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Find out more**SUB-TOPIC 2.2 COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
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CONTENT OUTLINE 1. Condition for two lines to be parallel or perpendicular 2. Mid-point of line segment 3. Finding the area of rectilinear figure given its vertices 4. Graphs of equations a. y = axn, where n is a simple rational number b. y2 = kx 5. Coordinate geometry of the circle with the equation (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = r2 and x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 6. Transformation of given relationships, including y = axn and y = kbx, to linear form to determine the unknown constants from the straight line graph Exclude: 1. Finding the equation of the circle passing through three given points. 2. Intersection of two circles

Vertical Lines As you have learnt in Mathematics. y2). Gradient of line L = Change in y coordinates Change in x coordinates = y 1 -y 2 x 1 -x 2 Whereby (x1. if the product of the gradients of two lines is -1.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS A Introduction In Mathematics.x1 + y2 . y1) and B (x2. Hence. In general. horizontal lines have a gradient of 0 as they continue to stretch to the right but do not have any change in y coordinates.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. whereby m is the gradient of the line and c is the y-intercept of the line. Also. 2 Horizontal Lines As you have learnt in Mathematics. you will require the knowledge of these above topics and more. The general equation of a line segment is y = mx + c. Perpendicular Lines Look at the two perpendicular lines on the right. y1) and (x2.m ). where A (x1. 3 In general. has a length of x2 . they are perpendicular. the gradient of a line (m1) is the negative reciprocal of the 1 other line (. Gradient of line A = Gradient of line B = -1 a a 1 a 1 -1 a Product of gradients = ( )( ) = -1. lines with same gradient are parallel and vice versa. . we have learnt the above few. vertical lines have an undefined gradient as they continue to rise upwards but do not have any change in x coordinates. Let us revise: . B Gradient of a Line Parallel Lines Notice that all these lines move up 2 units and across 3 units 2 (hence the gradient is ). y2) are two points on the same line L.The Length of AB. For Additional Mathematics.y1 2 2 The gradient of a line refers to the vertical change as we move 1 unit across the x axis.

x1 2 .2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS C Equation of a Straight Line If three points are on the same line. Collinear points can be identified by the fact that the gradients of any two points on the line are equal.x1 2 units across and y2 . y1) and (x2.x1 x . . we move units up.x1 y – y1 = x2 .x1 y2 .y1 x2 . y2). we gather that: Gradient of AB Gradient of AC = y2 .y1 2 ) In general. y2) and C (x. Hence. 1 2). y2) is: ( x1 + x2 y1 + y2 2 . which is also equal to x +x y +y ( 1 2. y1 + y2 . Midpoint of a Line Segment Let us find the coordinates of midpoint M of the line joining A (x1. 2 2 x2 . y1) and B (x2.y1 = x2 .4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. to reach M from A. we move x2 – x1 units across and y2 – y1 units up. x2 . y1) are the coordinates of any given point on the line.x1 of the line and (x1. y).y1 y .y1 2 We hence derive that the coordinates of M are (x1 + units.y1 x . they are collinear. Consider the collinear points A (x1. Knowing that the gradients are equal.x1 We thus gather that the equation of a straight line is y – y1 = m(x – x1). From A to B. the midpoint of a line connecting points ( x1. 2 ). where m is the gradient D y2 . y1). B (x2.

given the coordinates/ vertices. For a figure with n sides. To find its area. 1 1 3 3 y1 B (x2. y3).( )(x3y2 – x2y2 + x3y3 – x2y3) = ( )(x1y1 – x2y1 + x1y2 – x2y2 + x3y1 – x1y1 + x3y3 – x1y3 .4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. you must take note of a few things: . K and L respectively. y1). .Any point can be used as the starting. we have to manipulate the areas of the inscribed trapeziums. the formula for its area would be re-arranged like this: 1 x1 x2 x3 x1 n … x y y y y y 2 1 2 3 n 1 = (2)[(sum of ↘ products) – (sum of ↙ products)] When applying this formula. 1 . That is to say: + Area of Trapezium ABKJ 1 (2)(y1 + y2)(x1 – x2) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 Area of Trapezium CAJL 1 (2)(y1 + y3)(x3 – x1) 1 2 Area of Trapezium CBKL 1 (2)(y2 + y3)(x3 – x2) = ( )(x1y1 – x2y1 + x1y2 – x2y2) + ( )(x3y1 – x1y1 + x3y3 – x1y3) . y2) and C (x3. The points at which they touch the x-axis are J. B and C to the x-axis.x3y2 + x2y2 .The vertices must always be arranged in an anti-clockwise manner. y2) y2 x1 – x2 x3 – x2 x3 – x1 y3 Let’s draw a few lines down from points A. and you must remember to place the point at the end as well. y ) Consider the following triangle ABC with points A (x1.x3y2 + x2y2 . B (x2.x3y2 + x2y3) = (2)(x1y2 + + x2y3 + x3y1 – x2y1 – x1y3 – x3y2) Difficult to remember? We can rearrange this above complicated formula to become: 1 x1 2 y1 1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x1 y1 = (2)[(sum of ↘ products) – (sum of ↙ products)] This formula can also be extended to find the areas of polygons with a specified number of sides.x3y3 + x2y3) = (2)(– x2y1 + x1y2 + x3y1 – x1y3 . y ) C (x .x3y3 + x2y3) = ( )(x1y1 – x2y1 + x1y2 – x2y2 + x3y1 – x1y1 + x3y3 – x1y3 .2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS E Area of Rectilinear Figures A (x .

