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The (Chinese) Philosophy of Human Nature - Chu Hsi - Eng Transl J Percy Bruce

The (Chinese) Philosophy of Human Nature - Chu Hsi - Eng Transl J Percy Bruce

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Philosophy China: Chu Hsi; English Transl J. Percy Bruce (1922)
Philosophy China: Chu Hsi; English Transl J. Percy Bruce (1922)

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PROBSTHAIN

S

ORIENTAL SERIES

VOL.

X

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
BY

CHU HSI

STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS, LTD., PRINTERS, HERTFORD

THE PHILOSOPHY OF

HUMAN NATURE
BY

CHU HSI

TRANSLATED FROM THE CHINESE, WITH NOTES

J.

PERCY BRUCE,
"

M.A. (LoND.)

AUTHOR OF

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF CHU H3I AND THE SUNG SCHOOL"

PROBSTHAIN &
41

CO.,

GREAT RUSSELL

ST.,

LONDON, W.C.

1922

JWYERSfTY OF TOB08T3
Asiatic StudL

IN THE PRESS.

An
of

Introduction to the Philosophy

Chu Hsi and the Sung School.
BY
J.

PERCY BRUCE,
:

M.A.

Being a Companion Volume to
of

The

Philosophy

Human

Nature, by

Chu

Hsi.

Translated from

the Chinese.

CONTENTS
PAGE

PREFACE

ix

BOOK

I

THE NATURE AND THE DECREE THE NATURE THE NATURE IN MAN AND OTHER CREATURES
BOOK
II

...

3

.16
. .

56

THE PHYSICAL NATURE THE DECREE
CAPACITY

79

130 152

BOOK

III

MIND
BOOK IV

157

THE MIND, THE NATURE, AND THE FEELINGS THE STEADFAST NATURE
FEELING AND MOTIVE THE WILL AND THE ETHER

.

.

229 245

THE WILL AND MOTIVES

THOUGHT
BOOK V

258 259 262

MORAL LAW

269
.

LAW
VIRTUE

.

290 303

vi

CONTENTS
BOOK VI
PAGE

LOVE

311

BOOK VII
LOVE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS
LOVE, RIGHTEOUSNESS, REVERENCE, AND WISDOM LOVE, RIGHTEOUSNESS, REVERENCE, WISDOM, AND
.

387

897 409 419 425 433 439

SINCERITY

SINCERITY

INGENUOUSNESS AND TRUTH INGENUOUSNESS AND SYMPATHY SEDATENESS AND SERIOUSNESS

......

LIST

OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS

VOLUME
Analects

=

the translation of The Analects of Confucius

by Legge,

Soothill, or

by

Ku Hung

The

figures in brackets refer to
i

Ming. Legge s

translation, vol.
Classics.

of his series of Chinese

G.L.

=

"

The Great

Learning",

in vol.

i

of

Legge

s

Chinese Classics.
"

D.M.
Mencius

The Doctrine of the Mean volume as above.
ii

",

in the

same

Shu Ching
Odes
Yi Ching

= vol. = vol. = vol. = vol.

of the

same
,,

series as above.
,,

iii

iv

,,

xvi of the Sacred Books of the East.

The

references

to

the

Chinese Edition
flg

(Ch. Ed.) are to the

^ g

g

t

In the Imperial Edition the order of the
text
is

the same as in Legge

s translation.

Li Chi

vols. xxvii

and

xxviii of the

Sacred Books

of the East.

Complete Works

=

"

The Complete Works
Edition
"

of

Chu

Hsi, Imperial
-

g
at

ft

*

*

a*& n M ig .R sr it s -R w nr m js
rtf

PREFACE
riIHE work
-

here translated forms a part of the Imperial

Edition of

Chu Hsi

s

Complete Works

($

compiled under the direction of the Manchu Emperor K ang Hsi, and published in the year A. D. 1713. It is composed of selections from two earlier compilations, entitled Chu Hsi s
Conversations
(xfc
"f

^^?&

ff ),

(^

j5C

il)-

-^ | |g) and Chu Hsi s Collected Writings The former, as the title indicates, consists of

verbatim reports of the Philosopher s lectures, which, like the discussions of the Greek Academy, assumed the form of
conversations between the lecturer and his pupils.

They were

recorded by the more intimate of those pupils, and collated by them in various collections, some during the Philosopher s
lifetime,

and others soon after his death (A.D. 1230). From work entitled Chu Hsi s Conversations was later The compilation compiled, and published in A.D. 1270. entitled Chu Hsi s Collected Writings does not include Chu
these the

Hsi

s

larger works, such as his Commentaries,
etc.,

Modern Thought,

The Object of Learning,
writings.
It

but only his miscellaneous
of letters to correspondents,

most

of

them

Philosopher. upon a much

mainly but some of them opponents, of the The edition now extant under this title based
pupils,
earlier

consists

edition

not

now

obtainable

was

published about the year A.D. 1700, in the reign of ang Hsi. The title of the present work, which is complete in itself,

K

x
is

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Hsing Li

(^

iCfl).

As has been pointed out
a

elsewhere,

1

the

expression

has

double

application.

It is used for

philosophy in its broadest sense, including the investigation and it is also used of all things physical and metaphysical
;

in the narrower

and more

specialized sense of Mental

and

Moral Philosophy, or the study of the constitution of man s nature. Here, as is indicated in our translation of the title,
it is

in the latter sense that
is

it

must be understood.

The work
Books
xlii

arranged according to subject in seven books to xlviii of the Complete Works and in groups of

sections, these groups being

chosen alternately from the two Each section, both from the compilations above named. Conversations and from the Collected Writings, stands by itself

and has no connexion with those that follow or precede,
except in the similarity of subject.

The companion volume referred
of the life

to above includes

an account

and works
is

of

Chu

Hsi,

and

it is

not necessary to

repeat here what

system
length.

of philosophy,

there said, nor to discuss the Philosopher s which is there treated at considerable

A few words, however, are needed concerning the nature of the task here attempted, and the object in view.
With regard
to the latter, it is a

matter for some surprise

that, while translations of the Chinese Classics into English have long been before the public, and translations of the works
of other Chinese philosophers

have appeared from time to

time,

no

serious effort has hitherto been

made

to present to

the English reader the works of

Chu

Hsi, the philosopher

whose teachings have done more than almost any other to
1

An

J. P.

Introduction Bruce.

to the

Philosophy of Chu Hsi and the Sung School, bv

PREFACE

xi

mould the thought of the Chinese race. The omission is the more noteworthy inasmuch as the Western student, in his
efforts to

understand the mentality of the Chinese people,

finds that the Classics, valuable as
of

they are from the point

view

of their high ethical standard, are, nevertheless,

some

what heterogeneous

in their contents

;

and, while

it is

obvious

that the study of those writings is one indispensable means to the attainment of his end, it must be confessed that not
infrequently he sighs for

some presentation of Chinese thought more systematized and compendious in its nature. Such a presentation is contained in the work of which this is a trans

almost every page the reader will find modes of and thought expression which may be observed among all classes of the people, from peasants to literati and will have abundant evidence that, however unconsciously to
lation.
;

On

themselves, their mental outlook has been formed in the matrix
of this philosophy.

What

has just been said has reference more particularly to

the student of Oriental thought and the Western resident in China. My aim, however, goes further. In my Introduction
to the

Philosophy

of

Chu Hsi and

the

Sung

School, I

have

endeavoured to show that Chu Hsi ranks, not only as one of China s master minds, but also as one of the world s great
thinkers.
If

that be the case, his lectures and writings on

such a theme as the Philosophy of Human Nature have a claim to be rendered accessible to students of philosophy and religion

and only with a view to comparative study even apart from the subject matter, it may not be without interest to some to examine the workings of the Philosopher s
in general,
if
;

mind and the method

of his dialectic as they are revealed in

xii

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

the numerous arguments and philosophic statements contained in this work.

With regard

to the nature of the translator s task, the

first

impression made upon the reader of the original text is the simplicity of its style, when compared with that of the Classics,
or even with that of the earlier philosophers of the Sung School. This is particularly the case in the sections selected from the
Conversations, in which

we have the

ipsissima verba of the

Master as he taught and conversed with his pupils. But, while the phraseology is thus simple, it by no means follows
that the thought
is

the contrary, the work so full of allusions to, and quotations from, the works of other philosophers, and consists so largely of answers to arguments
is

easy to grasp.

On

of

letters the tenor of

which not more than isolated sentences are quoted, and to which must be inferred from the answers
is

themselves, that to follow the drift of the argument

often

extremely difficult. Moreover, the Philosopher in his lectures not unnaturally assumed a knowlege in his hearers which they indeed possessed, but which to readers of a later generation
is

often inaccessible.

When the effort is made to transfer the thought of the writer
or speaker into the English language there emerges a new set of difficulties. In works of history or poetry the translator

may
strict

with perfect propriety claim a measure of freedom from literalness and mechanical but in an consistency
;

argumentative work such as this is, if he would be faithful to his author s purpose, he must adhere closely to the text, no matter how much his literary sense be offended

may

;

otherwise the very point of the argument will be lost. The thus created is enhanced difficulty by the fact that the

PREFACE
reference has just been made, are in
different connexions,

xiii

quotations from the works of other philosophers, to which

many

cases repeated in

and arguments built upon them w^hich would be confusing and bewildering unless there were exact ness of expression and consistency in the rendering. And the
difficulty is still further

frequently the case, one part of a given passage is cited in one instance, and another in another, while in a third instance the two parts overlap, or possibly the quotation ends in the very middle
of a sentence.

accentuated when, as

is

To obtain
is

circumstances

consistency of rendering in such almost the despair of the translator.

true of arguments and quotations as a whole is in large part also true of individual words. Needless to say,
is

What

the content of the Chinese

word

in

many

cases does not

wholly coincide with that of any one English word, and yet arguments frequently turn upon a single word arguments
;

which would become unintelligible if the rendering of that word were changed with every change of aspect from which
it is

regarded.

An

obvious and easy escape from the difficulty
original

would be to reproduce the
exceptional instances this

word,

and

in

some
For

must

of necessity

be done.

controversy with the Taoists the word Tao as used by the latter manifestly has a different con notation from that which it has as used by Chu Hsi. In

example, in

Chu Hsi

s

other words the dispute is as to the meaning of the wT ord itself. In such arguments to adopt, say, the rendering Moral Law
"

"

to accord with

Chu Hsi s interpretation would be to beg the Reason question for Chu Hsi, while to adopt the rendering to accord with the Taoist interpretation would make Chu Hsi s
"

"

argument meaningless.

But, apart from such exceptional

xiv

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
an English equivalent
is

instances, unless
fit all

found which
be very

will

at a loss to

connexions, the English know what the argument

reader will often
is

much

about, and might

even plead that algebraic signs would be preferable.
Subject to the limitations and restrictions indicated ir the preceding paragraphs, I have allowed myself a largt and the aim, measure of liberty in the mode of expression
;

kept steadily in view, has been, not only to represent the thought of the original truly, but to do so in clear and readable
English.

In particular I

may mention that I have fully availed

matter of connecting particles. In the Conversations especially, these particles abound with
myself of this liberty in the

what

in English

would seem monotonous redundancy.

Sc

long, therefore, as the sentence as a

whole reproduces tht
not translated at
all.

complete thought been translated freely,

of the writer or speaker, the particles have
or, in

some

cases,

The reader

is

further reminded that the construction of

the Chinese and English languages is so different that many words not actually occurring in the original need to be supplied in the translation if the thought is to be completely expressed.

been considered desirable to disfigure the page and confuse the reader by indicating in all cases words so supplied.
It has not

Where words or phrases are needed, not merely to complete the sense, but to indicate some fact implied but not expressed
in the original, the necessary supplied words are printed in italics, or, in a few instances inserted in square brackets.

Words

inserted in curved brackets are in all cases inter

polations

by the Chinese
"

compiler,
"

It will be

noted that for the adjective derived from the
the spelling adopted
"

noun

"

ether

etherial

is

that

PREFACE

xv

this word, with its

used by Sir Oliver Lodge in his writings in order to distinguish somewhat technical meaning, from the more

common word
For

"

ethereal

".

my justification for the
li

puch as the names of the

five cardinal virtues

rendering of certain key- words, and the words

MO

(jg),

(gi),

Ch

i

(

jf), etc.,

the reader

is

again referred to
the

my

Introduction

to the
is

Philosophy of
also

Chu Hsi and

Sung

School.

The reader

any rendering which may followed the development of the Philosopher the body of the work itself.

begged to suspend judgment on appear to be unusual until he has
s

arguments in

In the foot-notes the source of the quotation or allusion pn which any particular argument is based has been indicated
wherever possible, so that the reader with a knowledge of Chinese will be in a position to acquaint himself with the statement quoted in its original setting. I have also, within

by foot-notes, given such biographical available concerning those correspondents and participators in the dialogue who are mentioned by name. Some there are whose names recur so frequently that
the limits afforded

information as

is

they become familiar friends. In the citations from the Classics I have freely availed
myself of the translations of Legge, Soothill,

Ku Hung

Ming,

and

my

have not, however, refrained from adopting own variations of their renderings in cases where it has
others.
I

seemed

desirable, particularly
is

when a more

literal

rendering
clear

than that adopted by them

required in order to

make

the Philosopher s argument. I cannot allow this opportunity to pass without expressing my sense of obligation to the Rev. Sun P eng Hsiang and other

xvi

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

Chinese scholars for their help, given always with the utmost readiness, in the elucidation of the text and of literary
historical

problems related thereto.

I desire also gratefully to

to

my

acknowledge my deep indebtedness former tutor, Professor S. W. Green, M.A., of Regent s

Park
Rev.

College, University of

London, and to

my

colleague, the

J. C. Keyte, M.A., of the

Shantung Christian University,

China,

for

valuable

criticisms

and suggestions

;

and to

express

my

gratitude to the latter for unstinted help in the

arduous task of correcting the proofs.

Owing to

difficulties entailed

by war and post-war conditions

there has been considerable delay in the publication of this work. That the delay has not been longer extended is largely due to generous assistance in seeing the work through the

by the Rev. C. E. Wilson, B.A., of the Baptist Missionary Society, and by Mr. W. E. Cule, of the Carey Press,
press rendered

to

whom my

sincere thanks are here accorded.

I take this

opportunity also to express

my

appreciation of the courtesy

and patience of the publishers through all the difficulties mentioned above difficulties greatly enhanced by the fact
of the translator s residence in China.
J.

PERCY BRUCE.

TSINGCHOWFU, SHANTUNG, CHINA. March, 1921.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
I,.

BOOK
ke

I

BEING BOOK XLII OF

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF CHU HSI

IIS

81

THE NATURE AND THE DECREE

THE NATURE
THE NATURE IN MAN AND OTHER CREATURES

BOOK
(EJLEVEN SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

I

THE NATURE AND THE DECREE
"CONVERSATIONS".)

In distinguishing between the four terms Question. HEAVEN and the DECREE, the NATURE and LAW, would it be correct to say that in the term Heaven the reference is to
its

attribute of self-existence, that in the term Decree the
is to its

reference

all-pervading activity and immanence in the universe, that in the term Nature the reference is to that complete substance by which all things have their life,

and that in the term

Law

the reference

is

to the fact that
;

1 every event and thing has each its own rule of existence but that taking them together, HEAVEN is LAW, the DECREE

is

the

NATURE, and the NATURE

is

LAW

?

Yes, but in the present day it is maintained that the term Heaven has no reference to the EMPYREAN, 2

Answer.

whereas, in
1

my
pt.

view, this cannot be left out of account.
in the
p.

There
is

is

an allusion here to a passage
iii,
ii,

Classics, vol.

p. 541.

See also

Odes see Legge s Chinese 54 of this volume, where the
;

passage
2

quoted

in full.

is to the use of this expression in the Classics, where it It literally means frequently occurs in the title of the Supreme Ruler. azure azure See Introduction toChu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. xii.

The

reference

"

".

4
2.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Law
is

Heaven s substance, the Decree is Law in operation, the Nature is what is received by man, and the Feelings are the Nature in operation.
3.

The Decree

is is

like letters patent appointing

a

man

the duty pertaining to such office,! the 1 are the Feelings performance of that duty, and the Mind is the man himself. 2
to office, the

Nature

4.

The Philosopher remarked
it

to

Hou

Chili

:

Yesterday
of
is

evening
correct

was

paid

that
tand

the

Nature

consists

the

processes of creation
;

transformation.

This

not

and transformation are material processes, while Law, by which creation and transformation proceed,
creation

is

immaterial.

Fei

Ch ing 3

asked

:

When

"

it is said,
is

Perfection also
referred to
?

is undying," 4 is it

Law

or the Ether that

1

There are two groups of feelings to which this term

is

applied

;

the one

(Seven Feelings), named joy, anger, sorrow, fear, The other set are the love, hatred, and desire (see Giles Dictionary).
set are

known

as the

^

*|j|

S (Four
latter
2

Terminals), occurring inMencius, viz. solicitude, conscientious

ness, courtesy (sometimes given as respectfulness), and moral insight. The reference in this paragraph, and generally throughout the work, is to the

group of Four Terminals, answering to the four cardinal virtues which constitute the Nature. See Legge s Chinese Classics, vol. ii, pp. 78-9.

That

is,

the

Mind corresponds

to the

man who

in the illustration

is

appointed to
5
4
"

office.

SurnamedClm (J^). See Doctrine of the Mean,
is
dies."

p.
"

285.
;

Legge translates

this sentence,
"

Singleness likewise

unceasing

Ku Hung Ming
latter

translates

it,

Moral
j&ff

perfection also never
"

Legge, in his note, gives the meaning of

as

fine

and pure

"

",

unmixed".

The

word

"

unmixed,"

represents

the particular kind of purity represented by
character,

ij,

and, as applied to
" "

may

be

expressed

by such words

as

perfection

and

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
dictum,
Nature."
1

5

It is

Law

that

is

referred to, as also in the
is
is

"The

Decree of Heaven
is

what

is

termed the

The Decree of Heaven
;

like the

command

of

a sovereign
sovereign
difference
;

the Nature

and in the

the receiving: of office from the Ether lies, as it were, the

between those who can, and those who cannot,
:

2 discharge the duties of their office. o Hsiieh 3 asked Even if you interpret the dictum^ The Decree of Heaven is what is termed the Nature," as

K

"

referring only to Law, is it not the ease that the moment you speak of the Decree the Ether also is implied ? For

were no Ether how could there be men and, things Moreover, what would there be to receive Law ?
if there
"

?
,

integrity

".

Cf.

The Conduct of
),

Life,

by

Ku Hung

Ming,
or

p. 49.

Note

:

The word

yi (

rightly translated

"singleness"

"sincerity",

also

occurs in the Doctrine of the Mean ; see D.M., pp. 271, 275. 1 The first sentence in the Doctrine of the Mean. In Legge s translation

the all-pervading immanent Will of individuated in Man. See Legge s Chinese Classics, vol. i, p. 247 Ku Hung Ming s Conduct of Life, p. 14.
;

the significance of fo conferred by Heaven

is

in part lost.
it

It is not

simply that the Nature

is

is

God
;

cf.

2

That

is

:

the difference in the good and evil of

men

is

due, not to

differences in the Decree, or the Nature, or

Law, but to

differences in the

material element in their constitution.

Cheng K o Hsueh ([) pj* J[|), style Tzu Shang (^ Jt), was an orphan while still young. After taking his degree of Chii Jen (M.A.), he made two ineffectual attempts to obtain that of Chin Shih (D.Lit.). He first met Chu Hsi at a place called Wu I, and thenceforth became one of his most devoted disciples. With a deep sense of his own limited abilities K o Hsiieh applied himself to hard study, and in the end surpassed the majority of his fellow-pupils in his power to assimilate the Master s teaching. While Chu Hsi was at Chang Chou, o Hsiieh was tutor in his family, but treated as an honoured guest rather than as a dependant. In later years the Philosopher entrusted to him some of his most important literary work. After his Master s death K o Hsueh became a teacher in a college at Chung
3

left

K

Chou(*g,

|
>j

i).

