

Marcius was appointed
*>

Ann. B.

vi. c.

1

1,

chufe

BooklL

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,

,243
:

chufe three patricians, the moft deferving of that truft Then, adding to the firfl nine, who had been eledled by the tribes, the ninety, who were, then, chofen by the curiae,

and appointing the perfon,
"5

lie

himfelf had,

firft,

chofen,

to be their

prefident,

hundred

fenators.

The

he completed the number of a name of this council may be exci

preiled, in
-5-

Greek, by

Te^scncCj

Se7iate^
that

and

is

called fo

by
the

Hj.e,u.av«.
;

This perfon was prince
this
firfl

deed,

Romulus appointed

of the lenate and, purfuanc to inftitution of Romukis, was the
fenator
-,

fame perfon

whom
fenator,

to be prince of the fenate, he had, before, named for a

his

name being

firft

called

and

to

whom

he propofed to
:

over by the cenfors aiter their creation. find he was, upon this occafion, chofen by Romulus himfelf j "after-

We

wards, the two cenfors drew
this choice,
fell,

lots

for
it

and he,
if

to

whofe

lot

commit the government of the city, when he himfelf fhould be in the field But I deny that, when he chofe him a fenator, he made him prince of the lenate For we find that, before this
:

generally, chofe the oldeft cen-,

forian

might name any other fenator. He was, never, removed from this dignity, unlefs he was expelled the fenate. ''He
delivered his opinion the firft of all the confular fenators : For, I believe, the prince of the fenate was, always, a conkilar fenator-, and, by the firft

though,

he thought

fit,

he

appointment, he chofe this perfon fenator, and ordered the three tribes to chufe nine fenators, and the thirty
Then, iTtaltx,, having ninety added the ninety, chofen by the curiae, to the nine, chofen by the tribes, and appointed the fenator he himfelf had chofen to be prince of the fenate, he completed the number of three hun:

curiae

of Livy, referred to in this paffage note, it appears that Q^Fabius Maxinnus was, adiually, conful, when he was chofen prince of the fenate. I
obferve that Cicero, generally, calls the prince of the ^^xizxe princeps fenatus; and Livy, princepsin fenatu. By a note

dred.

By

this,

it

appears,

I

think,

very plainly, that this appointment was fubfequent to all thefe eleftions : And, to fuppofe our author meant the fame thing when he faid toi/ a^/fci/ as when he faid i^yif^ovoi «TeJ'Li|fv, to fuppofe him guilty of a is z!Toiy,<Tcc?,
; and, what is worfe, to the appointment of the prince of the fenate both to precede, and follow the eleftion of the reft of the

of Dr. Chapman,
efTay

in his

very learned
I find,

repetition

on

the

Roman

fenate,

that

make

hc'interprets
tiTriin^i in

withZamofcius, tov <xf/rou our author, he appointed one
of the fenate:
c

io be prince

I

grant, in-

fenators.
•^

Liv. B. xxvii.

CM.
I
1

Varro in Gell. B. »iv.

c. 7.

2

the

244
the
ao-e

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
Romans
to this day
:

Book

II.

of the perfons, who virtue, it obtained this appellation,

But, whether from the advanced were admitted into it, or from their
'

I

cannot, certainly, fay

For the ancients ufed to
merit, Vs^oyjs?, Old-7ne?i

call
:

perfons of great age,

and great
the fenate,

Thofe,
;

who compofed

were

called

^^

Coiifcjipt-fathers

tain that
is

name.

This,

alfo,

and, to this day, they rewas a Greek cuftom For it
:

certain that kings, as well fjch, as inherited the kingdoms of their anceftors, as thofe eleded by the people,

had a council compofed of the moft virtuous men, as '^ Homer, and the moft ancient of the poets teftify ; nein«7EfSf ify^ct.<:ioi. Patres confcripti. And, thus, the fenate was, certainly, called in his time, as appears by the
"^^^

fenators

•,

and

^

Salluft,

on the fame

occafion,

makes

DeleHi, quihus
confuhabant.
'7'

a noble obfervation ; corpus amiis iiifirmum,
reiptiblicc.e

Livy fays teftimony of all authors. they were called fo, originally, upon
tliis

ingenium fapisntid validum,
Ko!*
0) zu'etXctio'ctlot

I'arquinius Superbus had, under various pretences, put many After his of the fenators to death.
:

occafion

tuv

^oii-Jut

fji.xfv^iiij-1.

This

i5,

alfo,

confirmed by

expulfion,

recommended
the moft

rather, to the people to chufe, confiderable of the knights
•,

Brutus chofe, or,

the hirtorians. 6 Thucydides fays, that the ancient governments in Greece

were hereditary, limited, monarchies
SoxaiAeicei
;

;

to fupply their places from whence, ' were called Tradithey Confcripti :
tiimque inde fertur^ ut in fenatum vocarentur, quiPatres, quiqueCoifcripti ejj'ent: Confcriptos videlicet in novum Jenatum

and fuch was the govern-

ment inftituted by Romulus, not unlike That of Sparta, which lafted feven
hundred
faid
:

Feftus fays pretty appllabant leBos. much the fame thing ; and adds, that the number of thefe new fenators amounted to 164. But he miftakes in faying that P. Valerius did this,

been, already, caufe of which duration, * Ariftotle afcribes to the limitations of the kingly government Upon

years, as has

The

:

which occafion, he

fays,

that l^heo-

when Livy,
ftrefs

e.xpiefly, fays it was Brutus, his collegue. Dionylius lays great

pompus, a prince of great moderation, which he (hewed by inftituting the afl<ed by his wife, wheephori, being
ther he was not afliamed to leave the kingdom more limited to his fons,
B.
i.

upon

the advanced age of
Bell. Cat.
c. 6.

the
e

•B.ii.c.

c.

^ >3-

Xlffi sTo^lT.

B. V,

c.

1

1.

thcr

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALI C ARN A SSEN SI S.
power of the ancient kings
arbitrary,

245

ther was the

and with-

out controle, as it is at this day. XIIT. After Romulus had inftituted the fenate, confining of a hundred elders, he concluded, very reafonably,

body of young men, both for the guard of his perfon, and for fudden fervices, and formed a corps of three hundred men, the moft robuft,

that he fhould, alfo, ftand in need of a

and of the moft
in the

iliuftrious families,

whom

the curiae chofe

fame manner they had chofen the fenators, each curia had always about his perfon They elediing ten j and thefe he
:

were

all

called

by one common name,
is

-^

Celeres,

according to

than he had received it from his father, anfwered, that he was not at all afhamed of it, becaufc he fhould leave
it

eafier ftate,

attended with a difficulty, that I can than explain. Livy, as I have faid in a former note, calls the

much more

lafting-,
J

u-t^xiiSuuiya^

voKyx^tuu^t^oiM
his predidlion.
^8-

and the event j uftified
'

Ramnenfes, Titienfes, and Luceres, centuries of horfe, in two places, and tribes in anoth^ Thefe cenuries, ''he
:

KsAf^tf.

Plutarch gives
in the
-,

the

fays,

Romulus

created, juft after the

fame reafon, and, almoft,
words,
iri^t

fame
tc?

for

this appellation
o^vltilcf
;

u-rro

peace with the Sabines ; and, afterwards, he fays of Romulus, that he
inftituted thefe

TOi{

vTia^yiai

which he,

300

celeres

'

;

irecen-

from our author among vifibly, took many other things. Feftus thinks this

tofqiie armatos ad cuftcdiam corporis^ qiios Celeres appellavit, non in bello folum,

body of horfe received their name from Celer, who killed Remus, and was their The commander firft commander. of thefe celeres was called Tribunus This poft was injoyed by Cekrum when Brutus, Tarquinius was expella right to aflemble him and ed, gave
:

Are thefe fed eihvm in pace habidt. 300 celeres the fame with the three centuries of horfe he firft mentioned ?
Certainly net.

The

firft,

therefore,

were

tribes,
""

and

fo they are called

by

the people

;

as

we

fhall fee,

when we
All

oger Romaniis primum diviftis in partes tres, a quo tribus appellator, Tatienfium, Ramnenfium, Lucerum.
;

Varro

come

to that part of the hiltory.

t\\tk circumftances, I think, defervcd the attention of the commentators ; particularly,
'Life of

This will, fufficiently, (hew the error, which almoft all the men of learnhave fallen in ing treating this fubjeift:
into

the following one,

which
13.

They

derive the equeftrian order from
"'

Romulus,

B.

i.

c.

'lb. C.I 5,

De

Ling.

L.it.

B.

iv. c. g.

moft

.24.6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
writers,

OF
:

Book

II,

moft

from the

Celerity

of their fervice

For

thofc,

who

are ready,

and quick

in

performing any thing, the
confifted both of patricians, and pleThe only ditference, that aphere between the horfe, and the pears
beians.

As of thefe tribes. the in little do I think tholi; right, tvho derive this order from the celeres, who were foot, as well as horfe ; fince our author fays that, according to the ground, they fought cither on horfeback, or on foot For I think it plain that, though Romulus made ufe of horfe in his armies, the inilitution of
the inftitution
:

foot of the
p

firft clafs,

is,

that the forbirth.

mer were of

illuftrious

And

Livy, fpeaking of the fame thing, fays they were ex prbnoribus civitatis:

fays, alfo, that they were called to give their votes, before the eighty

He

the equeftrian order, as diltinguifhed from the ienate, and people, was owing to Scrvius TuUius, who, as our

centuries of foot;

'^

Equiics enimvoca-

bantur primi

-,

oBoginta hide primae

author will inform us at large, divided the whole body of the people into fix clafles-, into the firft of which he threw all, whole fortunes amounted to no lefs than a hundred minae, about 322/. i8j. 4^. fterling; of thefe he

"

This being fo, when clajfis centuriae. fhall we fay the equeftrian cenfus was inftituted, I mean fuch a cenfus, as to
intitle the pofieflbr

of

it

to be, ipfo

fa£fo, a knight

find, any where, fus is in Livy,

formed eighty centuries of

foot.

He,

mention I of the equeftrian cenwhere, after he has account of the check, which an given
?

The

firft

then, chofe eighteen centuries of horfe, •and added them to the eighty centuries

the

Roman army

received before Veii,
^

and of the confternation the news of
it

of

foot

%

fo that, the firft clafs confift-

occafioned at
qidbus

Rome, he
cenfus

fays,

quum
eraf,

ed of eighty centuries of foot, and of even eighteen centuries of horfe. But,
here,

repente,

equejler

the

equeftrian

cenfus

is

not,

equi publici non erant ajftgnati^ conftlio prius inter fefe habito^ fenatum adetmt ;

from That of faSldque dicendi potefiate \ equis fe fuis plainly, diftinguiflied This the foot ftipendia fafturos fromittunt. For, in fpeakingof the forwas the in year of Rome 351, when mer, he fays they confifted of thofe,
:

who had
than

the greateft property, not lefs a hundred mitiae, >iV to jusj^ifisv

eight confular tribunes were created, as Livy fays, though the fafti confnlares

he and!, when he fpeaks of the horfe, the greateft fortunes, fays, they had and were of illuftrious families, ° ex tmu
j^ouJmw to ywsj-ifou
£7ntp«v&)v.
Ti[Xi;i^x,
neci x.»lct

mention but fix for that year. Now, rt muft be remembered, that the had been created forty cenforfliip years before, in the confulfliip of T.
Qiiinftius

yivoi

Capiolinus, for the
'

fifth

Here, therefore,

we do not

cenfus was equeftrian the of That •different from foot, who
find that the

compofed the eighty
."

centuries,
18.

which
i.

time, and of M. Geganius Macerinus, for the fecond time. And Livy tells us, in the fime place, that, in procefs of time, the fenate, and the
flid. ib.
'

B. iv.

c.

16.

"lb.

c.

rE.

c.

43.

B. V. c. 7.

t

Id. B.iv. c. 8.

Romans

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
Celeres
:
:

247

But Valerius Antias fays they had this their commander For the moft confiderable man, alfo among them, was their captain, who had three centurions under him, and thefe, again, had others under Thefe celeres, conthem, who had inferior commands.
'''

Romans call name from

ftantly,

attended

Romulus
fubjefl:

in the

city,

armed with

pikes

centuries of knights the jurildidion of
fenatsh,

became
this

to

tern vsnit

equejler ordo;

annulorumque

magiftracy,
decoris,

aucloritati

forma

conjiitiita eft

Hac

de-

equitmnque

centuriae,

dedecorifqiic

rnagiftratus.

difcrimen fub ditione ejus From all thefe circum-

caufi confiitutum ne cui jus id ef'et, nifi cni ingeniw iffi, patri, avoque inaterno
feller tiumcccc cenfus fuifjet, et lege

ftanccs,

I

think

Julia

cenfors, when turies of horfe at every luftruin, had power to grant a public horfe to every

probable, that the th.-y reviewed the cenit

theatrali in xiv ordinibus fedendi.
this

But

law of Tiberius can only be underlfood to make it neceffary that the father, and grandfather (hould have
as well as the perion who claimed the benefit of it : For, by the paffage, already quoted

perfon poilcfled of the qualifications inftitiitedby Tullius, that is, the cenfus, before mentioned, and who weie

thofe qualifications,

of

iiluftrious

birth.

Thefe were the

from Livy,

it

is

plain

there

was a
beto the

cnly cavalry the Romans, anciently, made ufeof. Afterwards, indeed, their
horfe was raifed not,
only,
•,

cenfus eqiieflris eftabliilaed, fore the liege of Veii :

even,
as

And,

in Italy,

and the divithe provinces fions of ic were, then, called Alae, not
but
in

Tiirmae; which
liar

laft

to

the

divifions

term was pecuof the Roman
inIt

gold ruig. It appears by another paffage of L.ivy, that it was worne by the knights at the time of, and probably
before, the

fccond Punic war.

We

horfe.

ftances
is

Oi th;s diftinction many may be found in Caefar.
began

find, by him, that battle of Cannae,

Annibal,
fent
his

after the

brother

Mago

to Carthage,

not certain,

kn'ghts

when the therefore, to be diftinguiflied

f/om the plebeians by the poflSffion of four hundred thoufand feflcrtium, or 3229 /. 3 J. 4 (^. fterling, and by
the gulden ring.
I

know

it is

thought

that both thefe were inftituted by Tiberius in the ninth year of his reign :

of his vidory ; vince the Carthaginian fenate of the number of Romans flain in that battle, produced three bufhJs of go.d rinos ; and told them that th' f. were worre only by the knights, neminem, niji equitem^ atque eorum ipformn primores, id
gerers
injigne
".

to carry the newswho, in order to con-

of fupport v^hith, the authoiity ' is who Tiberii fays, Pliny ailcdged, d^mum pri/icipaiih anno nono in unita'

To

-9' Au7a) tjKoAKSxv.

iaine,

fa\s

M.

Suivoient leur capi* * *.

when

it

is

paft

all

difpute, that this

muft be un-

B. xxxiii.

c. 2.

u B. xxiii. c. 12.

aod

248

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
his

Bookll.

and executed

orders

:

and,

in

a day of battle, they
his perfon.

charged before him, and defended
nerally,

Thefe, ge-

had the advantage
:

in every a6lion, ingaging fird,

and

retreating laft

They fought on

horfe-back, where the

ground was proper for it ; and on foot, where it was rough, and inconvenient for the horfe. This cuftom Romulus feems
to have borrowed from the Lacedaemonians

ed

that,

among them

alfo,

being informthree hundred of the braveft
;

youth attended the kings, as their guards, and defenders in war, and fought both on horfe-back, and on foot. XIV. Having made thefe regulations, he diftinguifbed
the honors, and prerogatives, which he thought proper The particular functhat each of the orders fliould injoy. tions of the king were thefe : In the firft place, the fupre-

macy in religious ceremonies, and facrifices, and mance of every thing relating to divine worfhip
the guardianfhip of the laws, and cuftoms and the admin'iltranon of juftice, in all
o'f

the perfor-

fecondly, the country,

:

cafes,
:

whether

founded on the law of nature, or the civil law He was, alfo, to take cognizance, in perfon, of the greatefl crimes,
leaving the lefler to the fenate
derftood of Romulus, not of their captain, as le Jay has tranflated it. Again,
;

and to obferve that no
countryman, by applying
this

erword

his

to the defence of

Romulus

;

bur, then,

Vfhen the former comes to ztru^ocinTi'^at, he lays avec leurs boucUers ils mettoient hs autres foldats a convert ; whereas
the fcnfe
•vert
\

he has

left

out

rm

xJAtuojufroiy uV>i^i7ai,

and

sr'^oua;^o(.

The example

our au-

is, ils
it

mettoient

Romulus a

coii-

thor, prefently, the guards of the

can be fuppofed that three hundred men can cover a whole army with their bucklers And, here alio, Ic Jay has the advantage over
unlcfs
:

leaves
ceieres

makes ufe of, I mean, Lacedaemonian kings, no room to doubt th:it thefe were the guards ot Romulus,

.

and not of their fellow- foldiers.

rors

Bookir.
rors

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
in their

249

were committed

judgements
;

:

He

was toaflemhis

opinion the of Theie and purfue the refolutions firft, majority. fundlions he afligned to the king, and, with thefe, the abfohite

ble both the fenate,

and the people

to

dcHver

command

in vvar.

The

honor, and power he at;

tributed to the fenate were thefe
their votes

to deHberate,

and give

them
jority.

;

concerning every thing the king propofed to to be determined by the maand all
queftions

This, alfo,

Romulus took from
:

the conftitution

For neither were their kings whole power of the government was arbitrary, but the To the people he granted thefe three vefted in the fenate.
of the Lacedaemonians

privileges

;

to chufe magiftrates

;

to ena6l laws

;

and to de:

But, propofed by the king even, in thefe points, their power was not without conconcurrence of the fenate being neceflary to troll, the

termine concerning war,

when

The people did not their determinations. give a fandion to but were called in their curiae; give their votes promifcuoufly,
3°-

OvSiyoi^

ActKiSaiixonm /3«(rA«f,

etc.

Theconilitution of the Lacedae-

monians has been, defervedly, praifed by the great authors of antiquity, parti:ularly, by "Polybius, and Xenophon;
Vv'hich

kings of renewing their oaths to the Ephori, as the reprefen rati v^^s of the' The oath of the king was to people. govern according to law and That
-,

fhews that, notwithftanding the rants of the Roman writers, liberty

of the Ephori to preferve his power unfliaken, as long as he preferved his
oath inviolate: ''Oiic^y.o;
[^acriAH, nolo. r><i
(iufftXivaetM'
t>j
'...'

f^i

rui

fjnv

enjoyed in its under a kingly government, properly, liI wifh I might limited fay that LacedaeThe not. could centloufnefs

may

be

utmcfl: extent

-sroKica; Aciy.i\a; vofA-y;

Je

^.k^,

sjun-eJofx.av/of

-,

ckcivy, cijv:^iKiKlov tuv

The

(ixci^nav nraff^fiv. intention of thefe oaths v/as,

only,

monians,

it

feems, had a cuftom of

to explain

what muft,
all

necefllirily,

be

renev/ing their oaths of allegiance to their kings every month, and their
"^

underftood in

limited monarchies.

B.

vi.

= p.

459.

Xenophon

n.-fi

^^6^.1.

Vol.

I.

Kk

AaxeJ. p, 690. Edit. Leunclav.

and,

250

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
:

OF

Book

II.

and, whatever was refolved upon by the majority of the But this cuftoni is, curiae, was carried up to the fenate

now, inverted

:

For the fenate does not deHberate upon the
but the people have
is

refolutions of the people,

full

power
exdiftri-

over Thofe of the fenate.

I fliall leave it to others to

amine which of thefe cuftoms
bution,

the beft.

By

this

not only the

civil affairs

were adminiftred with

prudence, and regularity, but, alfo, Thofe relating to war were carried on with difpatch, and obedience For, when^
:

ever the king thought proper to lead out his army, there was, then, no neceflity for the tribunes to be chofen for the
tribes, or the centurions, for

the ^'centuries, or the

command-

ers

neceffary to take an account of their numbers, to divide them into centuries, or

of the horfe

;

neither

was

it

But the king gave his orders to the tribunes, they to the centurions, and thefe to the decurions, each of u'hom drew out thofe, who were under
for every

man

to take his poft

:

their
it

command
called,

were

And, whether the whole army, or part of they, at one command, prefented themfelvcs
:

ready with their arms at the place appointed.
fufficiently, reguthe both for peace, and lated, and, properly, difpofed city war He rendered it confidcrable, and populous by thefe :
:

XV. By

thefe inflitutions,

Romulus,

he obliged the inhabitants to bring up all their male children, and the firft born of the female ; and
In the
iirft

place,

forbid
3'-

them

to deftroy
I
'^^'"S

any under three years of age, unlefs
render
it

Kal^

>'0Z'^^-

wondering

par

curies,

when
ptr

I

caft

my

how

the French tranflators

came

to

eye upon

the tranflation of Sylburgius,
laid
curias.

miftake the fenfe of this word, and to

and found he had

they

Bookll.
tliey

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSENSIS.
their birth
:

251

were lame, or monftrous from

Thefe he

allowed their parents to expofe, provided they, iirft, ftiewcd them to five of their neighbours, and thefe, alfo, approved of it And, belides other penalties, he punifhed thofe, who
:

difobeyed this law, with the confifcation of half their fortunes. After this, finding that many cities in Italy were very ill

governed, both by tyrannies, and oligarchies,he propofed to give entertainment to, and attradt, the fugitives of thefe

without diftinguifliing very numerous, either their calamities, or their fortunes, provided, only,
cities,
^^

who were

they were freemen
creafing the

:

This he did with a view both of in-

power of the Romans, and of lellening That of their neighbours ; though he covered his defign with a fpecious pretence, afcribing it to the honor of the gods For the place between the capitol and the citadel (which,
:

in the

language, is, now, called hiter duos lucos ", l^he fpace between the two groves ; and was, then, called fo j&om its fituation, the valley being fhaded by thick woods

Roman

on both

fides,
it

where
^^

and made
3^"

an

the hills) joins to afylum for all fupplicants ;
it
>i% Tux;«f-

he confecrated,
and,
="

building
CafTius,

Ai«iz^;vav ill (Tvuipo^ctc,
is

in his time, in

is

given by

Dion

There

great reafon to gather from

thefe words, that, if

feme of

thefe fu-

gitives fled from perfecution, others fled from jufl:ice.
33' This will McSo^iov Juciv Jfuuttiv. be befh explained by the words ofLivy, upon the fame occafion, Locum., qui nunc feptiis defcendentibus inter duos

afylum of Romukis was only nominal, fince ic was inclofed in fuch a manner as not to be entered ; ktw ya^ Turt^ncfi^u^Gyi,
find that this
ta^i
/jiijiivoi
ill

whom we

roTra^otTTxv iiTiA^eiv (s ou'lt

tTuiijSjjvai.