i. E A line is drawn through the point A(4.2x + 14) x–2 = . Gradient of AC = = -2 Hence equation of AC: y–6 . 4) (ii) Calculate the coordinates of C.2(6) + 14 = = . D. then gradient of AB = . When the line meets the y-axis. C.12 + 14 = 2 Hence. let B = (0.2x + 8 + 6 = . Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of AB. Hence. 10 2 . 2 + 10 2 + 8 Midpoint of AB = . 2) and (10. 6) perpendicular to AB.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. the gradient of AC is negative reciprocal of 2. A line drawn through A(4. meets the line 2y = x – 2 at the point C. 2 2 1 [4] y = 12 2 .e. sub (1) into (2): 2 (. and equation of AB: = = Y Y Sub in B: By = = (x – 4) x–2 x–2+6 x+4 = (0) + 4 2 = 4 Hence.2x + 8 = y . 6) parallel to the line 2y = x – 2. B = (0.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS F Worked Examples on Sections B. C = (6.2(x – 4) = .(2) = Since both lines intersect.2x + 14 --. (i) Calculate the coordinates of B.(1) = 2y x – 2 --.4x + 28 x–2 = x + 4x 28 + 2 = 5x 30 = x = 6 (Ans) Sub x = 6 into (1): y . By) 2y x-2 = x -1 y = 2 y y–6 = 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 [6] x–1 1 2 Since AB parallel to 2y = x – 2. = 1 2 1 1 2 Gradient of AB Since AC is perpendicular to AB. 8) respectively. meets the y-axis at the point B. 2) [N97/I/2] The points A and B have coordinates (2. x = 0.

The point P lies on AC such that AP:PB = 3:2. 1) meets the x-axis at C.4x + 24 . we drop lines from A and P to form the following figure: A [5] P E B F C O Q Let P be (x. 5) - 1 Gradient of AB 1 8-2 10 . . 11) and B(0.4(x – 6) . (i) Find the coordinates of P By similar triangles.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2.4x + 39 (Ans) [N2000/I/2] A (5. 1) Q C O The line joining A(5.4x + 24 + 15 . By similar triangles.2 8-2 8 6 4 3 4 .2 10 . y). 11) P B (0.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS y Gradient of ⊥ bisector = = = = = = Equation of ⊥ bisector: Y-5 3y – 15 3y = = = = = (6.3 (x – 6) .

5) A line through P meets the x-axis at Q and angle PCQ = angle PQC.Gradient of AC = 11 . then y = 0. equation of PQ: y . Thus. P = (2. 0) [N2001/I/3] .gradient of PQ Gradient of PQ = .5 = -2 (x – 2) y .2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS PE BF 5-x 5-0 5-x 5 = = = AP AB AP AP + PB 3 5 5-x = 3 x = 2 By similar triangles.y 10 = = = = AP AB 3 5 3 5 6 10 11 – y = 6 y = 5 Hence.5 = -2x + 4 y = -2x + 9 (Ans) (ii) The coordinates of Q Since Q lies on x-axis.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. Find: (ii) The equation of PQ Since angle PCQ = angle PQC. AE AF 11-y 11-1 11 .1 5-0 10 - = 5 = -2 Hence.y 10 11 .5. Q = (4. then gradient of AC = . let Q = (Qx = 0) and sub into equation of PQ: 0 = -2(Qx) + 9 -9 = -2(Qx) 2 Qx = 9 Qx = 4.5 Hence.