He was

the author of a work entitled

^j?

^

ft|

f||.

6

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answ&r.
Just
so,

just so

;

the fact

is,

in a comprehensive sense.

The passage

is

Ssu 1 spoke specially worthy
Tzii

of study.

Heaven may be likened to the Emperor 2 the Decree is like his handing to me Letters patent the Nature is the attached office which I to the thus receive, duty just as the
5.
;

;

duty attached to the office of district police is tQ arrest robbers, and the duty of the Comptroller of the Archives
the custody of documents the Feelings are like the attention to these and Capacity 3 duties personal given
is
;
;

is liko

the various forms of effort and achievement.

Shao
:

K angj Chi eh,
"

The Nature

the

Mind

is

in his preface to the Chi Jan$ Chi,* says the concrete expression of Moral Order the enceinte of the Nature the body is the
is
;

;

habitation of the Mindj
vehicle of the
6.
body."

;

and the external world

is

the

Liu asked:
"

Mencius
is

says,
s

"These

tilings are the

Decree concerning them/ and These things are the Decree, but there is also the Nature 5 thus making the Nature and the Decree two
",

Nature, but there

Heaven

1

Tzu Ssu, the grandson

of Confucius,

Doctrine of the
pp. 36
2
3
ff.

Mean

;

cf.

Legge

s

was the reputed author of the Chinese Classics, vol. i, Prolegomena,

the Son of Heaven. For a detailed exposition
Lit.
II, pp.

of the

word

"ft

see the concluding section of

Book
4

152

ff.

See Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. ii. For an interpretation of the sentence quoted see p. 48 of this volume. 6 See Mencius, p. 365, for the whole passage from which these quotations are taken. Legge s note, with a quotation from Chu Hsi, is specially Mencius shows that, though the appetites are the offspring interesting. of the Nature, they must be regulated in accordance with the Decree ; and though the cardinal virtues are the Decree, the noble man will develop his

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

7

different entities

;

Heaven

is

what

is

The Decree of while Tzii Ssu says, termed the Nature," thus making the

Nature and the Decree one.

Answer.

You must

How do you explain this ? take the words in the sense in which

they are used by the respective writers. What Mencius here calls the Decree includes the etherial endowment, while

Tzu

Ssii is

speaking only of that which

is

imparted by

Heaven.
7.

I

Ch uan
;

"

says

:

That which Heaven imparts
is

is

the
1

Decree

that which the creature receives

the

Nature."

Law
it is

as imparted by called the Decree, as received
is
:

one

Heaven

to the universe it is

called the Nature.

It is the point of

by the creature from Heaven view from which

the terms are used that differs.

8.

Yung Chih asked
"

:

The

the passage, the Nature
if

If

Virtue

fails

other day, sir, referring to to overcome the Ether

and the
succeeds

Decree
in

follow

the
the

Ether
Ether,

;

but
the

Virtue

overcoming

Nature, and not rest idly content with the thought that they are decreed. The passage is quoted here simply to show that for Mencius the Nature
"

"

and

entities, set in antithesis to

were not synonymous terms, but represented distinct each other, and so were inconsistent with the teaching of the Doctrine of the Mean, which says that they are identical (D.M., p. 247 Ku Hung Ming s Conduct of Life, p. 14). Chu Hsi reconciles the two passages by pointing out that both terms, hsing and ming, are used in two different senses ; in one case, they both refer to the essential in the nature as imparted by Heaven apart from the material element other case, the term Nature refers to the whole nature of man, including Decree to the both the ethical and physical elements, and the term Divine appointment respecting his whole life.
"

the Decree

"

;

;

"

"

"

"

1

Cf JT.
-

H

jft

if

(Literary

Remains of the Brothers C^ngr), pt. vi, f. 9-

8

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
1

Nature and the Decree follow

Virtue,"

you

said that the
"

word
a

"

Decree
;

"

is

to

be

interpreted

as

to

obey

happened to read your former reply to P an Kung Shu, in which you argue that the words "Decree" and "Nature" are two terms
command"

but, at that very time, I

for the

same thing, reading the phrase as the Nature and 2 and that it is because of this that the Decree" the
;

"

1

entitled

Quoted from Chang Tsai s work, the Cheng Meng (J True Intelligence see -J^ book v f$ Bfl
"
"

,

;

^
is

J),
;

part

vi,
,

,

also jj^

|g

pt. xvii, p. 39.

The Ethe
as

in

man

s

nature,

the physical and psychical element distinguished from Law (131), or the ethical

(^)

is

principle.

The question

raised

by Yung Chih

as to the

meaning
"

of

the word
"

a noun meaning the Decree as generally used ? Or is it a verb meaning "to be decreed or determined by In either case the construction is i.e. to obey ? forced. In the former case the particle acquires the force of a verb, to
(Decree) in the passage quoted.
" "

^

Is

it

",

"

"jr^

follow
"

ming as a passive verb is not common. In the former case, however, the meaning and the use of the two words Nature and Decree are more in accord with general usage so far as this School, and especially Chang Tsai, are concerned. This is the interpre tation adopted by Chu Hsi, and therefore in this translation. On the other interpretation the passage would read, If Virtue fails to over come the Ether, the Nature is subject to the Ether but if Virtue succeeds in overcoming the Ether, the Nature is ruled by Virtue." Chu Hsi, however, seems to have been inconsistent in his inter pretation at different times (cf. p. 11). But, as Hsien shows (p. 9^, the meaning is not essentially different in either case. There are two
"

;

in the latter case the use of

"

"

"

"

;

roads open to us. Either the lower nature may be made subject to the higher, perfectly serving its uses, in which case it is, as it were, absorbed into it, and the Nature and the Decree, or endowment of Heaven, are
Or, per contra, the higher is brought into subjection to wholly Virtue. the lower and absorbed by it there is no more than a capacity to receive a material endowment imparted by Heaven. Cf. pp. 121-2 of this volume.
;

2

And

so interpreting
it

"

Decree

"

as a noun, whereas on the other inter
of

pretation
i.e.

would have the force

a passive verb,

"to

be

decreed,"

compelled to obey.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
philosopher

9

Chang

later

Nature as Heaven

s Virtue,

on distinguishes the two the and the Decree as Heaven s
"

Law. 1
is some what slighter. If you regard the words "Nature" and Hsien asked Decree as two substantive words, how do you explain the Ether particle which is combined with the terms and "Virtue"? You will surely have to interpret it as meaning that the Nature and the Decree both "follow"

Answer.

And
:

it is so,

hut the word

Decree

"

"

"

"

"

the Ether, or both

"follow"

Virtue, as the case
ii

may

be.

Answer.
9.

That

is

just what Heng Ch

s

2

text says.

being asked a question with regard to the on Virtue failing to overcome the Ether, the chapter
Philosopher replied
:

On

What Chang Tzu
both
flow

says

is

that the

Nature and the

Ether

down from

above.

If, however, the Virtue in me is not adequate to overcome the etherial element, then there is no more than a capacity

to

receive
if

the

Ether which Heaven 3
is

But

this

Virtue

imparts to me. adequate to overcome the etherial

element, then what I receive of

Heaven s endowment
"

is

wholly Virtue.
investigation of

If,

therefore,

there

is

the exhaustive

principles"

with

"the

complete develop"

1 The whole passage in Chang Tsai s text reads If Virtue fails to overcome the Ether, the Nature and the Decree follow the Ether ; but if Virtue succeeds in overcoming the Ether, the Nature and the
:

Decree follow Virtue.

If there is

the exhaustive investigation of principles

and the complete development of the Nature, then the Nature is Heaven s Virtue and the Decree is Heaven s Law." 2 That is, Chang Tsai. The text referred to is the passage under
discussion.
3

Lit.

"

He

".

10

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
of the Nature

ment

V what
bestows

I receive
3

2

is

wholly Heaven

s

wholly Heaven s Law. Of the etherial element the only things which cannot be changed are life and death, longevity land brevity of life for life and death, longevity and brevity of life, with poverty and wealth, these return to Him as the etherial
is
;

Virtue, and what

He

upon me

On the other hand, the tilings spoken of by Mencius when he gays, Eighteousness as between sovereign and minister, and Love as between father and son, these
.element.
4
"

the things are the Decree, but there is also the Nature noble man does not say with reference to them They are
;

decreed

5
,

these

must

all

proceed from myself and not

from Him. 6
In the statement, "If there is the Question. exhaustive investigation of principles with the compliete development of the Nature, then the Nature is Heaven s
10.

Virtue and the

D ear.es
"

is

Heaven
"

s

7

Law,"

how

are tha
?

words

"

Nature

and

"

Decree

to be distinguished refers to
to

Answw.
pervading.
1

The word
word

"Nature"
"Decree"

dividualized, the

what is in that which is all -

The Decree

is like water flowing, as in this

These expressions are quoted by Chang Tsai from the Yi Ching ; see Sacred Books of the East, vol. xvi, p. 422. See also Legge s Chinese Classics,
vol.
2
i,

pp. 229, 280.

That is, the Nature. 3 That is, the Decree. 4 That is, they return to Him as the Ether with which and for which I have no responsibility.
5 6

I

was endowed,

Mencius, pp. 385-6. These virtues in contrast to life and death, etc., which cannot be changed by anything that we can do, are all possible of attainment and depend upon our own personal effort.
7

Quoted from the Cheng Meng, by Chang Tsai

;

see above.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
stream
l
;

11

the Nature is as if you took a bowl and filled it from the stream. A big bowl contains more a; small bowl contains less. The water in a clean bowl will be clear, while
;

that in a dirty
11.

bowl will be muddy. 2
"

Form implies the Physical in reversing his Physical Nature 3 He also will preserve the Nature of Heaven and Earth." overcome the to the "If Virtue fails Ether, said,
Heng Ch ii said: Nature. He who succeeds
Nature and the Decree follow the Ether
succeeds in
;

but

if

Virtue

overcoming

the
4

Ether,

the
"

Nature
"

and

the

Decree follow
s

Virtue."

Again,
is

Heaven
the

Virtue,

the Decree
of

The Nature is 5 for Heaven s Law
;

etherial

endowment

men
this

different
differs,

individuals,

and

necessarily not because

differs

in

Heaven

By

themselves are differently endowed. education the Nature and Decree may be made to follow

but because

men

Virtue

;

without such education, the Nature and Decree

remain an etherial endowment only.
Question. Formerly you interpreted the sentence, "the Nature and the Decree follow Virtue," as if it read, "The Nature follows that which is decreed by Virtue";

now, however, you would interpret it as meaning that the Nature and the Decree both are Virtue. Is it not so ?
Ansiuer.
1
"

Yes.

water flowing thus". The Philosopher probably was standing Lit. by a stream and pointing to it as he spoke. 2 The bowl represents the physical element in man s constitution, the differences in which account for the moral differences between men.
" "

3

^
4

Quoted from the Cheng Mtng, chap, vi, book v, f. 27 or ffi || pt. ii, f. 21
, ; ,

"

True Intelligence
or

"

;

see
39.

;

^^

,

pt. xvii,

f.

Cf. p.

88 of this volume.
8, n. 1.
5

Seep.

Seep.

0, n. 1.

12

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

COLLECTED WRITINGS".) (FOUR SECTIONS FROM THE 1. The statement, "Truth in the creature is what is
termed
Heaven,"

I have already discussed in detail in

my
say

former communication.
that what I said
that
is still

As

to the contention in
:

your
I

letter

not the real meaning
1

may

was following the idea of the passage, To everything is given its Nature free from anything false and showed from this that the Decree of Heaven
I wrote I
"

when
l

;

diffused throughout the whole universe, and is thus the Heaven of each individual creature. But although this is what I meant, I am bound to confess that, owing- to the poverty and restriction of language, the idea was not very 2 happily expressed. (Eeply to Lin Tse Chili.)
is

2.
is

Question. that which
is
3
;

Would
is

it

Heaven imparts

be correct to say The Decree to the creature, and the
:

Nature

that which

received by, the creature

from

Heaven

but the Nature and the Decree have each two
:

from the point of view of Law, Heaven decrees to inhere in the creature, and therefore it is called the Decree, while the creature receives it from from the point of Heaven, and so it is call,ed the Nature view of the Ether, Heaven decrees it to inhere in the creature, and therefore this too is called the Decree, and,
applications
it
;

as the creature receives the Ether
called the
1

from Heaven,

it is

also

Nature

?

2

Yi Ching, p. 299. Lin Yung Chung
fxj)

(^

Jf]

i

)

,

style

(~jf

He became

one of Chu Hsi

Tse Chih, was a native of Ku Tien s pupils at Chien An, and was
clever, carefu],

singled out for
s

tireless in study,

Compare

I

special commendation by his Master as and worthy of highest esteem as a friend. Ch uan s statement, p. 7.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
Decree
;

13

The Ether cannot be
you can say
it.

all

by reason of
Earth
is

Nature or the and Decree exist Therefore, whon the Nature of Heaven and
called the
is

that l the Nature

spoken

of,

it

is

Law
is

only that
of,

is

referred to

;

when the Physical Nature
referred to in combination.

spoken

Law and

Ether are

But the Ether alone can never
(Reply

be regarded either as the Nature or the Decree.
to

Cheng
3.

Tzii Shang.)

2

"Heaven

in giving birth to the multitudes of the

people so ordained it that inherent in every single thing there is its rule of .existence." 3 This means that at thq
4 very time when a particular man already decreed for him this Nature.

is

born, Heaven has The Nature is simply
the Nature.

Law
end,
for,
is

;

it is

as received

by man

that

it is called

It is not a separate entity,

without beginning and without which can be made into the Nature by ,.the Decree to use the illustration I have already given, the Decreo
;

by the Throne, and the, Nature is like the office received by the officer, so that I Ch uan makes it very clear when he says, That which Heaven imparts is the Decree, and that which the creature
like the

appointment to

office

"

Therefore the saints and sages of old time, when they spoke of the Nature and the Decree, spoke of them in their relation to the realities of life. For
;5

receives is the Nature.

"

example,

when they

"

tell

us

to give full

development to

fH =

it is only that See p. 5, n. 3. See p. 52 and note.
}

"

"

=

"this

man".

14
our

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Nature
l
",

they mean that we should without any. omission perfect the principles embodied in the Three Bonds and Five Constants, 2 such as the relationship between

and when they bid sovereign and minister, father and son 3 us "nourish our Nature they would have us so nourish
;
1

",

same ethical principles as to preserve them from injury, and thus unite together in one unity the most subtle principles and the most overt deeds without the slightest
these

omission or defect.
to

These are not empty words.
"

(Reply
to

Ch
4.

en

Wei Tao.) The Su school

say,

The sages held
stilli

that

be

conscious of the Nature as

remaining in
;

means that I still
possession of this

possess this

Mind

my Mind, and they regarded the
From

Mind as

the initial cause of error. 4
its

this they traced the

Nature to

ultimate source, and,

borrowing a name,

callied it

the Decree.

Now

Decree

means command

command,

the decree of a sovereign is termed a the command of Heaven is termed a decree. But
:

the ultimate source of the Nature is not the Decree

;

it

was

simply that there was no other nam,e to give to it, and therefore they borrowed this." 5 I maintain that when Su
1

Mencius, p. 348.

2

father
five

The Three Bonds are those between sovereign and and son, and husband and wife. The Five Constants
"

"

minister,
"

"

are the

cardinal

virtues,

Love,

Righteousness,

Reverence,

Wisdom, and

Sincerity.
3 4

is the one universal mind; that what we mind is an illusion, the cause of sorrow and sin and that it is only when we lose this mind that we attain to the true mind. 5 The Su School was founded by The Three Su s viz. Su Hsiin, Su Shili, and Su Che. See Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. iv. This passage is quoted from Su Hsiin s Exposition of the Yi Ching.

Mencius, p. 325. Buddhism maintains that there

call

;

"

",

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

15

says that the consciousness of the Nature as remaining in my mind is the beginning of error, he has not grasped the
source of the Nature

and when he says that the ultimate not the Decree, b ut that the name is simply borrowed, he does not see that the Decree is a reality. It is as much as to say that without any apparent
truth of the Nature
;

is

inherit this root of gross error, arid the sages deliberately concealed it, using a fictitious name to cover
it

cause

men

up

.

What

sort of reasoning is

this

?

The

fact is

:

there has not been, on the part of the &u soh>ool, the! Great thorough examination of the teaching of the
1

Appendix",
"Doctrine

the

"Book

of

History",
"

the
",

"Odes",

the

of the

Mean",

and

Mencius

necessary to

a clear understanding of this chapter ; and so they have fallen into the erroneous teachings of the Buddhists that,

before ever heaven and earth
existence.
to

came

to be, this

Nature was in

Trying to prove that the Nature was antecedent heaven and earth and all life, and realizing that then

the term Decreo

would be inapplicable, they invented

this

explanation to avoid self-contradiction.
the true

If they really knew meaning of the Nature and the Decree, and still wished to maintain that the Nature was before heaven and earth and all life, they surely would have some regard to
reason, arid not indulge in such irrelevant talk. the Criticism of the Su School Exposition of the
"

(From
Yi
2
".)

1

That
See

2

m

is,

of the Ft Citing.

j

,

pt. xcix,

f.

14

ff.

16

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

THE NATUKE
(EIGHTEEN SECTIONS FROM
1.
THE"

CONVERSATIONS".)

Moral Law is the Nature, and the Nature is Moral Law. It is true, these two are one and the same but wo need to understand why the term Nature thing is used, and why the term Moral La;w is used.
;

2.

"The

Nature

is

Law."

1

Subjectively

it

is

the

Nature, objectively
3.

it is

Law.
is

The

principle of life

termed the Nature. 2
innumerable principles pro

4.

The Nature

consists of

duced by Heaven.
5
.

The Nature

consists of substantive principles

Kighteousness, Keverence, and in it.
6.

Wisdom

are

all

Love, included
;

The

differences

in their discussion of the

which appear in the Confucian school Nature are not because the writers
it is

were not clear as
settled.

good or evil, but because the meaning of the term Nature itself was not definitely
to

whether

7.
1

The sages understood the meaning
;

of
;

the

term

pt. xv,
is

dictum by Ch eng I see jg ^|, pt. xviii, f. 24 cf. also fjjL In the latter work the complete statement is: "The Nature f. 27. Law, what we term the moral nature (f^ |{] gg jfa Q fjf |f
,
"

A

^

tt & & m This statement must not be confused with
).
2
"

the statement of

Kao

Tzu,

what is termed the Nature." The apparent agreement of Ch eng Tzu with Kao Tzu is fully discussed in the Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. viii. On the Nature as the law of life, compare Sir Oliver Lodge s remarks on the soul in his Man and the
Life
is

Universe, pp. 164-7.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Nature
because
;

17

the divisions in the later schools1 were simply was not understood. the word itself The

philosopher
is

Yang

2

flounders, while the philosopher Hsiin

3

the proverbial through his boot.
like
8.

man who

tries

to scratch his leg

After reading some essays by Yiin and others on the In discussing the Nature it Nature, the Philosopher said
:

is

important Nature is. (Pi

first

of all to

know what kind
4
:

of entity the

Ta s

record adds the words
;

The Nature

as a matter of fact is formless

it consists

implanted in man s mind.) Ch eng Tzu he said, The Nature is Law." Now if
"

of principles put it well when

15

we

regard

it

as

Law, then surely it is without form or similitude. It is n othing but this single principle. In man Love, Righteous ness, Reverence, and Wisdom are the Nature, but what
form or shape have they
is
?

They are

principles only.

It

done.

because of such principles that men s manifold deeds are It is because of them that we are capable of

solicitude, that
1
"

we can be ashamed
".

of wrong-doing, that

Lit.

2

A
A

He
j

the hundred schools philosopher whose opinions were in vogue in the time of Mencius. was an egoist. See Legge s Chinese Classics, vol. ii, Prolegomena ,

>p.

95-102.