3+-

Ao-uAov.
in all

This

inftitution,

alfo,

lucos

ejt,

V/hy

y

The reafon afylum aperit. was feptus, that place Livy fays
jB.
i.

probability, took from the Athenians, in whofe city, the defcendants of Hercules inftituted the

Romulus,

c. 8.

^B.

xlvii. p.

K

385.

k

2

a temple

252

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

II.

a temple there (but to what god, or genius he dedicated it, I cannot certainly fay) under the color of religion he in-

gaged to proted: thofc,
and,
to
if

who

fled to

it,

from

their

enemies

;

them

they chofe to remain with him, he communicated the rights of Roman citizens, and promifed them

a fhare of the lands he fhould take from the enemy. This encouragement drew thither, from all parts, a confluence

of people, who fled from their private calamities Neither had they, afterwards, any thoughts of removing to any
:

other place,
affability,

being detained there by daily inftances of his
favor.

and

XVI.
third,

Befldes thefe infliitutions,
all

Romulus introduced a
others,

which the Greeks, of
it

ought to have

pradifed,
tions,
as it

being, in my opinion, the befl: of all inftituhas laid the moft folid foundation for the
liberty

of the Romans, and not a little contributed to raife them It was this: Not to to the empire they have acquired. put
to death, or

make
or
^'

flaves of, the

men

taken in the con:

quered

cities,

lay

wafte their

territories

But to fend

inhabitants thither to poflTefs
firft

fome part of the country by
moremque afylorum, quae ufquam eraut. However, that may be, the church of

afyliim,

which was a temple de-

dicated to Mercy.

The abufes of thefe which were very common in the afyla, Greek cities, were much complained
in the fcnate,
;

Rome
are,

has retained this
its

Pagan

inititvi-

tion with all

abufes, which,

now,

of

in the reign
^

of Ti-

and, for

many
thofe,

ages, liave been,

Tacitus fays, remodta them, praefcribebatur : formed
berius

who,

as

carried to a greater height than they,
ever, were

by

from w-hom they
^'^o

Forwhich
I believe''

reafon,

among many
is

others,

derived
35-

it.

Suetonius

miftakcn,

when
''

Ur^hoQiio^

Z'^t'^^

nro^fwiwy

he fays that Tiberius abo'evit
»

et Jus,

t^e^ij^uwSfia-^.

Suidas.
c,

Annal. B.

iii. c.

63.

Life of Tiberius,

37.

lot,

Book
lot,

II.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC A RN AS S E N b
to

I S.

253
;

and

make

thefe

conquered
to
thefe,
(as

cities

Roman

colonies

and, even, to

communicate

of Roman

citizens.
this

By

fome of them the privileo-es and the Hke inftitutions, he
:

the event fhewed) which, in its For, the number of thofe, infancy, was very inconfiderable who, with him, were the firft founders of Rome, did not

aggrandized

colony

amount

to

more than three thoufand
:

hundred horfe

Whereas, he left difappeared, forty fix thoufand foot, and near a thoufand horfe. Romulus having been the author of thefe inftitutions,
the kings of Rome, who fucceeded him, and, after them,, the annual magiftrates, purfued the fame meafures, with

nor quite to three behind him, when he
foot,

fuch additions, as rendered the
inferior in

number
^'

people, not at ail, to thofe nations, that are accounted the.

Roman

moft populous.

XVII.
with
36'

When

thefe, I

compare the cuftoms of the Greeks can find no reafon to extol either Thofe of the
I
pared to That, muft appear mean, illiberal, and weak; hut the expulfion of

Tx h
etc.

tiila^uiv,

reafon, when tions of the Greeks with

Ekxkvum eO)} ar«^« t«v7» Our author has great he compares the inftitu-

Thofe of the

Romans,
latter.

The Romans knew

to give the preference to the that nei-

ther power, nor riches could be acquired, or preferved, but by numbers

from Sparta, was deteftable. Thefe principles of government muft difpeople every country, and, by difpeopling ir, make its fate depend upon the event of every battle. The obfervation our author makes upon the
foreigners

of people; and, for that reafon, communicated the rights of their city to all men, even to thofe, who had been
their enemies.

noble, fo

There is fomething humane, as well as politic

fo in

weaknefs of the Lacedaemonians, after their defeat at LeuiTbra, was made, before, by "^Ariftotle, who, though he does not mention that battle, can mean
; fxiotv ya,^ zaKnyyii -iy^ vTmvfyKiv » stoAk, «aa' aTruMloSixTnv oAifavd^uTnav.

no other
Their

this proceeding,

and

that the refervednefs, Greek cities, with of the jealoiify

city

could not fiipport itfelf u7uUr
dp.flroyed

regard to their privileges,

when com'

aftngk ftroke^ but was
AxK.

through

rifgl ^iToX.

Lace-

254

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
nobility, and,

OF

Bookll.

Lacedaemonians, or of the Thebans, or, even, of the Atlienians, who value themfelves the moft for their wifdom ; all

who, jealous of their
or to very

communicating to none,
cities

kwj

the privileges of their

(for I fay

no-

expel foreigners) were fo far from refrom this haughtinefs, that they beceiving any advantage

thing of thofe,

who

came

Spartans, after their defeat at Leudra, where they loft feventeen hundred men, were not unable, afterwards, to recover themfelves
it.

the greatefl: fufferers by

The

only

from

that calamity, but,

fhamefully, abandoned the
E7r7«>toinwv

com-

The battle of /he tvafit of people. was I.,eufl:ra, a village in Boeotia, fought in the archonfliip of Phrafii:lides at

Ti^yy.xolx;

IlEPI

TETPAKO-

''Athens, that
102''

is,

in the

fecond

Dionyfius, infl:ead of diminifhing the numbers of the has increafed them ; which flain,
that,

2IOTS.

So

year of the

Olympiad.

The

Thebans were commanded by the man of his age, Epaminongreatefl: and the Lacedaemonians by das Cleombrotirs, who was flain in the aflion, or died, prefently after, of his wounds. Hudl'on fays in a note upon
-,

modern authors how cautious they ought to be in cenfuring the great writers of antiquity. The
fliould convince

fame French
kin- ville :'

tranflator

has rendered
Jii

tt]v TToAiv tftvijiA«€«i',

y^ rekver.,

rebdtir

this

* * * has occafion (which M. tranflated) that our author has diminifhed the number of the Lacedae-

fhould have contented himfelf with the firft, which is the fenfe of the Greek words For,
:

He

by

monians, who were flain in that battle ; and adds that they amounted to four thoufand men-, for which, he quotes Xenophon. I have the paflage of Xe-

me, and, by that, nophon, now, before ' Lacedaemonians It appears that the a thoufand loft ne:ir men, and the
four hundred. Spartans about

adding the other, he has let his readers fee that he imagined the city of Sparta was demolifhed by the Thebans after the battle of Leuiflra; which is fo far from being true, that, when the Thebans, and their allies made an irruption into Laconia fometime after that battle, and approached
tire,

Xeno\i-

Sparta, Agelilaus obliged them to reand preferved the city, though it
;

nophon's words are thefe
ua^VQi, opuvlfi
Jxi/xoviwv
//CSV

-,

oi"

J's

was without walls
sroA/i', xjsi

i^uq Sn^vKxli
as
'

t»j»

Tav

trvfj^TravJciiv

Aam-

Tcivlx cilei^i^ov acccv,

Xc-

ii6iicol«;

Errrz xiaiotz,
p.

nophon
5
I.f^.riv,

fays.

"*

f

Diod. Skill. B. XV. In Agcfil. p. OC2.

484. Edit. Steph.

B.

vi.

p. 597, Edit.

Leundav.

mand

BookJI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SS ENSI S.
The Thebans, and
Athenians,

255 " by a

mand of Greece.

were deprived, not of only, the government of Greece by the Macedonians, but, alfo, of the Hberty they had inherited from their anceftors. But
iingle misfortune at Chaeronea,

Romans, though ingaged in great wars both in Spain, and Italy, and employed, at the fame time, in recovering and Sardinia, which had revolted, Macedon, and Sicily,
the

Greece being, then, in arms againft them, and Carthage contending, again, for empire, while the greateft part of Italy, was, not only, in open rebellion, but, alfo, drawing upon them the Hannibalic war ; though furrounded v/ith fo many dangers at the fame time, they were fo far from being opprefTed by thefe misfortunes, that they derived, even, an additional ftrength from thence, the number of their
foldiers enabling
as fo

them

to encounter every danger,

and not,

imagine, the benevolence of fortune: Since, for all her affiftance, they had been, utterly, ruined ^^ by the {ingle
37-

me

E^

Ivof

by sDiodoriis Siculus, ixxl:;. that the battle of Chaeronea was fought the year Charondas was archon at Athens, which was the third year of
the no'*' olympiad. Philip,

We find,

nrf^i

X«ifMv««v

alu^\j-

with him

•,

and,

in

that condition,

inlulted his prifoners; when Demades, an Athenian orator, who was one of

them, afted him
ed,

if

he was not afham-

who comnot

manded

the

Macedonians, was,

when fortune had given him an opportunity of ading the part- of Agamemnon, to aft That of Therfites ?
This reproach
chaftifed Philip,

only, fuperior to the Athenians, and Thebans, in the number of his force%

who,

but, alfo, in military

llsill

;

the former

having,

betore, loft their beft generals,

not only, ceafedto infult his prifoners, but gave them their liberty wichoat ranfom.
32-

Iphicrates, Chabiias, and Timotheus. It is remarkable that Philip, in re-

e|

Ii-c?

tx

ete^i

Kavv«?

zijiwy-^'o?.

It

joicing

for this vidory, got very drunk, which was no unufual thing

plain that our author followed Polybius in the account he gives oi'
is

the lofs fuftained
553-

by the Romans

at

2B.

xvi. p.

defeat

556

ROMAN
which the

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

IT.

defeat they received at Cannae, where of fix thoufand horfe, and feventy, and, of foiirfcore thoufand only three hundred
foot, of
little

the infantry of

commonwealth

confifted,

three thoufand efcaped. XVIII. I admire, therefore, thefe inftitutions

more than
and,

of the

man;

going to relate: He was perfuaded that the good government of cities was owing to boaft of, but few eftablifii ; thefe caufes, which all
alfo,

Thofe

I

am

politicians

firft,

the favor of the gods,
to

the enjoyment of which gives

and every every entcrprife ; next, temperance, which the citizens, being lefs difpofed to injure juftice, by one another, are more inclinable to unanimity, and make the meafure of their happinot fhameful
fuccefs
virtue,

pleafures,

;nefs;

which renders, even, military courage, the other virtues ufeful to their poffeffors : Fie was fendble that none of thefe advantages are the effe6ls of chance; but
and
laftly,

good laws, and the emulation of worthy purfuits render a commonwealth pious, juft, temperate, and vv^arlikc. He
that
the battle of Cannae
is

and yet, which is quoted by very ftrange, Polybius
;

'

he gives this account of the
in

lofs
y,i<i

they

fufFered

their
iTr-n-iuv,

horfe

;

rm

yaa
«?

***, in his note upon this paflage, to difpf've what our author aflerts. This will lay mc under an obligation

M.

j|«xi<r;/(A(wv

£6<^out):iCk1«

jwev

Oufusa-iav
mc-iv?

jixsl*

Tai^ Sit^vyov,

are^j

Si ra'v c-v/A-ixa^aiv o-Trifaci,-,
ti-u^Kirciv.

r^ia«f T«f

of quoting the words

of Polyliius, with Thofe of agree, exadlly, to the numbers of As Dionyfius. Roman foot, and horfe, of which the

5roA«?
^

And,

in

fpeaking of

which

the lofs

they fuflained in their foot,

he

{a.ys, i^ otvlti
la-ax

h

th KttSwn, T^ic^iAiot
wa^axfijUfuxf ctoAh? not tranllate ihde

juovou

«f Ta?
I
fiiall

''

army
ii
ffvv

confifted,

TOK

Polybiu:. fays, r,<rav okIu jj-vors^wi- «f in',uju«pc"<'j

inQvyov.

eixixt;,

IwTteig

h

f^mt^ui

wAfiVi

raiv

s?«-

bepalfages of Polybius in this note, donc that cauff I think I have already
in trandatiiig the account author in the text.
P. 266.
^ P.

Then, after dcfcribing the jtio^iAiwv. battle, and the defeat of the Romans,
t'

given by our

B.

iii.

'

p.

265.

267.

took.

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N A S SE N SIS.

257

took great care, tlierefore, to encourage thefe, begimiing^ with the worfhip both of the gods, and genius's ; and, according to the moft approved
rites in

ufe

among

the Greeks,

he appointed temples,

places confccrated,

altars,

the ere6t-

the reprefentations, and fymbols of the ing of images, gods, and declared their power, the beneficent prefents they made
the particular holidays appropriated to each the facrifices, which are moft acceptable to god, or genius, them, the feftivals, public games, and days of reft, and every thing of that nature: But he rejed:ed all fuch traditional to mankind,
fables concerning the gods, as are

mixed

w^ith

blafphemies,

or calumnies,

looking upon them as wicked, ufelefs, and indecent, and unworthy, not only of the gods, but, even, of

good men
paffions

:

And

accuftomed

his

people to think, and fpeak
nature.

of the gods with the greateft reverence, and to attribute no
to

them unbecoming
this reafon, it
is

their

happy
fons

XIX. For

not
his

faid,

among
;

the

Romans,

either that Caelus

was

gelt

by

own

that Saturn de-

ftroyed his own children to fecure himfelf from their attempts ; or that Jupiter dethroned Saturn, and confined his own father in the dungeon of Tartarus : There is no mention

made, among them, of the wars, wounds, or bonds of

the gods, or of their fervitude
there,

among men

:

Neither are

performed in mourning habits, with exprefiions of forrow, and attended with the and lamentations ofwomen the plaints,
procelTions,

among them, any

ance of deities

bewailing difappearfuch as the Greeks ; perform in commemorating the rape of Proferpine, and the adventures of Bacchus,

Vol.

I.

LI

with

258

ROMAN ANTKVUITIES OF

Book

II.

with many other things of the hke nature. There is no fuch thing to be feen among them (though their manners are, now, corrupted) as enthuHaftic tranfports, or Corybantic phrenlies; no begging under the color of rehgion, no
Bacchanals, or fecret myfteries, no promifcuous watchings ot men, and women in the temples ; nor any other extra-

But all re\'erence is fhewn to the gods, vagance of this kind both in their words, and aclions, beyond what is pradiifed either among the Greeks, or Barbarians And, what I admire above all things, notwithftanding the refort of in: :

numerable nations to Rome, who are all under a neceflity of worfliiping their own gods according to the cuftoms of
their refpedire countries;

the

commonwealth

has never, by

authority, adopted any of thofe foreign inftitutions ; a misfortune many other cities have fallen into But, if,

pubhc

:

purfuant to fome oracle, any images of the gods have been " brought thither from foreign nations, they honor them fabulous according to their own rites, banifliing all
impoftures; and, in this manner, they worfliip the image of the Idaean goddefs For the praetors perform annual
:

and celebrate annual games in honor of licr, according to the Roman cuftoms: But the pricft, and
facrifices,
39-

Toit

iatrjlf.i;

ci\^* ti,u« loy.oif.

Tliis

adherence of the Romans to their o'.vn rites, and ceremonies, upon their adopting any foreign objeft of worfliip,
appearcd, remarkably, when they leceivcd Chriftianity: For ihey retained,

are erefled, tlie fame pofition to the call, their llatues, pidlures, inccnil',

holy water, proceffions, and all tlxgaudy apparatus ot their former wor-

and

ftill

retain their
;

their old temples

rites, and new ones when and,

own

So that, they ftiil prefcrvc their fliip old religion, and have, only, changed the objo(ft of it.
:

prleftcfs

Book

II.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,
of
this

259

Thefe carry her goddefs are Phrygians. image in proceilion about the city, afking alms in her name,
prieftefs

according to their cuftom, and wearing figures upon their breaft, and ftriking their tymbals, while their followers play
tunes upon their flutes in honor of the mother of the gods But no Roman born is, by any law, or ordinance of the
:

obliged to walk in proceffion through the city to the found of flutes ; to afk alms, or, drefl^ed in a party to coloured habit, worfliip the goddefs with Phrygian cerefenate,

monies

:

So

fearful
;

cuflioms in religion

they of admitting any foreign and fo great is their averflon to all
are

indecent fables.

XX. However,

let

no one imagine

I

am

not fenflble that

of ufe to mankind; fome being defigned to explain the works of nature by allegories ; others, to adminifl:er comfort to people in difl:refs ; thefe to
fables are
free the

fome of the Greek

mind from

agitations,

and

terrors

;

thofe to

ill-grounded opinions, and

feveral invented for

remove fome other

ufeful purpofe : Though, I fay, I not lefs acquainted with thefe things than the refl: of the world, yet I

am

am

cautious of receiving them as a part of religion ; and much more inclined to the theology of the Romans, when I
conflder
fables,

flowing from the Greek are fmall, and extend only to thofe, v/ho have exafor

that

the adv^antages,

mined the end,

which they are deflgned; and

this

philofophy few are acquainted with ; while the vulgar, who are ignorant of it, generally take thefe fables in the worfe
fenfe,

and

fall

into one of thefe

two

errors

;

they either defpifc

L

1

2

26o
fpifc

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book

II.

the gods, as fubjed: to many misfortunes ; or abandon themfelves to the moft fhameful excefles, which they fee arc
attributed to the gods. XXI. But I leave thefe confiderations to

thofe,

who

make the As to the

of philofophy only their fpeculative part ftudy.
conftitution, eftabliflied

by Romulus,

I think,
:

thefe things, alfo, are worthy the notice of hiftory Firft, that he appointed a great number of perfons to perform di-

vine fervice.
built city, in

And, indeed, no man can name any newwhich fo many priefts, and minifters of the
:

For, without gods were ordained from the beginning mentioning thofe, who are inverted with family priefthoods,
'^°

threefcore were appointed in his reign to perform divine fervice for the profperity of the commonwealth, both in the

and the curiae: I only repeat what '^ Terentius Varro, the moft learned man of his age, has written in his
tribes,

antiquities.

make
in a
4°'

In the next place ; whereas others, generally, choice of fuch, as are to pre{ide over religious matters,
;

mean, and inconfiderate manner
Tur>:^iica:?
.'ffoiruva?.

fome thinking

fit

to

M. ***
-,

has tranflated this, qui fuccedoient aiix the de leurs peres digjiitez facerdotales
fenfe of

was

contrary all men of learning. Thepriefts mentioned here by our author were thofe,

that the priefthood whereas the Rome hereditary at well known to of this is very
is
•,

which

inflrance in "Livy, where Fabius came out of the capitol, then befieged by tlie Gauls, and palled through their army to the Quirinal hill, which was

the particuhir place appointed tor the

performance
crificiim
4'-

of his family rites; faerat Jiatim in ^lirinali colli

genti Fabiae.
Tf»£»7(Sf Oooip'p«v.

who performed

the facrifices peculiar
'

This author

is,

to their families, which Cicero calls and in a particular facrificia gentilia, Of this we find a remarkable place.
'

often, (]uoted

by Dionyfius, and, often,

mentioned by me in the notes, as the greatellantiquaryRome ever produced*
i

De

harufp. jrefpon. c.

j.

" B.

v, c. 46.

make

^'mmmmmmmmmmmmm

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN AS SEN SIS.

261

make
lot
;

public fale of this honor ; others, difpofing of it by he would not fuffer the priefthood to be either venal, or
;

but made a law, that each curia fliould chufe two perfons, both above fifty years of age, of diftinguifhed birth, and virtue, competent fortune, and without
diftributed by lot

any bodily defed:: Thefe were not
during any limited time, but for

to

enjoy their honors
freed

employments by
government, by

their

from military age, and, from the cares of civil
life,

this law.

XXII. And, becaufe fome rites were to be performed by women, others by boys, whofe fathers, and mothers were
living,

to the end that thefe, alfo,

might be adminiftred

in

the beft manner, he ordered that the wives of the priefts fhould be affociated to their hufbands in the priefthood ;

any fundions v/ere forbidden by the laws of the country to be adminiftred by men, thefe women were to perform them ; and their fons to exercile Thofe, that belonged to them ; and, that the priefts, who had no children, fhould
and,
if

chufe out of the other families of each curia, the moft beautiful boy, and girl ; the firft to be aftiftant in the holy fundlions, till the age of manhood ; and the girl to be fo,
as

long as

ftie

continued unmarried

:

Thefe

inftitutions,

alfo, in

my opinion,

he borrowed from Thofe of the Greeks :

For, whatever fundions are adminiftred in the Greek cere-

monies by thofe they
42*

call'^''Ko{vyj(po^o/,

Bafiet-dearers, the
calls the

fame
of

fufped
the

I fee no reafon to KavviOo^oi. fince it is certain this reading
-,

Cicero

two brazen
:

ftatues

Polycletus, which Verres took

from

that' they

were called Cafiephcrae by Romans. And, by that name,

Hejus of Mellana
paflage,

I fliall

quote the

becaufe,

by

that, it will ap-

are

i6£

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
by
thofe,

OF
call

Book

II.

are performed

whom

the

Romans

by the fame

During thefe ceremonies, they wear on their heads the fame kind of crowns, with which the ftatues of the And the adorned among the Greeks. Ephefian Diana are fundlions, which, among the Tyrrhenians, and before, among

name

:

*' the Pelafgi, were adminiftered by thofe, they called, Cadoli, in the rites of the Curetes, and in Thofe of the great in the fame manner, by thofe minigods, were performed, fters to the priefts, who are, now, called, by the Romans,

Camilli.