OC and CB are y = 3x. y = ½x and y = 3x – 15 respectively.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS y = 3x y = 3x . Equation of AB: y–6 ½ (x – 2) = ½x – 1 = y ½x – 1 + 6 = y ½x + 5 (Ans) = Since B is intersection point of y = ½x + 5 and y = 3x – 15. C = (6. B and D. 6) y = ½x C D O The diagram. then gradient of AB is also ½. 9) = Gradient of AD = = = Equation of AD: -2 1 Gradient of OC 1 1 2 . equate both to get B: ½x + 5 3x – 15 = x + 10 6x – 30 = 6x – x 10 + 30 = 5x 40 = x = 8 (Ans) Sub x = 8 into y = ½x + 5: y = ½(8) + 5 9 (Ans) Hence B = (8. shows a parallelogram OABC where O is the origin and A is the point (2. 3) = Since AB is parallel to y = ½x. [8] To find coordinates of C. The equations of OA. which is not drawn to scale. The perpendicular from A to OC meets OC at the point D.5x = x = 6 (Ans) Sub x = 6 into y = ½x: y = ½ (6) 3 (Ans) Hence. equate y = ½x and y = 3x – 15: ½x 3x – 15 = 3x – ½x 15 = 2. Find (i) The coordinates of C.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2.15 B A (2. 6).

k). -3). correct [3] to 1 decimal place Length of OA = = = = Length of OC = = = = = = = = 2-0 + 6-0 2 2+ 6 4 + 36 40 2 2 2 2 6-0 + 3-0 2 Perimeter of OABC 6 2+ 3 2 36 + 9 45 2(Length of OA + Length of OC) 2( 40 + 45) 26. -1) (Ans) (b) The fourth vertex D Since ABCD is a parallelogram. Midpoint of AC Midpoint of BD = 4+h 9+k (4.e. 9) and C(11. let D be (h. -1) = . B(4.06552 units2 26. 11) (Ans) . they would both be the same). 2) = (ii) The perimeter of the parallelogram OABC.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS y-6 -2 (x – 2) = y–6 -2x + 4 = y -2x + 4 + 6 = y -2x + 10 = To find coordinates of D. 2 = (4. 1). equate y = -2x + 10 and y = ½x: ½x -2x + 10 = x -4x + 20 = x + 4x = 20 5x = 20 x = 4 (Ans) Sub x = 4 into y = ½x: y = ½(4) 2 (Ans) Hence D = (4. 2 2 Focusing on x coordinate only: Focusing on y coordinate only: 4+h 9+k 4 = -1 = 2 2 4+h 9+k 8 = -2 = h k = 8–4 = 9+2 = 4 = 11 Hence.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. Find: (a) The midpoint of the diagonal AC Midpoint of AC = = -3 + 11 2 8 -2 2 . D = (4. the midpoint of its diagonals would bisect each other (i.1 units2 (Ans) [N2003/I/11] A parallelogram ABCD passes through vertices A(-3. 1 + (-3) 2 . Hence.

you would only be required to: .2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS G Graphs of Equations y = axn and y2 = kx For such questions. For reference purposes.Find the solution set to a particular equation by adding a suitable straight line .Find the corresponding x or y coordinate. y = ax-1 ↔ y = a x y = ax-2 ↔ y = a x2 y = ax2 y = ax3 y = ax2 ↔ y = a x 1 y = ax3 ↔ y = a 3 x 1 y = ax - 1 2 ↔y= a x y = ax - 1 3 ↔y= a 3 x y2 = kx (where k > 0) y2 = kx (where k < 0) . As such. refer to your notes from Mathematics on Functions and Graphs for how to answer these questions.Draw the graphs given the values .4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. given one. here are the various y = axn and y2 = kx graphs.

16 (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 = . b) would have an equation of (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = r2 where r is the radius.c (x + g)2 + (y + f)2 = . We now have a circle with a 2 2 We know that the length of a line is radius CF of length r. r Equation of a Circle FORM 2 (-g. sub x = 0 into equation.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = r2 We thus get the equation that a circle of centre C (a. x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 x2 + 2gx + y2 + 2fy = .c (x + g)2 – g2 + (y + f)2 – f2 = . Property Centre of a Circle.c x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 2 WORKED EXAMPLES The equation of a circle. 4) and radius of C is 3 units.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS H Equation of a Circle x2 . y) is a point on the circumference of the circle. b) r (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = r2 = . coordinates of centre of C is (3. x-a + y-b 2 2 = r Taking square on both sides. -f) g2 + f . (0 – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 = 9 9 + (y – 4)2 = 9 (y – 4)2 = 0 y-4 = 0 y = 4 [3] [2] .c 2 x + 2(g)(x) + y2 + 2(f)(y) = . x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y + 16 = x2 – 6x + y2 – 8y = .x1 + y2 .16 (x – 3)2 – 32 + (y – 4)2 – 42 = .c. x = 0.c + g2 + f2 2 (x + g)2 + (y + f)2 We thus gather that the centre of the circle is (-g.16 2 2 x – 2(3)(x) + 3 – 32 + y2 – (2)(4)(y) + 42 – 42 = .16 2 x – 2(3)(x) + y2 – (2)(4)(y) = .16 (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 – 25 = . (ii) Show that C touches the y-axis When C touches y-axis.16 + 25 = 9 = 32 Hence. C Radius of a Circle.c Complete the square: x2 + 2(g)(x) + g2 – g2 + y2 + 2(f)(y) + f2 – f2 = . How can we determine the centre and the radius? Let us try manipulating the equation.16 (x – 3)2 – 9 + (y – 4)2 – 16 = .y1 . b) is the centre of the circle and F (x. Now consider a circle with the equation: x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0. is x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y + 16 = 0 (i) Find the coordinates of the centre of C and find the radius of C. where C (a.c + g2 + f2 2 g2 + f . Hence. C. -f) and the radius is In summary. FORM 1 (a.