3

philosopher
in

who maintained

that the nature of

man

is

essentially
s

ssics,
4

opposition to the teachings of Mencius. vol. ii, Prolegomena, pp. 82-91.

See Legge

Chinese

Ta in the first instance studied under Chang Ch ih andLiiTsuCh ien, subsequently attached himself to Chu Hsi. His surname was (^), id style Po Feng (fg |f ). Through the influence of his father he was
Pi
it

Wu

>ointed

to office as Magistrate at a place called Chi Shui

("

i:

retired

when Chu Hsi was

disgraced.
;

See
ljj

See

Jg

f

^
|c
,

^,

pt. Ixix,
f.

f.

?|C), 53.

,

pt. xviii,

f.

24

cf also
.

pt. xv,

27.

c

18

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

we can be

courteous, and can distinguish between right and wrong. 1 Take as an illustration the nature of drugs, some have cooling and some heating properties. But in

you cannot eee the shape of these properties upon taking the drug only by that you know what its property is and this constitutes
the

drug

itself

:

it is

the result which follows

;

its

nature.

It is so

with Love, Righteousness, Reverence,

and .Wisdom.

have their root in the Mind.

According to Mencius these four principles When, for example, he speaks
"

of a solicitous mind, he attributes feeling to the Mind. The Philosopher said further Shao Yao Fu said,
:

The

Nature

is

Mind
for

is

the concrete expression of Moral Order, and the the enceinte of the Nature." 2 This is wellj said,
itself is

Moral Order in
the Nature be

it finds it
<tould

in the Nature.
?

But

without concrete expression if there were no "Mind where
;

There must be Mind to receive the

Nature and carry it into operation,; for the principles contained in the Nature are Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, and they are real principles. We of the Confucian cult regard the Nature as real. Buddhists
regard
it

as unreal.

To

define the

Nature as the Mind,

as is done so frequently in these days, is incorrect. It is essential first to understand our terms and then proceed
to definition.
1

(Fi
is

Ta

s

3

record adds

:

If

we

point to that
;

The

allusion

to Mencius doctrine of the
ii,

Chinese Classics, vol.
courtesy,

p.

78.

and moral

insight

Four Terminals see Legge s These are solicitude, conscientiousness, four feelings which are the outflow of the four

principles, Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, and by means of which these four principles can be discerned. The whole subject is discussed in the Introduction to Chu PI si and the Sung School, chap. xi.
2 8

Quoted from Shao
See p.
17, n. 4.

s

preface to the

"

Chi Jang Chi

"

;

see p. 6.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
of what

19

which possesses consciousness as the Nature, we axe speaking is really the Mind.) For example, there is tho Nature as implanted by the Decree of Heaven, and there is

the physical element. If we regard the Nature, as it is the Decree of Heaven, as having its origin implanted by
in the

you place the Physical Nature ? When, for example, it is said, "The natural, mind is un 1 stable, the spiritual mind is but a spark," the word mind
will
1

Mind, where

is

mind
9.

used in both cases, but we do not say that the spiritual is Mind, while the natural^ mind is not Mind.

Just as in the case of the body

:

within are the

five

1

as recorded in the
pt.

Quoted from the speech of Shun, the sage -emperor, to Yu,his successor, See Legge s Chinese Classics, vol. iii, Shu Ching The mind of man is restless, i, p. 61. Legge translates the passage
"

".

"

:

prone to err; its affinity for the right way is small." But this fails to bring out the play on the word "mind" (jjj). The expression (natural

A

>j^>

contrasted with Jf| fa (spiritual mind). Although j|| fe, as Legge says, is not a different entity from *2 it represents a different condition. as carnal Legge objects to Medhurst s translation of jfj

mind)

is

A

,

A

"

mind

",

and he
is

is

right in so far as the

in its generally accepted meaning.

word The mind
is

"

carnal

"

is

too one-sided

of

man

as ordained

Divine will

the

JU

jjj,

i.e.

the

mind which

is

in accord with

subject to jjj (Tao), Moral Law ; it is the mind of man as affected J|J

the ethically

by the and wholly The pure mind.

A

by the physical element.
falls )fr easily

Chu Hsi

says elsewhere

when
j(ji
,

consciousness

is

in accord with right ethical principle

we have the

&

^
",

and that the
"

A
"

into error, while the
(wet),

is

manifested with

difficulty.
is

translated

by the phrase
it is

but a spark

it is "minute

also

"obscure

&m
|.
see

&o

Chu Hsi

A *&##**&
fw

TO

which have ^ he more than one meaning (& ft $ H S ft m& m wmm %

To

the word
gives

I

",

:

figo

..#**<>);
31-6.

s

Conversations (f

|J|), pt. 78,

ff.

20

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

1 organs and six viscera, and without are the four senses of hearing, sight, taste, and smelly with the four limbs,

and

all

men

possess

them alike

;

so -with the

moral nature :

within are Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, and these are manifested in solicitude, conscientiousness,
respectfulness, and moral, insight, and all men possess them; so that in all relationships, such as those of father and son, elder and younger brother, husband and wife, friend and
friend, sovereign
exist.

and minister, the same moral sentiments

Even in

inferior creatures it is the same, except that

in their case these principles are restricted by the rigidity of form and matter. Nevertheless, if you study their habits
yiou find that in

the

same

some particular direction they too manifest principles they, as well as we, have the affection
;

:

of parent

in their malje and female there is the relationship of husband and wife, in their differing ages that of elder and younger brothers, in the flocking together
;

and child

of those of a class that of friends,

and in

their leadership

that of sovereign

prevailing of the past subjugated the inferior creatures, their treatment of each was in accordance with its nature. In the animal and

are produced by Heaven from the One Source,

and minister. It is because ol\ things and Earth, and together proceed
that
there
is

this

uniformity.

When

the holy and wise

men

vegetable worl^d, for example, they invariably acted on this principle. In their appropriation and use of nature s wealth

they recognized seasons and exercised moderation.
birth season of spring they refrained
1

In the

from killing young
intestines, bladder,

Giles gives the Five Organs

(

J[

Jjjj)

as heart, liver, stomach, lungs,

and kidneys; and the Six Viscera (^ jjjj) as stomach, gall bladder, and the two functional passages.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
were with young.

21

animals, they did not overturn nests, nor kill those that It was not till the plants and trees had!
1

begun to drop their leaves that the woodman entered the hiH forests with the axe. It was not till the otter had sacrificed its fish, that the forester entered the meres and
dams.
sacrifice

It

was not

tillj

the wolf

that the hunter

had offered its prey in commenced his hunting. 1 The

they were able to give all things their appro priate spheres was because they first understood the original purpose of Heaven and Earth in the production of things.
reason

why

10.
n.ot to

I

Ch uan

s

four words,
;

"

The Nature

is

2
Law,"

are

they are really the outcome of sub jective investigation. Later teachers only repeat what they have heard from others, without examining into the con
be gainsaid
stitution of their

own

being,

and therefore

err in

many

directions
11.

.

3 that most modern Question. Ming Tao says philosophers in their discussion of the Nature maintain

that the sentence,
4
ness,"

refers to the
is

"The
1

Nature

The law of their succession is good same thing as the dictum of Mencius, 5 Does not Ming Tao here imply good."
"

The whole passage is quoted, though in different order of the sentences from the Li Chi see Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxvii, p. 221. The wild beast having caught his prey has more than he can devour at once, and therefore spreads it out on the ground all round him, watching it until he is able to eat it. The appearance is as if it were laid out for sacrifice; hence
;

the expressions used. 2 See p. 16, n. 1.
3

Ses

sentence in the Yi Ching, pp. 355-6. The two paragraphs, 24 and 25, are frequently quoted by the writers of this school, and are very important. See p. 56 of this volume, n. 1.
5

4

A

g^

,

pt. xiii,

f.

29

;

jf fj,

pt.

i, f.

10.

Mencius, p. 110.

22

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

and that
describe
"

that the original substance of the Nature cannot be defined, all those who expound the Nature do no more than
If
its outflow as, for example, when Mencius says, look at the Feelings which flow from the Na/ture, may know that they are constituted for the practice of
;

we

we

what is good ? The philosopher nodded
"

assent.

2 Subsequently, a scholar of Kiangsi asked about the above statement by Ming Tao, and the Master replied in a letter

that the saying in the The Great Appendix of the Yi law of their succession is goodness," refers to the time before
"
"

",

birth, while

refers to the

Mencius, in saying that the Nature time after birth.

is

good,

That very evening he again referred conversation with Wen Wei, 3 and said that what I wrote to-day was not right.

to this subject in
:

It

seems to
"

me

speaks of thoir succession being goodness, it speaks of the flowing movement of Heaven s Moral Order, and that Mencius, in
:

Wen Wei

said

Is it not that,

when

the

Yi

"

The Feelings are the Four Terminals, referred to which flow from the four principles constituting the Nature, and therefore furnish the ground on which is based the doctrine that the Nature is good. The nature of the source is inferred from the
Mencius, p. 278.
" "

1

on

p. 18 (see note),

nature of the stream. The questioner here quotes the passage simply as describing the outflow of the Nature, and so explaining the point of similarity between the two sayings quoted by Ming Tao. Note, Legge takes the subject of the last clause to be the Nature Chu Hsi takes it to be the Feelings see p. 23 4 ; the meaning is the same in both cases.
"

",

"

",

2

A man named Ch en Yuan
,pt.xciii,f.l).

pupil of Chu Hsi at Shao Hsing. His full name was Hsu Wen Wei. held office at T ung Chou, but owing to false accusations made against him he went into retirement. After about six years, however, the Throne

$A
3

from Kiangsi studied under Chu Hsi

(see

He

recognizing his integrity appointed

him

to a secretariat.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"
"

23

saying that the Nature is good, speaks of the outflow of man s Nature. The Yi and Mencius each speak of a the one referring to Heaven, the other referring* flow
"

",

to

man, and Ming Tao uses the one
it is not,

to illustrate the other.

Thus

as you, sir, said, the distinction between the

time before and the time after birth.

The Philosopher
12.

replied

:

You
is

are quite right.

The Nature of man

universally good.

Even

Chieh and Chou, 1 who exhausted the possibilities of violence and went to the utmost extreme of wickedness, still knew that their actions were evil. But, though my Nature is
good,

when

I

would act in accordance with

it

I fail,

and

find that it has been

made
"

captive

by human
:

desire.

How does the, The Master asked the question the concrete expression of Moral Nature come to be
13.

Order

"

?

replied: the Nature.

Ch un 2

Moral Order

is

a principle inherent in

The Master said
sense.

:

The term Moral Order

is

used in a

universal sense, the term Nature is used in the individual

How

do we know that Moral Order exists in the
?

external world

Simply by our experience of
seeking
there
is it
is,

it

here. 3

(Ti-Lu reads

:

By

ever the Nature
1

in our own persons.) WhereMoral Order. The Moral Order

Chieh was Chieh Kuei ^). ^ ne ^ a3 ^ Emperor of the Hsia dynasty, and Choa was Chou Hsia (-f^f 5j5), the last Ernperor of the Yin dynasty. Both were notorious for their almost inconceivable tyranny and lust. The one was overthrown by T ang and the other by Wu. 2 Probably Ch en An Ch ing see p. 195, n. 2. 3 Here the Philosopher pointed to his breast.

(^

;

24

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

is Law as we find it in the external world Law as we finjd it in ourselves. But the

the Nature

iis

laws whieihi

we

find in the external world are all

Law which
14.

is

in myself.

comprehended in this The Nature is the framework of

the Moral Order.

Chi Sui, following the teaching of his school, 1 said: You cannot speak of the Nature as being good in the moral
sense, for ultimate goodness has

moment you say
it

with

evil,

and

no opposite, whereas the! that a thing is good you are contrasting when you speak of it as being good or

evil

you

are speaking of
is

The

original Nature

above comparison. beneath. The moment you say it is good you contrast it with evil, and then you are speaking of what is not the)
original Nature.
good,"

what is not the original Nature. from above, so honourable as to be Good as the correlative of evil is from

When

Mencius

said,

"The

Nature
"

id

he was not speaking of moral goodness, but simply What an using the language of admiration, as if to say, excellent thing the Nature is as Buddha exclaimed just
"

!

"

"Excellent

!

with reference to

"the

Path".

(This is

the theory of
1

Wen

Ting.)

2

Chi Sui was the third son of Hu Wu Feng (see p. 25), and grandson of the founder of the Hu School of Philosophy (see Intro duction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School). Hu Chi Sui was Chu Hsi s contemporary and the chief representative of the Hu school in his day. He studied under Chang Ch ih (style Nan Hsien), whose daughter he married,

Hu An Kuo,

and who had himself studied under
See
2

^
^,

Hu Wu
f.

Feng, the father of Chi Sui.

||,

pt. xlii,

f.

21

;

pt. Ixxi,

1.

the
in

Hu An Kuo (j^lj T (H}, canonized as Wen Ting, was the founder of Hu School, and grandfather of Hu Chi Sui. His teachings are recorded
two important works $j j
pt. xxxiv,
f.

^

jj|

-f and
f.

j(jj

J

3^

^

.

See

12

;

J=2

$,

pt. xvi,

15.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
In criticizing
it is true, is

25

this statement I said:

The

original Nature,

the all-comprehensive perfect goodness apart

from any comparison with evil. This is what is imparted to me by Heaven. But the practice of it rests with man, and then it is that you have evil in addition to goojd Conduct in accord with this original Nature is good. Con
.

duct out of accord with

it is

evil.

How>

can

it

be sad(

that the good is not the original Nature ? It is in man s conduct that the distinction arises, but the good conduct is the outcome of the original Nature. If, as Wen Ting says,
there
is

both an absolute and a relative goodness, then there

are two natures.

from Heaven, and the Nature from which good conduct proceeds, are essentially one but the moment the good appears*
the Nature which
is

Now
;

received

there immediately appears with it the not-good!, so that It necessarily you speak of good and evil in contrast.
is

not that there

is

ness to appear with

an antecedent evil waiting for thdigoodwhich it is to be contrasted, butf that by
;

wrong actions we fall into evil. The doctrine taught by and from the Ting was adopted by his descendants time of Chih T ang l and Wu Feng 2 it diverged still further from the truth, and ended in the development of the doctrine

Wen

1

Hu Yin

("$}

H),

style

Chih

T ang, was

Chih
2

T ang studied under Yang Kuei Shan, and state. He died when Chu Hsi was 21 years old.

a nephew of held high

Hu An

Kuo.
the

office in

son of

Hu Hung Hu An

(~f$

*J;), style

Wu Feng, was cousin

to the above, being the

Kuo. He
of

also studied

was the teacher

Chang Nan

under Yang Kuei Shan, and in turn Hsien, a friend of Chu Hsi s. He was the

author of the Words of Wisdom (%$ f=f , see p. 28, n. 3), so often quoted and criticized in this work. Like his cousin Chih T ang, Feng stood high in the confidence of the Emperor and filled prominent positions at the

Wu

Court.

26

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

of two natures, the original Nature and that in which good and evil are contrasted. They only speak, however, of
one, the original Nature, contending that that in

which
can

good
first

is

contrasted with evil

is

not the Nature.

How

? Wen Ting from Kuci Shan, 1 and Kuei Shan obtained it from Ch ang Tsung of Tung Lin. 2 Tsung had formerly been a neighbour of Kuei Shan s, and thus they had had friendly intercourse together. Subsequently Tsung went

such a theory hold
instance

obtained his idea in the

to live at

visited

him on

Tung Lin in the Lu Mountains, where Kuei; Shan his way to the capital. Tsung was an abl e

man and deeply read in Buddhist literature, besides being a man of high moral principle. Kuei Shan asked him
doctrine, "The Nature is good," was answered tha,t it was. Again, Kuei Shan Tsung How can the Nature be defined in terms of good asked, and evil?" Tsung replied, "The original Nature is not

whether Mencius
correct.
"

contrasted

with

evil."

The
itself

eaying

which

was

thus

originated by

him was handed down from one
statement in

to another.

was not incorrect, because it is true that the Nature was without evil. The originally error began with Wen Ting, who Asserted that the dictum,
s
1

But Tsung

Yang Shih
five

(;j,g

{j*f

),

st

^ e Kuei

Shan, was a philosopher of Fuhkien,

and born

Ch eng Hao

years after the birth of Chu Hsi. He studied under both and Ch en^ I. Most of his life was spent in Honan, their

native province. chap. iv.
2

See Introduction
Forest), in the
at

to

Chu Hsi and
is

the

Sung
Si.

School,

Tung Lin (Eastern
called

Lu Mountains,

in

Kiang

Yang
which
in

Kuei Shan established a school

Ch ang Chou ( $f $H )

in Fuhkien,

was

the

Tung Lin
rebuilt

College

Ch ang Chou was

by

Ku

(]g $JC || Haien Ch eng (J|g

g^).
jjjj

The School

Jfjj)

in the reign of

Wan

Li (Ming dynasty).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

27

was the language of admiration. Feng followed by making a distinction between the two "goods", maintaining that that of which good, is predicated is not the Nature. But if

The Nature

is

goad,"

Later, Chili

T ang and

Wu

that of which good is predicated is not the original Nature, where will you get your "good" from? Since, as is

admitted, the words in the dictum are used in admiration of the Nature, it folljowis that it is the Nature. (Hsien s
record reads
:

it

follows that the Nature

is

good.)

l

If the

Nature were not
just
"

.as

gookl, how could it inspire admiration Buddha, when in admiration he exclaims
!

Excellent
calls

and so

implies that the Path is good forth his admiration. The two Sus 2 in their

Excellent

"

!

discussion of the Nature fall into the

same error

as the

Hus.
3

Their contention
is

is

that Mencius assertion that the Nature

good

is

as if he said fire can cook, while Hsiin.Ch ing s

assertion that the

Nature is evil is as if he said fire burns. Kuei Shan turns this statement, and criticizes it by saying The reason why fire can cook is because it burns. If
:

The Sus could there be any cooking ? in their discussions concerning the Nature say From the times of the ancient sages until Confucius, the only way in which the Nature was interpreted was as Singleness 4
"

otherwise,

how

"

:

,

1

Hsien

s

record

is

probably the correct one

;

the sense of the text

is

otherwise not complete.
2

Su Shih
Sung

the
3

(or Su Tung P o) and Su Che. See Introduction to School, chap, iv ; also p. 14 of this volume.

Chu Hsi and

Hsun Ch ing (the Minister Hsiin) was the famous philosopher who asserted that the Nature is evil in direct opposition to Mencius. He lived
in the third century B.C.
4

See D.M., pp. 271, 275.

The word
".

literally

means

"

one

",

and

is

translated

by

Legge as

"

singleness

In his note on p. 271 Legge quotes

28

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

but and then the idea of the Mean 1 was introduced the question whether it was good or evil Lad not as yet been raised. When Mencius, however, said, The Nature is good the ideas of Singleness and the Mean sank
,

The into the background." All this is beside the mark. authors of such arguments simply content themselves with
plausible
principles.

statements,

without

regard

to

The Hus,

too, represented at the present

underlying time

2 by Chi Sui, show the same tendency.

15.

On
3

Yen

",

Chih the occasion of a remark in praise of the made by one who was discussing the Hu Hsiang
the

"

School,

4

Philosopher
its
it

said:

The
it also

"Chih

Yen"

admittedly has
errors.

good points, but

contains serious

For example,
evil,

says that the distinction between

good and
Ying Ta
referred
s

or between right

and wrong, Las no

real

translates

translation of the passage in which the word occurs, in which he as one meaning one method of practising the five duties
"

",

to. s

Chu Hsi
ness
1
"

Legge, however, is not interpretation of the word

satisfied

with

this,

and adopts
"

doubtless the meaning here.
to distinguish from
"

as meaning "sincerity", which is I have retained Legge s rendering of single
,

|^

the regular word for

"

sincerity
"

",

which
"

occurs so often in this work.
Lit.

middle
p. 248)
;

",

(see

D.M.,

and by

equilibrium interpreted by Legge as meaning Ku Hung Ming as right, true, fair and square
"

"

(Conduct of Life, p. 7). 2 See p. 24 and note.
3

The

"Chih Yen"

p. 25, n. 2).