Befides,
aflift:

Romulus ordered one
at the facrifices
:

foothfayer out of
call

each

tribe to

This foothfayer we
;

and the Romans, preof the ancient appellation, Ai'ufpex : He, ferving fomething alfo, made a law that all the priefts, and minifters of the gods
leooaxo-xoi;,

an

infpeSior of the viSiims

/hould be chofen by the curiae ; and that their election fliould be confirmed by thofe, who, by their prophetic art, omens. interpret heavenly
altitude both painters, pear in what
K<^(r,MiX\oi
:

My

reafon

is,

that

Varro

and fculptors ought to reprelent the duo Cantphorae;"Eraniae?icapr^ehTea eximid veniiverum non maxima^ ^gna,
Jlate,virgindi habitu atquevejlitu, quae manibus fuhlalis facra quaedam, more

of the great gods fays the minifter is called, in Samothrace, Cafmillus, which, he fays, is a Greek word ; and
that he found it in " Callimachus. Hinc Cafmillus nominatur in Samothraciis myjleriis

Athenknfmm virginum, rcpofita in capi: tibtis Canephorae ipfae fujlinehant Sed earum artificcm vocabantur.

deus quidam^ adminlfter diis

Polydetum
43-

ejfe

dicehant.
I

KaSiaAoi.

of

this

word.

can make nothing The commentators,

thoucrh they differ with regard to the word, that fliould be fubftituted in its

room, yet

all

Under

thefe difficulties, I

agree in difcarding this. fliall offer a

arbitrary qucd apudCallimachuminpoematis ejusifiveni. And I, really, think that ''Virgil, who, every where, fliews himfelf to have been, perfedly, acquainted with the his country, alludes to antiquities of this change of the word Cafmillus to Camillus, when he fays.
'iimgnis.

Verbum Grcecum

nain/jue mocaint

COnjedure of
n

my own;
iv. c. 3

I

In Verr. B.

would read /W;'w Cafmillae, »i«//'/a/fl/m/c Camillam. r Aen. B. xi. y-. B. vi. De ? 54 V I-ing. Latin.

XXIII.

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
lie

263

XXIII. After

liad inftituted thefe

cerning the minifhers of the gods, facrihces to each curia, as I faid, appointing gods,

regulations he aillgned the proper

con-

and

for each, they were, always, to worfliip; and genius's limited the expcnces of the facrifices, which were to be paid by The curiae performed their appointed facrifices the public. with their own priefts ; and, on holy days, they feafted

whom

to the curia; for together in the dining-room belonging each curia had its own Adjoining thereto a chapel ^"^ is confecrated, which is common to all the curia, like the
:

Prytanea of the Greeks
called curiae
;

Thefe dining-rooms were, alfo, which name they, ftill, retain. This inftitu:

tion

Romulus feems to have taken from the
Lacedaemonians,

difcipline

of

the
'^5

among whom

the focieties,
;

called

Phiditia, were, then, in great requeft
44-

which

inftitution

Koi^uctao.

I

approve, intirely,

public dining-rooms, likeThofeereded

of the corredtion of Sylburgius, who thinks it ought to be no^uftwloii ; beauthor fays, pofitively, in caiife our
''

by Romulus, and called, by the Romans, Curiae and, in this fenfe alone,
;

they are analogous to the
as to his etymology,
I

latter.

And

fpeakingof

the inftitutions of

Numa,

that he erefted this chapel, and that Romukis did not bui.d a common
for which, he there temple to Vefta I obferve a very good reafon. gives
;

muft beg leave to think that 7rufo1a/./-«ov, more naturally,
accounts for the name of thofe public houies ; which I fhall fupport by the authority ot the Etymologicum magnum; rTfv7avHov, lays the author of it, to .to?
iinuosioig lut^yilaK iitSoila'

that

M. **

* takes the

ot^uJocvho:,

here

mentioned by our author, to fignity the houfes, where thofe, v\ho had deferved well of the Athenians, were maintained at the public expence, and
deduces the etymology ot the word where they from^u^os T«,u«ov, the place fire. the thou£^h But, z^^via^eix kept
has that fignification,
it,

ohn

Jt«i

ar^u-

yote 6
45-

(Ti'of)

Txl i^i

TSi (ft.-utxriij <ri7»

Tajj,ii:v.

i^,i,T,oi.

Ariftotle,
cviTcil^x

Thus they are called by who explains the word by

alio, fignines
this

and gives the preference to ; I'hofe ol the Cretans, from whom, he
^^o^^l«.
c.

sC. 65. cf

book.

-, et 8.

Lycurgus;,

264

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
who had
learned
it

Book

II.

Lyciirgus,

from the Cretenfes, feems to
his

have introduced to the great advantage of

country

;

in

peace, by promoting frugaUty, and temperance in their daily
repafts
;

and

in war,

by infpiring every

and repugnance to forfake his had lived in a communion of libations,
rites.

with fliame, companion, with whom he
facrifices,

man

does, not only, deferve praife for of thefe inflitutions, but, alfo, on account *^ of the o{ the facrilices he appointed to be offered

Romulus

and holy the wifdom
frugality
;

the greateft part, if not all, of which and are performed in the ancient manner.
feen,

to the gods remain to this

up

day,

I

myfelf have

in the temples, for the gods, repafts prepared
tables

upon

of ancient workmanfhip ; and barley cakes, wafers, and fpelt, with the primitiae of fome fruits in bafkets, and fmall earthen plates, and other things of the
fimple, cheap, and void of all oftentation. I have feen, alfo, the libation wines mixed, not in iilver and
like nature,
all

wooden

gold

veffels,

but in

little

earthen chalices, and ewers
for adhering to the

;

and,

greatly,
fays, the inftitution

admired the

men

cuftoms of
by the Lathe ex'

Lacedaemonians took
:

this

as an offering to Jupiter
tines,

reafon he gives for this preference is, that, among the

The

and Hernici, when they con-

gratulated the

Romans upon
;

of thefe focieties latter, every a certain fum of furnifh to was obliged their entertainments towards money whereas, the expence of the Cretan
-,

member

tindlion of the decemvirate
tur religiones pie magis'

cokban-

quam

luagnifice.

was fupplied by the public, he which, fays, was more popular.
locieties
46-

Afterwards, when this magnificence prevailed in their public worfhip, when their temples were imbelliflied with
filvcr, gold, and precious ftones, and adorned with (tatues of the mofl: ex-

Ti;f euleAHoiy

twv

^\i(tiuv.

Livy

makes a

fine obfervation in relation to

quifite

workmanfhip, they paid no

a <;rown of gold of fmall weight, fent
^

regard either to religion, or morality,
E.iii. c. 57.

their

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N A S SE N SI S.

265

their anceftors, alnd
rites,

not degenerating, from their ancient into a vain magnificence. There are, aL^o, feme other

both remembered, and related, which owe their birth to Numa Pompihus, the fucceffor of Romulus, a man of confummate wifdom, and of a rare
inftitutions,

worthy

to be

fagacity
fli^ll

in interpreting the will of the gods : But of thefe I Others were added by Tullus fpeak afterwards.

Hoftilius, the third king after

But the feeds ceeding king foundations laid by Romulus,
:

Romulus, and by every fucof them were fown, and the

who eftablifhed

the

principal

rites

of their religion.
alfo,

feems to have been the author of that good difcipline in other things, by the obfervance of

XXIV. Romulus,

which the

Roman commonwealth

has flourifhed for

many

he having enaded many good and ufeful laws, generations ; the greatefl: part unwritten, but fome committed to

writing: All of which I do not think neceflary to mention, but fhall, a fhort account of thofe I, only, give chiefly, admire, and look upon as proper to illuftrate the tenor of his other laws, and
to fhew
nearly,

how auftere they
refembling the

were,
lives

how

averfe to vice,

and how,
I

of the heroes:

However,

obferve, that all legiflators, as well Barbarians, as Greeks, feem, in general, to have been, rightly, fenfible that all cities, as they conlift of many families, are moil

muft,

firft,

likely

are

-^^

injoy tranquillity, when the lives of private men calm ; and to be agitated with many tempefts, when
to
Oroiv
01'

47-

Twv i^iaPav

f^j^cc^uri ^loi.

miftik n the fenfe of

All the tranflators have, in

my opinion,

M.

*

^'

Vol.

I.

Mm

this exprffllon. * has faid ung vie reglce; and

they

266

ROxVIAN
;

ANTIOUITIES OF

Book

II.

they are ruffled
is

that every able politician, whether he a legiflator, or a king, ought to introduce fuch laws, as

and

But they do not all feem, equally, to have underftood by what inftitutions, and by what laws, this may be afFeded ; and fome of them, have committed very great, and, I may fay, eflential
will render private

men juft and

temperate.

errors in the principal,

and chief

parts of legiflature.

Firft,

concerning marriages, and the commerce with women, from which a lawgiver ought to begin (as nature has begun from
thence to form our
beafts,
lives)

fome, taking example from wild
"^^

have allowed men, and women to converfe tosfether and without reftraint, as the proper means to promifcuoufly,
free

mankind from the rage of
;

love

;

to banifh

jealoufy, the

and prevent many other mifchiefs, which both private families, and whole cities are, often, to through women Others, by joining one man to expofed

mutual flaughter parent of

:

le

Jay,

bonm

ccnduite.

I believe the

thought

fit

to

exprefs,

figuratively,

Latin

tranflatoFS

mined

them

by

by

ofSijv arAeiv,

rendering it vivendi rationem exaclam. Thei-f is no doubt' but, if every individual lives regularly, the city will This is not be exceeding regular. as to have inlecret in a fuch politics, to author our duced quote the autho-

X^y.U3\i»

aj/MV

,

and to fay, afterward^, to which iv^A^uci ^loi

government from what caufe focver it This fenie our author has fiows.
cafinefs,

of all the legiflators to fupport it. meaning is, that every city will continue quiet, as long as the individuals live with cafe : For, nothing of any tempts men to difluib the quiet lo much, as domeftic unrity

correfponds in the fiine figure, they b.ing all terms of navigation ; and none more lo than ftf^x^.w zi-iAxyoc, lb often, ufed by the befh authors. This figure none of the tranlJators feem to have had the leall of.
48'

Flis

Kciva?
;

Tctf fii|«f.

'1

fufpiciou his was Pla-

to's fyflcin

fyftem

it

is

•,

and a very extraordinary His words are the!c ;

lj.rcifA.iciv

rticaftw

;

tor

which whim, he
'

is,

defervedly, cenfured by
»

Ariltotlc.

ni{i«7o,\iT.

E. V, p. 655.

noTMT. B.

ii.

c.

I.

one

BooklL

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
this

267

rude and favage commerce ; however, concerning the obfervance of the marriage-rites, and the chaftity of women, they never attempted to make

one woman, have expelled

whatfoever •any reo;ulations
pradlicable
:

but gave up the thing, as imOthers have neither allowed the ufe of women
;

without marriage, like fome Barbarians ; nor negleded the like the Lacedaemonians ; but have infticare of them,
'^^

And fome laws to keep them within bounds ^° have, even, appointed a magiftrate to infpe£t the condud:
tuted

many
:

:

of

women

to reftrain
difpofitions

However, this provifion was found infufficient them, and too remifs to reduce women of bad
to the neceflity of a

modefl behaviour.
adultery, or elopement

XXV.
49-

But Romulus, without giving either to the hufhis wife for
louoi
:

band an a6lion againft

Ariftotle, AaK£^a!i,M5v;o<. Xlo-TTS^ with the Lacefault finds alfo, great

daemonian women, who, he fays, abandoned themfelves to all forts of
excels
;

Their duty was, not only, to infpeft the conduft of the women, (which, one would think, might have
full employment) but, alto enter the houfes of thofe, who gave entertainments, and to count the
fo,

given them

(WiTi j'Otf
Kail

tfxoAao-iai',

-x^M^i^m

flfnoAaywf JT^of dircnaoiM : It feems Ly-

curgus endeavoured to bring them under fome government, but they refillSo that they, it over: ing, he gave not their lawgiver, were the caufe of
thefe
irregularities.

guefts
""

:

The

finable, if their

mafter of the houfe being number exceeded ^hirty.

Athenaeus,

from

whom

I

have

this

But,

continues

Ariftotle,

we do not

confider

who
•,

quotes, upon this occafion, fome verfes of Menander, whofe precious remains cannot be too often

account,

ought to be excufed, and who not but, what is right, and what not ; ^ «A^' a Tif7o <rito7rs((Mju t<vi ^h cvy>)'//«?

tranfcribed,

n«^«T0I2 FTNAIKONOMOIEJ's
Aiaxcv!fu?«;

ras

cf!xroyi'y^tx.<^^oit s^vQoy.ivo^

n»vlc.i
S°'

fx-ocyet^iif

k»Io<,

vomov Kcttvov rivcc,

ApX/'i'

'''"'* Kotlerri^itv

ivi /ji-tXr] fo/Mvi^v

iVKOffjxictc

yvvamuv.

Thefe magiftrates

were called by the Athenians ywaiKo''Ib.
c, 7.
='

Jlh^iiK Tif uv i^iiiv £f;wv T^Xil

B.

vi. c.

II.

Mm

2

without

268

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
;

Book

II.

without caufe

or to the wife an action againft her hufband for wafting her fortune, or for divorcing her without reafon ;

without making any laws for the returning, or recovery of the portion, or regulating any thing of this nature ; by a
fingle inftitution,
as

things,

which, effedually, provides for all thefe experience fhews, he brought the married wo-

men, even, chearfully, to behave themfelves with great order, and modefty: The lavv was this, '' That a woman, married " to her hufband fhall of all his the
by
holy laws,
partake
^''

*'

fortunes, and

facrifices."

The

ancients called holy

and

lawful marriages, by a Roman appellation, Farracia^ from the communion oi Far^ Spelt ; which we call Zsa, ; for this

was the ancient, and,
the

Romans

;

long time, the ordinary food of all their country producing great plenty of exfor a

look upon barley to be the moft ancient grain; and, for that reafon, begin our facrifices with barley-cakes mixed with fait, which we call
cellent fpelt.

And,

as

we Greeks

OuAa;
5'-

:

So the Romans, from an opinion that
I

fpelt
is

is

both

<jj:pp«xi«.

"do not

remember
:

the bread,

ma 'e

of

it,

thought to
generally,

to have

met with
this

F(2;r<///^ in

author for

kin J

any Latin of marriage The
that occa-

be

It nouiifhing. fuppofed that the:e k:n
Icfs

is,
s

of marriages

word ufed by them, upon

fion, is, Confarreatio, derived from Far, as our author fays, /? C«^^, v/Mch was
II

fed in that

ceremony,

ivrr

is

called

never Speli in our language, though I have of it in but faw any England
I
-,

were, totally, abrogated y the mftituThofe of another kind, called, Cocinptir, wiiich was a fiditious purchafe; the married couple being fuppofed to purchafe each other. But we
tion of
find,

by a

Ip.

;ch of Tiberius, in

''

Ta-

f.^cn

it

chey

Germany, growing make bread of it, which

in

v.hcre
is

as

citus, that they were not, wholly, difufed, even, in his time ; 0;»/^j cpw/ar-

wheat bread ; and, indeed, it lefembles wheat in every thiiig, but the fize of the grain, which is lefs ; and
wi'iite as
1

rdwdi

tcntd—accedcrc
cultales,
iv. c. i6,

adfuetudine, aut inter fauces rcipfius caerarwiiiae diffi-

quae confulto vitaraitur.

Ann. B.

the

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALI C ARN AS SEN SI S.

269

the moft valuable, and mofi: ancient of grains, in all burntthe facrifice with That ; and this cuftom offerings, begin
day, without deviating into firft- offerings The participation in the moil holy of greater expence. and firft food of the women with their hufbands, and thtir

remains to

this

union with

them, founded on their fliaring in all theiifortunes, took its name from this participation of fpelt, and,, neceflarily, produced an indiflbluble connexion, nothing

This law obbeing capable of diffolving thefe marriages. liged both the married women, as having no other refuge,
to conform themfelves, intirely, to the temper of their hufbands, and the hufbands to retain their v/ives, as

neceflary,-

and infeparable companions
i.i all

:

For,

if fhe v/as virtuous,

and,

things, obedient to her hufband, fhe

was
;

miftrefs

of

the houfe, as

much

as

he was mafler of

it

and, after the

death of her hufband, fhe was heir to his fortunes, in the fame manner as a daughter was to Thofe of her father ;.

he died without children, and inteftate, fhe was his fole heir; and, if he left children, fhe had an equal fhare of his
if

fortunes
5='

with

them.

But,

the injured perfon vvas
5^'
Aj'.«?-t;v

any fault, her judge, and determined the
cnafted
:

if

fhe committed

Tcv

ctaiKn^fvov

(AafASuvi,

For example, he has

tranf-

x«» 78
fius,

/uej^sSiis Ttif

riuu'^ia; kv^iov.

Lip-

who was

a

man of great

has gi en us the laws made of the Roman kings, collected, as he in lays, chiL-fiy, from our author Xvhich, he has been followed by many writers, who fuppofe the words, given
-,

learning, by feveral

lated this law, mentioned by our author, into the langua j,e, ufed in the

age of Aiiguftus
aliiidve

;

Si ftup-rum commifit^

vindex

quid pcccajfet, maritus judex et But the infcription in honor of Duillius for the firft naval
ejlo.

by Lipfius, to have been the very words, in which thefe old laws were

vidory the Romans, ever, obtained, and his otiier fuccefles againft tha Carthaginians, which is ftill extant,

desfrec

i270

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
it

OF

Book

II.

degree of her punifhment.

In the cafe of adultery, or,

where

was found that fhe had drank wine (which the

Greeks would look upon as the Jeaft of all crimes) her relations, together with her hufband, were appointed her
judges ; who were allowed by Romulus to punifh both thefe crimes with death, as the greatefl offences women could be
guilty

For he looked upon adultery as the fource of Both thefe impudence ; and drunkennefs, of adultery
of:
:

crimes continued,

for a long time,

to be puniihcd by the

Romans without
lowed
that,

m.ercy.

And

the length of time has fliewn

the ts goodnefs of this law concerning o

women

:

For

it

is

al-

during the fpace of five hundred and twenty at Rome. But, in the years, no marriage was, ever, diflblved

hundred and
will convince

thirty feventh olympiad,

and

^^

in the

confulfhip

any one that the Latin which changed fo much language, from the year 493, or 494, in which Duillius was conful, as appears

furprizingly, with That, preferved in this authentic infcription. presented.

MAXVMOD. DICTATORED. OLORV.M. IW. ALTOD. MARID. PVGNANDOD. VICET.
XXXQVE.NAVEIS.CEPET. CVM. SOCIEIS. SEPTEMRESrvIOMQVE. DVCIS. QVINRESMOSCVV'^E. TRIRESMOSQVE. NAVEIS. ^ XX. DEPRESET. Hj-hTo /Avugaif «i/7ft)»
-—'T^i!iy.a\'ici

by
is

this
in

infcription,

though

his

name

not tained

the Fajli confidares, and obthis victory, to the time of

Auguftus, or about half a century before, muft, in all probability, have changed much more from the time of

y.vj T««'

:r^a)

a?

cufAQtiiXiist>i.f

Romulus,
in

to

That

oFDuillius, that

is,

CX,l^l/.Xh.Os\oV

KCCt

— TO T» 9^^>i}'iS STAOiCl—

I fliall fpace of 494 years. tranfcribe a few hnes of this infcription, for two reafons the firtl, to fhew what the Latin language was in thofe and the other, to do juftice to days the fidelity of l^olybius, by laying be-

the

•,

r«i'« UxTTi^in.

Valerius

Maximus, and

;

Gellius are quoted, upon this occafion; but both of them, or their tranicribcrs,

fore the reader

fome

which

the

author of

this

account, given naval battle,

in particulars, that by

agrees,
'^

Our author have miftaken the year. fays the firil divorce happened in the 137"' olympiad, that is, the firft year
>3,et24.

B.

i.

p.

of

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASS ENS IS.

271

of Marcus Pomponius, and Caius Papirius, Spurius Carvilius, no obfcure perfon, is faid to have been the firfl man, who
divorced his wife, the cenfors obliging him to fwear that he took another vi ith a view of having children, his own being barren : However, he was, by reafon of this adion,

though

founded

in neceflity, ever after hated

by the people.

Thefe, therefore, are the good laws, which Romulus enabled concerning women ; by which he rendered

XXVI.

them more obfervant
eftabliflied to

infpire

But Thofe he children with reverence, and piety to
to
their

hufbands.