The radius is the same as it the same size as C. 4). a circle which has a reflection of C in the y-axis has a centre of (-3. Circle C2 passes through O and has its centre at Q.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. Since centre of circle is origin. equation of C2: (x – 4)2 + (y – (-3))2 = 52 (x – 4)2 + (y + 3)2 = 25 2 x – 8x + 16 + y2 + 6y + 9 = 25 x2 + y2 – 8x + 6y + 25 = 25 x2 + y2 – 8x + 6y = 0 (Ans) The line through Q perpendicular to OP meets the circle C1 at the (iii) points A and B.6) 8 + (-6) 64 + 36 100 10 units 102 100 0 (Ans) [3] Midpoint of OP. Show that the x coordinates of A and B are a + b 3 -6 [7] . 2 = (4. 4). -3) Radius of C2 = ½ (Length of OP) = ½ (10 units) = 5 units Hence. Centre of C2 . as there is a corresponding y coordinate for the value of x = 0. 0) Radius of circle C1 [2] = = = = = = = = = = = = = Diameter of Circle C2 Length of OP (0 + 8)2 + (0 . Hence. The point P (8. C does touch the y-axis. -6) x The diagram shows two circles. Q 0+8 2 8 2 2 2 2 Hence. Circle C1 has its centre at the origin O. 0 + (-6) 2 . C1 and C2. B (i) Find the equation of C1. (iii) Find the equation of the circle which is a reflection of C in the y-axis. it is (0. equation of C1: (x – 0)2 + (y – 0)2 x2 + y2 2 2 x + y – 100 (ii) Find the equation of C2.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS Therefore. (x – (-3))2 + (y – 4)2 = 32 (x + 3)2 + (y – 4)2 = 9 2 X + 6x + 9 + y2 – 8y + 16 = 9 X2 + 6x + y2 – 8y + 16 = 0 X2 + y2 + 6x – 8y + 16 = 0 (Ans) [SP2008/I/7] y C1 A C2 O Q P (8. -6) lies on both circles and OP is a diameter of C2. [3] Centre of C = (3.

100 900 = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 0 0 0 0 0 .-8 ± (-8) .2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS and a .4(1)(-11) 2 9 9x + 16x – 200x + 625 – 900 25x2 – 200x – 275 x2 – 8x . where a and b are integers to be found.b 3 respectively.-6 0-8 = = = = Equation of AB: y – (-3) y+3 y = = = = = Sub 1 into 2 : x2 + x2 + ( 4 3 25 2 3 625 8 6 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 0-8 0+6 (x .11 2 2 16 2 2(4)(25) x x+ 9 ) 9 9 9 2 16 2 200 625 x + x x+ 9 9 9 9 x 2(1) 8 ± 64 + 44 2 8 ± 108 2 4 ± 27 4±3 3 4 + 3 3 or 4 .(1) 1 Gradient of AB = Gradient of OP 1 0 .4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2.100 .3 3 (proven) [N2008/II/11] . x2 + y2 – 100 = 0 --.4) xxxx16 3 16 3 16 3 25 3 –3 9 3 ---(2) x- .