It is

still

(Words of Wisdom) is a treatise by Hu Wu Feng extant, and can be referred to in the jjL

(see

^,

pt. xlii,
4

ff.

2-12.
(jjj)
3jfc
,

Hu

Hsiang
(see j|

$fl)

known
Hsiang

pt. Ixxi,

was a name by which the Hu (jj-Jj) School was f. 2), probably taken from a district named

T an

($|f j^), in

Hunan

(yjj^J

in the same j^), or from a river

region called the Hsiang River

(*jfH

7J<).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
existence in the Nature.

29

But thus

to obliterate all
"

moral
"

distinctions is simply to fall into the
1
"

heresy of Kao Tzu. Again, it says, of the faculty of liking and disliking the noble man iri his liking and disliking is actuated by Moral Lav/ and the
:

Whirling Water The Nature consists

2 The Nature being thus ignoble man by selfishness." defined as liking and disliking, Moral Law comes to be a thing outside the Nature. Where such principles come

from

I cannot understand.

Does not the statement, that by investigating Question. the continuity of the functions of sighst, hearing, speech, and 3 activity we may understand the Feelings, express the same
idea as that of

Kao Tzu s
4
"?

assertion that

"Life

is

what

is

termed the Nature

Answer.
later

Yes, this statement also
said
,

is

on

it is

"Moral

Law and

Again, Righteousness are

at fault.

who can say that they constitute The seductions of the world betray us, but who can say that they are men s desires ? Thus Moral Law
clearly manifested, but

the

Mind

?

"

and Righteousness are contrasted with the seductions of the
that man s nature in water ; it will take the line of least resistance, flowing east or west in whichever direction a passage may be opened for it.
1

See Mencius, p. 271.

Kao Tzu maintained

relation to

good and

evil is like whirling

2
3

See
I

g,

pt. xlii,

f.

6.

cannot find this statement in my copy of the Chih Yen, but it is undoubtedly quoted from that work. The same thing is true of some others of the statements criticized. The word Feelings here is equivalent and the text maintains that, the functions Nature to the word enumerated being the functions of life, the statement is in effect the same as Kao TzCi s famous dictum.
"

"

"

",

4

Mencius, p. 272.

30
world
;

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and
yet,

no Moral

according to this school, there is or Righteousness in the Nature originally, but the two opposites, good and evil, are subsequently

Law

implanted in it, and thus it is Nature also as "not good".
"

possible

to

define

the

The Nature

is
:

evil much more the word When The Nature is he is thei using says, good, and not with of admiration, contrasting good language To say that the .Nature is the mystery of the universe
!

the spirit-world describe it, how

Finally it is said: the mystery of the universe and of the word goodness is inadequate to

Mencius

evil."

and of the spirit-world

is to

use highflown and exaggerated

language, whereas, as I have said before, it is characteristic of the saints and sages that they expressed themselves in

simple language.

in vehement terms, Confucius

Although Mencius sometimes breaks out is always even and exact.
in the dictum,
"The

The theory
good,"

that

"good"

Nature! ig

is not moral good, originated in an interview which Kuei Shan had with the venerable Tsung, when the teaching of Mencius on the Nature of man was discussed, and this statement made. 1 Wen Ting 2 frequently heard Kuei Shan quote Tsung s remark, and based his theory upon it. But what the venerable Tsung said at that time seems to

have been that the
ness
is

all -comprehensive

not contrasted with

evil,

transcendbnt good which does not look as if he

had altogether abandoned the position that the Nature is good. To-day, disregarding what he said as to the allcomprehensive transcendent goodness, they insist that his statement that it is not contrasted wiiJi evil implies that he
1

See pp. 25-7.

2

See p. 24 and

n. 2.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
meant that Mencius dictum

31

is the language of admiration, as a have fallen into very serious error. and, result,

16.
its

Mencius shows the goodness of the Nature from manifested operations, and thus supports his statement

that the Nature is good. Ch eng Tzu calls it the Original and Essential Nature, 1 but also shows the original ethical
principle by its manifested operations.
17.
"

Question.

What

is

says

The Nature

is that

meant by Heng Ch u when he by reason of which we cannot
"

but bo acted upon by the external world ? 2 Answer. The possession of the Nature in
that we are acted

itself

means

when we

upon by the external world. For example, recognize the daily obligations of the relationship

between sovereign and minister, and father and son, our minds are being acted upon externally. The same thought is expressed in the Yi Ching in the words, / When acted
3 Thlis upon, it penetrates forthwith to all phenomena." sentence of Heng Ch u s is parallel to his other statement
:
"

The Decree
1

is

that
4

but be

unceasing."

by reason of which Heaven cannoti For Law in the nature of things is
;

The saying

2

tfe
"*

is by I Ch uan f 4. see , pt. iii, Jj This Quoted from the Cheng Heng ( J passage H?). 88 Sf jl- Ifc ma y be found however, in the
.
>

^

is

not in the

the 5fc

7C

^^
p. 370.

g g ^
)

^,

or

P*- xviii
;

f-

33

-

H^D

Ch G ( Cnan g Tsai

is

alluding

to a passage in the Li Chi also p. 38 of this volume.
2
4

see Sacred

Books of

the East, vol. xxviii, p. 96,

Yi China,
See Cheng

Heng

(Jj|

^

,

pt. xvii,

f.

33), in

which

this sentence

appears

immediately preceding that quoted by the questioner. Heng Ch u alludes to a sentence in the Doctrine of the Mean, which reads The Decree of In the statement quoted Heaven, how profound it is and unceasing the first is that the Nature is the by the questioner there are two ideas
"

:

"

!

:

32

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

day and night, winter and summer, it Hence the saying of Confucius, goes on without pause. x to the Nature referring passes on just like thjs and that of Ch eng Tzii: It is one with the Moral Order." This principle, both now and from all eternity, never ceases
without cessation
"

:

"It

;

"

for a single moment It cannot cease."
"

day or night
to the

;

therefore

it

is

said,

18.

Again, referring
is
:

saying of Shao Tzir,

"

The
the

Nature

the concrete expression of Moral

2
Order,"

Though Moral Order is present every how arc we The answer is simply by to find it ? where, It is wholly found within turning and looking within.
Philosopher said
:

our Nature.

From

the

flact

that

we

ourselves possess the

principles of Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, w a infer that others possess them also that, indeed, of the
;

beings, and of are without these in the there none universe, things Extend our as far as we will, principles. investigations
all

thousands and tens of thousands of

human

we

still find

them.

Shao Tzii

that there is nothing which does not possess states it well when he defines the Nature

as the concrete expression of Moral Order.

1.
is

(TWENTY-TWO SECTIONS FROM THE COLLECTED WRITINGS The Nature Question. The Master I Ch uan said:
"

".)

"

Law."

3

My definition of tlie term Law is that it consists
"

and the second is the continuity of consciousness It is in virtue of the cannot but be affected expressed in the words second idea that the sentence is said to be parallel to the one here quoted. 1 Analects, IX, xvi (p. 86). 2 See p. 6.
seat of consciousness,
".

3

Seep.

16, n,

1.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
of Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and not sure whether I am correct or not.

33
I
1

Wisdom.

am

Answer.

These four most certainly are the fundamental
to think into this
2

principles of the Nature, but

You need

what they include is boundless. more closely. (Reply to Liu
in the expression
I

T

ao Chung.)
2.

"

It is said,
is

The word good
not moral

The
the,

Nature

good

is

good."

hold,

on

contrary, that the original and essential good, and the good which in its issue is contrasted with evil are identical.

f

But thoughfjrom the point of view of the time before and the time after its emanation there is a difference for good
ness before its emanation stands alone as absolute goodness yet the good which emanates as the relative good is still

the same good. After its emanation there is intermingled with it the not-gooid,hut that which is termed good is none
the less the emanation of the original essential good. The Before there thought is made clear in the expressions,
"

was any action," and "After the Nature became which occur in the Ts ung Shu". 3 To say, in
"

active",

spite of
"The

these considerations,
"

that good in the expression,

Nature is good is not moral good, is in my judgment selfoontradictory, and can only raise, doubt in the mind of the
student.
1

(Reply

to

Kuo Ch ung

Hui.)

2

!$J refers to the questioner Liu Ping. Liu Ping (style T ao Chung) and his elder brother Liu

Yo

(

|||]

%$%} were
|jjc,

I

natives of Chien
ff.

Yang

(^

PI?)*

an(^ pupils of

Chu Hsi;

see ffi

|pt. Ixix,
3

5, 6.

Ts ung Shu are collections of works on a particular subject or of a There are many such collections in existence (see particular period. (Appendix to Wylie s Notes on Chinese Literature), and it is difficult to tell rhich of them it is to which reference ia here made,
I

D

34
*

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
3.
}>

The Decree of Heaven is what is termed the The possession of this Nature implies numerous in it. included The Thus, when it is said, principles
Nature
"

Nature
it
is

is

the seat

of

not

meant that

the assemblage of principles/ 2 there is a pro-existent Nature

without such principles, waiting for them to assemble within it. If we consider it in the- light of I Ch ujan s The Nature is Law," 3 we shall readily appre-. dictum,
"

hend the
the

In the sentence, virtues of the Nature and
idea.
4

"

The Mind moulds
the

Feelings,"

word

"moulds"

means

to direct their activities.

Further, as

to the saying quoted that filial piety is the root of virtue,

I grant that, though in my opinion filial piety cannot be characterized in terms of either root or fruit, it is never theless one

among the virtues.

But suppose

it

to

be as you

say, and the virtue of filial piety to be the root, do the other virtues then become the fruit ? You say that the

Nature
is

is

the root of

Law,

caji

you then say that the Nature
"

The simply one instance of Law ? Again, you say, laws of the universe all have their origin and! root in the
in which case the laws of the universe; spring from the Nature, and at the same time are outside the Nature.
Nature,"

Hence there are two
speak of

entities, the

Nature and Law, not to
(Reply to

Law
p. 247.

being the greater of the two.
2

Ho Shu
1

Ching.)

D. M.,

A

statement by I Ch uan.

3

See p. 16 and note.

4

Miao

($)

originally

means

"wonderful

or

"mysterious".

Here

it is

a very rare use of the word. It must be interpreted but as including the meaning of excellence and the in text, as stated wonderfulness as to method. The passage quoted occurs in The Sayings

used as a verb

of

Wu

Feng

(

H

ft

fg)

See

^^

,

pt. xlii,

f.

12.

Cf.

volume. p. 176 of this

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
4.

35

"We do not know whence The question thus raised is of human great importance. In my opinion what is called is exactly the opposite of You can desire Divine Law say that human desire exists because of Divine Law, but to

In your
this

letter

you say,

comes

human

desire."

"

"

"

".

say that it is Divine Law is wrong. For originally there is no human desire in Divine Law. It is from the deviation
in the latter
s

flow that

human
and

desire originates.
evil
1

Ch eng Tzu
(this
is

says,

"Good

are both Divine

When Law

statement seems very, startling ), 1 what he calls evil not evil originally (as thus explained the statement is
to;
2

considerably altered), but it comes
or
shortcoming"
"

(this

statement

is

question

Whence comes human
"

desire

be such by excess an answer to the ? The sentence
").

which you quote,
is

Evil

al(so

must be

called the

Nature,"

to be interpreted in this sense.
5.

(Reply to
is

Ho Shu
"

Ching.)

Sung Ch ing
is

Nature
said.
"

says, "Law not to be defined as the
"

3

the Nature.
1

The
is

root."

4

This
is

well

(Ch eng Tzii
",

also says,

The Nature

Law,"

see

The Remains Pt. 22, a.) When, however, he proceeds to draw a distinction between subjective and objective
influences, then he is at fault.
rightly.
1

Tso Hsu

also says,

Tso Hsu 5 denies this, and "The Nature is spontaneous,

The sentences
See

in parentheses are interpolations of the Chinese compiler

2
2

Jg

,

pt. iia, f . 2.

Lien Sung Ch ing (jg -f; |gp), a pupil of Chu Hsi. The statement refers back to section 3 on p. 34. 5 Feng Tso Hsu ($| ffJT JJH) a native of Shao Wu Hsien, and pupil of Chu Hsi, who praised his lectures to students as specially worthy of The Seat of commendation. The master named his pupil s home
4
>

"

Intelligence"

(^

Jjj).

See *f|

||,

pt. Ixix, p. 41.

30
while

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Law
necessary and cannot be disobeyed or con This IB fairly correct (there is error here also), but
is
"

fused."

he goes on to say,

It is not that the existence of

Law is

subsequent to the Nature, but its manifestation as resulting Now this from the Nature is necessarily subsequent to
it."

is

very erroneous, for

distinct entities.

makes the Nature and Law two The Again, he is right when he says,
it
"

Nature is the assemblage of principles," but he is wrong when he defines Law as the unification of the Nature. For Law consists of the principles inherent in the Nature, and
the Nature
ciples:.
all,

is

Sung

the seat of the assemblage of those prin Ch ing errs in making no distinction at
errs in distinguishing

while Tso

Hsu

overmuch, so that
(Reply
to

both are one-sided in their statements.

Feng
the

Tso Hsu.)
6.

The

doctrine that goodness as

predicated

of
l

Nature is not contrasted; with evil was originally learned by Kuei Shan from the Buddhist priest Ch ang Tsung, and
it

must be confessed
t!he

that,

on the face of

it, it

appears to be

not incorrect.
the goodness of

While, however, you

Nature that

ajs

may say in references to yet there is no evil which
it never,
is

can be .affirmed as

its opposite, to

say that

can have

an opposite
eay that

is

a mistake.

For the Nature

one.

Since we

universally good, then of course there can be no evil bo bo opposed to the good. That is a truism.
it is

The

reason

to evil.

Law

is

why it is termed good, however, is its opposition, By the statement that the Nature is good, Divinei distinguished from human desire. Although these
1

are not synchronous entities, nevertheless, whenever you
See pp. 25-7 and notes.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
describe

37

them in terms of before and

after birth, or of

altruism and selfishness, or of ethical perfection and moral obliquity, you cannol avoid their correlation as opposites.

This
there

is is

the reason

I cannot accept the theory thaitt another good which is not contrasted with evil. 1

why

(B/epy to
7.

Hu Kuang
I

Chung.

2 )

The Master

Ch uan

said: 3

"When

Heaven and

Earth stored up the subtle essences, it was man who received the choicest excellence of the Five Agonte. In its origin
the Nature
tion
it is

is

true

4

and in repose. 5

Before

its

manifesta

possessed of the five nature-principles, Love,

When Righteousness, Reverence, Wisdom, and Sincerity. form is is existence it acted into bodily upon brought
6 by the external world and the mind becomes

active

;

the

1

That

is

:

There was a time when there was no

human
:

desire,

and when

alone existed, and yet that fact does not prevent our con So with good and evil the fact that at first trasting them as in the text. good alone existed does not make it a different good from the good which

Divine

Law

later is contrasted
2

with

evil.

Feng. At the age of fifteen Kuang Chung sought the advice of Feng and became his pupil. He declined office in order to devote himself to teaching his doctrines. He had considerable
second cousin of

A

Hu Wu

Wu

controversy with
early age of 38.
pt. xlii, p. 20.
3 4

Chu Hsi and

also with

Chang Nan Hsien.

He

died at the
ffi
|j|
,

Selections from his writings are given in the
.

f 5. See Jj| , pt. xvi, True, i.e. without intermixture of

^

human
2.

falsity.

See

j[/

fg,

$

(Modern Thought), by Chu Hsi,
5

pt.

ii,

f.

Repose,

i.e.

fi

Note

:

the word

not yet affected by the external world, and therefore still. not jjj, is here used. The fact that this word tfi
,

is

1 used for the viscera JL c *- Giles Dictionary, No. 2875) suggests ( the mind in its lower and more passionate aspect, giving rise to the seven see p. 4, n. 1), by which the Nature is passionate emotions jprf,

4

(^

wounded.

Contrast these with the Four Feelings (also fjg) solicitude,

38

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
active there issue the seven emotions, pleasure,

mind being
blazing

anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, and desire.

The emotions
Nature
is

up and increasing

in intensity, the

wounded." 1

I have thought over these words carefully, and their meaning seems to me not different from the teaching of the
"

Yo

Chi".

2

The word
Nature
is

"repose",

too, refers to the

time

previous to the

s

being acted upon from without,
filled

when the Mind

wholly

by Heaven

as yet none of the deceitful ness which we get the phrase, "The Heaven. .When it is acted upon by the external world so and becomes active, there arises: the distinction between
;
"3

Law, with of human desire from Nature as imparted by
s

right and wrong, truth
the Nature.

and

error.

But
insight,

if there

were no

conscientiousness, respectfulness,
1

and moral

which proceed from

occasion was asked how the Nature His answer was The Nature, of course, cannot but when men do not obey its principles and give pierced literally be reign to their own desires, then it receives injury." See j|J ,* cf. quotation from the Li Chi below. pt. ii, f. 2 2 The Yo Chi or Record of Music is Book XVII of the Li Chi (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxvii), of which sec. 1, par. 11, reads

Or

"

pierced
"

".

Chu Hsi on one
,

could be

"

pierced

".

:

^,

;

"

"

"

"

"

"

:

A
&o
9$
there

%.
$&

m
*J

%. to

W

o3ett&oail*lSft,tii& m m % m % is * fj & man *bo ^ & I3o 5C 3 W &
&<>

ft

fib

-

"At

s

birth

Acted is repose, and we have the Nature as imparted by Heaven. upon by the external world activity ensues, and we have the desires incident to the Nature. As external things are presented to us knowledge is developed, and liking and disliking assume definite form. When liking and disliking are not regulated within, knowledge is led astray by external things, and thus there cannot be a proper examination of self, and Divine Law perishes 3 The phrase The Nature as imparted by Heaven and those which
"

!

"

",

follow, refer to the passage

from the

"

Yo Chi

"

given above.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

39

Nature, there would be nothing from which desire could Desires incident spring forth, and thus we have the phrase, to the Nature." The expression "activity ensues" does
not differ in meaning from "to spring forth" in Thej l Doctrine of the Mean for right and wrong, truth and falsity of actions, depend upon whether there is "regulation"
"

"

;

or not, whether such actions strike

tjhe

due

Mean

or not. 2
"It

This

is

the same idea as

at this very point

is you express when you say, we must distinguish between the true and

the

false."

But in our daily

affairs there

needs to be ethical

nurture, so that
act intelligently.

when If we act
keep

the time comes for action
hastily

we may

and without self-control,
too late, then

delaying preparation
neglect

until! it is

we

fail to

pace with, events.
"repose",

As

to

by sheer your remark,
is

with reference to the word

that

"This

thei

word which represents the mystery of the Nature as imparted by Heaven, and not the contrasted expressions, I am doubtful for activity and repose, truth and falsity the Nature is all-inclusive: the laws both of activity and of
",

;

repose are contained in it. If we use only the word "repose" to represent the Nature, then the definition of the term

becomes one-sided and defective.
is

When

"

in the

Yo Chi

"

3

repose predicated of the Nature as imparted by Heaven, it simply means that before it is acted upon by the external

world, and before selfish desires have sprung forth, it is wholly Heaven s Law it is not necessary to use the word
:

"repose"

to represent the
"

words
1

"

true

and

"

"

false

mystery of the Nature. The on the other hand are different

2
2

D.M., p. 248. See the passage referred to above in the Doctrine of ike Mean. See above.

40

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
" "
"

from the words activity and repose". The Nature as such is possessed by everything in the universe, but there
is

nothing false in
in
"Moral

it.

The attempt

is

now made
false,"

to

include

truth also
says,
is
"

this negative
is

assertion, just as

Mr. Han

Law

neither true nor

for which he

ridiculed by

Ming Tao.
it

In the statement of I

Ch

uan,
is

In

its

origin
for the

is

true

and

in, repose,"

there

a

fundamental difference between the words
"Sriepose",

"true"

and

word

".true"

refers

to

the original

substance, while the word "repose" refers only to the fact that in the beginning it has not yet been acted upon by
the external worlld.