^'^

and to oblige them to honor, and obey them in all things, both in their words, and adlions, are ftill more auguft, and of greater dignity, and, to
their fathers,
vaftly, fuperior

our laws

:

For the Greek

legiflators

limited a

very

iliort

under the government of his father • fome, till the expiration of the third year after he was arrived to manhood Others, as long as he continued unmarried :
time
for the fon to be
:

And

fome,

till

their

names were

regiftered in the colleo-es
;

For That muft be, of this olympiad the year is always, und> rftood, when firft the not mentioned: Now, year of
:

generally

as

aJixiosfignifies

Fw. The

Olympian v/as the 521'^ year of Rome and, though, I Hnd, lome ^.f ihe fuccellion of the conaccounts
the
1

j

7''^

•,

former, therefore, muft notbe confined, in this place, to jujizce, which is only one fpecies of Virtue, as the piety of children to their parents is another, This is the doftiine of that crreat moralift,

confuilhipot Pomponius, and t'apinus the year after, yet they 'were, according to our author, and, in

fuis place the

Ariftotle,

alre.idy, obferved,

occafion to
quently,
"

whofe ethics I have, and fhall, often, have obl'erve our author fiek'

my opinion,
fuls ihlS year.
54-

according

co truth,

con_

femes Js

AiKc4ic3->jv>ii/.

Our author

ufes this
•,

ksci n

alludes to with approbation, Kiyi^^cn StKXiocvr,;, are the words of that phia.S,){.,a,
srf^iovoc^an

word, here, in a philofophicai knfe in which, Jidw/so-uytj li^nifiiS Virtue^

loibpher.

a Ethei. B. v, c. i.

of

572

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book

II.

of the magiftrates; as they had learned from the laws of ^^ " 5^ Solon, Pittacus, and Charondas, in which there is acknowledged to be great wifdom. The puniflimentSj alfo,
they ordered for difobedience in children were not grievous ; allowing their fathers to turn them out of doors, and to
difinherit

them, and nothing further.

punifhments are not fufficient to reftrain lence of youth, or to reflore thofe, who defpife their duty, For which reafon, among the Greeks, -great to a fenfe of it
:

Whereas, gentle the folly, and info-

indecencies are committed by children againft their parents. full But the lawgiver of the Romans (as one

gave

power

55-

'ZoKuv.

The learned world

is

fo

of

whom

one,

furnamed
-,

Mixjo,-,
"

acquainted with Solon, that I fhall fay no more of him than that he was not an Athenian, though he was their legiflator, but of Salamis, and
ilourilhed about the
''

much

lawgiver, and
tianfcribcs a

flouriflied at the

was a fame

time with Croefus
letter

becaufe

Laertius
to that

from him

prince.
^

olympiad. He died at Cyprus, aged eighty his afhes to be years, and ordered
46"^''

57-

''

Xx^ovSa.';.

Ariftotle calls

him a

carried to Salamis,

and fcattered afabulous, writers of great

Catanaean ; and lays that he gave laws both to his fellow citizens, and to other Chalcidic cities. We find, by our
author,
that
all

bout that

ifland.

This, Plutarch, in
treats as

his hfe of Solon,

gave power
:

to the fathdr

thefe three lawgivers over his fon

though, he fays, many credit, and Ariftotle, amongft the reft, have affirmed it. However, the aumuch thority of Ariftotle is, certainly, That than more to be depended upon of Plutarch, which is, abfolutely, confuted

no longer than till he was chofen a For we muft read «fX"* magiftrate
with the Vatican manufcript, inttead of ot^y^xio. in all the editions ; fincc we
find TO

Tm

ijfo^m

ot.i^'/Hei

in

"=

Ariftotle;

and

TO Tw»

<?>j|«.5;^j(^au

a^;^«ov

more than

by

thefe verfes,
;

quoted

from

Cratinus by Laertius

once in our author ; who juftifies this reading by what he fays, prefently afterwards, that Romulus gave abfolure power to the fitherovcr his ion, though
inverted with the
firft
v.xi

Effir«fjuevof ic«I«
56-

zB-flccTtfv

Aiavlsf nroAiv.

dignity of the
i\i

nitlaxof.

note of this

There were two men of name, both Mitylenaeans,
of Solon.
'

commonwealth;
<i

ap^an tuk
ib. c. 6.

H Laert. life

Life of Pittacus.

HoXili*.

B.

ii.

c, 10.

'Id.

may

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSIS.
to the father over his fon, even, during his

273

may
life
;

fay)

whole

whethvT he thought proper to expel him his houfe, to in that condition, to whip him, to load him with chains ; and,
in agriculture, or to put him to death ; though his fon were, adtually, in the adminiftration of the public

employ him

affairs,

though invefted with the
by

greateft offices of the ftate,

diftingu idled virtue of this law,

and

his zeal for the

commonwealth.

In

men

of diftinction, while they were ha-

ranguing from the roftra in oppofition to the fenate, and in favor of the people; and, on that account, gaining great

down from thence, and carried popularity, have been pulled away, by their fathers, to undergo fuch punifhment, as they
thought fit ; and, while they were leading away through the forum, none prefent, neither conful, tribune, nor the flattered by them, and thought people themfelves, who were all power inferior to their own, could refcue them. I forbear to mention

how many

brave men, urged by their valor,

and ardor to perform fome great adion contrary to their fathers command, have, by them, been put to death ; as Manlius Torquatus, and many others are faid to have put
their fons to death.

Concerning whom,
the power,

I fliall

ipeak in a

proper place.
given to fathers by the Roman lawgiver, did not, even, flop here; but he allowed the father, alfo to fell his fon, without regarding the imputation of and of a feverity, inconfiftent with natural af-

XXVII. However,

cruelty,

fedion, which this allowance might be liable to ; and (what any one, who has been educated in the loofe manners of

Vol.

I.

N

n

the

274
the Greeks
as harfli

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
may wonder
at

OF

Book

II.

above

all

things,

and look upon

and

to

make an advantage
;

to the father tyrannical) he, even, gave leave of felling his fon, as far as three

times

giving,

by

this

means, a greater power to the father
his flave
:

ov^er his fon,

than to the mafter over

For a

flave,

who

has once been fold, and, afterwards, obtains his liberty, But a fon, when fold by his is his own mafter ever after father, if he fhould become free, returned to his father's
:

power

;

and,

if

he was, a fecond time,
ftill,

fold,

and, a fecond
;

time, freed, he was,
after the third fale,

as at firft, his father's flave

but,

he was difcharged from his father. This law, whether written, or unwritten (for that I cannot, certhe kings obferved in the beginning, looking tainly, affirm) it as the beft of all laws. And, after the diflblution

upon

of the monarchy,

thought proper to to the confideration of the whole body propofe in the forum of the people all the cuftoms, and laws of their own country,

when

the

Romans,

firft,

Thofe of foreign inftitution, to the end that together with the rights of the public might not be changed as often as the power of the magiftrates, the decemvirs, who were authorifed by the people to colledl, and tranfcribe thefe laws, ^^ it now ftands in the inferted This among the reft ; and

fourth of the tw^elve tables, which they expofed in the forum.
5S-

K»!f sfiy

Tciv IV Ti) T£7i<^1>j

Ajj/OjUfvMu

iui-.Kx Jihlwv.

This law of Romulus, which our author lays, was confirmed
the decemvirs,
is

to that pkcc, I fliall give the words of it here ; patrei. enuo. fidio. vitae.

explained among the other laws of the twelve tables in a note on the eleventh book But, to

by

:

necisoje. potestas. estod. terqve.. jm. venom, darier. iovs. estod.sei. pater, fidiom. ter. venom, dvit. fidios. a. patre. Leber, estod.

fave the reader the trouble of turning

How-

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASSENSIS.

275

However, that the decemvirs, who were appointed, three hundred years afterwards, to tranfcribe thefe laws, did not,
firft,
it,

introduce This

among
;

the

Romans

;

but that, finding
it,

long before, in ufe, they durft not repeal

we

are

adlired by

many
is

reafons

but,

of

Numa
marry

Pompilius, the
this
;

particularly, by the laws fuccelibr of Romulus,

which there " a

" If a father
is

among

gives his

fon leave to

woman, who, by law,

to partake of his facriiices,

" and
*'

fortunes, he fhall,

his fon."

no longer, have the power of felling Which he would never have enadled, unlefs
all

former laws, been allowed to fell his But enough has been faid concerning thefe things. fon. I fhall, in a few words, give an account, alfo, of another
the father had, by
inflitution,

by which Romulus regulated the

lives

of private

perfons.

For, being fenfible that the means, by which a whole people (the greateft part of whom are hard to gobe can induced to embrace a life of to vern) fobriety, prefer to gain, to cultivate a perfeverance in labor, and to juftice

XXVIir.

look upon nothing more valuable than virtue, is not inflruAion, but the habitual pradice of fuch employments, as lead to each virtue; and that thofe, who praftife them

through necefTity, rather than choice, as foon as they are free from that reftraint, return to their natural difpofition : For thefe reafons, he appointed flaves, and to
foreigners
exercife thofe trades, that are fedentary,

and mechanic, and

looking upon them as the deftroyers, and corrupters both of the bodies, and minds n 2 of

prom.ote fhameful appetites,

N

276
of
all,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
who
pradife

Book

II.

them ; and

thefe trades were, for a long

time, held ignominious by the

Romans, and
:

exercifed

only employments he left For he obferved were thefe two, agriculture and warfare that men, fo employed, are temperate, lefs intangled in the

none of them.

The

by to freemen

purfuits

of forbidden love, and fubjecl to that kind of avarice only, which leads them not to injure one another, but to inrich themfelves at the expence of the enemy But, that each of thefe occupations, feparate from the
:

finding
other,

is

pointing to lay wafte the enemy's country, according to the inftitution of the Lacedaemonians, he ordered the fame perfons to
exercife the

inftead of apimperfed:, and produces murmurs, one part of the men to till the earth, and the other

employments both of hufbandmen, and
it

foldiers;

and accuffcomed them, in time of peace, to and cultivate the land, " except when try,
for

live in the

coun-

was

necefl'ary

them

to

come

were to meet
end,

he appointed day he them the of war, And, in time taught duty of foldiers, and not to yield to any, either in the fatigues, or advantages,
that attend
it.

occafions, they in the city, in order to traffic ; and, to that a market to b^ held every ninth :
;

to market

upon which

For, by dividing, equally,

among them

the

5S'

^^>}v
I

ef!ro1( Si',^»iv a,yaoa.<:.

The

reader, this tranflated

dare fay, will wonder to find

by le Jay excepte les Thefe merchants^ as h- calls ncgotiants. the were hufbjndmen, who went them, to Rome every ninth day ; as our farmers go to the next market town to fell the prodiift of their lands, and buy

what they want. Indeed, the Roman hufbandmen, often, went to Rome to tranfail affairs of much greater imporrancc
the fate of their

Fur, upon their refolutions, own country, at firft, and, atterwards, of ail mankind de:

pended.

lands.

Eookir.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

277

and money they had taken from the enemy, he infpired them with a chearfulnefs to ingage in his miHlands, flaves, tary expeditions. XXIX. If any of the citizens

had injured one another,

inftead of delay,

he

iifed

difpatch in determining their dif-

ferences

;

fometimes,

taking cognizance of

them

himfelf,

and, fometimes, referring them to others

; and, always, prothe piiniiliment to the greatnefs of the crime : portioned Finding, alfo, that nothing reftrains men from all evil anions,

he contrived many things to create it ; as the eredinga tribunal, where he fate injudgement, in the moft confpicuous part of the Forum ; the moft formidable
fo efFecTtiially as fear,

appearance of the

attended him, being three hundred in number, and the rods, and axes, borne by twelve
foldiers,

who

whofe offences deferved it, and beheaded others in public, whofe crimes were of the greateft magnitude. This was the conftitution of the
lictors,

who whipped

thofe in the forum,

government mentioned,
the
reft.

eftabliilied

by Romulus

:

For the thino-s,

I

have

fufficiently,

enable us to form a judgement of

XXX.
alfo,

His other adlions, both in war, and peace, which, deferve the notice of hiftory, are as follows. The

neighbouring nations being very confiderable both for their numbers, and their ftrength, and none of them friends to the Rom,ans ; he propofed to gain their affedion by marriages (which, according to the opinion of the ancients, was the firmeft bond of friendfhip) but, that, as the
confidering

Romans

were, newly,

fettled,

and neither powerful in

riches^,

nor-

278

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

IF.

nor fupported by the reputation of any great achievement, tJiofe cities would not, of their own accord, unite with them ;
but that, if violence, without abufe, were employed, they would fubmit to it, he determined, with the approbation of

by grandfather, to effed: thefe marriages a number of After he had taken virgins. feizing, at once, this refolution, he firft: made a vow to the god, who prefides
Numitor,
his

*"

over fecret counfels, to celebrate annual
if his enterprife

facrifices,

and

feftivals,

fucceeded

:

Then, having

laid his

reafons

before the fenate, and they approving the deiign, he proclaimed a feftival, and public games in honor ot Neptune;

and gave notice to the neighbouring cities, inviting all, who were willing, to be prefent at the affembly, and partake of the games For he gave out that there would be prizes of
:

all forts

to be contended for both

by

horfes,

and men.

The

concourfe of Grangers,
children to
aflift at

who came

the feftival,

with their wives, and being very great, after he
in

had performed the
^°"

facrifices,

and games

honor of Neptune,
women
alfo?

Ai' «07r^j.>)? ar«§6fvuv.

Livy

fays

not opened an afylum for

that

Romulus, by

the advice

of the

That being the only means

to pro-

fenate, fent embafiadors to the neighbouring nations to propofe an alliance,

and to dcfire wives This embafly, he
received

for his
fays,

new people

:

vide themfelves with fuitable matches j * Ecquid ncn foeniiuis quoque afylum Id enim deinnm compar aperuijfent ?

was not well

by any

of his neighbours,

defpiled the Romans ; and, at the iame time, apprehended left this power, rifing up in the middle of them,

who

Whether this ineer, connubium fore. which feems not ill applied, was handed down to Livy by the old hiftorians, or was the creature ot his own invenBut it cannot now be known muft be allowed to come with a better a Greek, grace from a Roman, than
tion,
:

might prove
their

fatal

to themfclvcs,

and

and fome of them pofterity ; .alked the embafliidors, why they had
fB.
i.

hiftorian.
c. 9.

the

Bookll.
the
laft

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

279

day, on which he was to difmifs the afienibly, he ordered the young men, when he fliould give the fignal, to feize all the virgins, who were prefent at the fhew, each

taking the firft he met with ; to keep them that night without violating their chaftity, and bring them to him the next The young men divided themfelves into feveral bodies, day.
and, as foon as they faw the iignal, feized the virgins Upon this, the flrangers were in an uproar, and, immediately, fled, The next day, when the fufpeding Tome greater mifchief.
:

were brought before Romulus, he comforted them in their diftrefs with this ailurance, that his people, in feizing them, had no deflgn to infult, but to marry them ; and told them that this was an ancient Greek cuftom, and this mevirgins

thod of contradting marriages, of
trious
;

all

others, the

moft

illuf-

exhorting them to cherifli thofe, whom fortune had Then, taking an account given them for their hufbands
:

of their number, which was found to amount to lix hundred ar.d eighty three, he chofe an equal number of unmarried men, to whom he married them, each according to the

cuftoms of their refpediive countries

by granting
*'•
s

to

them

^'

which he confirmed a communion of fire, and water, in
;

wvpoi V.AI viaJoi. Mivavici Etti Plutarch endeavours, by various rea-

fire,

and water

in marriages, was,
tine

he
;

fays,
I

pour -marquer

parfaite union

prefa-ibed and water But they are all fo trifling, that I fhall not mention them. However, I muft not omit the reafon,
:

the cuftom, that fons, to account for to the bride to touch fire,

fuppofe, becau!e fire, and water agree fo well together ; as well, indeed, as many men, and their wives. Without

entering into the reafons, therefore, of
this

given by
paffage
;

M.
the

upon this of defign making ufe of
E

***

in his note

cuftom, I fhall only fay that, as marriages were contraifled by the ufe of fire, and water, fo, when a man was
i.

Roman. QuaeH,

idle

28o

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

II.

the fame manner as marriages are performed, even, to this
day.

XXXI. Some

write that thefe things happened in the
^^~

firft

but year of Romulus' reign ; in the fourth, which is more probable; for

cnterprife,

Cneius GelHus fays it was it is not likely an undertake fuch would that the chief of a new-built city before he had eftablilhed the government of it.

Some

afcribe the caufe
:

of

this

ravifhment to a fcarcity of
:

women Others, to his feeking a color for a war But thofe, who give the moft rational account of it, and to whom,
alfo, I aifent, attribute it to a

defign of contradling a friendon affinity with the neighbouring cities. The fhip founded Romans, even, to this day, continue to celebrate the feaft,

then inftituted by Romulus, calling it, Confualia, in which a fubterraneous altar, placed near the greateft circus, the
is honoured with facriground being funk for that purpofe, of firft- fruits, and a courfe is run fices, and burnt-offerings both by horfes in chariots, and by fingle horfes The god,
:

to

Confus by the Romans ; which name, according to fome, Signifies, in our language, Iloo-Si^cov cr£/o-;p(9w)/, NepUine^ who JJjakes the earth ;
are paid,
is

whom thefe honors

called

and they
altar,

fay

that he was honoured with a fubterraneous
I

becaufe this god has the command of the earth.

am

banifhed, he was Hiid to be interdided
fire,

and

w..ter.
I is

The moft remarkable Romans
ui

inftance
dict on,

ever met with of this interthe Rogation, as the

cqua et igni iiiterdicntitr? Cicero fays it was drawn, ut Or, inter diElum fit, which he, juftly, cenTiillio

M.

as

callfd

it,
''

drawn up by
Cicero
5

Sextiis Clodius

fured as an abfurd expreffion. <'^Fmiog rsAAio?. See the

25'''

an-

againft

Velitisy jiikatis,
»

notation on the
c.

firft

book.

ProDom.

iS.

fenfible

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS H ALICAR N A SSE NSIS.
is

281

fenfible there

another report ; that the feftival is, indeed, celebrated, and the courfe of the horfes performed in honor of Neptune ; but that the fubterraneous altar was, afterwards,

genius, who prefides over, and is the guardian of, hidden counfels ; and that a fecret altar was never ered:ed to Neptune, in any part of the world, either
erc6i:cd to

fome

"^

ineffable

by the Greeks, or Barbarians

:

But

it is

hard to

affert

which

of thefe opinions is the trueft. XXXII. As foon as the report of the ravifliment of the virgins, and of their marriage, was fpread about the neighbouring cities, fome refented the proceeding; others, conlidering the motive,
it

from whence
it

it

flowed, and the event
But, in

was attended with, bore
it

with moderation.

time,

of which, fome were of fmall confequence, but That againfl: the Sabines was very and full of All which ended confiderable, difficulty
occaiioned feveral wars,
:

hap-

pily,

as the

oracles

had

foretold to

Romulus, before he

made

the attempt, ffgnifying that he ffiould undergo great difficulties, and dangers, but that the event of them would

be profperous.
^3-

The
The

ffrft cities,
tranflators

that

made war upon him,

AxiuoH

dffijlu.

are divided, as ufual, in rendering this, PortLis, and le Jay have given to ccff>ilog the fenfe of unknown, which is ayva^oc, Paul calls tlie unknown god, to as
'

pronounce ; and, for that reafon, called them aff^m B-aa; one of thefe was
Proierpine,
^'-

who

is

called «p'pVof

koo,,

by

whom
lated

Euripides in that truly poetical defcription of the wandering of Ceres in
fearch of her
j

the altar was eredled at Athens,

Sylburgius, and
it

M.

* * * have tranf-

.

properly.

The

ancients,

it

'"' «-^'?C«/^"«f
"^f"'*^*

"^itj

worJhipped fome divinities, whofe names they held it impious to
feems,
'

^''f''*

Adls, c. xvii. f. 23.

It

In Helena, f. 1322.

Vol.

I.

O

o

were

282

ROMAN
^*

AKTIQJJITIES OF
**

Book
:

11.

were

Caenina,

^^

Antemna, and

Cruftumerium

Their

was the ravifhment of the virgins, and the defire toBut their real motive was a jealoufy of the rife, revenge it and fwift increafe of Rome, and a refolution not to fuffer a
pretence
:

common

evil to

grow up, and become formidable

to all

its

greateft

embafladors to neighbours. Thefe cities, therefore, fending the Sabines, defired that, as they were poffefTed both of the themfelves ftrength, and greateft riches, and thought
their neighbours,

worthy of the empire over
:

and had not

the leaft fhare in the late abufe, they would take upon them. For the greater part of the virthe command of the war

them. gins belonged to

XXXIII. When they could not prevail, the embafliidors fent from Romulus oppofing them, and courting that
people both by their words, and adiions, they grew uneafy at the lofs of time (the Sabines, for ever, affecting delays, and
putting off to a long day the deliberation concerning the war) and refolved to make war upon the Romans by themfelves,

not doubting but their own ftrength, if the three nations united their arms, would be fufEcient to conquer

one inconfiderable

city.

This was their refolution

:

But
all

they did not ufe the neceilary expedition to aflemble
^4Kixivy.vn'
it

OToAif TocSnuv.

'

Feftiis

Cenena. near to Rome, but
writes
certainly,
*5-

This town ftood
its fitiiation is

not,

known.
or Antemnae,
lay be-

Ailsiuva,

tween Rome, and the confluence of the Anio, and the Tiber.
*^'

Cruftumcrium, and Cruftumeria, both by Livy, and Pliny. It ftood betwcea the Tiber, and the Anio, about a mile north of Fidenac. " Cluver thinks that Cruftumerium itood upon, or near the hill, on which there is, now, a tower,
called, Maringliano Vecckio.

Kjsfo^f^fov.

This town

is

called
"
Ital.

'Steph. Epitom,

Antiq. B.

ii.

c. 8.

together

Book

II.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.