y) m is a constant term which is the gradient (i. a denotes the gradient and b denotes the Y-intercept. a a xy = x + bx xy = + x a Divide throughout by x y = + 2 x bx bx bx y = a(x2) 1 1 + Hence. x Here. cannot contain x or y terms) However. Here. . Examples of such graphs include: a b y = x + bx y = axb y=a x+ x Where a and b are constants With a little algebraic manipulation. must contain y in any form such as ln y. The table below shows the manipulation of some common graph types. a denotes the gradient and b denotes the Y-intercept. must contain y in any form such as lg x. a straight line graph is obtained when y (Y) is plotted against x2 (X). Here. each of the above relationships can be converted to a linear relationship. x Here. not all experimental results obey a linear relationship. sin y. 2) x c is a constant term which is the Y-intercept (i.e.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2. cos x. cannot contain x or y terms) y X is a function of x (i.e. y = ax + bx2 Divide throughout by x y y y x = = ax a + + bx2 bx Hence. when two variables are believed to be related.Y is a function of y (i. a straight line graph is obtained when (Y) is plotted against x (X). a straight line graph is obtained when y (Y) is plotted against (X). y2. a a y=x+b y = + x y = a( x ) 1 1 b b + Hence.e. a denotes the gradient and b denotes the Y-intercept.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS I Linear Law th (Source: New Syllabus Additional Mathematics 8 Edition (2007). whereby: x . a set of corresponding values are obtained. x2y. y=a x+ b x y y x = = a x ax + + b x Multiply throughout by x b Hence. Dr Yeap Ban Har/ Teh Keng Seng/ Loh Cheng Yee) In research work. a denotes the Y-intercept and b denotes the gradient. a straight line graph is obtained when y x (Y) is plotted against x (X). Any equation must be in the form of Y = mX + c.e.

0 25.0 12.0 6. plot xy against x2 and obtain a straight line graph.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2.4 7.0 4. choose two points on the graph (e. x 1 2 3 4 5 y 7.0 Using the vertical axis for xy and the horizontal axis for x2. WORKED EXAMPLE (a) The table shows experimental values of two variables. Here.e. 7. xy = a xy a = a Divide throughout by x y = x y = a( x ) 1 1 lg xb b lg x Hence.g.0) and (25. a denotes the gradient and 0 denotes the Y-intercept (i.0. a straight line graph is obtained when y (Y) is plotted against x (X).3 11.0 xy 7.2 55.0 16.0 9. Here. passes through origin O).8 23.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS y = aebx Taking ln on both sides Using product law to split up ln (aekx) Using power law to change ln ekx Since ln e = 1 y ln y ln y ln y ln y = = = = = aebx ln (aebx) ln a ln a ln a + + + ln ebx bx ln e bx Hence. a straight line graph is obtained when lg y (Y) is plotted against lg x (X). ln a denotes the Y-intercept and b denotes the gradient. lg a denotes the Y-intercept and b denotes the gradient.0.0) . Use your graph to: [10] Plot a new table of values: x2 1. y axb y = axb = lg (axb) Taking lg on both sides lg y = b Using product law to split up lg (ax ) lg a lg y = + Using power law to change lg xb lg a lg y = + Hence. plot the graph and draw a line of best fit. Here.1 37. 55.0 Using new values. a straight line graph is obtained when ln y (Y) is plotted against x (X).7 9. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 x2 20 25 30 xy xy = 2x2 + 5 (i) Express y in terms of x To find gradient. x and y. (1.

equation of line: Y – Y1 (y – x) – (4) y–x–4 y (ii) The value of p Find value of x2 = p when (y – x) = 4. 6) and (3.8 (Ans) 4.8 = y = = .536 = 3.48 4. 6).0 mX + c 2(x2) + 5.48).48 = x2 = p = The value of x and of y at the point P.8 6.48 2 m(X – X1) 2(x2 – 3) 2x2 – 6 2x2 + x + 4 – 6 2x2 + x – 2 (Ans) 2x2 + x – 2 2x2 – 2 2x2 – 2 2x2 3.0 – 1. Find [6] (i) y in terms of x To find gradient.e. y – x = Y – 1.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS TOPIC 2: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY SUB-TOPIC 2.48 4. 4.48 = 6. Y-intercept Hence.48 + 1. choose the two given points on the graph (i. a straight line is produced which passes through the points A(4. 4) and P(p.5 = 3.24 1. when y – x is plotted against x2.24 (Ans) 3. when xy = 30. as shown in the diagram.0 From the graph.0 48. B(3.24 3.0 5 2x + x (Ans) 30 .0 – 7. Y xy y (ii) Estimate the value of x when y = 30 x 2 5. x2 x = x = 30 ≈ 12. At P.54 (Ans to 3sf) Variables x and y are related in such a way that.0 24. from the graph.28 (Ans) [N2000/II/4] (iii) y = y–x = 4. y xy Hence.0 25. (4.2: COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS Gradient = = = ≈ = = = 55. x2 = x = At P. 4) Gradient = = = = = = = = 6-4 4-3 2 1 Hence.

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