The Master Ming Tao

"

says

:

The

time preceding man s birth and the repose which then exists needs no discussion. The moment you apply the term
*

Nature

,

be the
birth
is

Nature."

what you are speaking of has already ceased to 2 For the moment of repose at man s

the emotions have not yet sprung forth but this merely shows the perfection of the Nature as imparted by Heaven, and cannot fairly be regarded! as
;

the time

when

using the word
to

"

;

repose
3

to represent the Nature.

(Reply]

Hu Kuang
8.

Chung.) This section* was produced

at

the very beginning
first

of the discussion, in the vain expectation that at the
1

Han
:

Shih Lang (f| f
of

jjg),

Vice-President (fj
says,
;

j||$)

of one of the

Boards

Government.

Ming Tao
false

not true, then it is quoted can it be neither true nor false ?
"If
"

if

answer to the statement not false, then it is true. How
in

Is it not manifest,

prehension of the simplest intelligence, that whatever is not, is false ? See ]|f pt. i, f. 3.

and within the com is, is true, and what

$

,

2
3

4

See jjj See also p. 97 of this volume. pt. i, f. 10. See above, p. 37, n. 2. Refers to the preceding section.

f,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
glance,

41

and in a single moment, the accumulated error of Its arguments still meet with be rectified. could years some. Moreover, that I should opposition on the part of
pit

my one solitary my

of all the wise

men

discussion against the combined wisdom of former generations also makes me

uneasy in

Hence, to-day, when I read it, I find myself, even, objecting to it on many points. For example, Kuang Chung maintains that the word "repose" is the

mind.

word

to express the
is

mystery of Heaven

s

Law, and again

not to be described as having both truth and error, activity and repose which is the same doctrine as the Chih Yen l asserts when it says that the goodness
that the Nature
"
"

predicated of tho Nature is good in the sense of admirable and not good in contrast to evil. The way in which I ought to have answered him is this Good and evil, truth and error, activity and repose, the antecedent and the
:

former and the latter, all receive their names from their mutual opposition. Apart from its contrast with evil, good cannot be predicated of anything. Apart from
s_equent, the

opposition to activity, repose cannot be predicated of If a thing cannot be false, then neither can anything. it be true, and there is nothing of which these things can
its

be predicated at all. Now, has no real existence for us,
thing as evil.
is

if
it

the goodness of the Nature follows that there is no such
it

And

so

with truth, if
error.

does not,exist there

predicate repose implies) Therefore, to say that neither good and evil, nor truth and error, nor activity and repose, nor indeed any;
activity.

no such thing as

To

relative terms can
1

be usod to define the Nature, but that
See above, p. 28 and note.

42

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

transcending the relative there is another absolute good, and absolute repose, which alone can be regarded as repre senting the mystery of the Nature as imparted by

Heaven,

Not

surely very strange only was the reply which
!

is

I

made

at

the

time

inadequate, as I have shown, but there are several other omissions statements in which there are as, for
also"
;

example, when

I said that the

Nature

is

all-inclusive,

and

not to be defined as repose only., This is true, but the idea the should rather have been expressed thus: "Though and is of the Nature repose are repose, activity sphere
alike implied in its connotation. Therefore, the Yo 1 is right, but iix predicating repose of the Nature

Chi

when
the

Kuang Chung
[mystery
wrong."

uses

the

word repose

to

set forth

of

position.
repose"

Nature as imparted by Heaven he is Such would be an all-round statement of the Again, in discussing Cli eng Tztl s "true and in
the

statement, I took the

word

"true"

to the original substance,

and

"repose"

as referring as referring to

the time before

This also

is

expressed it in the latter part of the sentence are the explanation of the word repose and the five nature-principles explain
:

upon by the external world. have been better to have it would but correct, before its manifestation "The words thus
it is

acted

,

the

word

true

;

but Love,

Righteousness,

Reverence,

Wisdom, and Sincerity are to be defined as implied in the expression before its manifestation and are what is meant
,

by and

the
its
s

truth

of the

Nature."

In this way both the idea
"

Chung

expression are complete. (Reply to Hu Kuang criticism of Chu Hsi s Essay on the Nature".)
1

See above, p. 33, n.

1.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
9.

43
is

Before the

etlierial

element

exists,

the Nature

already in existence. The former is transitory, the latter is eternal Although the Nature is implanted in the midst
.

of the Ether, the Ether is
is

still

the Ether

and the Nature!

still

other.

the Nature, without confusion the one with the As to its immanence and omnipresence in the
is

universe, there

nothing which

is

matter

how

fine or coarse the etherial

without this principle, no element may be.

It is not correct to

regard the more subtile part of the Ether as the Nature and the coarser part of the Nature

as tho Ether.

(Reply to Liu Shu Wen.)

10.

It is truo that the

Nature cannot be without
is

activity,

but

its

all-comprehensiveness

not because of

its

necessary

Even if there were no activity, how possession of activity. could there be anything lacking in its all-comprehensive
fallacy of the Buddhists lies in their falsely l regarding the spirit and soul as the Nature, and not in their
ness?
failing to recognize that the Nature is incapable of activity. If you regard them as understanding what tho Nature is,

The

you have no right to charge them with error. Seeing that you do so charge them, you have no right to appeal to their
statements that the Nature
is

is unreal. In these passages your as not if clear, language your own apprehension of the matter were not clear either. (Reply to P an Kung Shu.)

1

In the expression jj|

jffl

,

the word
;

j^
in

represents the principle of

sensation,

and

jp$

the intellectual principle

^

SI

>

&

represents the

higher or intellectual soul, and

$[ the lower or sentient

soul.

Thus the
ffi
jffl

two expressions, when analysed, seem mutually to correspond, but
again, in relation to rj|
of
(Ji|
,

ia

the higher element in the psychic part

man.

44
11
.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

originally good. It is only after it has been acted upon by external influences that it may Ilose its poise and fall into evil." Such passages we may
is

Our Nature

verify

by reference
Their proof

to ourselves,

and need not question

lies in the fact that we have constantly watch and keep guard over ourselves with reference to those things in which we are acted upon in the direction, of good or evil. (Reply to Wang Ch ing Ch ing.)

them.
to

12.

Ch eng
"

Tzii said,

"

The Nature

is Law,"

and Shao

Tzii said,
Order." 2

The Nature

is

the concrete expression of Moral

but Shu

These two sayings explain, one another exactly, Ch iian in his criticism would have it that one is

good and the other not.
to grasp Shao

In

this,

Tzu s meaning, but
Further,

not only has ho failed I fear that he has also

failed to understand thoroughly the inwardness of

Ch eng
says
:

Tzu

s

language.

when Mr.
to

Fang

3

"Moral

Law
is

Nature

Heaven as the Heaven as imparted
is

self -existent,"

and

"The

and received by

the

passing on the teaching inherited from the earlier Confucianists. For, as a matter of fact, although are not two entities, yet there is a difference in the they
universe,"

he

is

meaning of the two terms which we must not fail! to observe. Moreover, la;ter on in the same context he says, "Although it is received from Heaven, it- is neither more nor less than that which makes Heaven to be Heaven, BO that it has never been regarded as two entities." But with reference to his statement The substance of Moral
"

:

1

Seep.
See p.

10, n.

1.

2
3

6, n. 4.

Probably Fang Pin

Wang

;

see p. 48.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Law
of
is

45
the seat

without activity,

it is

man

s
"

Mind which
Nature
"
"

is
"

activity,"

I say that the words

and

Mind
is

"

have each a different connotation, and this assertion cannot
stand.

Shao Tzu,

too, in his statement,
1

The Mind

the

enceinte of the Nature/

is,

near the mark, but his language

and thought are somewhat abrupt.

Remember

that tho

Mind
is

is

Law
13.

the ruler of the personality, 2 and that the Nature inherent in the Mind, and you will not go wrong.

(Reply to Chiang Shu

Ch

uan.)
:

Life is what is termed Question. the Nature. The time preceding man s birth and tho repose which then exists needs no discussion. 3 The moment you

Ming Tao says

apply the term

"

Nature

",

what you

are speaking of has

already ceased to be the Nature. All those who expound the Nature define it simply as what is spoken of in the dictum,

The law of their succession is Mencius refers to when he says,
"

goodness,"
"

the

same as

The Nature
"

of

man

is

.What Mencius good." uan, on the other hand, says, 5 speaks of as good is the original and essential Nature." How do yon reconcile these two statements ? Answer. The words, The time preceding needs no discussion," refer to the De-Jree of Heaven in its original substance, in contrast to it as imparted to and received The words, "original and essential," refer to by man.
I
"

4

Ch

.

.

.

the perfect

Law received by man,
"

Nature.
1

In the phrase,
See p.
6.
".

The

in contrast to his Physical law of their succession is

2
3 4 5

Or

"

body
Iff

See p. 40, n.

2.
i

2S

P

fc -

f-

10

-

See also p. 97 of this volume.

it *,pt.iiv.4.

46

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
1

goodness,"

the idea of the word,
" "

"goodness"
2
",

is

not the

but is whlat same as that referred to in the T ung Shu Mencius refers to in the passage, If we look at the feelings which flow from the Nature, we may know that they are constituted for the practice of what is good 3 the reference being to the Four Terminals in their ideal perfectiota.
"

(Reply
14.

to
"

Wu Po
Moral

Feng.)
is

Law

without form or substance

;

the

Nature possesses

spirit

and the
it,

spiritual

faculty."
" "

This

statement has some truth in
"

but the terms

spirit

and

"spiritual

faculty

do not mean what we speak of

as the

error of Kao Tzu in saying that life is what termed the Nature, and of the modern Buddhists in gaying that functional activity is the Nature, lies just here, and is

Nature.

The

is

one that should be carefully studied. Mr. Fang 4 in his It is by the Nature that the universe exists," statement,
"

accurately expresses the meaning of Hu Tzu, but to quote it as explaining the wordis of Shao Tzu is not fair, and
to turn

Tzu s idea
"

round and ridicule him as not having grasped Hu In Mr. Fang s statement is beside the mark.
"

that all things in the universe exist by means of the Nature, the word Nature refers to the Law of the whole universe.

This

is

what

is

termed

"

there that cannot exist

The Supreme Ultimate WJilat is ? universe Vast as the it is, it by
".

must not be forgotten that
1

it is

corporeal

;

and, although

2 3
"

Yi Ching, p. 356. Mencius, p. 278.

The passage
"

referred to
(

is

in chapter vii of
is

the

T ung
jfc
,

Shu, entitled
"Strength,
ii.

The Teacher

0j|j),

in

which the Nature
".

said to consist of
;/

Weakness, Goodness, Evil, and the Mean 4 Probably Fang Pin Wang, see below,

See

bk.

p. 43.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
as

47
it

compared with men and the animal creation

has

priority in time, yet from the point of view of the distinction

ment

between the corporeal and incorporeal, Mr. Fang s state is not se very erroneous, and Chang Ju is mistaken
in disputing
15.
it.

(Reply to

Wang Chang

Ju.)

Such

is

the dignity of ancient teachings that

we

who come

after should not of course intrude

upon them
question

with our discussions.

But in
good or

relation
evil,

to

the

should, apart from 1 the ancient teachings, discuss the problem from other points of view, and thus, while escaping the odium of either;

whether the Nature

is

we

suppressing or avoiding difficulties, we shall still arrive at the real truth of the matter. 2 The two words good and
evil are the concrete expression

of Divine

Law and human
Nature
is

desire respectively.

Now,

to say that the

not

human

desire is quite right, but may we go on to affirm that neither is it Divine Law ? Rather than be forced to

an extreme statement of the goodness of the Nature, and
the contention that
it is

how much
Chi Sui.)
16.
1

easier

and

so good that it cannot be denned, truer would be the simple assertion

that the Nature is good
3

and can be defined

!

(Reply to
it is

Hu
be

"The

Nature
i>e

is Law." 4

Sometimes
gj(|

to

la

Hi

lit

-

6et as ide

>

the $fc

mentioned at the beginning
:

of the section.
2

There are three courses open to the modern student

First, to criticize

our predecessors, which reverence precludes. Second, to cover their faults, avoiding the questions on which we differ from them, which would be an offence against sincerity. Third, to discuss the subject without
reference to their teaching at all, which escapes both undesirables. 2 See above, p. 24 and note.
4

A

dictum by Ch eng

I

;

see p. 16, n.

1

48

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

regarded as the natural outcome of all laws, at other times as if it were a seperate entity in itself. The Master

K ang Chieii
of

"

said,
1

Moral

Order,"

The Nature is the concrete expression and the statement seems to be to thd
"

point.

It is also said,

When
is

there

is

calm, but at the

same time ignorance of what
to attain to the
to the
Mean."

preserved, the Nature fails Now, for the Nature to attain
fire

Mean

is as

natural as for water to be cold and
is

hot

;

but the

Mean
it

disturbed because

men

lose their

by habits engendered by the material It is not that the Nature fails to attain to the element. Mean. (Reply to Fang Pin Wang.)
17 The sentence, The Nature is the concrete expression Moral Order," occurs in the Prof ace to the "Chi Jang 2 Its meaning is The Nature is what men receive Chi". Moral Order is the natural Law of Right substantively which we find in the phenomena of the universe. The Law which we find in phenomena is really inherent in the Nature,
.

Nature and becloud

of

:

;

but when we speak
idea
is

of

it
is

as

of something which

the Moral Order, our boundless as a vast desert 3

and
that
else
"

diffused in infinite variety, so that its substance is

invisible,

we
!

and it is only when we seek it in our own Nature what constitutes its reality here and nowhere The passage in "The Doctrine of the Mean"
see

Conformity to the Nature is what is termed Moral Order 4 expresses the same truth. (Reply to Fang Pin
"

Wang.)
1

2
3

See p. See p.

G.

6, n. 4.
cf.

For

this simile
p. 247.

p.

297 and note.

*

D.M.,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
18.
Order."
"The
l

49

Nature

is

the concrete expression of

Moral

When we
it

specifically call it the

Moral Order we

think of it as diffused in phenomena and untraceable.

When

we

look for
the

in the

Mind we
fixed

find that here its principles

and unchangeable. These Mind are what we call the Nature. Hence, Shao Tzu go-as on to say, "The Mind is the enceinte of the Nature." 2 If we examine into the in this we shall see where the truth and error subject way lie. (Reply to Fang Pin Wang.)
concrete,

assume

principles as inherent in the

19.
is
"

Your
rule
is

instructive essay

on the Nature and the Ether
"accord"

excellent.

But the word
of
existence
3

in the sentence,

The

is

that

by

means
is

of

which

man

in accord with
"

Heaven," is,

I fear, not satis

factory, because the

rule of existence" is

what

received

from Heaven by Man.
"Such

With

reference to the sentence,

nourish their life and are happy thereby," 4 which you quote from the "Tso Chuan", this is what is meant by the expression in accord with Heaven". In quoting
"

the phrase,

"

The Plenum of the Universe,"
5
",

"

in the

Western

to the passage in the Odes, see Legge s Chinese Classics, vol. iv, pt. ii, p. 541 ; cf. note on p. 54 of this volume. 4 The passage in the Tso Chuan teaches that those who are able to
is
"

Inscriptions 1 See p. 6 and 3 The allusion

it

seems

to

me
2

that your addition of the
Ibid.

note.

"

observe
life

Heaven

s law,

or

"

rule of existence
this
is
"

"

(H
to
"

J)>

and so obtain happiness, and

"

thereby nourish their accord with Heaven
"
"

Huang Tao Fu s error is which is Heaven s gift, in
5

in putting this law or the place of its observance,

rule of existence
is

"

which

man

s

work,

as the cause of this accord with

Heaven.
;

to

The Hsi Ming Chu Hsi and the Sung
("jflj

fit

J|.pt.

ii,

|j), a work by Chang Tsai The work School, chap. iii. as well as in the

see
is

Introduction included in the

^&

50

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"
"

word
*

expa-nd

*

is

not happy.

You
is

should rather say,

The Plenum
wholly this

of the Universe

none other than the
our corporeity
Universe" 2

Either,
is
is

and that which we receive
Ether."
"*Tho

to constitute

Pilot of the

the Mind of the Uni verse, in which Law is inherent. The Five Agents are Water, Fire, Woodi, Metal, and Earth;
their nature-principles are Love, Righteousness,, Reverence, Wisdom, and Sincerity, each of which specially 3 In man, these naturebelongs to one of the Five Agents. and when principles are all complete and invariably good
1

and

;

men come

be affected from without, those who preserve a harmonious relation between their nature-principles are
to

good, and those who fail to preserve such harmonious 4 relation are not good. (Reply to Huang Tao Fu.)
20. I like

Han Tza

s

5

"

words,

There; are five principles
teachers, however,
ideas,

which constitute the
all
1

Nature."

Modern

mix up
That

their teaching
"

with Taoist and Buddhist
" "

"

fullness be is, how can expanded ? Also quoted from the Hsi Ming, see above. The whole passage reads The Plenum of the Universe is the substance of my being; the Pilot of
"

2

:

the Universe

"

my nature "(5c tt St tio ^hu Hsi s comment on this passage is ?C Mi 6ft la tio) The Plenum is the Ether, so that the substance of my being is the Ether
is

the law of

^

&^
^
,

R

:

of the

Universe

;

the
is

Pilot

is

the Ruler, the Eternal
of the
Universe."

Law

of the Universe,

so that

See %$ pt. ii, f. 2. 2 Love corresponds to Wood, Righteousness to Metal, Reverence to See Introduction to Fire, Wisdom to Water, and Sincerity to Earth.
the

my

Nature

Law

Chu Hsi and the Sung School, 4 Huang Ch iao Chung (^
Chou ( jjft and a deep

chap.

vi.

fljj), style

Tao Fu, was a native

of

Chang

He was a very religious man jjTJ ) where Chu Hsi held office. student. For days at a time, after leading his family in worship, he would sit in silent meditation. He was the author of a commentary 5 on the Book of Rites. Han Yii.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and so divergence
the nearest to the
school,
is

51

inevitable.

Of

all

the philosophers,

truth
that
else

are
the

those

of

our
in
its

Confucian
original of Love,

who
is

teach

Nature
the

essence

nothing

than

substance;

Righteousness,

Reverence, and Wisdom. According to Taoism and Buddhism, the Nature was pre-existent as an empty shell from which subsequently, these four principles
;

were evolved
that

or, if

which modern representatives, however*, do not understand their own teaching, but arc content with a semblance of know ledge, and therefore cannot escape from theso perplexities.
the

Nature

not pre-existent, they in itself is but the
these four principles. 1

still

maintain

shell

contains within

it

Their

it having been established that the four principles constitute the substance of the Nature, the doubt is next

Further,

raised as to whether they are not four separate entities heaped up within. These views of the matter are all

mistaken.

The

essential thing to note is that that

which

Nature is not something from have the four principles the four nor apart principles, form or shape so that they can be picked up and handled.
constitutes the substance of the
It is

simply that within this one all-embracing Law, while

not regarding them as separated one from another as if by a wall or fence, we nevertheless recognize them as having distinctive qualities. These principles, however, are difficult
to explain
;

so

much so

that even

Mencius could do no more

1

The four

principles, according to the

"

modern teachers

",

do not

constitute the substance of the Nature, but are contained within it as distinct from the Nature, somewhat as the contents of a vessel, though

contained within

it,

are not part of

it.

52

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
men
to recognize

than teach

them in

their nijanif estations 1

But Mencius did not mean that

their manifestations are in

the original substance of the Nature, to be called forth as but that, their substance being invisible they are needed
;

and intangible, they can be recognized only in their opera 2 tion, which is a simple process. (Reply to Lin Te Chiu.)

The dictum, The Decree of Mr. Chang says Heaven is what is termed the Nature/ 3 is simply in praise
"

21.

:

of the exalted character of the Nature.