283

the eagernefs of together in one camp, which was owing to the Caeninenfes, who led out their forces before the reft,

This peopromoters of the war. taken the field, and wafting the ple, therefore, having that lay neareft to their own, Romulus led out his •country,

and Teemed the

greatefl:

army

;

and, unexpededly, falling upon the enemy, while

he made they were, as yet, unprepared to receive him, himfelf mafter of their camp, which was, but newly,
following clofe thofe, who fled into the where they had, as yet, received no account of the city, defeat of their people; and, finding the walls, unguarded, and

formed

;

then,

the gates open, he took the town by ftorm, and the king xDf the Caeninenfes meeting him with a ftrong body of men,

he charged him, and, killing him with
ofi:'

his

own
this

hands, took

his

fpoils.

XXXIV. The town

being taken in

manner,

he

ordered the inhabitants to deliver up their arms ; and, taking as many of their fons for hoftages, as he thought fit, he
againft the Antemnates. defeated, in the like manner, by falling

marched

Their

forces,

alfo,

he

upon them unawares,

while they were, yet, difperfed in foraging; and, having treated the prifoners like the others, he returned hom^e with
his

army, carrying with him the fpoils he had taken in battle, and the choiceft part of the booty, as an offering to
the gods; to

whom,

facrifices.

Romulus
that he

together with thefe, he offered many himfelf came laft in the proceffion,

clad in a purple robe, his hair
iaurel,

bound with a crown of
o 2
in

and,

might maintain the royal dignity,

O

,

284
'''

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
drawn by four
horfcs.

Book

II.

in a chariot

The

reft

of the army

both foot and horfe followed, ranged in their fcveral diviiions, hymning the gods in fongs of their country, and
celebrating

were met

who, ranging tulated them upon

general with extemporary verfes. They by the citizens with their wives, and children ; themfelves on each fide of the way, congratheii:

their vidory,

and expreffed,

other inflance, the greateft aifedion for them.
"

every When the

in

TiS^

o-u'^iCti
fit

Plu-

tarch has thought

to cenfiire

Diotri-

that nyfius for faying a chariot; in umphed

Romulus

Livy, who fays, fahricato ad id aplc fercido, m\\)co6k fercidum, for a chariot. * * * This note both le and
Jay,

"

M.

which cuftom,

have

he
as

fays,

was, afterwards, introdured,
;

fome authors write, by Tarquinius, the fon of Damaratus and, as others, he has not However, by Poplicola.
thought
fit

to

name

thefe authors.

If

he had, we fhould have been able to judge whether their authority defervcd better to be oppofed to That of our I believe, the author, than his own. lines few a reafon he gives, before, for

former owning from whom he had it, and the other not. Cafaubon's fancy fuppofes two things; the firft, that Dionyfius had read Livy, which I do not believe ; becaufe he never mentions him among the other Latin hiftorians, whom he,
tranflated
•,

the

quary

contradi6ling Varro, the greateft antithe Romans ever had, will not,

often, quotes ; and I have, upon another occafion, fliewn p, I think, that it is probable Livy's hiftory did noe appear before That of our author The other fuppofition is, that Dio:

greatly,

recommend

his authority

to

Hand Latin enough
cid'um did

nyfius, being a Greek, did not underto know that fcr^

Varro had derived Opima a fpoUa, Spoils taken from general by a as Thofe Romulus took, fuch general, trom Opis, which fignifies Riches : This derivation Plutarch finds fault with, and fiys, very abfurdly, that
the reader.

not fignify a chariot.

In

oppofition to this,

we muft remember

what cur author has told us in his preface, that he had lived twenty two years at Rome, and made hi mfclf mailer of the Latin After language
:

Opima fpolia may, with greater proprifrom opus. Cafaubon ety, be derived
obfcrves,

which,
a

it is

ridiculous to imagine that

man of

upon

this

occafion,

That

fiiould not,

his parts, and application, in fo long a time, have

given
"

Dionyfius, being a Greek, and unacthe Latin language, as quainted with he fuppofes, in reading the account, of this triumph of Romulus by
Life of Romulus.
"

underftood Latin as well as an Eton, or Wcftminller fcholar; moft of whom,. I dare f;y, know the fignification of
fercuhun.
Sec the eighth annotation on the
fird

B.

i.

c.

1

o.

r

book.

army

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS HA LI C ARN ASSENSIS.
^^

285

of wine, and tables fpread with all forts of viduals, which were placed before the houfes of the moft confiderable to the perfons,

army

entered the city, they found

bowls

full

end that

all,

who

was the vi6lorious

Such might fitisfy themfelves. proceflion, in which trophies were carried,
pleafed,

and

facrifices offered
firft

up, called, by the

which was

inftituted

Romans, a Triumph^ But, in our time, by Romulus.
oftentatious,

thefe triumphs are

become very expeniive and
theatrical

and attended with a
to

pomp,

that feems calculated
;

fhew

their riches, rather

than their virtue

and, in which,

they have departed, in all refpeds, from their ancient fruAfter the procefTion, and the facrifice, Romulus gality.

temple, on the top of the Capitoline hill, to Jupiter, whom the Romans call ^"^Feretrius: For the ancient traces of it ftill remain, of which the longeft fides are lefs
built a fmall

In this temple, he confecrated the fpoils of the king of the Caeninenfes, whom he had killed with his own hand. Jupiter Feretrius, to whom Romulus de~
fifteen feet
:

than

^^'
Kec'y.Y,^i-\

ojvw

j;£xf«^£vai?.

Ks^«i;

rcan

ufcd here by our author in the fame fenfe the poets ufc the word, that is, to fill, without any regard to mixture ;
is

; and, by his princrples, ought not to have been foHcitous about the

reparation of temples.

'I"he

philofoas

thus,

1

Homer
^

phy of Epicurus gained ground among
the

fays,
f

Romans

in

proportion

they
:

1
5 ^

fl

were loling their hberty, and, the paV

Upon
^9-

which, the

Greek

fchoHaft, very

rent 01 that hberty, their virtue It being very natural for men, who were

well, obferves, vuv
e\i\/y;()citxf'

£ve;^f£v attq Tr,; ot^^aioi;

plunging
firlt

«f Ki^xi yit^ iy^ic\'^.i'; iTrmcv. ''NsMv Aisf^j^iJ^is. This temple

vice, that their acflions

their country into flavery,and to wifh, and then to believe,

Auguftus repaired very extraordinary, he repaired it by the advice of Atticus, who was an Epicu;
"3

and, what

is

were fecure from the and of Prcchaltifement obfervation,

vidence

!

Ootrr.

:.

^. 93-

"

Corn. Nep. Life of Atdcus,

dicated

i86.

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
T^oituisy^oc,

OF
;

Book

II.

dicated thefe ai'ms, may, without deviating from the truth,

The T-rophy-bearer I,xvXo(popo<;, 'The Spoil-bearer^ as feme are of opinion \ or TTrs^ps^frnCj Excelienf ; becaufe he excels all things, and comprehends
be called either
tiniverfal nature,

and motion.

After the king had performed the facrifices to the gods in thankfgiving for his vidory, and offered up the choicest of the booty, before he entered upon any other
bufinefs,

XXXV.

he aflembled the fenate to deliberate with them

in

what manner
himfelf
firft

the conquered cities were to be treated ; he delivering the opinion he thought the beft.

After

all

the fenators,

who were

prefent,

the counfels of their chief, as fafe to all the other advantages, that were likely great applaufe to flow from them to the commonwealth, not only for the
prefent,

had approved of and generous, and given

he called together all the women, who belonged to the Antemnates, and Caeninenfes, and had been feized with the reft And, when they appeared before
but for ever
after,
:

him

lamenting, throwing themfelves at his feet, and bewailing the calamities of their country, he commanded them to ceafe their lamentations, and be fllent ; then, fpoke to

them as follows " with all the
*'

*'
:

cities,

Your fathers, and brothers, together to which you belong, deferve to meet
:

"
*'

with every kind of feverity, for having preferred an unHowneceffary and difhonourable war to our friendfliip
ever,

*'

have refolved, for with moderation ; to which

we

many reafons, to treat them we are induced both by our
" the

*'

fear

of the indignation of the gods, ever ready to punifli

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS ExN S IS.

z%'j

" the and by our appreliendon of the envy of arrogant, " men and ; are, alfo, perfuaded that mercy does not, a " little, contribute to alleviate the common evils, to vi'hich

" mankind

are

fubjeit,

as

we

ourfelves have, formerly,
:

" ftood in need of That of others And your behaviour to " vour hufbands having been, hitherto, blamelef<?, we are " of that this will be no fmall honor, and return
opinion
it
:

" "

go unpuniflitake from fellow-citizens neither their ed, and your liberty, " their nor other aay advantages they enjoy : poileffions, " And to thofe, who chufe to flay there, as well as to fuch,

for

We

fuffer their offence, therefore, to

"

as are delirous to

remove

hither,

we

grant

full

liberty

to^

" make their option; not only without danger, but with" out fear of But, to the end they may never repenting. " their fault ; and, that no occalion may be found repeat
*^'

to induce the cities to break with us, the beft

remedy,

and That, which will, at the fame time, conduce to the " and fecurity of both, will be, to make thofe reputation, ** cities colonies of Rome, and to fend a proper number of " our own people from hence to inhabit them, jointly, with *' citizens. Go away, therefore, fatislied; and your fellowredouble your love, and regard for your hufbands, to
*'

whom

your parents, and brothers owe their prefervation,
their
liberty."

hearing this, were greatly, pleafed, and, fhedding tears of joy, left the Romulus fent a colony of three hundred men into forum.

and your countries

The women,

each

city,

to

whom

thefe gave a third part of their lands to
lot
;

be divided

among them by

and thofe Caeninenfes, and
Antemnates,

28B

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
who
deiired to

Book

II.

Antemiiates,
tiiither

together with their with taining the poffeffion of their lands, and bringing
all their effeds.

remove to Rome, he conveyed wiv^es, and children, they re-

them

Thefe,

who were

not

lefs

than three thou-

fimd, the king, immediately, incorporated with the tribes, and the curiae : So that, the Romans had then, for the firft

time, {ix thoufand foot, in

all,

upon the

regifter.
cities,

Caenina, and Antemna, no inconfiderable
habitants were of

Thus, whofe in-

Greek extraction (for they were, then, inhabited by the Aborigines, who had taken them from the Siceli, and who, as I faid before, were part of thofe Oenotri, who came out of Arcadia) after this war, became Roman
colonies.

XXXVI. Romulus,
his

having finifhed thefe things, led out

againft the Cruftumeri, than the former to receive him :

army

who were

better prepared

them both
city,

in a pitched battle,

And, after he had reduced and in an aflault upon their

they having behaved themfelves with great bravery, he did not think fit to punifh them any farther, but made this city, alfo, a Roman colony, like the two former.

Cruftumerium was a colony of the Albans, planted many The fame of the gebefore the building of Rome. years
war, and of his clemency to the conquered being fpread through many cities, feveral brave men joined
neral's valor in

him, bringing with them confiderable powers, together with their whole families From one of thejfe leaders, who
:

came from Tyrrhenia, and whofe name was
the
hills,

Caelius, one of
:

on which he

fettled,

is,

to this day, called Caelius

Whol e

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN A SS ENSIS.
cities,

289

Whole

alfo,

fubmitted to him, after

tlie

example of
Sabines,

^"Medullia, and became

Roman

colonies.

The

and accufed one another feeing thefe things, grew uneafy, for not having crulhed the power of the Romans, while it
was in
its

infancy
it,

contend with
determined,

inftead of which, they were, now, to when it was, greatly, increafed They
;
:

former error, by into the field. And, foon after, fending a confiderable army
therefore,

to corredl

their

in the greateft and moft digaifembling a general council ^' nified city of the nation, called Cures, they all gave their votes for the war, and appointed Titus, furnamed Tatius,
kino- of the Curetes, to be their general.

After the Sabines

affembly broke up, and made preparations for the war, every one, returning home, to Rome, with a great army, the defigning to advance

had come

to this refolution, the

following year. XXXVII. In the

mean

time,

beft preparations he was able to ; being fenfible that he was to defend himfelf againft a warlike people.
7°-

Romulus, receive them

alfo,

made

the

MiSv^hiot.

This town flood

in

the neighbourhood of Rome, and near the confines of the Sabines ; and was
Ic a colony of the Albans. belonged to the Latines, as our author informs ' book ; Mi«v is wohiv us in the third
IK T!j Aalivwv fSus^f

not far from the river Himella, now calkdL'Jia, and fomething more than twenty five Roman miles north from Rome. This citygave two kings to the Romans,Tatius, and Numa, arid, alfo,

7"
:

Kujif.

MiSvKKixv. This city, the capital of

gave name to the Romans themfelves, who, from thence, were called Quirires.
"

Kvf k,

«|

y,i

u§ia>!\i1o

ol

T>jf

Pwutjf

/3«o-i-

the Sabines, has,

long fince, lain in But it is fuppoled to have ftood ruins on the fpot, where there is, now, a fmall
'

Mv(!-a\liiTiJo;Ta1io;,xat'Niificcinoy.7rth,ci. Evltv^iv ii kui Kuc,7«f ol
ovo[Ax^ii(nv
j^o^svlsy ras Pw^u^isf.

<?>;,«>)-

monaftery, called,
s

ilVefcovio di Sahina,
'

C. 34.

Cluver, Ital. Ant. B.

ii.

c.

9.

«

Strabo,

B. v, p. ^49,

Vol.

I.

Pp

With

290

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
this viev/,

OF

Book
hill,

II.

With

he

railed the wall

of the Palatine

by

building higher works
inhabitants,

upon

it,

as a farther

fecurity to the

and furrounded the adjacent hills, the '* Aventine, and That, now, called the Capitoline hill, with ditches, and
ftrong palifades
:

Upon thefe hills,

he ordered the hufbandmen,

with

each of them by a fufficient guard ; and, if any other place could contribute to their fecurity, he fortified That, alfo, with ditches, and
palifades,

their flocks, to pafs the nights, fecuring

and placed a guard

there.

In the

mean

time, there

came
friend
72-

to

him

a

man

of adivity, and reputation for military

achievements, whofe
;

name was Lucumo,

lately,

become
^'

his

who brought with him, out
AuEilivov.

of the city of
Ex

Solonium,
of the
this
city.
is

Tov

M.

"***, in his

note

making
73*

this hill a part
"EoAcovt^i

fays that Dionyfius upon contradids himfelf by laying, in the third book, that Anciis Martius/w///?this paflTage,

arsAfoif.

There

a

note in

which
it

M. ***

Hudfon upon

occafion,

ed this
is

However, the contradidion not owing to our author, but to his
hill.

has tranflated, whereby

mifreprefentation

of our author's fenle

;

appears that there muft be fome miftake in the name of this city, there not having been any city fo called in

which

plainly, appear by comthe terms made ufe of by Dioparing In this in thcfe two places. nyfius
will,

Cluver is there cited for Tyrrhenia. Vetulonium inftead of Soloreading nium, which is a very reafonable conjedture , fince Vetulonium was one of the twelve principal cities of Etruria, and fo confiderable, that the enfigns of magiftracy, afterwards, in ufe at

"

before us, he fays that Romulus furrounded the Aventine hill with a ditch,

and ftrong palifades

;

Tov Auulmov utto-

the other pafTage, he fays A«f*S«vMv. In that Ancus Martius made no fmall

Rome, were thought
vented there
•,

to have been in-

Aventine

addition to the city by inclofing the hill within its walls ; ry ztoAh
AfyojwsVov Au«»1tvof. to the vifibly, relates

Silius Italicus, ver, to fay,

which gave occafion to " quoted, alfo, by Clu-

The

firft,

therefore,
for-

Maeoniaeque deem quondam Vetulonia

^entlt :

extemporary

tification

made by Romulus
;

Bhfenoi haec prima dedit praecedcre fa/ccj, Et junxit lotidem taclto terrore :
Haec
fecurts alias eboris dccora'vit bonnre curules,
cf.ro.

to repulfe

the Sabint'S

and the other, to the
* B.
ii.

Etprinceps Tyrio I'efemfratUxuit
'

c. 2,

B.

viii.

a con-

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS H A LICA RN ASS ENSI S.

291

a

number of auxiliary forces coniiftiiig of Tyrrhenians. There came to him alfo, from the Albans, fent by his grandfather, a good number of foldiers with their
confiderable

making warUke engines Thefe men were fuppHed with provifions, arms, and all other neceffaries. When every thing was ready for the war on both fides, the Sabines, defigning to take the field in the
attendants,
:

and, with them,

artificers for

beginning of the fpring, refolved, firft, to fend embalTadors to the enemy, with orders both to require the women to be
to home, and to demand fatisfadion for feizinp- them the end that, being denied it, they might feem under a
fent
;

neceffity

to enter

they fent
that the to

upon the war With this view, therefore, embaffadors. But Romulus thought itreafonable
:

fince they themfelves were not unwilling live with their hulbands, fliould be fuffered to remain

women,
;

but confented to grant them any thing elfe they defired, provided they applied to him in a friendly manner, and
did not begin the war

with them

However, they, agreeing to nothing he propofed, marched out with their army, which confided of twenty five tkoufand foot, and near a thoufand horfe. The Roman army was not much inferior in number, the
:

^'^

74-

Auw
(J'

*** thinks it is not credible that the army of Romulus fliould be fo numerous ; fince, after he had incorporated the Caeninenfes, and Antemnates with his own people, the whole number did not exceed fix thoufand, as we have ften ; and it is not to be believed, he fays,
ox7«>cor<(ii

f/.s»

«i

1U1

Tut^ocv

|Uu^i«j£f,

iTTTrwr.

M.

and the other cities could have lupphed him with fourteen thoufand more. But he
feems to have forgotten that our author has, already, told us that many brave menhad, before,joined him with confiderable forces, befidcs Caelius-,
that

that Caelius, the Medullini,

many
2

cities

had fubmitted

to

him,

befidcs Medullia; that

Lucumo had
foot

Pp

292
foot

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Book

11.

amounting to twenty thoufand, and the horfe to eight This army, being divided into, two bodies, inhundred.

camped before the city One of which bodies, commanded by Romulus himfelf, was pofted on the EfquiHne hill ; the
other,

on the Quirinal
:

hill,

which was

not, then,

by that name

This divilion was under the

known command of

Lucumo, the Tyrrhenian. XXXVIII. Tatius, king of the

Sabines, being informed

of their preparations, decamped in the night, and marched through the country without doing any damage to the inhabitants, and, before fun
lies
rife,

incamped on the
hills:

plain, that

between the Quirinal, and Capitoline
all

ferving

But, obthe pofts to be, ftrongly, guarded by the enemy,
left tor

and

no place of ftrength
under
great
his troops

his

army,

he found
to

himfelf

perplexity,

not

knowing how

employ
relieved

while he remained there.

But he was

from
;

fortune

anxiety by an unexpedled piece of good the ftrongefl: of the fortrefTes being delivered
this

up

joined him,

alfo, with a good number of forces, bcfides the Alban fuldiers, and the artificers fent by his grandfather: And I cannot think it incre-

and Dionyfius, among the
rally give
it

reft,

"-ene-

a'dative cafe

upon

thoie

occalions.

However, Herodotus, who was much admired by our author, as

dible

that

all

thefe

together might

we

amount to There is an

fouiteen

thoufand

men.

find in his critical works, ufes this in the fame manner; prcpofition

exprefTion, madeufe of by our author a few lines before, which well deferved the attention of the

where, fpeaking of the erroneous opinion the Aegyptians entertained that

Cambyfes was
ofApries, he
tok
t7(uy\,a\'lM

the fon of the daughter
^

commentators
jrou iTTi Tavloi
;

•,

it is

this, K>;<>vitaf f?rE^-

fays,

here

we

Kv^cv ya^
AfAuaiv
EIII

««»

ufed for pofition £7ri accufative cafe-, whereas, moll authors,
y

find the prea caufe with an

wa^x

THN

OTFATEPA,
c. a,

«AA' v K«uCu(rE«.

In Thalia,

to

Bookll.
to

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

293

the following adventure. For, while the Sabincs were pafling by the foot of the Capitoline hill, to view the
place,

him by

whether any part of the hill could be taken either by furprize, or force, they were obferved from the eminence by a virgin, whofe name was Tarpeia, the dauo-h-

and

fee

ter

of a

man

of diftindion,
as

who commanded

in the place
^^

:

both Fabius, and Cincius write, had a mind to the bracelets, which they wore on their left arms,

This

virgin,

and

to their

rings:

For, at that time, the Sabines wore
inferior to the

ornaments of gold, and were, in no degree,

But, according to the account Tyrrhenians in elegance. the cenforian, in his hiftory, the defire given by Lucius Pifo,

of doing a great adiion led her to deprive the enemy of their
defenfive arms, and, in that condition, to deliver
to her fellow-citizens.
trueft,

them up
is

But which of

thefe accounts

the

may be conjedured by what happened

afterwards.

fending out one of her maids by a little gate, which was not known to be open, defired the to come, and confer with her in private, king of the Sabines and to of affair commuan as having neceflity, importance nicate to him : Tatius, in hope of having the place betrayed to him, accepted the propofal, and came to the place ap^^ as near as the when the virgin, approaching pointed ;

This

virgin, therefore,

IS-

E^ai^ (ififx^iJai

ruv

^

v]/«AXiwv.

Livy

treats this

and rather thinks flie v/as bribed by Tatius Hovrever that to admit the Sabines to be, cur author has taken care
account
as a fable,
:

fecure himfelf under the authority of Fabius, and Cincius.
76-

Ek
this,

ftpfulov.

Sylburgius has tranfIdtenlijime.

hted
is

quam poiiiit

This

may

not the fenfeof the word, which has

»

B.

i.

c. II,

nature

294

ROMAN
flie

ANTia.UITIES OF

Book

IT.

nature of the place would allow, informed him that her father was, uoon fome occafion, gone out of the fortrefs that night,

but that

kept the keys of the gates

;

and,

if

they

the night, fhe would deliver up the place to condition that they gave her, as a reward for the treachery, which all the Sabines wore on their left arms. thofe
things,

came in them upon

This being confented to by Tatius, Hie received

his afilirance

on oath for the performance of this agreement, and gave the fame to him ; then, having appointed the ftrongeft part of the fortrefs, to which the Sabines were to repair, and the
moft unguarded hour of the night for the enterprize, fhe returned without being difcovered by thofe within. XXXIX. So far all the Roman hiftorians agree, but not
in what follows.

For

Pifo,

the cenforian,

whom

I

men-

tioned before, fays, that a meffenger was fent out of the to give intelHgence to Roplace by Tarpeia in the night mulus of the agreement made by her with the Sabines (in

confequence of which flie propofed, by taking advantage of the ambiguity of the expreffion in that agreement, to

demand

their defenlive arms) deiiring

him, at the fame time,

to fend a reinforcement to the fortrefs that night, by the " with their cornafiiftance of the

which,

enemy,

together

Jvvoilov.

nothing to do with Hefychius.

fecrecy.

E?>iKlov,

meat

qu'ellc pi/t.
le

Portus, and, confeit

The

fidelity

of

quently,

Jay, have tranflated tm
?-^a7t!A.«7>!.

very

Sylburgiiis. though it is, often, of advantage to liim, fometimes leads him intoafnare; as
*,

M.

* *

in

tranflating

properly. 7t Aolu

Cafaubon,

For it has done upon this occafion he has rendered his miftake Hterally ;
:

veryjuftly, obferves that Portus, by defiring to add the praepofition cw, did not confiJer that this Atticifm is,
often,

Tdrpcia

j'j

rendil auffi le plus feastte-

to

be met with in the Greek

mand er.

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
their arms,

295
pri-

mander, being deprived of
foners
:

might be taken

that the mejGTenger, deferting to the king of the Sabines, acquainted him with the deiign of Tarpeia.

But,

However, Fabius, and Cincius, fay there was no fuch thing ; on the contrary, they affirm that the virgin obferved her But they all agree, again, in what treacherous compact For they fay that, upon the approach of the king follows.
:

of the Sabines with a detachment of his befl troops, Tarpeia, in execution of her promife, opened the gate agreed upon,
to the

enemy; and,

calling

up the

garrifon,

would

known

fave themfelves, immediately, by to the enemy, as if the Sabines had,
:

defired they other outlets un-

mafters of the place the Sabines, finding the gates open, and the place deferted, themfelves of it And that Tarpeia, alledging that poflefled {he had performed her part of the agreement, infifted upon
:

already, been That, after the retreat of the garrifon,

receiving the reward of her oaths.

to their treachery, according

Tarpeia Tatius refented

the Sabines being ready again, Pifo fays that to give the virgin the gold they wore on their left arms, demanded their fhields, not their ornaments : That the impofition, and, at the fame time, which thought of an expedient not to violate the agreement ; was to give her the fhields, as the maid defired, but to find
authors.

XL. Here,

This

is

fo true, that I fcarce

tovT

auya-t ^oiffe-i*

know

a good writer, who does nor, I Ihall, therefore, conoften, ufe It. tent myfelf with quoting one mftance

Av^^a^

sf

ahhoiuTns^.

^

of

this

Atucifm from

"

Homer,

J

^^.^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^
^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^

means

296

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
that
(lie

OF
;

Book

II.

means
the

fliould

make no
:

ufe of t!iem

and,

imme-

diately,

threw

his fhield at her

with

all his force,

and ordered

reft to

do the fame
fell

all fides,

that Tarpeia, thus pelted on under the number, and force of the blows,
their fhields.

And

and died overwhelmed with
tributes this coUufion in the

But Fabius

at-

performance of the agreement
their contradl,

to the Sabines

:

For they, being obliged, by

to give her the ornaments of gold, as fhe deiired, repined at the greatnefs of the reward, and threw their fhields at her,

had ingaged themfelves by their oaths to give her But what followed gives the greater appearance of thefe. For fhe was honoured with a truth to the opinion of Pifo
as if they
:

monument

in the place
hill

where

flie
:

fell,

and

lies

buried on

any of thefe honors either from thofc fhe had betrayed, or from thofe, by whom fhe was killed ; but, if there had been any remains of her body, in of time, have they would, procefs
•been

of the city And the Romans every year, perform libations to her (I relate what Pifo writes) whereas, if flie had loft her life in betraying her country to the enemy, it is not probable flie would have received
the moft facred

dug up, and caft out of the city, in order to deter, and warn others from committing the like crimes. But let

'^

every one judge of thefe things as he pleafes. XLI. However Tatius, and the Sabines, being maftcrs of a ftrong fortrefs, and having, without any trouble, taken " carried on the greateft part of tl>e Romans the baggage,
78-

The

^oS.. that (poQof IS ufed adtively in this place, and fignifies terror, not fear.

reader will oblerve

glad

I am very z.oAf,ucv <Rf^if,v. can do M. « * '* the iuftice to lay that he is the only one, of the four
I

79-

Tov

war

BooklT.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N A SSEN SI S.

297

war, now, with feciirity: And, as the armies lay incainped at a Tmall diftaiice from each other, fev^eral attempts were

made, and fl<:irmi(hes happened on many occafions, vv^hich were not attended with any great advantages, or loffes to either party. Afterwards, two pitched battles were fought,
the forces on both fides ingaged with the and each of them loft a confiderable greateft animofity ; number of men. While the time was thus prolonged, they
in which,
all

both came to the fame refolution, which was, to decide, by a general ingagement, the fortune of the war Whereupon,
:

the leaders of both armies, confummate in the art of war, and the foldiers ufed to a6lion, advancing to the plain, that between the two camps, performed many memorable lay
actions, as well in attacking, as in receiving the
rallying,

enemy

;

in

and renewing the fight with equal advantage. Thofe, who, from the ramparts, were fpedlators of this
doubtful battle, which, often varying, alternately inclined to each fide, when their own people had the advantage, inand fpired them with frefii courage by their exhortations,
fhouts; and,

when

they were

prefixed,

: a total mifbehaviour, by their By which, both armies were compelled to fupport the dreadful incidents of the battle, even beyond their ftrength.

and purfued, prevented lamentations prayers, and

The ingagement
trandators,
:

having, in this manner, lafted

all

that day,

who has rendered this pafwith All the reft have propriety fage that it this ienfe they protracted given the war ; whereas, he has tranftated it
•,

fimply, faire la guerre.
the fenfe
''

And

this is

Herodotus

his given

to

rov ocjwvat, to live, in ihe letter, Sia'^fi^H)!

he fays, Amafis writ to Polycrates.
c.

b

In Thalia,

40.

Vol.

I.

Q^q

without

29S

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
fide,

Book

II.

without any advantage on either

and night coming

on, they both, willingly, retired to their

XLII. The
care of the

camps. their dead, took following days, they buried
their armies, and, refolving

own

wounded, reinforced
battle,

upon another

met, again,

in the

fame plain; and

fought till night, when the Romans had the advantage in both wings ; the right being commanded by Romulus
himfelf; and the
left

the center, the battle

by Lucumo, the Tyrrhenian But, in remained as yet undecided ; one man
:

preventing the intire defeat of the Sabines
troops, that gave way,

he brought His name was Metius Curtius, victory with the conquerors a perfon remarkable for his ftrength, and perfonal courage ;
:

and, by rallying the them, again, to difpute the
;

but, chiefly, celebrated for his contempt of every danger, and every fear. This man commanded in the center, and

had overcome

thofe,

who

oppofed him

to reftore the battle in the wings

But, being defirous alfo, where the Sabine
:

troops were, already, prefled, and their lines forced, he encouraged thofe about him ; and, purfuing that part of the enemy's forces, that fled, and was difperfed, drove them to

This obliged Romulus to leave the vidory imperfedt, and, returning from the purfuit, to haften to that part of the This deenemy, that was vidlorious.
the gates of
:

Rome

parture of Romulus with his forces gave an opportunity to" the Sabines, who had been difordered, to renew the flght

upon equal terms; and
Curtius,

the whole danger, now,
troops.

fell

upon

For fome time, ths Sabines received the onfet of the Romans, and fought with

and

his victorious

great

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
:

299

But, being attacked by greater numbers, themfelves by retiring to their they gave way^ and faved camp ; Curtius fecuring their retreat, and preventing their
great gallantry

were in diforder ; which gave being purfued, while they them an opportunity of retiring without precipitation For
:

he flood his ground, and fought, and received Romulus, when he attacked him in perfon. Here, infued a great and between the leaders themfelves But glorious ingagement Curtius, having received many wounds, and loft much blood, retired by degrees, till he came to a deep lake, round which
:

it

was

difficult for

him

to advance, the

enemy being
through
it,

pofted

on

all fides

of

it ;

and impoflible

to pafs

it

from

the quantity of

mud,

that furrounded

and the depth of

waters, that were gathered together in the middle : When he came to the lake, armed as he was, he threw himfelf
into the water:

fuppofing he would, imable to purfue mediately, perifli in the lake, and not being fo much mud, and water, turned upon the reft him

And Romulus,

through of the Sabines
at laft, out

:

But Curtius, with great

difficulty,

got

fafe,

of the lake, without quitting his arms, and was This place is now filled up ; but is led away to the camp. called, from this adventure, the Lake Curtius^ being about
the middle of the

Roman

forum.

XLIII. Romulus, while he purfued the reft, advanced near the capitol, and had great hopes of making himfelf mafter of the place ; but, being weakened by many wounds, and hurt by a fevere ftroke with a ftone, which, having been thrown, at him from a high place, had hit him on the temple,

Q^q

2

he

3C0

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
were feized with

Book

II.

he was taken up half dead by thofe about him, and carried When the Romans, no longer, faw their into the city.

and the right wing fled But the troops, that were polled on the left commanded much celeby Lucumo, encouraged by their leader, a man brated for military achievements, and who had performed
leader, they
fear,
:

many

the courfe of this war, ftood their great actions during
for

But he himfelf being pierced through the fides with a javelin, and falling through weaknefs, they Upon which, the whole Roman army fled ; gave way alfo and the Sabines, imboldened by their flight, purfued them
ground

fome time

:

:

they approached the gates, they were repulfed; the youth, whom the king had appointed to CTuard the walls, fallying out upon them with frefli forces 3
to the city
:

But,

when

and Romulus, who, by this time, was, in fome degree, recovered of his wound, coming out to their afliflance with
the fate of the battle turned, and, poflible expedition, in fiiv^or of the Romans For thofe, who greatly, changed themfelves from their late fear at the unfled, recovered
all
:

looked-for appearance of their leader j and forming, that inftant attacked the enemy ; while the Sabines, who were,
then, ^"driving the others into the city, and
*°* K.cilfipyovle;
otJl^/c.

^'

made no doubt

Kalw^j/jtwviif,

xathis

T«Kf)t^«o•"e^of.
is

Hefychius.

And

the fenle

the trandators ought to

This exprefnon has great and is taken from Herodoelegance, tus, whofe ftyle our author fo often
to
ji^^i

etc.

which Syldone. Portus have Jay has laid, qui vera tuni imra nicenia fe which would be very well, coittinebatit if our author had faid i«a1«^j/ov7« ixvl^^.
have
triven to this
le

word

-,

imitates, that

I

may

venture to affirm

bur^ius, and
;

no man can be
the latter,

who

qualified to tranflate has not, in a good

meafure, acquainted, himfelf with the manner of the former. Cyrus (1 mean

*'•

Ke!< mSiiJ.n3i.v

oioiA'cvoi ^;3;^«v)jv

eiv«i

thefounder ofthePerfianempirejhad a

of

Eookir.

DIONYSIUS HALI C ARN A SSENSIS,
it

301

by ftorm, when they fliw this fudden and unexpected change, thought of providing for their own fafety But they found it no eafy matter to retreat to their camp,
of taking
:

being purfued from an eminence, and through a hollow way ; and, in this rout, happened ^"the great lofs tliey fuflained. After they had thus fought a doubtful battle that day, and both met with unexpedled turns of fortune, the fun, now,
being near his fetting, they parted. XLIV. The following days, the Sabines held a council, in which they deliberated whether they fhould return with
their forces, after they

had done

enemy's country, or fend for profecute the war with conftancy,
jealoufy of Darius, the fon of Hyftafpes, and then adds, '^bjcwy sfj i^r,x,<'^y>] cctto ini
cv|/(Of Tix\jh; aii-jxiti

damage to the another army from home, and
all

poflible

till,

by a vidory, they

that Sy Iburgius had no reafon to change to /4» into t^ fxtj, notwithftanding the

to

fj.r,

khvcv cTTtSisAiveiv

authority of
Jefs

tlie
it is,

Vatican manufcripr,
has reftored
certainly,

need not point out to the (fAoi. learned reader the analogy between this expreffion, and That our author has made uie of upon this occafion. The Latin tranflator of Herodotus has rendered this very properly, though not very elegantly, by fndla duhitatio.
I

which, though
paflages,
.

numberdefeflive
.

in this,
^^-

O

aroAu? (fovof.

This

particle

0',

which makes
For,

is

very ex'prefTJve in Greek,
cpovof

a -great alteration in the fenfe:

zsoKm^

ymon, which
widely,
firft

all

the

Our

Englifh tranflator of that author,
I find, has left out the fentence. Had Sylburgius con-

rranflators

have exprefled
differs,
•,

in their fe-

Littlebury,

veral verfions,

from
x\\zx

whole

woAu?

(povof yi\{\a.i

the

fignifying

fidered this paflage of Herodotus, he could not have rendered That, before
us, nee ulh'.m ohjlare machinamentmn futabant quo minus, etc. However, he has been followed, in his error, by

a great Jlaughter, and the other,

the great Jlanghter happened upon that I know there is a occafion. great difficulty in rendering thcfe powers of the

has faid que rien ne pouvoit les enipechsr de prendre leur ville. This pafTage of Herodotus, alfo, fhews

M.

***,

who

Greek language, in any other Bur, every reader expedls that a tranflator fliould, at leaft, attempt it.
:

«

In Clio,

c.

2og,

ihould

302

ROMAN
an end to
confidered that

ANTIC^JITIES OF
it it

Book

II.

fliould put

in the

moft honourable manner.

They

them, both to

would be of bad confequence to return home with the Hiame of having efFeded

nothing, and to ftay there, when none of their attempts As to a treaty with the fucceeded to their expedation.

enemy concerning an accommodation, which they looked upon as the only honourable means of putting an end to the war, they thought it not more convenient to them, than to the Romans. On the other fide, the Romans were, not lefs,
but, even more, perplexed than the Sabines, what courfe to For they could refolve neither take in the prefent juncture
:

to reftore the

women, nor

to retain

the

firft

to be attended with an

looking upon acknowledgement of their
;

them

defeat,
elfe,

and with a

necefiity of fubmitting to every thing

that fhould be impofed upon them ; and the other with many difmal fcenes in the defolation of their country, and the deflru6lion of the flower of their youth : And, if

they

lliould offer to treat of peace

with the Sabines, they defpaired

of obtaining any favourable conditions, for many reafons ; but, chiefly, becaufe haughty men treat an enemy, who
courts them, with feverity, rather than moderation. XLV. While both were confuming the time in thefe
confiderations, daring neither to renew the fight, nor treat of the Romans, who were Sabines, and the peace, the wives of caufe of the war, aflembling together, without their hufbands,
after

confultation
firfl

among

themfelves, determined to

make

the

The

mention of an accommodation to both armies. who propofed this meafurc to tlie refl of the perfon,

women.

BooklT.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
called Herfilla, a \\'oman of

303

women, was

no obfcure birth
being already:

among

the Sabines.

Some have

faid that,

But married, {he was feized with the virgins as a maid thofe, who give the moft probable account, fay, that fhe
with her daughter by her own confent For, according to them, her only daughter was, alfo, raviflied among the
ftaid
:

reft.

came to thefenate; and, having obtained audience, they made a long harangue, in which they, earneftly, deiired leave to go their relations; exprefling great hopes of uniting the two
After the

women had

taken

this refolution,

they

nations,

When

of eftablifhing friendfhip between them. the fenators, who were prefent with the king in

and

council, heard this, they were, exceedingly, pleafed, and looked upon it as the only expedient in their prelent difficulties. Upon which, a decree of the fenate was made to this

effed ; That thofe Sabine

women, who had children,

fliould,

with their hulbands, have permiflioii upon leaving them in the quality of embafladors, to their countrymen ; to
go,

and that
nations.

thofe,

who had many
this,

children,

fhould take fome

of them, and ufe their endeavours to reconcile the two
After

fome of them,

alfo,

they went out, dreffed in mourning; When carrying their fmall children.

in the camp of the Sabines, lamenting, and they arrived the feet of every one, they raifed great comfalling at in all, who faw them, none being able to refrain pafTion from tears. The council being afTembled on this occafion,

and the king commanding them to give an account of the reafons, that brought them thither, Herfilia, who had advifed
this

304

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
and was
at the

Book

II.

this refolution,

head of the embafly, befought

them,
thofe,

in a long

who
fake,

and pathetic difcourfe, to give peace to were interceding for their hufbands, and for
tliey profefTed

whofe

to

have undertaken the war.
fhe faid, the chiefs,
fettle

As

to the

conditions of that peace,

affembhng together by themfelves, might a view to the advantage of both parties.

them with
their

XLVI.
children,

After fhe had faid

this, all

the

women, with
raifed

threw themfelves
till

at the feet

of the king, and reprefent,

mained

proftrate,

thofe,

who were
:

them

from the ground, promiiing to do every thing, that was Then, having ordered them reafonable, and in their power to withdraw, and confulted together, they determined to

And firft, a truce was agreed upon between peace. the two nations : After that, the kings had an interview,
make
and a peace was concluded. The terms agreed upon, which That they confirmed by their oaths, were as follows Romulus, and Tatius fliould be kings of the Romans, with
:

^^

honors equal right of fuffrage, and equal
its

:

That the

city,

preferving

name, fhould, from

its

founder,

be called

Rome: And
*3'
I(rov|/i)(|)»f.

that each particular citizen fliould, as before,

I

am

furprifed at the

an equal right of fuffrage
fenfe,

•,

and, in this

inaccuracy of the iranflators in renderPortus, and Sylburing this word, gius, by faying pari pcteftate, have

Thucydides

ufes the

word

in that

mined

the

two French tranflators, who,

certainly, never thought of the Greek text, when they rendered it tin pouvoir Ia-o4/>)!f cf, unegalf une puijfance egale.

noble fpeech, in which Pericles encourages the Athenians not to fubmit to the Peloponnefians, who, he fays, labor under many diladvantages ; and, among the reft, mentions this, that
^
zsa-vtii

re

IT0fH<I>01
iotvltv

ov7k,

»«<

a^

doubcedlyj fignifies a perfon,

who

has
'B.
i.

o^o^uAo«, to ip'
c.

h«sos a-mviti.

141.

be

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSENSIS.
Roman But
:

305

be called a

that the people, colledllvely, fhould

be comprehended under one general appellation, and, from And that all the country of Tatius, be called ^+ Quirites
:

wilHng, might fettle at Rome, and and that they bring with them the images of their gods ; fhould be incorporated with the tribes, and the curiae. After they had fvvorn to the obfervance of this treaty, and
the Sabines,
eredled altars ^'in

who were

memory of
as
it is

their oaths,

about the middle

mingled together, and all the generals returned home with their forces, except Tatius, the king, and three perfons of the moft conliderable
of the holy way,
called, they

families,

who

ftaid at

Rome, and
after

received thofe honors,
:

which

their

pofterity

them enjoyed

Thefe were

Volufus Valerius, and Tullus, furnamed Tyrannus, with Metius Curtius, who fwam crofs the lake with his arms :
Others
in
ftaid,

number

with their relations, and than the former inhabitants.
alfo,

clients,

not

lefs

Every thing being fettled, the kings thought the city had received a great encreafe of people, proper, fince to double the number of the patricians, by adding to the
former
*4'

XL VII.

illuftrious families,
'

as

many of the new

inhabitants;

Livy afligns the fame Kuf(7«f. reafon for this appellation : lia gemiTiata urbe, ut Sabinis tamen aliud daretur, Quirites a curibus appellati.
*5-

Etti

toij

o'fjio/f.

The

tranflators

are

unanimous

in

fuppofing, in their

feveral verfions, that they erefted thefe altars in order to fwear to the obllrv-

out confidering that our author fays they fwore to perform the treaty beSo that, fore he mentions the altai s I think, we muft conclude that the altars were erefted to perpetuate the memory of this treaty, which was confirmed in fo folemn a manner ; and, by which the two nations were united.
:

ance of the treaty upon them

;

with•B.
i.

c.

13.

Vol.

I.

R

r

which

3o6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
alfo called patricians
^*
:

Book IL

which addition they

Of thefe, a hundred

chofen perfons, previoiifly with the ancient fenators.
all

by the curiae, were incorporated
:

Concerning thefe things, almoft the authors of the Roman hiitory agree But fome few

differ in the

number of the

additional fenators

:

For they

fay

that not a hundred, but fifty only were admitted into the fenate upon this occafion. Concerning the honors

which the kings conferred on the women, in return for their mediation, all the Roman hiftorians do not agree:
alfo,

For fome of them write
able grants,

that, befides

many

other confider-

they gave their names to the curiae, which were thirty, as I have faid. That being the number of the women, who went upon the embafly. But Terentius Varro does not agree with them in this particular For he fays that Romulus gave the names to the curiae earlier than this,
:

when

divided the people; fome of thefe names ^^ being taken from their chiefs ; and others from the places
he,
firft,
^^'

$^«7^i«i.

The French

trandators

are unfortunate in rendering this period. M. *** has thought fit to call
thefe, les tribus,

mans, the dignity of fenator, as well as all the magiftracies, could only be

inftead of

les

curies,

which he Jhculd have faid. And le Jay has confounded the patricians with the fenators, and made the hundred men, chofen by the curiae, to have
been elefted into the number of the
patricians, inRead of the fenators, /ii7ar

Thus, wefhall enjoyed by patricians ^ find, that Tarquinius Prifcus, when he added another hundreci peribns to
:

the fenate,

firft

made them

patricians,

prendre,

comme

les

atitres,

k

noni,

et

la qualite de patrices.