At

this stage,

man

has not yet received it as his own. It is later, at the stage Conformity to the Nature is represented by the sentence
*

termed Moral Order that man embodies it as his 4 own, and then it clothes itself with the principles of Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and -Wisdom." In my judgment

what

is

,

the dictum,

The Decree of Heaven is what is termed the Nature," means that the Nature receives its name from the fact that it is the endowment of Heaven, the original source of the moral element in his constitution, and not simply in
"

praise of its exalted character. to praise its exalted character

What
?

need

is
5

there for
"

man
The
the

Tung

Tzii

said

:

Decree
to the
1

is

the

commandment
This

of Heaven, the Nature

is

substance of

life."

may

be said to approach somewhat

meaning sf

Tzii Ssu,

and

differs

from Mr. Chang

s

That

2

is, in the Four Terminals, see p. 4, n, 1. Compared with the direct explanation of the four

principles,

which the

Philosopher has just said 3 D.M., p. 247.
4

is difficult.

6

y^ to enter. Tung Chung Shu
,

(ijjF

fl{l

7*),

a native of

Kuang Chou and
ff
$$>

scholar
"

of the second century B.C.

See

]g f^ ;g
f.

E W

P

fc -

T

>

the sentence here quoted occurs on

7.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
statement.

53
it is
it.

Moreover, since
it is

it is called

the Nature,

manifest that

so called because said that at
!

man

has received

a certain stage it has not become So man s own then, Heaven in producing yet (i man does not at once confer the Nature upon him, but deposits it in a place apart, and the man must rise and!
Here, however,
it is

take

it

for himself

:

The exponents

of this view

only then does he possess it as his own do not realize that before man
!

has received this Nature, according to their theory, he is What is it that enables him to breathe already a man
!

and

and so to receive this Nature ? And further, how comes this Nature as a separate entity to be placed in some particular spot, so that it may be laid hold of and deposited in the body ? Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, inherent in the Nature, are the substance of the Nature but hero it is said that man embodies the Nature as his own, and afterwards it clothes itself with these principles fThis means that these four principles aro placed! on one side, and subsequently the Nature comes in on the other side and clothes itself with them, but where the four principles are to come from before the Nature clothes itself with them we are not informed The Doctrine (Criticism of Chang Wu Kou s exposition of
cat in the world,
1

;

!

!

"

of the

Mean".)

22.

In the

"Chili

Yen"

1

it is

said:

"The
:

Nature

consists of the faculty of liking

and disliking

the noble

man in his liking and disliking is actuatect by MonaJ Law, and the ignoble man by selfishness. Study this and
1

See

p.
f.

25,

n.

2.

The passage here quoted occurs

in the j|

^

,

pt, xlii,

6.

54

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the expressions Divine
this passage, it

we shall understand what is meant by Law and human desire." As I read
that in the Nature there
evil.
is

means

If it be so,

no distinction between good and then within the Nature there is simply
"

and no standard of good and evil. is Seeing that the noble man in his liking and disliking actuated by Moral Law", Moral Law is a tiling outside the Nature. And since by studying this we shall under stand what is meant by the expressions Divine Law and human desire it follows that Divine Law and human
liking
disliking,
"

and

",

desire

synchronize

with

each

other,

and!

there

is

no
"

distinction between

them

authority. But what, on spoken of in the passage,

either in respect of priority or of this assumption, are the things
" "

Heaven in giving birth to the multitudes of the people so ordained it that inherent in every single thing there is its rule of existence. The people therefore hold within themselves a normal principle of good,
"

and consequently approve this excellent virtue ? 1 The The Decree of Heaven philosopher Yang Kuei Shan says, is what is termed the Nature, and human desire is not the
"

who

is quoted from the Odes, p. 541, and occurs also in Mencius, quotes it to support his doctrine of the goodness of the Nature. (See Mencius, p. 279.) Legge translates it thus Heaven, in giving birth to the multitudes of the people,
:

1

The passage

To every faculty and relationship annexed The people possess this normal nature,

its

law.

And they
The second
"

(consequently) love
"

its

normal

virtue.

have translated it, as Legge shows in his note. the things must be understood of what But," he adds, belongs to the human constitution." That, no doubt, is the case in that but the poet is stating the larger truth which particular connexion covers the special application, and it is better to translate it in the more Cf. Faber s Mind of Mencius, p. 47. general sense. See next page, n. 5.
line in the original is as I
;

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Nature."
1

55
in error

This statement

is correct,
2

and

Hu Tzu is

says: "Liking- and contradicting it. Nan Hsien are Nature." This statement the in itself is harm disliking
in
less,
it is

error comes in.

in adding the sentences which follow that the The writer would maintain that liking

and disliking are the Nature, and that they constitute the

The noble man is the man who equity of Divine Law. follows his Nature, the ignoble man brings confusion into it through human desire, and loses his standard of right
and wrong.
for liking
I maintain that liking and disliking are inherent in the Nature, but do not constitute the Nature
;

and disliking are
"rule

3
"things",

and
4

to like

good
in

and
the

dislike evil is the
"things".

of
"

existence"

inherent

The sentence, Inherent in every single there rule of has the same must be its existence," thing are the Nature as the Form and colour statement, meaning
"

as imparted

by

Heaven."

5

Here

it is

sought to dei^ne the
"thing",

Nature by fastening attention upon the word
while the
"rule

of

existence"

is

lost

sight

of.

Such

reasoning, I fear, will inevitably prove mischievous.
the Criticism of
1

(From
)

Hu Tzu s

"Words

of Wisdom".

6

See p. 20.
ffi

I
s

Yang Kuei Shan
found in the
2

cannot find the passage here quoted in any copy of writings accessible to me, but the same thought is
t

*jg

pt. Ixxv,

f.

6.

Chang Ch ih (j| ^), a native of Ssu Ch uan, and a great friend of Chu Hsi, though holding widely different opinions. His literary name was Nan Hsien. See Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. iv. 3 Cf. the passage quoted from the Odes, p. 54.
4

Ibid.
Cf.

5

p. 54,
"

n.

1.

Here
".

is

an instance of

of the

larger truth

Form and
4
ff.

the wider application colour are the Nature of material

things as ordained
6

by Heaven.
flf.

$

S,

pt. xlii,

56

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

THE NATURE IN MAN AND OTHER CREATURES.
(SEVENTEEN
1.

SECTIONS

FROM

THE

"CONVERSATIONS".)

Question. Ultimate equally

Do
?

the Five Agents receive the

Supreme

Answer.

Yes, equally.
all

Question. Does man embody other creatures receive only one ?

the Five Agents, while

Answer.

Other creatures

also possess all the

Five Agents,

but receive them partially.
2.

Question.

What

is

your opinion of the statement

that the Nature consists of Love, Righteousness, Reverence,

and Wisdom ? Answer. It corresponds to the saying Their realization is the Nature But preceding this are the stages represented by the statements The alternation of the negative and
"

".

"

positive

modes

"and"

The law of

their succession

is

good

ness
1

"

*

When

the Moral

Law

of the negative

and

positive

These sentences are quoted from the Yi Ching, pp. 355-6. The whole passage is frequently quoted and discussed by the writers of this school and those with whom they disputed. The text reads f f!J|
:

alternation of the negative and positive Moral Law. The law of their succession is goodness
"

The

Baroffi**ifioj&ttJcmodes
"

"hich

I
is
;

have transited what is termed

:

their realization
",

One Yin one Yang The first sentence is literally which means the Yin and Yang in alternation, not the universal Yin and the universal Yang as rendered by De Groot (Religion in China, see Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. vi. p, 10) From this alternation of the Two Modes all things come to be. Why
is

the

Nature."

"

"

;

it

is

called Moral

Law

is

seen from the sentence which

follows

:

that

which causes the one to follow the other (|]f| j^ ^) in unfailing succession and with unfailing regularity is not a physical law merely, but ethical it is And the resultant of this ethical goodness
"

;

".

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
modes alone
creation of
existed,

57

and before ever the stage of the

other beings was reached, these four were principles already present. Even the lower orders of

man and

life,

them, but partially and not in their perfection, on account of the limitations caused by the grossnoss of the Ether.

such as

reptiles, all possess

3.

It is true that in the life of

men and other creatures the
differs

Nature with which they are endowed

from the very

beginning in the degree of its perfection. But even within the differing degress of perfection there is the further
variation in respect of clearness
4.

and

traiisluccnce.

In reply to a communication from Hwang Shang Po, you, sir, said, With reference to the one source of all things, Law is uniform whilie the Ether is diverse
Question.
1
"

;

look at the variety of substance in the universe, we see that the Ether approaches more nearly to uniformity while Law everywhere varies." Would the following
if
alternation
therefore
is is

but

we

the Nature
said to be

"

their

realization
".

is

the Nature

"

which
"

"

good sometimes drawn between the two
succession
is
goodness,"

itself

distinction in point of time is last clauses ; Their the clause,

A

referring to the time preceding man s birth. But at whatever stage of creation even when, as the text here their very alternation states, nothing existed but the Yin and the Yang

was Tao (Moral Law) comprising the four principles which constitute

man
1

s
"

Nature.
"

Shang Po is an official title the writer referred to is Huang Hao As a youth he showed considerable intelligence, and took his (gjfj).
;

degree early.
of

He held office in connexion with the Revenue, the duties which took him frequently to Kiangsi at the time when Chu Hsi was

Prefect at Nan K ang. Huang was in the habit of visiting the Philosopher and consulting with him about his own personal difficulties. There seems to have been a strong affection between the two. At the death of Chu Hsi,

Huang attended

the funeral at great personal risk to himself.

58

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

be a correct interpretation of this passage ? The sentence, Law is uniform while the Ether is diverse," refers to the
<;

beginning,
universe.

when

the Nature was

first

communicated

to

tl 10

operations of the Divine Decrfeo, In view of the differences
1

In view of the uniformity of the all-pervading Law is said to be uniform.
in the
clearness

and

purity,

of the

Two

said to be diverse.
after the

Ethers and of the Five, the Ether is The next sentence 2 refers to the period

Nature has been received by the universe, and

means

although there is this difference in clearness, yet in the unity of its Two Ethers and of the Five the etherial
that,

element comes nearer to uniformity, while Law, because
of the varying degrees of translucence and permeability in the Ether, is very decidedly diverse. The Doctrine of
"

the
first

Mean" 3

refers to the beginning,

when the Nature
"

is

Collected communicated, while the passage in the Comments 4 refers to the period after it has been received.
"

Answer. The approximation
element
is

to uniformity of the etherial in our sense of heat and cold and of exemplified

hunger and repletion, in the love of life and shrinking from death,, and in the instinctive seeking for what will benefit
andishunning what will be prejudicial:
1
jjijjj
"

all this is

common to

is
.

J|$
is
"

It

may
"

"

pure
turbid
",

in the pure be opaque, but it clear without necessarily being and means pure in the sense of being
"

"

sense of being unmixed, the opposite of will be of one colour without admixture ; it
".

^
"

is

clear
?

the opposite of $ clean or
" " "

"

;
"

it

may

be opaque, too, but without any sediment.
"

BJ^

again,

is

clear

as the opposite of opaque, i.e. translucent. That is, If we look at the variety of substance, etc." 3 The reference is to the oft-quoted dictum, "The Decree of

Heaven

is

D.M., p. 247. 4 By Chu Hsi, probably containing the statement to quoted by the questioner ; cf. p. 03.
is
Nature."

what

termed the

Huang Shang Po

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
man
the existence

59

with other creatures. The diversity of Law is seen in among ants and bees of the relation between

sovereign and minister, in which there is manifested no more or in the existence among than a gleam of Righteousness
;

wolves and tigers of the relation between parent and child, in which there is manifested no more than a gleam of Love;

while of the other principles you can discern nothing. It is just like a mirror, in the centre of which there are one
or two spots of light and the rest is all black. Of phenomena in general, it may be said that if the endowment is great

in one direction,

it is

defect in another direction, as

at the expense of some corresponding when tender-hearted men

are lacking in the judicial faculty, while
judicial faculty is

men

in

whom
;

the

for prominent tend to be tyrannical, more Love is developed the more is Righteousness obscured, and the more Righteousness is developed the more Love is obscured.

the

Question.

Whence comes
Love in women

the greater timidity of

women?

Is it also because of inequality in the Ether ?

Answer.
affection.
5.

is

confined to the feeling of

Question.

Men and

other creatures are all

with the

Law

of the Universe as their Nature,

endowed and all

receive the Ether of the Universe for their

Form. Granting

that the differences in

the translucence

and

are due to differing degrees in fulness of the Ether, I am not sure

men

whether

in

the case of

other

creatures

the

differences

between thorn are because they are imperfectly endowed with Law, or whether these also are due to the opacity and
cloudiness of the Ether.

60

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
It
is

Answer.

simply that the Ether received being

limited, the immaterial principle received is also corre spondingly limited. For example, the physical constitution of dogs and horses being as it is, their functions are

correspondingly limited in their range. Question. Seeing that every individual creature possesses the Supreme Ultimate in its entire substance, does it not
follow that

Law

is

universally complete
call it

?

Answer.
partial.
th.3

You may
it

As Law
Hence

complete or you may call it cannot be other than complete, but from
it is

point of view of the material element
Lii Yii

necessarily

partial.

Shu
:

creatures approximates to nursas another s kittens in the writings of there is a still more remarkable story of a cat

The Nature in other says, that of man (as when one cat
*
"

Wen Kung 2
iii

his

home),
of

and that of man
lunatics)."

to other creatures

(as in the

case

Question. in the degree of
as conferred

6.

Seeing that the physical element

differs

its opacity and grossness, does the Nature the Doicree of Heaven differ in the degree by

of its completeness ? Answer. No, there

is

completeness.

It is like the light of the

no difference in the degree of its sun or moon. In
of four

1 Lu Ta Lin (^ fj), style Yii Shu, was one under Ch eng I, known as the Four Masters Yang Shih (p. 26 and note), Hsieh Liang Tso
"

famous students

".

The other three were (p. 322 and note), and

Yu
as

Tso (jj The first two are frequently referred to in this work ). Kuei Shan and Shang Ts ai respectively. Lu Yii Shu also studied under Chang Tsai. He became a profound scholar, and received the
Doctor
of the Imperial

title of
cf.
2

Academy.

See

^

/

p]|

,

pt.

xv,

ff.

42-3

J

also Giles Biog. Diet., p. 561.

See p. 73, n.

2.

The interpolations are by the Chinese compiler of the text.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

61

open spaces it is seen in its entirety, but under a mat-shed it is hidden and obstructed so that some of it is visible and

some not. The opacity and gross-noss belong to the Ether, and result in the Nature being hidden and obstructed as if
by
a mat-shed. In man,
however,
this

obstruction

is

capable of being completely whereas in birds principle
;

penetrated by and animals, though they

the

ethical

it is nevertheless restricted possess this nature, the which creates an impenetrably element, by corporeal barrier. 1 In the case of Love, for example, in tigers and
still

wolves, or Sacrifice

ness in bees
is,

and
as

in the jackal and otter, or Righteous ants, the penetration of this ethical
2

it were, not more than a chink of light. principle In the monkey, whose form is similar to man s, the

intellectual faculty is superior to that of other creatures, so

that it seems only to lack the power of speech.
7.
It is not the case that

of the highest intellect,

man, as the being possessed stands alone in the universe. His
1

mind
"

is

also the

mind of
"

Man,"

however,

is

birds and beasts, of grass, and trees. born endowed with the the

MEAN,

attribute of
1

Heaven and
s

Earth."

3

Cf.

Bergson

or instinct, or
to
2

human

elan vital penetrating matter, and producing vegetism, consciousness, as the case may be. See Introduction
School,

Chu Hsi and the Sung Cf. p. 21 andn. 1.

chap

ix.

3

Man

differentiates him

one Ether permeating the whole universe, but man receives it in a perfect In this respect equilibrium, with its five qualities mutually balanced. he ranks with the dual powers Heaven and Earth cf. D.M., p. 280. The closing sentence is quoted from the writings of Yang Kuei Shan
is
;

shares the faculty of intelligence with other creatures ; from them is his possession of the MEAN. There

what

|fi Ul 3t

*);

see Jp:

g

,

pt.

xxv,

f.

11.

62
8.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Chi submitted to the Master the following statement
:

with reference to a problem which had perplexed him The Nature in man and other creatures, it has been pointed out,
is

in

It is only

some respects uniform and in other respects diverse. when we know what constitutes this uniformity,
.

and also what constitutes this diversity, that we are in a position to discuss the Nature itself Now, by the activity of the Supreme Ultimate the Two Ethers assume form the Two
t

;

Ethers having assumed form, the myriad transformations are produced and these are the source from which men
;

and other creatures

lies what has been But the Two Ethers and the Five Agents, by their productive and interacting influences, cause innumerable changes and inequalities. Herein lies what has b een pointed out as their diversity. The source of the uniformity is in Law. The source of the There must be Law, for then diversity is in the Ether.

all

proceed.

Herein

pointed out as their uniformity.

1

and

only can there be that which constitutes the Nature in other creatures whence the uniformity, and

man
the

There must be Ether, for then only can there be that which constitutes Form in man and other creatures, whence the diversity and the impossibility
impossibility of diversity.
of uniformity.
Learning"

Therefore

"

in, your

you. sir, say: "From things have one source and there is no difference in dignity between man and other creatures. From the point of view of the Ether man receives this Law in its perfection and

Dialogues on the Great the point of view of

Law,

all

unimpeded, while other creatures receive it partially and with impediment. Herein is the cause of the necessary
inequality in respect of dignity.
Nevertheless, though in

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the Ether there
is

63

inequality,

it is

the source of that life
;

which
in

is

common

to

man and

other creatures

and though

Law there is uniformity, it constitutes the Nature which makes man alone to differ from other creatures. Therefore,
consciousness and activity proceed

from the Ether; Love and

Righteousness, Reverence and Wisdom, proceed from Law.

Men

are capable of consciousness and activity, as also are hut though other creatures possess Love, other creatures
;

Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom in some degree, they Kao Tzti took are incapable of thorn in their perfection.
[account of

Ether, but lost sight of trammelled by the idea of uniformity
the

Law. and

He was
failed
to
to

recognize diversity.
iattack

This

is

where he laid himself open
"Collected

by

Mencius."
"

In the

Comments"

you
I

also say

:

.In

respect of the Either,
activity,
;

and in the spheres
other creatures do

of consciousness

and

man and

differ jnot appear to

while in respect of Law, the endow
is

ment of Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom

|

In this necessarily imperfect in the inferior creatures." latter passage, from the statement that the Ether is uniform

I

i

we see that the dignity of nmn than that of other creatures. In unapproachably higher the former passage, from the statement that Law is uniform
but that
is
is

Law

diverse,

1

but that the Ether
the

is

diverse,

2

we

see the all -sufficiency of

Supreme Ultimate,

arid that this dignity is not

any

attainment of our own. Looked at in this
I

way

all difficulty

disappears.
"

When
",

discrepancies

questions are raised in regard to supposed in the Collected Comments and
" "

Dialogues
1

would

this toe

a correct answer or not

?

2

In the passage quoted from the Collected Comments ; cf. p. 58. In the passage quoted from the Dialogues on the Great Learning.

64

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
s

The Master

comment on

this statement

was

:

You have

discussed the subject with great clearness. It happened that yesterday evening a friend was explaining this very

point to

me and gave a brief statement

of

it,

but

it

was not

equal to yours in its consecutiveness.

In the relation of parent and child in tigers and wolves, of sovereign and minister in bees and ants, in the gratitude to progenitor of jackals and otters,
9.

Question.

and the faculty of discrimination in the water-fowl and
dove
1
:

though the ethical principle
only,

is

received

in

one
the

direction

yet

if

we thoroughly

investigate

phenomena, we

find that these creatures possess this ethical

principle with unerring truth. On the other hand, all men possess the Decree of Heaven in its entirety, but it is so

obscured by creaturely desire and by the

eitherial

endowment

that in some particular direction they are inferior to the brute in intelligence and power of complete development.

How
is

do you explain this

?

Answer.

It is only in the

one direction that the brute
concentrated, while

intelligent,

and there

it

is

man s

intelligence is comprehensive, embracing everything in some degree, but diffused and therefore more easily obscured.

Question. possess the Nature

10.

How
?

can dried and withered things also

Answer.
there

They

all possess this
;

Law from the first moment
"

of their existence

therefore

it is said,

In the universe

is not a single thing without the Nature." Walking up the steps the Philosopher said The bricks of these steps bamboo have the law of bricks. Sitting down he said
:
:

A

1

Seep. 91 n. 2

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
chair has the

65
that

law of the bamboo

chair.

You may say

dried and withered things are without the Vital Impulse, but not that they are without the law of life. 1 For example,
rotten

cooking stove.

anything except for putting in the without the Vital Impulse. And yet each kind of wood as it burns has its own fragrance, each
is

wood

useless for

It

is

differing
stituted

from the
so.

other.

It is

Law which

originally con

it

11.

Question.
?

Is

there

Law

in dried and withered

things

Answer.
inherent in

As soon
it.

Even in the

as the object exists there is case of a pen though

Law
not

produced by Heaven, but by man, who takes the long soft
hairs of the hare

and makes them into pens
inherent in
:

as soon as the

pen
It

exists

Law
?

is

it.

was further asked

How

can a pen possess Love and

Righteousness

In small things like this there is no need for such distinctions as that between Love and Righteousness. 2

Answer.

12.

Question.

and things.
Answer.

Law is received from Heaven both by men But do things without feeling also possess Law? Most certainly they possess Law for example,
;

a ship can only go on the water, while a cart can only go on land.
13.
1

Chi
is,

T ung 3

said: Animals cannot live in water,

That

the same law as
s

we

see in living things.

meaning is that Love and Righteousness do not belong to the functions of a pen none the less, the pen fulfils its own proper functions according to ethical law inherent in it.
;

2

Chu Hsi

3

Ts

ai

to

whom

T ung, was a pupil of Chu Hsi, Yuan Ting ), style Chi 7C he was junior by five years. His home was Chien Yang in Chien

(^

F

66

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
fish

and
live

cannot live on land.

prevails, in fish the negative ether prevails.

In animals the positive ether Those which
class of

both on land and in the water belong to the

the tortoise
14.

and

otter.

ether, while those of the

Things in tho vegetable kingdom receive the negative animal kingdom receive the positive
If within these

ether.

two

classes

we

classify further

:

then grasses receive the negative ether and trees tho positive,

animals the negative and birds the positive, so that animals recline in the field, while birds nest in trees. There are
animals, however, which receive the positive ether, such as the ape and monkey and there are birds which receive
;

the negative ether, such as the pheasant and the falcon. In the vegetable kingdom, all receive the negative ether and
;

yet here also there is the positive in the negative, and the negative in the positive.

In winter, flowers are slow to fall, like the Narcissus, which though brittle and weak, nevertheless retains its
15.

flower a long while

;

so

ako with the Plum Flower and the
f

Winter Plum. In the spring, flowers fall easily, and in summer still more easily, as in the case of the Sun-flower, tho Pomegranate, and the Lotus, which hardly last beyond a * single day. The fact is that in winter the Ether is correct and strong, and therefore the fall of the flower is more
Chou, Fuhkien.

A

very able scholar, he excited the admiration of
"

Chi T ung reads difficult books with ease, Hsi, who said of him, while others read easy books with difficulty." When visited by Chu Hsi they would share the same bedroom and discuss philosophical questions

Chu

far into the night.

He
f^,

died in 1198, two years before the death of his
pt.
xvii.

teacher.
1

See

^

The word j|

in the text

=

J.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
difficult.

67

In spring and summer, the moment the strength

of tho plant is put forth it is put forth to the utmost, with the result that it is not enduring.

The Philosopher
flowers fall easily.

also said

:

So

also with fruits.
;

pear-tree decays very easily, is a sudden outburst of fruitfulness for one year, and then it dies. This is the Ether about to disrobe.

For the most part, large For example, the when nearing its eoid there

16 The Two Ethers and Five Agents mutually interact, and pass through a myriad transformations, so that in the production of men and things there are differences in the degree of their etherial fineness. From the point of view
.

of the Ether as one,

men and

other creatures

all

come into

being by view of the varying degrees o|
received

receiving this

one Ether.
1

From

fineness,

the point of the Ether as
;

as

by man is received by other
receiving
it

and free from impediment perfect creatures it is imperfect and impedes.
its

Man

it

in

perfection, the ethical principle
;

permeates completely and without impediment while in the case of other creatures, in which it is im perfect, the
ethical principle is
too,

liow

in

man

Notice, impeded and unintelligent. the head is round resembling
,

and his feet square like the earth. He is well poised and erect. He receives the Ether of the Universe in its perfection, and thereflore possesses moral and
the

heavens,

intellectual faculties.

As
is

Ether of the Universe

received by other creatures the imperfect, and therefore birds and

beasts are horizontal in form,

head downwards and

tail
1

and grasses and 1re;es have upwards. Such creatures as have
p. 115, n. 2.

See

68

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
it

intelligence have

in one direction only

;

for example,

birds are

filial, tlio

otter sacrifices, the

dog

can.

do no more

than keep guard, and the ox no more than plough. In man, on the other hand, there is nothing he cannot know, nothing he cannot do. That which constitutes the difference between

man and
17.

beast, that in

which

man

excels, is just this.

have

Birds and boasts, as well as men, all consciousness, though with differing degrees of
Question.
Is there consciousness also in

penetration.

the vegetable

kingdom
watered

?

Answ&r.
it

There

is.

As
its

in the case of a plant
;

:

when

sheds forth

and droops.

Can
l

it

pinched, it withers be said to be without consciousness ?

glory

when

Chou Mao Shu
impulse
is

refrained from clearing
his

away the
said he,

grass
"its

from the front of

window,
own."

"because,"

just like

my

2

In this he attributed

consciousness to the plant.

But the consciousness of the

animal creation
nor
is

is

not on the sa:me plane as that of man,

that of the vegetable kingdom on the same plane as that of the animal kingdom. Aguin, there is the drug
;

rhubarb

when

taken,
;

it
3

has heating properties case in the one direction only. On being further asked whether decayed things also have consciousness, the Philosopher replied Yes, they too have
:

acts as a purgative, while aconite but their consciousness is in each

Chou Tzu, the founder of the school. That is, grass seeks to live and avoids what causes death, just as I do myself. See j^ ^, pt. iii, p. 2 cf. p. 338 of this volume. 3 In Chinese medicine, drugs are classed roughly into those which are heating and those which are cooling in their properties, the latter having
1

^

;

tonic action.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
consciousness, as,

69

when burnt
this

to ashes

by

fire,

and then

made

into broth, they will be caustic

and

bitter.
:

Following on

Only just now
you

the Philosopher smiled * and said I met the gentry of Hsin Chou, whoi said

that vegetable things do not possess the Nature,

and to-night

say that vegetable things have

no Mind

1

!

(FIVE SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

"COLLECTED WRITINGS".)
"

The Master

I

Ch uan

said,

The Nature

is Law." 2

From ancient

such a statement as

times no one had ventured to give utterance to The Mind is consciousness in this. 3

man, and that in which

Law is inherent. The Master Heng

Heaven

the Great Void we have the term from the transformations of the Ether we have the term Moral Order by the union of the Void with the
"

Ch u

also said,
;

From
;

Ether we have the term Nature

;

by

the union of the
Mind."

Nature

with Consciousness we have the term
their distinctive

4

The terms and

ment

is

meanings are profound, but the whole state conclusive, and not to be gainsaid. For in the pro

duction of things by Heaven, while there is no diversity in Law, material form as received by men and things variee hence Mind differs in the degree of its intelligence, and the
;

Nature

differs in the

degree of

of which
1

you speak,

it is

completeness. As to Love, the head of the Four Virtues it is
its
;

to
all
2

The smile is at the fact that, in spite of all such considerations as those which he had just given expression, men can be found who deny that
things possess the Nature.

Seep. 1C. It is probable that there is a mistake in the punctuation of the text here, and that the po nt should come after j|| making fo the subject of the next sentence. The translation represents the text as thus corrected.
3
;

,

4

Quoted from the Cheng Mtng.

See

jfj|

^,

pt.

iii,

f.

11.

70

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

not another entity outside the Nature, and parallel to it. In Man alone, however, is the Mind perfectly spiritual,
so that he can perfect the Four Virtues and manifest them as the (Four Terminals. In the beast, the etherial element
is deflected and* impure,

the

mind

is

darkened and obscured.
it

Henco there are

directions in

which

cannot attain to

completeness. Oocasionalily, indeed, affection between parent and offspring and the bond between sovereign and minister exist in some degree, and are not eclipsed but in the Love
;

masters self and returns to right principle", 1 in the Righteousness that loves good and hates evil, there are
that

"

and heights which cc them are impossible of attainment yet we may not say that they are without this Nature. As
;

t J things

which have life but not consciousness:

here, again,
is still

within the restriction of the corporeal element there

further restriction, so that Law in this class of things, accommodating itself to the corporeal, becomes simply
the

law of

one

single

thing.

Although

we

cannot

predicate Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom of such things in the same sense as of man, yet, neither can we Bay that they are wholly without these natureprinciples. The meaning of this is clear enough, and there 2 is, is no difficulty in understanding it, but Fang Shu

and dogged, and it is not worth while to correct him Nor is it necessary to say that Tzu Jung 3 does severely. not understand either. As to the argument from the
dull

Buddhist doctrine of knowing the
1

spirits

:

it,

too, is not

relevant, because the Buddhists regard Nothingness
2
3

and

See Analects, XII, i, Yu Fang Shu, see p. 72.

1 (p. 114^.

Hsu Tzu Jung,

in criticism of

whose essay

this section is wri tea.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

71

Nirvana as paramount, and therefore look upon the know
ledge of spirits as a source of life and death. According to our Confucian cult, knowledge of spirits is the mysterious

operation of the Mind how can to use to define the Nature
:

we do without
is

it ?

But

"this

altogether irrelevant.

Again,
still

it is said that withered things have, only the Physical Nature, and do not possess the original Nature, which is

creatures

more absurd, for if it were really so, other would have only one Nature while men would have two Natures. The statement is more than ordinarily erroneous and reprehensible, proceeding as it does from
ignorance of the fact that the Physical, Nature is simply the original Nature inherent in the physical element, becoming
;

ono Nature in union with

Tzu

is precisely what Chou Each has its own Nature." If there were no original Nature, whence could we get this
it,

which

refers to

when ho

"

says,

Physical Nature! Moreover,

it is

Chou,
*

Ch

eng,
"

also says,

and Chang, who Their realization is the
obtains
its

not only the philosophers teach this, but Confucius
1

Nature,"

and again,

Nature as ordained by Everything Heaven." 2 Where is there any distinction here between one thing which has the Nature and another which has
correct

not

?

Mencius
"the

also speaks of

"

the nature of mountains

",

and

nature

of

water".

Does a

mountain have

consciousness, or does water

?

If

we thoroughly understand

such passages as these, wo shall realize that there is not a single thing in the universe which does not possess the

Nature, and that

it is

only when the thing
p. 356.

itself is

non-

1

In the Ti Chiny,
Ibid., p. 213.

2

72

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Nature
is

existent that the

exist without the

Nature
dies.

it

non-existent. If anything could would be, a,s you say in your

essay, the ashes of burnt wood, or the dust

which

man

But the ashes and the dust possess and if so, they possess the the ether of ashes and duet) nature of ashes and dust. How then can dry and withered
;

becomes when he

things be said not to possess the Nature

?

(Reply to

Hsu

Tzu Jung.)
2.
flesh

In the production of things by Heaven, some possess and blood together with consciousness, such as men
;

and beasts

some are without

flesh

and blood, and without
trees;
;

consciousness, having in others again life has perished,

life only,

such as grass and

form and
matter.

solidity,

odour and

taste,

remain only as in withered and dead
the-re

and

Although in all these we have diversity of and yet, function, the ethical principle does not differ
;

following the differences of function as each individual, it cannot but differ.
that
of

inherent

in
is

Hence

it

man
is

is

most

spiritual,
x

and in him the

Nature

the

Five Constants

beasts it

and

trees,

is complete, while in birds and obscured and incomplete. And again, in grass in withered and dead matter, it disappears
;

but Law, by which each thing is what it is, is still present. As to the statement that dead materials are without life, and thus without this Law, is
together with consciousness
it

possible that there can be anything in the universe

which

does not possess the Nature, or that Law, immanent as it is in the universe, can leave any part of it empty and not

completely

filled
1

by
That

it ?
is,

(Reply to Yii Fang Shu.)

the Five Cardinal Virtues.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
3.

73

With regard

to

Ts

ai

Ch ing

s

statement that minute

creatures, although they possess the Nature, cannot be described as having Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, it is true that there is nothing in which we can

discern these principles in the nature of minute creatures, yet what is there to show that they do not possess them ?

This sp-ecies has not yet been, thoroughly investigated you need to consider the subject more carefully. Again Ts ai Oh ing says In the statement, The phrase Conformity
;
"

:

to the

Nature

is

men and
duct,"

other creatures should
"

used simply in reference to the fact that embody the Nature in con

the words

The phrase

...

is

used

should be
is

omitted. This also

is a mistake. The Moral Order

simply

the Nature in the distinctive sense of all-pervading. It is not that Moral Order comes to be such through, man s con
1 formity to the Nature.

(Reply to

Ch en Ts

ai

Chung.)

4.
it

If the principle has not been received, then of course

cannot be practised.
ii

Master Heng Ch
to that of

That goes without saying. But the Man s Nature approximates other creatures, and the Nature of other creatures
"

also said,

Here we have another approximates to that of man." for example, cats nourishing one principle introduced
;

another

"

s

kittens

in

The Writings

of

Wen

2

Rung"

the

author gives an actual instance of such a cat which was

1

Tao, or the Mora JOrder,

itself as all-pervading.

is not conformity to the Nature, but the Nature Conformity to the Nature is the manifestation of

Moral Order.
2

philosophers

Ssa-Ma Kuang, a statesman and historian contemporary with the Ch eng and Chang see Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung
;

School, chap,

ii;

cf

also

Jg

f

% g

"g

fy

$,

pt,

xv a

8. 10-13.

74

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

is a case in which the Nature with which they are endowed approximates to, and one might almost say surpasses, that of man, but, and this is the pity

specially remarkable

of

it, it is cramped by its physical form. (Reply to Li Hsiao Shu.) The Nature of men and other creatures is essentially 5.
;

the same
differs.

the etherialj endowment,
Tzii says,
"

however, necessarily

The dictum, Conformity to the Nature is what is termed Moral Order, 1 is said of both men and other creatures," and when he says, Not men
"

When Oh eng

only, but all things are so constituted," he is speaking of the uniformity of the Nature. -In the statement, Man
"

receives the

Ether of the Universe in
else,"

its

perfection, differing
"

therein from all

and in the statement,

Bu t
;

other

creatures cannot reason, while
"

man

can,"

he
of

the variation in the etherial endowment.

speaking of Therefore, he
is

says again,

If

you

take

account

the

Nature
;

apart from the Ether, your statement will be incomplete if you take account of the Ether and disregard
the Nature, it will fail in clearness.

To make them two

2 Ponder this statement well, separate entities is incorrect." and it will be seen that the Master s meaning^ is far enough

removed from the teachings of Buddhism With reference tq what you say in the treatise you s#nt me, Hu Tzu.
!

says exactly the same thing.
1

(It is the chapter beginning,

Quoted from the Doctrine
i,

of the

Mean;

see

Legge

s

Chinese Classics,

vol.
2

p. 247.
pt. vi,
f.

See jjj |f,
(see p. 88)

2.

Tao
,

and to
ia

I

The passage Ch uan (see p.
of

is

attributed both to Ming

94).

The word _n

,

in

.n

ffl
.

/

;y|

a verb

which

.

is

the object referring to

f^

and

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

75

The philosopher Tzu Ssu said.") But the Nature is else it seems to me than and that it cannot be Law, nothing
divided in this way. It is simply that, owing to the diversities in the physical endowment, Law is to some extent

obscured and cannot clearly manifest itself. Law itself is one and indivisible. As to the argument quoted from Moncius: l Mencius is speaking of principles as applied to

man
it is

only, whereas the meaning of Tzu Ssu s statement includes man and other creatures. The Nature is uniform,
"

the Ether that

differs"

:

this sentence alone contains

most profound teaching, and will well repay careful thought. If you can grasp its meaning, you will find that all your difficulties in the sayings of the Baints and sages will
disappear.
1

(Reply to Hsu Yiian

P

ing.)
differs.

Mencius says that the Nature in

men and animals

See Mencius,

pp. 201, 273.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
BOOK
II

BEING BOOK XLIII OF

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF CHU HSI

THE PHYSICAL NATURE

THE DECREE
CAPACITY

BOOK
(TWENTY-SIX
1.

II

THE PHYSICAL NATURE
SECTIONS FROM
"The

THE

"CONVERSATIONS".)

In the dictum,
*

Decree of Heaven
is
;

termed the

Nature,"

the Decree

like a

taining instructions from a superior, duty, such as the keeping of records, the settling of accounts,
or the

is what is document con the Nature is official

work of a
is

district military officer or constable
;

;

the

Mind

the Physical Element is the the whether lenient or violent shown officer, disposition by the Feelings correspond to his sitting in court and judging
the officer himself
;

cases.

The Feelings are thus

the manifested operations

;

and the Nature is Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom. As to the statement that the Decree of Heaven and the Physical Element are bound up together as soon as
:

the Decree of

exists, so soon does the Physical be apart. If one is liacking, cannot They then nothing can be produced. Since the Decree of Heaven exists, Ether must also exist, for only thus can there be a

Heaven

Element

exist.

receptacle for

Law

if there
?

were no Ether where could
is

Law

find its

lodgment

There

no inequality in the

Nature imparted by the Decree of Heaven, but there is in the physical endowment. The Ether differs in the degree
of its clearness

and fulness

;

but of the four principles,

Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and \Yisdom, not one is lacking. And yet if there be an excess of solicitude it will
1

See D.M.,

p. 247.

80

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
1

take the form of favouritism and weak gentleness if there be an excess of conscientiousness we shall be ashamed of
;

what we ought not
illustration
:

to

be ashamed

of.

Take

there

must be some

reflecting

an body, whether
light as

a mirror or a sheet of water, in order to have light. The the mirror or water is the physical light is the Nature
;

element

;

and

lost.

without the mirror or water the light is dispersed Or lake the five colours if they fall where black
:

predominates they are all black, or if where red predominates they are all red. In the same way everything depends on

what your ether iai endowment
is

is.

Law, on the other hand,
it

only good. Seeing that it is Law how could What is termed eviL is in the etherial element.

be evil

?

doctrine asserts absolutely that the Nature is when men are not good, it is because they allow themselves
;

Mencius and good
lie

to be

"ensnared

and iso- submerged"

in evil

*
:

by which

that, in his view, the Nature in the beginning is wholly good, and that afterwards evil comes into existence.

shows In

this,

apparently, he takes account of the Nature but not

of the Ether, and thus in

some

respects his statement is

incomplete. The Ch eng school, however, have supplemented this doctrine with the doctrine of the physical element, and
so

we get a complete and all-round view of the problem. The Philosopher further said Capacity 2 belongs to the
:

physical element. In
1

T

ui Chili s

3

exposition of his doctrine

2
3

Mencius, p. 280. See p. 152.

as having three grades The Superior the Superior, the Middle, and the Inferior. is capable of being led, grade is good, and good only ; the Middle grade it may rise to the Superior or sink to the Inferior ; the Inferior is evil and

century.

Han Yu, whose style was T ui Chin, the great Han Yu described the nature of man

litterateur of the eighth
"

of capacity

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

81

f

The Three Grades

"

he

is

speaking

all

through of the

iall that he says is good, except hat he ought to have mad:e it clear that this was so. If, lowever, what he says is applied to the Essential Nature, it for if it be possible thus to s an inadequate statement

Physical Nature, and as such

;

divide the Nature into three grades,

why

stop at three

?