Patricians they were, to be fure, but they were fenators alfo ; which laft quality he has omitted,

and then fenators. ^7- Ato zsMlm. Here is, certainly, a fault in the text, which runs through all the editions. This the tranflators have been fo fenfible of, that they have followed Gelenius, who, upon what
authority I know not, has read wa-a tuv -zaahai ziyal^ioav. But the misfor-

2y

the original conftitution of the

Roffi.
ii.

tune
c.

is,

that the

names of

the curiae

67.

inhabited

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
:

307

inhabited by the curiae He fays, alfo, that the number of the women, who went upon the embaily, was not thirty, but three hundred and twenty feven; and does not think it probable that the kings

would have deprived
it

fo

many women
of them.
I

of

this

honor, to beftow
it

only upon a

kw

thought
fay

became

me

neither to omit thefe things, nor to

more of them, than was proper. XLVIII. Concerning the city of the Quirites, from whence Tatius, and his followers came (for the courfe of
this narration

requires that I fhould fpeak of

them

alfo,

and

were, and from whence) we have received the In the territory of Reate, when the following account. Aborigines were in polTejOion of it, a certain virgin of that
lay

who they

country, who was of the firft quality, dancing with others of her fex, went into a temple of Enyalius : The Sabines,
give to Enyalius the name of Curinus; without being able to affirm for certain, whether he is the god Mars, or fome other, enjoying the fame honors :

and, from them, the

Romans

For fome are of opinion that each of thefe names is attributed to the fame god, who prefides over combats
:

Others, that thefe names belong to

two

feveral

gods of war.

However,

this

maid, while

flie

was dancing in the temple,
women ; which he treats as And the reafon he affio-ns
:

were not taken from the countries,

from whence the people, who compofed them, originally, came; but from the places they inhabited Which is confirmed by Plutarch, who, in his life of Romulus, has, plainly, taken many things from our author and,
:
-,

from the an error
for
it,

may, very probably, help us to the right reading of this paffao-e ; -ssaKhon ym^ i^^irtv x-ko XfiPIxiN T«f
I would, therefore, read, with a fmall alteration, inftead of

ar^ocDij^o^fa?.

mentions this opinion, that the names of the curiae were taken
like him,

(Xtto zravlaiv,

«7ro towwk.

Rr

2

was,

3o8

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

11.

was, on a fudden, feized with divine infpiration ; and, ceafmg to dance with her company, ran into the fandiiary of the After which, being with child by this genius, as every
:

god forth a fon, whofe name was body beheved, fhe brought to Medius, and his furname Fidius, who being arrived manhood, had not a human, but a divine form ; and was, of all men the moft renowned for miUtary achievements >
and, being defirous to build a city,
^^

at his

own

expence,

he gathered together a great number of people of the neighbourhood, and, in a very fhort time, built the city, called Cures: Which he called by that name, as fome fay, from the genius, who was reputed to have been his father ; or, as
others

Sabines call fpears,. This is the account given by Terentius Varro. Cures. XLIX. But ^'Zenodotus of Troezene, who has written^
write,

from a fpear

;

for

the

the hiftory of the Umbri, fays that the Sabines, firft, dwelt, in the Reatine territory, as it is called, of which they were the original inhabitants ; and that, being driven from thence into the country they now inhabit ; by the Pelafgi, they came

and, changing their

name with

their habitation,
fays

from Umbri,

were
SS"

called, Sabines.
A^'

But Fortius Cato

that the Sabines

%a.-o['i.

French

tranflators

Portushas led the two into an error by

it

gius faw this difficulty, by his leaving out. A$' s«v7sf, plainly, fignifics, rt/

rendering this de fuo nomine ; which they have tranflated without confidering that the name of this man was Medius Fidius, and That of the city Cures, which name cannot, pofTithe other. bly, be derived from that Sylburconclude may, certainly,

his

own

lators

expence^ and the Latin tranfought to have rendered it, fuis
ZvjvoWo?.
I

fumptibus.
^9-

can

find

nothing

We

worth relating concerning
rian,

this hifto-

rcceived

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS SEN SIS.
name from
;

309-

received their

'"Sabinus, the fon of

^'

Sancus, a

genius of that country
9°-

and
to fub-

that this Sancus was,
difcendi exciv'tffet ?

by fome,

ZaCim.

I fee

no reafon

Ifjuftin had read

with Sylburgius, in the room of Sabinus, contrary to the authority of all the manufcripts, and
ffitute Sabiis,

either Dionyfius, or

editions, fince

s

Virgil, alfo, calls

him

Sabinus,
lialiifque,

Livy, or, even, converfed with any, who had read them, he would never have fallen into the ridicule of charging the Romans with having ercdled a flatucto' Simon

paterque Sabinus

Magus, upon no other foundation than
this infcription

Vitifator.

Sabine

This is the true readl.(iyv.oy. and thus it muft be reftored in ^ Livy, where he fays, in fpeaking ot Vitruvius, bona ejus Semoni Sanco
9'*
1

on the ftatue of this semoni. sango. deo. FiDio. which he fuppofes to have been
god,
Simoni deo fantfo.

in.o;

cenfuerutit confecranda.

For

this divi'

fays, in his juftification, that, in this, he did not intend to deceive any one. This I am-

-Dr. Gregory Sharpe,

My

learned friend,

nity of the Sabines was called Semo, Sancus, Sangus, and Fidius ; the laft of which I look upon to be a Roman name, and the other three to have been the name of that god, as they called him, in the Sabine language, which

was

not, like the Latin, originally, Greek, notwithftanding the fmall co-

lony of Lacedaemonians,
to fettle

who came
:

very willing to allow ; but hope he will, alfo, allow that, if his fincerity acquits him of any defign to deceive, his ignorance, and credulity render him a poor guide to follow. I wonder what the Roman Senate, to whom he addreflcs his apology, thought of this extraordinary difcovery But I fuppofe they had never heard either of him, or
:

among

the Sabines

And,

his
this

writings.

I
"

that their language was not, originally, Greek, appears from the tollowing

where he refutes the who held that Numa of thofe, opinion had been inftrudted by Pythagoras, which, heobferves, could not be, fince the latter lived in the time of Servius
paflage of Livy,

Juftin, that he ad'^ not only, to the Roman fenate, whom he Hatters with the title
drefles
it,

apology of

obferve, in reading

of h^»
title

ffMyyi^tjlog,

holy fencte fa ftrano-e

above a hundred years after Numa, and refided ac Croton, in a After which, he diftant part of Italy
Tullius,
:

Antoninus Pius, and

given by a father of tl^ Chriftian church to an afTembly ol heathens) but, alfo, to the emperor

to be

Rome.

The ftatue,

to. the people of here taken notice

of by Juftin, was,

I find,

afks this queftion,
elfi

^-

Ex

quJius

locis,

many

years ago,

dug up

in

not a great an iOand

ejufdem aetatis fuijj'et (Pythagoras) aul quo linguae qua famd SabinoSy commerclo quenqjiam ad cupiditatan
S
^

of Lhe Tiber, with the very infcription before mentioned, which had, fo unfortunately, milled Juftin.
••B.
i.

Aen. B.

7.

)*.

178.

B.

viii. c.

20.

1*

/:pology,p. 51. Edit.Oxon.

»

'Ovid. Faftorurn. B. vi. :^, 213. Apol, for the Chrift. fathers, p. 134.

c. 18.

"P.

I* andz"*,

called-

3IO

ROMAN
:

ANTIQJJITIES OF
He

Book

II.

that their firft habitacalled Jupiter Fidius : fays, alfo, ^' tion was in a certain village, called Teftrina, fituated near

the city Amiternum That, from thence, the Sabines made .an incurfion into the Reatine territory, which was, at that

and, having, by force of time, inhabited by the Aborigines ^' Cotyna, arms, taken their moft confiderable city called

in pofTeflion of it That, fending colonies they continued out of the Reatine territory, they built many cities, in which without fortifying them ; and, among the reft, they lived And that the country they were in the city called Cures Adriatic about two hundred of, is diftant from the
: :

poflefTion

and eighty ftadia, and, from the Tyrrhene fea, two hundred and forty ; and he fays that the length of it was little lefs There is, alfo, another account than a thoufand ftadia. of the Sabines in the hiftories of that country, which
given
fays

that a colony of Lacedaemonians fettled among them, ^* when Eunomus, being guardian to his nephew

Lycurgus,
"

villacre

Cluver places this near the city of Amiternum, and the river Aternus, now called, Amiternum ftood between Pefcdra. the head of this river, and Aquiia, near to a fmall town, known, at this time, by the name of S. Vittorim. 93- Kcluvixc, As there is a great va9--

Ti^pivctv.

of opinions concerning the true readincr ot this word, I Ihall not trouble the reader with any coniedures relating
riety

to

the fituation

of this controverted

curgus Leobotes, Auxxcfov £5ri7f oTrsus-avT* Aiw^dliu «JjA(f i«fs» j«ev f&fUTs?. Lycurgus gave laws to Sparta about the fame time that Carthage was built by Dido, and about 1 16 years before Romulus No man was ever a built Rome. to his country than benefaftor greater Lycurgus ; fince, having found it almofl: the worft governed nation of all the Greeks, he reformed it by fuch a fyftem of laws, as the bed judges have, always, admired, and the wifeft
nations imitated.

town.
94-

The Lacedaemoni-

Euvo;/ov.

The

hiftorians

vary
:

concerning the name
^

Herodotus

calls the

man of Lynephew
of this
Antiq. B.
ii.

ans, before Lycurgus, were fo little difpofed to receive good laws, that he

defpaired of their prevailing
Pin
Clio, c. 65.

among

• Ital.

c. 8.

gave

Book

II.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSEN"SIS.
to Sparta
:

311-

jyave laws

quitted main in the the city intirely j and, after long navigation fea, made a vow to the gods (for they were delirous to land any where) to fettle in the Jfirfl: place they fhoiild arrive at r.
feverity
reft,

of his laws,

That fome of them, and feparating from the
"a

difliking the

that part of Italy, which lies near the ^'^ Pomentine plains, and called the place, where they firft ^^ landed, Feronia, in memory of their being carried through

That,

at laft,

they

made

the main

;

and

built a

temple to the goddels Fsronia, to

whom

they had addrefled their vows ; which goddefs, by the alteration of one letter, they, now, call Fj^ronia That
:

fome of them, going from thence, cohabited with the Sabinesr And, for this realbn, many of their inftitutions are Laconic ; and a particularly, their inclination to war, their frugality,
them by their own merit ; which obliged him to have recourfe to the
Delphic oracle, and to prevail on the
prieftefs

Aia arsA^j'Sff sri3\As?. See the 163^ annotation on the firft book. The ancients, at leaft, the Greeks, and Ro95little acquainted with navigation, that they called eroding the Mediterranean, for example, from Laconia to Italy, Siot, miKuyac (pi^n&m, to fail through the main fea^ which appellation modern feamen fcarce allow

to

recommend them

to his

mans, were

fo

country by her authority, which v/as This fhe then, univerlally, obeyed. did effedually, by recommending the 1 author of them,
__

UK^,,u>Kv^c^y.

euov

„ ^To7<

V.OV,

^.^.u

^

^^^^^ navigation, than to the
56.

, .-M-no.A.^:. , .e &»u .u«,Ju^<..««., AAA e1,««.M«.AA«v £>eov .A^.,u«„« Au^aoff..

n./.,„7,v. :r.J,«.
^j^^j^

^

Thefe

plains^

^^^^.^^^
capital

The Delphic

prieftefs

mufthave had

a

of the

name from Pometia, the Volfci. They lay be'

great dependance

upon

the credulity

tween the

of mankind to make Apollo firft, gravely, doubt whether Lycurgus was a god, or a man; and then, wifely, determine that he rather believed him to be a god.
s

rivers Aftura, and Ufens ; and, in thefe plains, ftood the temple of Feronia^ at the diftance of three Roman miles from 'Tarracina.
97-

$jjok«, Atto

tsj

(fiffseS-^j.

In Clio,

c.

65.

f

Strabo, B. v, p. 355.

s

Cluver,

Ital.

Ant. B.

ii. c.

8.

feveritw

312
feverity

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
in all their adions.

OF

Book

II.

But

this

is

fufEcient concerning

the Sabines.
L. Romulus, and Tatius, immediately, enlarged the city, and Caelian ; by adding to it two other hills, the Quirinal

and feparating

their

habitations,

each of them had their
the Pallantine

particular place of refidence.

Romulus chofe

andCaehan

hills,

the latter being contiguous to the Pallantine;

and Tatius the Capitol ine, which he had, at firfl, poflelled himfelf of, and the Quirinal, hills. And, cutting down the wood, that grew on the plain at the foot of the Capitol ine
part of the lake, which, by in a hollow place, always abounded with the water, that lying converted this plain into a came down from the hills,
hill,

and

filling

up the

greatefl:

they

market

place,

which the Romans continue
:

to

make

ufe of,
tranf-

even, to this day

There they held

their affemblies,

of Vulcan, which ftands a afting their alTairs in the temple little above the forum. They built temples, alfo, and confecrated altars to thofe gods,
their

to
;

whom

they had addrefled
^^

vows during

their battles

near the gate called hill from the holy way, becaufe this god had, in confequcnce of his vow, flopped his army in their flight, and brought them to renew the battle ; and Tatius to the fun, and moon,
to Saturn,
98-

Romulus, to Jupiter Stator, '' Mugionia, which leads to the Palatine

and to Rhea; and, befides
This
is

thefe, to Vefta,

Vulcan,

of Jupiter

o^Ooir/u All. Stator.

a tranflation

He

is

reprefented

in the coins

of Antoninus Pius, and

99- Mukwwitj aruAaif. This was the Porta Mugioma, fo called from Mvgins., who had the guard of it: Porta

•Gordian, in a ftanding pofturc, his right liand leaning on a fpear; and, in his left, he holds zfulmen.

Mugionia Romae

dicla

eft

a

Mugio

quodam,
Feftus.

qui eidcm tuemiae paefuit.

Diana,

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS H A LIC A RN ASSEN S

I

S.

313

Diana, and Enyalius, and to other gods, wliofs names are difficult to be exprefled in the Greek language. And, in
dedicated tables to Juno, called Quiritia, every curia, they which are extant, even, to this day. They reigned five
in perfed harmony ; during which time, they years together '°' Camerini : For undertook a joint expedition againft the
'°°

thefe people, ha\ing fent out bands of robbers, and done to the country of the Romans, negleded, great mifchief often called upon, to give them latisfaftion Having,

though

:

therefore,

overcome the Camerini

in

a pitched battle (for

thefe did not decline the ingagement) and, afterwards, taken

town by ftorm, they difarmed the inhabitants, and took from them a third part of their country ; which when the Camerini were laying wafte, they marched out againft them the third day, and, having put them to flight, they
their

divided

all

their pofleffions

among

their

own

people; but

fuffered as
at

many of

Rome

:

the inhabitants as were willing to live Thefe amounted to about four thoufand, whom

they diftributed

Roman

anciently, planted long <one of the moft celebrated habitations of the Aborigines.
look upon this to be Juno Populonia ; ' becaufe Macrobius mentions a table dedicated in the temple of this Juno
"=°*

the curiae, and made their city a Cameria was a colony of the Albans, colony. before the building of Rome ; and,

among

I Kuji?i«. of a tra'nflation

Bpx

in

templo Junonis Populoniae augufia
eft.

menfa
'°'-

;

in Pepiriano jure etiamrelatum

eft, c.rae
;

"Cameria (lood in Kitusaivi^f. the confines of the Latines, and Sabines, and in the neighbourhood of

vicem prc.eftare pojfe men/am dicatam
'Sat. B.
iii.

ut
"

Rome.
Ttal.

c.

I

I.

Cluver,

Ant.

B

ii.

c. 8.

Vol.

I.

S

s

LI.

The

314
LI.

ROMAN
The

ANTIQJJITIES OF
government

Book

II.

fixth year, the fole

returned to Romulus, Tatius having loft '" Laiirentum had men of fpiracy, v/hich the principal

of the city his life by a con-

formed againft him upon this occafion: Some friends of Tatius, at the head of a band of robbers, had made an incuriion into the territory of the Laurentes, where they took
a great

many of

their effeds,

and drove away

their

herds

of

cattle, killing,

Upon
injury

the arrival

and wounding thofe who oppofcd them. of embafladors from the injured to demand
that the authors of the

juftice,

Romulus was of opinion ought to be delivered up to

the fufferers

t

However,
enemies

Tatius, efpoufmg the caufe of his friends, that any perfons fhould be delivered up
before

would not confent
to
their

judgement

;

particularly, that

Roman

citizens fhould

be delivered up to ftrangers ; but ordered thofe, who comto come to Rome, and proplained they had been injured, The embafladors^ ceed againft '°^ them according to law.
having obtained no fort of juftice, went away full of reAnd fome of the Sabines, incenfed at their profentment
:

ceeding, followed them, and
'°" AaCiviciluv.

fet

upon them while they were
which
mufl: not be referred to

There

is

a note of

«i/7oic

Cafaubon upon

this occafion, in

which

t«i; a;JiKi;6ei£r;, but: to srsAilaif, that,

imthat

he contends, with great reafon, that we muft read Aau^rjl.ajv, inftead of A«C(»ia7aii-, bccaule, though Tatius was
fiain at

mediately, precedes

it.

And,

SiKa^fS-ai tih is elegant fy'uv^ (o fue any one,

Greek,
;

figni-

maybe

proved

Lavinium, the

fadl
-,

was com"^

which is mitred by the Laurentes " confirmed both by Livy, and Plutarch.
'"S'

from the befb writers particularly, from ''Ariltophanes, who makes Srrepfiades thus complain of his creditors,
,

ACloi^.

I

cannot
««;«?,

a^ree

with
or

^

.
'

.,,.
'

,.,

^_.."
^

'^

*

rortus

in

reading

inltead
»

"B.

i.e. 14.

Life of Romulus.

yNi?. >\ii38.

afleep

Bookll.
afleep
(for

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.

315

in their tents,

which they had pitched near the road

early making their efcape, retired to their city. balTadors, fent both

the night) and, not only, robbed they were overtaken by them, but killed all they found in their beds : Thofe, who notice of the attempt, and an opportunity of had

After

this,

em-

complained of this war, if they could not obtain juftice.
LII. This
outrage,

from Laurentum, and many other cities, breach of the law of nations, threatening

committed on the perfons of the embailadors, appeared to Romulus, as it really was, a moH heinous oiTence, and fuch a violation of a facred law, as
called for a fpeedy expiation ; and, finding Tatius negledled Vv^ithout further delay, ordered thofe, who had it, he himfelf, been guilty of this outrage, to be feized, and delivered up in Tatius was not chains to the embaffadors to be punifhed.

the indignity, which he complained he had only offended at received from his collegue in delivering up the men, but
alfo,

moved with compaffion
o^uilty

for their Situation (for

one

of the

perfons

was even

his relation) and, immediately,

takino- a

with him, he went in all hafte to their affiftance; and, overtaking the embailadors on the road,

body of

foldiers

refcued the prifoners.

Not long

after,

as

fome

fay,

go-

ing with

Lavinium, in order to perform a facrifice, which was to be offered up by the kings to the their anceftors for the profperity of the city, the gods of friends, and relations of the embaffadors, who had been
to

Romulus

murdered, having confpired againft him, flew him at the altar with the knives, and fpits, ufed in cutting up, and
S
s

2

roafling

3i6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
go
defigii to offer facrifice

Book

11.

roafting the oxen, which had been killed for the facrifice. But Licinius writes, that he did not with Romulus, nor

with a

;

but alone, and with an

intention to perfuade thofe, who had received the injuries, to forgive the authors of them ; and, that the people, being in a rage that the men had not been delivered up to them
in purfuance of the determination both of

the

Roman

fenate,

and the

relations

Romulus, and of of the dead aflaulting

Iiim in great numbers, he, being, no longer, able to efcape their violence, was ftoned to death. This was the end of

Tatius, after he had been at

and

his collegue five.
it

war with Romulus three years, His body was brought to Rome,
city

was buried with great pomp, and the every year public libations to him.

where

performs

LIU. Romulus, being a fecond time, inverted with the fole government of the city, expiated the crime committed on the perfons of the embafladors, by forbidding thofe, who
had committed that outrage, the ufe of fire and water: For, upon the death of Tatius, they had all fled out of the
After that, he acquitted the Laurentes, who had conand who, being deHvercd up fpired againil: Tatius, by their
city.

citizens,

and brought by him to a

trial,

were thought, with

to alledge in their defence that great juftice, they had puniflied violence by violence. After Romulus had finifhed
thefe affairs,

he led out
is

his

army
from

againft the

city

of the

Fidenatcs,

which

diftant

Rome

forty fliadia,
:

and

was, at that time, both a large and populous city

For the
while
the

Cruflumerini, having fent provifions to

Rome

in boats,

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENSI S.
afflided with

317

the

Romans were

a

famine, the Fidcnates

attacked the boats in great numbers, feized the provifions, and killed fome of the men, who defended them And,
:

being called upon to Romulus, incenfed at

make fatlsfadion, they this, made an incurlion

refufed

it.

into their

country with a confiderable force ; and, having made himfelf mafter of a great booty, prepared to return with his

army: But the Fidenates marciiing out againft him, he gave them battle ; and, the a6lion being very warm, and many on both the were Fidenates fides, falling overcome, and
put to
flight.

Romulus, purfuing them

clofe, entered

the

and, leaving a guard of three hundred men there, and, taking from the inhabitants a part of their territory, which he divided among his own
;

gate together with thofe, who fled. by ftorm, he punifhed a few of them

The

city being

taken

people, he

made

this

city, alfo,

a

Roman

colony.

This

city

was founded by the Albans at the fame time with ""^ No'°' mentum, and Cruftumerium, three brothers being the
leaders of that colony, of

whom
fallen

the

eldefl: built

Fidenae.
againft

LIV. After
the
that
'^^

this

war,

Romulus undertook another
whilft the of city

Camerini,

who had

upon the Roman colony,

was

fettled

among them,
peftilential
it

Rome

la-

boured under a
°4- i^ofMvlu.
fcript ; fince of this town,
ly, to the

diftemper ; by which, the
to

Cameis,

So

mufl: be read,

the north of 'Rome, and
'°5'

now,

not NciAnlix with the Vatican

manuwas name the Nomentum
which belonged, ancient'^

called Lamentano.
Kfas-0|us^ii*.

Latines.

Nomentum
^

lay-

beyond Fidenae, about twelve miles
Clttver, Ital. Ant. B.
ii.

c.

8.

rini

2i3
rini

ROMAN ANTiQUITIES
were, chiefly, inconraged
;

OF

Book

II,

and, imagining the

Roman

nation would be, totally, deftroyed by this calamity, killed In revenge for fonie of the colony, and expelled the reft. this outrage, Romulus, after he had, a fecond time, made

himfelf mafter of the place, put to death the authors of the revolt ; and, not only, gave his foldiers the plunder of the city,
but, alfo, took from the citizens half their lands, befides that
part,

which, had been, before, divided
;

among

the

Romans

fettled there

and, having left a garrifon in the city, fufficient to quell any future motion of the inhabitants, he returned with his forces. Upon the fuccefs of this expedition, he triumphed a fecond time, and out of the fpoils he con-

fecrated a chariot with four horfes in brafs to Vulcan

near
in

it,

he

placed

his

own
in,

and, with an flatue, infcription
;

Greek charaders,
'°^

fetting forth

his adlions.

The

third

v/ar

Romulus ingaged
the

time,

moft

was againft a city, at that powerful of Tyrrhenia, called Veii,
Dionyfius,
that Veii

I07' E9v«f Tup'piviitv

rolt uoKiv.

M.

Tv;!/ iMfj'ijou i^uafav * * * has laid, la plus

was

tlie

mod:
find
in

forte place de tout le pais desTyrrheniens; and le Jay, une ville tres-florijfante ; neither of which
is

powerful city of Etruria; and had been that, after

we

Rome

laid

ruins by the Gauls, the
:

Romans were

a tranflation of the

with great difficulty prevented from
cafion,

Greek

powerful. that we ought to read $J)]v«< infbead ofAO>]v«i-, his rcafon is, that our author,

text, in which i^^us?<r« fignifies, I find ^Cluvcr is of opinion

removing to Veii Upon which ocLivy, very reafonably, ac''

counts

for

their

earneftnefs

;

i^ium

afterwards, compares Rome, imder Servius Tullius, with x'Vthens ; and he thinks it not probable that Veii fhould have been fo large as Rome, But 1 cannot be of his opinion, becaufe it appears, by this palfage of
* Ital.

pulcherrima urbs Veii, agerque Veientanus in confpeSlufit, uberior,

Romano

agro.

Urhem quoque

a;npUorqiie urbi Ro~

mae, veljilu^velmagnijicentjdpublicorum, privatorumqueteilorum, acloccrumpyaeThis fhews, fufficicntly, pcnebant. thatVeii might, very well, be compared
3.

Ant. B.

ii.

c.

b

B. v.

c.

24.

diftant

Book

II.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
from

319
13

diftant

Rome

about a hundred ftadia

:

This

city

fituated

on a high and craggy rock, and is as large as Athens. The Veientes made the taking of Fidenae the pretence of

tliis

war

;

and, fending embailadors, they

fummoned the
city,

Romans
ftill

to

withdraw

their garrifon

from that

and

re-

ftore the territories

they had taken from the Fidenates, and retained, to the former poffefTors. But, not prevailing,

they took the field with a great army, and incamped on an '°^ eminence near Fidenae However, Romulus, having, beforehand, received information of their motions, had marched out with the flower of his army, and lay ready at Fidenae to
:

receive them.

every thing was difpofed for the battle, both armies advanced into the plain, and came to an ingagement ; and continued fighting for a long time with oreat
till

When

animofity,

night,

coming on, parted them,
loco occiillo,

after
dans

they
tin

to Athens, and, confequentJy, toRome according to the reafoning of our au' thor. Cluver thinks that a town now called Scrofano ftands on, or near the ruins of Veii. This city was in Etru-

and

le

Jay,

lieu

fort CDWvert.

If the reader has fo

much

and, confequently, lay on the weft of the Tiber, andabcn.it twelve miles from Rome. ^ Florus, whofe authority 1 fliould not quote, if it were not confirmed by other authors, dtfcribes the condition of Veii, in his time, that is, in the latter end of Trajan's reign,
ria,

indulgence for thefe gentlemen, as to think they tranflated from the Greek text, and that each of them followed the fenfe of that Latin tranflator he feems mod to admire by mere accident,
fhall fay nothing to defeat the operation of fo much good nature. The
I

following
aTTOTrlo? is

explanation of the word fupported by the example of

lalorat
^°^'

annal'mm
Ev azoirlca.

fides,

ut

Veios fuijfe

credamus.

the beft writers, who ufe it in both thefe fignifications ; aTron"oM, a-ofVwSsv Suidas. But, if our (If a/^fvoi', )j a^iu-^y^oy.

The

trandators are
:

divided, as ufual, in rendering this Sylburgius has faid, in edito loco, and M. * * *, fur line eminence ; Portus, in
"

author had defigned to fpeak of an ambufcade, he would, furely, have given an account either of the fuccefs, or difappointment of it.
d

B.

ii.

c.

3.

B.

j.

C.

12,

had.

320

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
fuccefs.
firft battle.

Book

II.

had fought with equal bravery, and
event of the

This was the

LV. But
mans
who,

a fecond being fought not long after, the Roobtained the vi6lory by the condud of their general ;

in the night,

had

poffeffed

himfelf of an eminence, not

from the enemy's camp, and placed there in ambufli the choiceft both of the horfe and foot, who, fincc And both armies the laft adion, came to him from Rome
far diftant
:

meeting in the
before, v/hen

plain,

and ingaging

in the

fame manner

as

the fignal to the troops, that attacked the lay in ambufli on the eminence, thefe, fhouting, Veientes in the rear ; and, being frefh, and the enemy latigued
v/ith the labor of the day, they foon put

Romulus gave

them

to fligiit

:

Some few of them were

but the greateft part, throwing themfelves into the Tiber, which runs near Fidenae, with intent to fwim over the river, were drowned :
(lain in the battle
;

For, being wounded, and fpent with labor, they were unable to fwim over While others, not knowing how to fwim,
:

and, from a view of the danger, lofing all prefence of mind, were fwallowed up in the eddies of the ri\'er. If, therefore,

the Veientes had been fenfible of their

and kept themfelves quiet after this, no greater mifchief had befallen them But, hoping to repair their former lofTes, and imafirfl

error,

:

gining that,
'°9*

if

'°'

they

applied themfelves to reinforce their
all

E<

jurf^ovi

TTcc^iciDiiiivi

i^riCxAoiiv.

feem to be

fo fenfib'e of, that ihey

All the tranHators have agreed in giving this ienfe to theie words, if they attacked the Romans with a greaterforce; without confideiing that the verb jtt.CaAoiEv, in that cafe, will ftand fingle,

are obliged to fiipply the ienfe

by the

word

enemy, or Romans : I have rathctcholen to give to nriQccKcuv the fcnlc of

£t*;^«^oisv,

sra^afxEup

is,

according to which, jUft^on very properly, governed

and govern nothing ; which I do not think very grammatical I'his they
:

by

it.

army,

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
fliould,

32!

have the advantage in the war, they levied numerous forces, confifting both of their own troops, and of Thofe of their countrymen, who, in virtue of their league, came to their afTiflance, and, a fecond time,

army, they

with

eafe,

marched
battle

againft the

Romans.

Upon
in

this,

another fharp

was fought near Fidenae,
killing

victorious,

of them
full

prifoners.

which the Romans were many of the Veientes, and taking more Even their camp was taken, which was

of money, arms, and flaves ; as, alfo, their boats, which were laden with great ftore of provifions, and, in which,
the prifoners, being very numerous, were carried down the This vi6tory gave occafion to the third river to Rome.

triumph of Romulus, which was

much more

than either of the former: And, not long after, to the war, and to being fent by the Veientes to put an end
alk pardon for their offences,

magnificent embaffadors

Romulus impofed
to the

this

penalty

upon them
that
lies

:

To

deliver

up

Romans

the

country,
-,

contiguous to the Tiber, cdXl^d.^^" the /even villages "' and-to quit the falt-pits, that lie near the mouth of the
river;

and,

alfo,

to bring fifty hoftages, as an affurance
for the future.
the lands lying

of

their attempting
"°* Eir1«
zrotyii;.

no innovations
^

The Veientes

-this

Cluver thinks between Veil, and the place lay and between the Jea, Tiber, and the river Aro, which rifes from the Saba'i\nz\ak.t,no'NCd.\\t^,Lago diBracciano.

the

on the Roman fide of which lands fcem to be Tiber; Thofe ceded by the Veientes, in pur"'• Tm'j

fuance of the treaty.

But I do not know how this fituation of the place can be reconciled to what
our author fays prefently, that
Jus divided

This place was. anciently, called, Salinae; and the adjacent territory is, ftill, called, from

dhm.

°

Romucitizens
ii,

thence,

Campo

di Saline.

among
I.

thefe

new

^ Ital.

Antiq. B.

c. 2

"
.

Cluver,

ib.

Vol.

T

t

fubmittino;

322

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
all

Book

II.

he made a league with them for one hundred years; and ingraved the terms of it on He, then, difmifled, without ranfom, all the pripillars.
fubniitting to
thefe things,
foners,

chofe
part,

home But thofe, who to remain there, and who were by much the greateft he made citizens of Rome, and diftributed them

who were

defirous to return

:

among

the curiae,

and divided among them, by

lot,

the

lands lying on this fide of the Tiber. LVI. Thefe are the memorable wars, in

which Romulus

was ingaged.

The

reafon

why he conquered no more of

the neighbouring nations leems to be owing to his fudden death, which took him away while he was yet '"in the
vigor

of his

age for warlike achievements; concerning

which, there are
fore,

many

different relations

:

Thofe, there-

whofe accounts of his adlions are rather fabulous, fay, that, while he was haranguing his men in the camp, the fky, which was, before, clear, changing to a fudden darknefs, and a violent tempeft burfting from the clouds, he difappeared; and thefe believe that the man was taken up into But thofe, who write the mofl: heaven by his father Mars.
that he was put to death probably, fay, by his
"^"
arf

own

people

;

e7<

oixjua^oili

oivlcii

isroXifMci

arleiv.

This does not

fignify in the

verb, in the infinitive mood, denotes the diredion of the adjeftive, or participle, tlut
alio,

which

his glory for military exploits, height of is the fenfe all the tranflators

Romans, precedes inriched their language with this
it.

The

give to this pafliige. I fiiould not find fault with this verfion if it were not for that unlucky verb t^to^-^hm, at the end

piece of

of

fentence, which gives a very different fenfe to the whole : For this
this

Greek elegance, of which many examples might be brought from their beft writers. To this f Horace is obliged for his, Grecifm, Judax omnia perpeli.
25.

'L.i.

Ode

J. if.

and

Book

ir.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSrS.
for his

323

and the reafon they alledge
confent,

murder

is,

that he re-

leafed the hoftages of- the Veientes,

without the

common

contrary to cuftom ; and that he did not behave himfelf in the fame mamier to the ancient citizens, and to

Thofe, who were, newly, admitted, doing greater honor to the former, and defpifing the latter ; and, alfo, that he fliewed

and haughtinefs in the puniiliment of delinFor he ordered fome conliderable men, and thofe quents "^ accufed of having robbed their not a few in number, to be thrown down the precipice appointed for neighbours,
great cruelty,
:

that purpofe, affuming to himfelf alone the cognizance of their crimes : But, chiefly, becaufe he was, now, become

haughty and grievous to
governing

more

people, and extended his power, like a For thefe reatyrant, than a king.
his

the patricians formed a confpiracy againft him, and refolved to put him to death; and, having executed their refolution in the fenate, they divided his
fons, they fay,

body

into feveral pieces, that it might not be feen ; then, came out of the fenate, every one hiding his part of him under his robes, which they, afterwards, buried privately. Others
fay,

that he

was

by

the.

new

while he was haranguing the people, and that took the time of the citizens; they
killed,

darknefs abovementioned, to

commit

the murder, the af-

fembly of the people being, then, difperfed, and their chief
"3- Eiri \>];etxK<^tiyc^y,9iyla;. leanmot underftand how Sylburgius came
to
I

have great
ayant

pleafiire in
eti

toM. ***, who
^zx\^^

doing juflice

render this,
I,

Latrocinii

convi^ios

;

has faid, very proaccufis d'avoir fait des

but

eafily,

underftand

why

le

Jay

brigandages,

tranflated

it fo.

Upon

this occafion,

T

t

2

left

324
left

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book

IT.

without a guard: And, for this reafon, they fay, the this adl was committed, took its name from day, on which the flight of the people, and that, at this time, it is called
the incidents, prepared by Populifugia : And, indeed, "^ the conception, and diflblution of the gods, with which this man were attended, feem to give no fmall authority to
"^

the fyftem of thofe, who make the apotheofes of mortal men, For and place the fouls of illuftrious perfons in heaven.
at the time they fay that,

when

his

mother was

violated,

whether by fome man, or by a god, there was a total
of the fun; that a general darknefs, as in the night,, And that, at his death, the fame thing covered the earth
eclipfe
:

happened.
chofen their

This

Romulus, who

reported to have been the death of built Rome, and, by her citizens, waS:
is

He left no ifllie; and, having king. feven years, died in the fifty fifth year of his< reigned thirty
firft

age

For he was very young when he obtained tlie government ; being no more than eighteen years old, as it is
:

agreed by

all,

who

huve written his hiflory.

LVII.

Romans
114-

following year, there was no king of the eledled ; but a certain magiftracy, called by them,
evyx^iiriu
it is

The

Varro gives a much for this reafon better name, than That founded on the opinion of thofe writers
0;i(^Aa (pvyy^.

and

called
it

it,

his hirth:

But

plain that

fignifies his conception,

our author refers to. s calkd fo, becaufe the
then, put to flight
»'5-

He

fays

it

was

by what our author adds prefently, viz. that, at the time his mother was
violated, there happened a total eclipfe of the fun Now, though Romulus
:

Romans
ra
ixvJ^of.

were,

by

the Tufcans.

Wi^i

T>)v cTMyv.^ifyiv

All

might be conceived,

he,

certainly,

the four tranflatois have, with great unanimity, mittaken the fenfe of
f

could not come into the world at the time his mother was ravidied.
v, c. 3.

Deling. Lat. B.

an

Bookir.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN A S S EN SIS.
;
:

325

an Interregnum, had the care of the commonwealth which this manner The patricians, magiftracy was created in

who had
as I faid,

been eledled into the fenate under Romulus, being, two hundred in number, were divided into de-

curiae; then,

the lot

fell,

drawing lots, the firfl: ten perfons, upon whom were invefted by the reft with the abfolute
city.

command

Plowever, '"^they did not all reigneach reigning five days ; during together ; but, fucceflively, which time, he had both the rods, and the other enfigns of

of the

The firft, after his power was expired j, the royal power. delivered over the governmxnt to the fecond ; and he, to
!Livy, dition

who
made

took no notice of the adto the fenate

by the ad-

mifilon of a hundred Sabine?, when

when he mentioned this becaufe he has tranflated tranfa6lion, it ; and as that he has mlftaken plain, the ftnfe of it He has applied thefe
before him,
:

the two nations became united, ilill centum Patres. the fenators, calls

words,
.

quiiiqiis diermfi

fpatiojiniebatur

However,

it is, I believe, univerfally, the fenate, after the peace that allowed the with Sabines, confifted of two

For, though Plutarch, in of this interregnwn, fays it fpeaking confifted of one hundred and fifty fenators ; yet, he himfelf had, before, told us, in his life of Romulus, that a hundred Sabines were added to the

hundred

^

:

not to the perfon who prefided, as he ought to have done ; bur to the whole decury So that, accordto each him, ing decury governed but five days The confequence of which muft be, as he fays, that every member of the decury governed twelve hours, which he has divided into fiX' hours of the night, and fix of the day i
imperil!/)'!,
:
:

fenate

•,

£k«7ov ]"£»

^^ocn.o^.ei>.ix^Ke!iiv;

*" 2«Siv«v sroJ^iitioi and, before that, in
Si

This

is,

I believe,

the moft extraor-

the fame
»

life,

k»1ov

mg
But

a^<f sf? a-mSet^i

^iKi^st? (PwjwuAof)-

to return to

dinary fyftem of government that ever was invented, and worthy the fertil brain of a Delphic prieft. But the

Livy

•,

his
:

num
cum

is this

account of this interregDecern imperitabant, anus
:

words of Livy,

plainly, import, that

et U£loribus erat infignibus imperii,

the prefident of every decury governed five daysi and, confequently, the whole

quinque dierumfpatiofiniebatur imperiim, It is plain ac per omnes in orbem ibat. this that ''Plutarch had paflage of Livy
''

decury,
fently,

fifty

;

as our author will, pre-

tell us.

Life of

Numa.

'B.

i,

c.

1^

17.

Life of

Numa.
tllC

326
tjie

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
thiid
;

OF

Book
firft

II.

and, (o on, to the
their

laft.

After the ten
fifty

had reigned

appointed time of

kings days, ten others

received the government from them ; and, from thofe, in like manner, others. Afterwards, the people thought fit
to abolifli thefe decemviral governments, being uneafy at becaufe all of them had neither the the changes of

power, fame views, nor the fame
fenators,

difpofitions.

Upon

which, the

the people together in their tribes and to confider of the form of governcuriae, propofed to them
calling

ment, and to determine whether they thought fit to commit the care of the commonwealth to a king, or to annual mao-iftrates. However, the people did not take that determination upon themfelves ; but referred it to the fenators, with intention to reft fatisfied with whichfoever form of goThe fenators were unafhould approve of. vernment
they

nimous
*'^

monarchy ; but did not agree from which of For the two nations the future king fliould be chofen
for
:

fome thought that ftration was to be

the

perfon,

to

whom

the

admini-

committed, ought to be taken out And others, that he ought to be of the ancient fenators chofen out of thofe, who were, afterwards, admitted , and
:

whom
they, at

the they called

new

fenators,

LVIII.

The

laft,

to a great length, either that the old agreed to this alternative,

conteft being

drawn out

"7- E|oVo7eo«f T«|jw?. Exutra dajfcy in Sylburgius, is very near the fenfc ; and, in my opinion, better than ^-.v^/rf?
crdine in Tortus,

whom M. ***

has
infi-

followed

;

becaufe this feems to

whether out of the paking fhould be chofen Whereas, the difpute lay between the fenators of the two nations, the Romans, and Sabines.
order,
that
is,

tricians, or plebeians, the
:

-nuate, that the conteft lay out of

which

fenators

Bookll.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
none of
their

327

fenators fhould chufe

to reign over tliem, but, of the others, whomfoever they iliould think the fitteft perfon ; or that the new fenators fliould do the fame.

own body

The

ancient lenators accepted the choice j and, after a long confultation among themfelves, came to this rcfolution:

That, fince, by their agreement, they themfelves were excluded from the fovereignty, they would not, at leaft, confer it on any of the competitors ; but find out fome
foreigner,

who

fhould efpoufe neither party, and declare him king ; this being the moft effedual means to put an end to fadlion.
After they had

by
of

to this refolution, they chofe a man, birth, a Sabine, the fon of Pompilius Pompon, a perfon
difl:in6lion,
life,

come

whofe name was

Numa

:

"^He was

in that

being near forty, in which prudence is the moft confpicuous, and of an afped: full of royal dignity.
ftage of

The

reputation of his great

wifdom was not confined
itfelf,

to

the Quirites only,

but

extended

alfo,

to

all

the

After this eledion, they afiembled neighbouring nations. the people, and one of the fenators, who was, at that time,
the interrex,

advancing, told them, that the fenators had, imanimoufly, refolved to adhere to a monarchical form of

government, and that he, having power to nominate the future king, created Numa Pompilius king of the Romans.

he appointed embafladors of the patrician order, and fent them to condu6l him to Rome, that he might be inverted with the royal dignity. This happened in the third
After
this,
"8tlie

year

agreewithPortus, that following parenthefis, by fome
I

intirely

from the margin;

p^^)?

Js

t)jv J'£u7fj«v

cuAAixetjv 8x7«v«7«f ^a^M^.omv.

means or

other, crept into the

text

o£^

328

ROMAN
I

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book

II.

of the fixteenth Olympiad, in which Pythagoras, a Lacedaemonian won the prize of the ftadium.

LIX. Hitherto,
to thofe,

who

have nothing to alledge in contradidion the hiftory of this perfon ; have

but, in regard to

pubUfhed what follows,

I

am

at a lofs

what

to fay.

For many have written, that Numa was a difcipls of Pythaand that, when he wae chofen king of the Romans, goras ; But the time, in he was ftudying philofophy at Croton. For he which lived, contradi6ls this account
:

Pythagoras was not a few years, but "^four whole generations later than Numa, as we are informed by general hiftory : Since
the latter began his reign in the middle of the fixteenth "° in Italy after the Olympiad ; whereas, Pythagoras refided
"9'
iflVilo Til7(T0t^fl yiViXIJ Ofldli Uff^Of

Tlv^ayo^ct?

NujMo».

I

have,

already,

upon another occafion, that