A

hundred or a thousand would do equally well. The tatements advanced by Hsiin and Yang,1 on the other hand,

,ake account only of the Ether, and not of the Nature, with the result that they fail in clearness. Through leaving

he Nature out of account the ethical principle is obscured. 2 Again he said In "The Counsels of Kao Yao" the
:

passage

which

"

treats

of

affability
"Nine

combined
Virtues"
3

with

meekness"

and the

rest of the

implies

n every case the conversion of the physical element, 4 only
t

does not state it in so

many words.
treatise,

PoPeng
)f

5

said:

In

K ang Heng s

when he speaks

the

method by which

to rule the Nature, he also refers

o the physical element.
vil

i,

In the Superior grade Love is supreme, and the other four In the Middle grade Love is not wanting, but has tendency to its opposite and is confused with the other four- In the nf erior grade there is the opposite of Love, and the violation of the other
only."

irtues are practised.

our virtues.

See Legge

s

translation of the
ii,

)fj(

$$

(Original Nature)

n
1

his Chinese Classics, vol.

Prolegomena, pp. 92-4.
of

2

1
4

p. 1 7, nn. 2 and 3. The Philosopher is here using the arguments Shu Ching, p. 71.

See

Ch eng

Tzfi

;

see p. 74.

It

is

in

dignity",

that

correcting one virtue by its opposite, e.g. "affability" by virtue in its true sense is attained to. This is to

5
5

f-

^t jiC ^ reverse the physical element. Po Feng was the s yle of Wu Pi Ta (JjJ. ft), a student of Chu Hsi; ik z Pt. Ixoc, f. 63.

$

,

82

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Ying
1

The second term in the phrase affability combined with meekness and in the other similar phrases,
said
"

:

",

implies effort. To both these statements the Master assented.
;

Solme one asked whether
it

when
;

can be changed or not good It must be changed and converted, as when it is said, If another man succeed by one effort the noble man will use a hundred efforts if another man succeed by ten efforts he
"

the physical element is not to which the Master replied:

;

will use a thousand.

become
strong."

Thus, though dull he will surely intelligent, though weak he will surely become
2

2.

of heaven

The Nature and the

is

Law

only, but apart

from the Ether
have

solid matter of earth

Law would

however,
is

nothing in which to inhere. When this Ether is received, if in respect of its clearness and translucence there
;

neither obscurity nor obstruction, Law flows forth freely if there be obscurity and obstruction, but in lesser degree, if there be then in its outflow Divine Law is victor
;

obscurity and obstruction in greater degree, selfish desire obtains the victory. Thus we see that the original Nature is invariably good which is the Nature described by Mencius as good by Chou Tzu as perfectly pure" and most and good by Ch eng Tzu as the Nature s source and the Original and Essential Nature "but it is obstructed the by opacity and grossness of the physical element. Hence,
"
"

"

",

"

"

",

"

1 Ying was a native of Fen Ning and a friend of Chu Hsi. His surname was Huang (;jf[) and his style Tzu Keng ffi JJf). Fen Ning is noted as one of the places where Chou Tzu held office.

2

D.M.,

p. 278.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

83

The characteristic

of tho noble
If

man is to

deny the Physical
it,

Nature to be his

Nature." x

by culture

we reverse

then

In defining the Nature, therefore, we must include the physical element in order to make a complete statement.
3. When we speak of the Nature of Heaven and Earth we refer specifically to Law when we speak of the Physical Nature we refer to Law and Either combined. Before the
;

the Nature of Heaven and Earth abides.

etherial element existed the

Nature was already in existence.
is eternal.

The former
the Nature

is transitory,
is

the latter

Although
the Nature,

implanted in the midst of the Ether, the
is still

Ether

is still

the Ether, and the Nature

without confusion the one with the other.

As
:

to

its

immanence and omnipresence in the universe again, no matter how fine or coarse the Ether may be,tkero is nothing which does not possess this Law.
Fei Ch/ing* 2 asked for an explanation of the Physical Nature.
4.

The Philosopher replied The Nature of the Divine Decree, apart from the physical element* would have nothing in which to inhere. But the etherial endowment in men
:

differs in clearness

and perfection, so tha,t the perfection of the Divine Decree also varies in the deptihi ajid fullness
1

The important thing is that still it otherwise than as the Nature. Some styliod time ago I saw that Pinig Weng said! I Oh s theory of the Physical Nature is exactly similar to the illustrations
of
its

manifestation.

cannot be

"

:

u<an

1

Quoted from the Cheng Meng (fjj

Bjj

j\.
1

&

>

Bk. v

;

or Ijl

|g

,

pt xvii,

f.

34.

Cf. p. 88 of this

J|), by Chang Tsai; eee volume.

Surnamed Chu

84

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

used in Buddhist books of the salt flavour in water, and glue
in colour
wash."

Question.

How

does Mencius doctrine of the Nature

compare with that of I Oh uanj ? Answer. They are not the same.
the Nature and defines
defines
it it

Mencius fastens upon in respect of its source. I Ch uan
the
physical
element,

in

combination witih
to their not
"

attaching importance

Ch eng
plete
;

Tzii says,

apart from
if

the

Thus being separated. If you take account of the Nature; Ether your statement will be incom
:

you take account
it

of the Ether
Clearness."
l

and disregard
I,

the Nature
".Exposition

will

fail

in

also,
:

in

my

of the Supreme

Ultimate",

say

"What

we
as

call
ap-arjjt

tha

Supreme Ultimate is not to be thought of from the Two Modes, nor is it to be confounded
2

with
5.

them."

The Physical Nature is the Nature of Heaven and But how does this Nature of Heaven and Earth come to be ? The good Nature is like water. The Physical
Earth.

Nature

is

as if

you sprinkled soy and
"

salt in it so that it all

becomes one flavour.

The passages, The unending stream of Question. transformations in the Universe," Proceeding from the
6.
"

*

one positive and one negative ether," "Endless production," 3 The law of their succession is goodness," all refer to Divine Law. 4
1

How
2.

can

it
2

be other than good
ft
,

?

Mencius

3

See p. 74 n Compare the
.

Bk

-

**

f-

2

-

T ai

Chi

T

u Shuo by

is

given in the Introduction to the ideas, though not the exact phrasing of these sentences. 4 / Ching, pp. 355-6.

Chou Tzu, of which a translation Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap, vi, for

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
refers to the
1

85

samo thing when he speaks of the original The two ethers with substance of the Nature being good their reciprocal repulsion and attraction, union and con
.

trariety,

both good and

which
good

is

naturally possess there strange then in that endowed with material form also possessing both
equilibrium,
evil.

and

deflection,

What

is

and
?

evil ?

Its

source,

however,
la

can
this

only
a

be

characterized

as

invariably

good.

correct

statement

Answer.

It is quite correct.
:

You, sir, in your exposition of tjhla in the Doctrine of the Me,an which speaks of passage The Great The Great Root say that as it is called
"

Ting Fu Chih said

V

"

Root
good.

"

it

must refer

to

Law, and

is

therefore absolutely
is

The moment human
"

desire exists there
;

the etherial
it

element, which also must have its source
originally in
7.

but

was not

The Great
of all

Root".

The Nature

men

is

good, and yet there are

those
evil

who

from

are good from their birth and those who are This is because of the inequality their birth.

of the etherial endowment.
variety of
it

Moreover, amid the infinite

may

phenomena in tho revolutions of the Universe be seen that if the sun and moon are clear and

and the climate temperate and seasonable, 2 the man born at such a time and endowed with such an ether is and honest possessed of a pure and bright, sincere
bright,
1

P.M.,

p.

243
is

2

^
it

-^

climate or

"

season
;

"

;

^[] is
is

neither too cold nor too hot,
it

neither too dry nor too

humid

jj

hot when

ought to b6 hot, cold

when

ought to be cold,

etc.

86

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and
will be a
1

good man. But if the sun and moon are darkened and the temperature unseasonable, it is due to the untoward ether of the universe, and it is riot surprising
disposition,
if

the

man endowed with

such an

etlier is

a bad man.

The

object of self-culture is to transform this etherial endow ment, but the task is exceedingly difficult to accomplish.

When
"

The Nature is good," although he Mencius says makes no reference to the etherial endowment and says only
"

:

he means every man may become a Yao or a Shun that if a man will courageously and fiercely press forward,
that
1

V

inequality of the etherial endowment will of itself disappear, and his task be accomplished. For this reason, Mencius does not mention the etherial endowment. If my
the

Nature is good, what is there to prevent my being one of the holy and wise men? Nothing but the etherial endowment. For example, when a man s etherial, endowment has excess
of strength he
is

tyrannical,

he

is

weak.

Men who

gentle to excess excuse themselves by saying that
it is

when

their etherial
will fail
;

endowment
it,

is

while those

who

bad, and so do not persevere, piay no regard to the injury

possible
will

from

alfso fail.

but go blindly on in their heedless course, The one thing we must realize is that we
effort
;

must use our earnest

and master
all will

it,

cut

off its

excesses

and
said

restore the
"

Mean

then

be well.

Lien Hsi

:

The Nature

consists of the five qualities, Strength,

2 Hence the Weakness, Goodness, Evil, and the Mean." the evil, reverse of men to the was to teaeh object sages
1

Mencius,

p. 300.
vii
;

2

T

img Shu (5J if), chap,

see

fc
;

Zfe or
cf. p.

$J
111.

ifj|.

Note, these

five are

the qualities of the physical nature

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE
attain to the
"

87
:

Mean, and rest therein. Tse Ch en said The operations of the physical element are limited, while
vast."

the achievements of ethical culture are
8.

1

Question.
I

Mencius
says
"

said,

"The

Nature

is

2
good,"

which

Ch uan

is

Confucius said:

Men in their

the original and essential nature. 3 Nature are nearly alike," 4

and
the

I

Gh

uan, says that this refers to the physical nature.
,are
:

These two cases

Meow

it is

said

quito clear, but in the Doctrine of "The Decree of Heaven is what we
v

term the

Nature." 5

I cannot

tell

whether this

is

tho

original and essential nature or the physical nature.

Answer.
is

The Nature
by
the

conferred
to

is one only. How can that which the Divine Decree differ ? It is entirely

owing

variation

in

the

differences
"

Menoius was fearful lest people expression should speak of the Nature of man as originally unlike; therefore, differentiating the Nature as decreed by Heaven
.

develop, and nearly alike

these

physical element that led Confucius to use the

"

from the physical element, he expounded it to his con temporaries in this sense, and asserted that the Nature is invariably good, which is what Tzu Ssti refers to when he
"

says

:

The Decree of Heaven

is

what we term the
:

Nature."

9. Ya Fu asked the question With doctrine of the physical element originate ?

whom

did the

Answer.
1

It originated
ethical culture
is

with Chang and the two
fully

Ch engs.

That

is,

adequate to overcome the demerits
s 5

of the physical element. 2 Mencius, p. 110.
4

jg

^

,

pt.

iii, f.

4.

Analects, xvii,

ii

(p. 182).

D.M.,

p. 247.

88

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
them not only
as deserving

I regard
also as
after.

much

of the sages, but

having done great service

to scholars

who have como

The study of

grateful to utterance to this doctrine.
his essay
"

makes one extremely for one no them, previously had ever given
their writings

Han T ui Chih, 1
",

for example,

in.

of

The Original Nature propounded his theory The Three Grades/" and what he says is true, but
on
"

;

he does not state clearly that he is speaking of the physical in the original nature. Where can you get three grades nature ? Mencius, in his assertion that the Nature is good,
" "

speaks of it only in respect of its origin, making no reference to the physical nature so that in his case, too, there must be careful discrimination while of the rest of the
; ;

some assert that the Nature is evil, others that it is both evil and good, whereas, if the doctrine of Chang and the two Ch engs had been propounded earlier there would have been no need for all this discussion and controversy. If, then, the doctrine of Chang and the two Ch engs stands, that of the rest is shown to be confusion.
philosophers,

A question was raised with reference to Heng Ch
"

ii

s state

ment After form is the physical nature. in reversing his physical nature will preserve the Nature of Heaven, and Earth. Therefore the characteristic of the noble
:

He who succeeds

man is to deny the physical nature to Ming Tao s statement was also quoted
account
the
of

be his
:

nature."

2

the

Nature apart
;

you take from tho Ether, your
"If

statement will be incomplete if you take account of Ether and disregard the Nature, it will fail
,

1

See

p. 80.
Meng"

2

Cheng

(f$

BJj

jg), see

p. 11 of this

volume.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
in clearness.
l

89

To make them two separate

entities is

wrong."

Referring to these statements the Philosopher said If we say that Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom alone constitute the Nature how are we to account for the fact
:

that in the world
It
is

owing

to

some are born with no such principles ? the etherial endowment that it is so. If you

do not take the etherial element into account, your theory will not represent an all-round view of the facts, and will
therefore he incomplete. If, on the other hand, you only take into account the etherial endowment, recognizing this

as good

and that as

evil,

and disregard the unity of the

From the time source, your theory will fail in clearness. of Coniucius, Tseng Tzii, Tzii Ssu, and Mencius, all of

whom

understood the

principles

involved,

no one had

propounded
.

this truth [until the

time of Chang and the two
itself

Gh engs] Ch ien Chih
according to

opaque and impure, the varying degrees of opacity and impurity
asked
:

Is

Law
?

in the Ether of the Universe

Answer.

Law

in itself never varies.

It is the

Ether

alone that varies in this way. If the etherial element varies in this Question.

way

and Law does not, will
separate ?

it

not follow that

Law and

Ether are

Answer.

Although Ether

is

produced by Law, never

theless, after it

Law

has been produced, Law cannot control it. dwelling-place, as it were, in the etherial element, from which the continuous stream of daily activity

has

its

1

See

p.

74, n. 2.

90

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

proceeds but the Ether is strong while Law is weak. It may be illustrated thus: On the occasion of some great festival a

proclamation of grace is issued remitting one season s taxes, but a local magistrate who is hard and grasping extorts

from the people under his jurisdiction, simply because of their proximity to, him and his ability to influence
the

tax

the higher authority to turn a deaf ear to their petitions for relief. Here we see illustrated the coarseness of the

Ether

*

and the

fineness of

Law.

Or

take as an illustration
;

the relationship between father and son if the son will not follow in the footsteps of his fatlier, the father cannot compel

him.
is to

Indeed the very object of tho teaching of the sages
save such. 2

10.

The Nature

is

like water.

If it flows in a clean

channel
turbid.

it is clear, if it

When
is

flows into a dirty channel it becomes the physical element is clear and perfect,

the Nature

received in its completeness, as in the case of

man. When the physical element is turbid and defective, the Nature is obscured, as in the case of birds and beasts.

The Ether

is

clear or turbid.

As

received

by man
In

it is

clear, as received

by birds and beasts

it is turbid.

man

the physical element is in thie main clear, hence the difference between man and the brute, but there is also some turbidity,
and, consequently, birds and beasts are not so very far

removed from man.
11.

ence

be
1

Given tho existence of Law, there follows the exist the Ether. Given the Ether, there must Law. in Ether there are differences.] the [But
of

The

^

is

coarse like the magistrate,

who
an

is

more powerful than the
simply

Emperor. 2 Note, JJ

^

~p =

"these"

;

^p

is

enclitic

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Those whose etherial endowment
sages in
.water.
is clear

91

are the saints and

whom the Nature

is

like

a pearl lying in clear cold
is

Those whose etherial endowment

turbid are the

is like a pearl in water. To make manifest illustrious lying muddy The virtue is to cleanse the pearl from the muddy water. brute creation also possess this Law, and in them the Nature

foolish

and degenerate, in

whom
"

the Nature

"

is like

But

their

the pearl dropped into the filthiest of muddy places. endowment is still clear l in some directions, so
is

that the Nature

not wholly obscured!, as

may be seen in the

bond between parent and offspring in tigers and wolves, in the relation between sovereign and minister among bees and ants, in the gratitude to progenitors to be seen in the
jackal

and

otter,

water-fowl and dove.

or in the faculty of discrimination in the It is from such characteristics that
" "

we

get the expressions 2 creatures
".

virtuous creatures

and

"

righteous

12.

Questioned as to inequalities in the clearness and
:

turbidity of the etherial endowment, the Philosopher said The differences in the etherial endowment are of more than

one kind and are not covered

by the two words,
.

"

clear"

and

"

turbid
is

".

There are men whose

intellect is such that

thero
1

nothing they do not understand
"

In such the Ether
"

0J5 is

clear
*

as opposed to

as opposed to "blurred muddy or turbid
" "

"

"

or

"

opaque

,

^

is

"clear"

".

2 The first of these expressions refers to the jackal and otter. These animals are accustomed to spread out before them their prey as if offering * sacrifice to the gods, and are therefore caJed * virtuous creatures (fc US).

to one female,
*vs

The second expression refers to doves, in whose mating the male cleaves and because they thus observe the principles of morality
between the sexes they are called
"

righteous creatures

"

(^|

||j).

92

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
but their actions possibly do not always hit the in respect of ethical principle, the reason being that
is

is clear,

mark

There are others who are respectful and generous, loyal and true, in whom the Ether is rich, but whose knowledge possibly is lacking in discernment
the Ether

not rich. 1

because the Ether

is

not clear.

Follow

this out

and you

will

understand the matter.

Although the Nature is the same in all men, their endowment is necessarily unequal There are those in whose endowment the Ligneous ether 2 predominates, and
13.
etherial
.

them the feeling of solicitude is generally uppermost, while the manifestation of conscientiousness, the courteous
in
spirit

and moral insight

are those in

whom

and, similarly, there the Metallic ether prevails, with the
is

impeded

;

result that conscientiousness is

exclusion of the other three terminals.

prominent to the comparative So with the Aqueous

and the Igneous

ethers.

It is only

when

the

Two Modes

unite all the virtues, and the five nature-principles are all complete, that you have the due Mean and the perfect 3 uprightness of the sage.
14.

Where the
here
also be

;Nature

is

cramped by
is

the

etheriai

endowment,
1

the ethical
"

principle
"

able

to penetrate
as
of wine,

|jj{

probably means
"

1

rich

or

"generous"
"

but

it

may
2

pure
(

The Five Ethers
Hsi,
etc.
mean".

J ^)

as the opposite of $j| dregs are the Five Agents

".

(

JJ,

fj), see Introd.

to Cliu
3

r^t
$>

=

"

% ^
for

fill

name

what

is

Legge quotes a gloss by Chu Hsi in which he says chung* is the it ffio without deflection or inclination, which neither exceeds

X
J

&

^ &

"

>

nor comes

short"

that
is
>

is,

a quality not

4

1

is

a Quality which in

itself

might be

The

right, opposite of

but
TF.

simply unbalanced, as an excess of generosity. on the other hand, is a quality which in itself is

definitely

wrong, as dishonesty.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
in

93
largo

one

direction
of

only.

Thus
is

in

a

very
in

number
direction

instances,

there

excellence

one

and defect in

another,

freedom

here

and

obstruction there. 1

a perfect understanding of everything that is advantageous and injurious while they know nothing of moral principles, and another excels in all
the arts but cannot understand books.

Some men, have

Just as the tiger and

panther know only

the relationship between parent and bees and ants that of sovereign and minister, so offspring, a man may be filial to his parents and mean towards others.

The Emperor Ming, 2
is

for example,

brothers that he had a long bolster

was so affectionate to and large coverlet
to the

or

them

to sleep together,
life
;

and continued the practice

end of his

ther he killed his son,
ero

but as sovereign he killed his minister, as and as husband he killed his wife.

was a

case in

nd obstruction in
d therefore in

which there was freedom in some respects others, a man in whose nature there was
other directions obstruction.

ee course for the ethical principle in
all

one direction only, This was

wing to the
hat
is

jind
1

endowment and also to ignorance of advantageous and injurious. How is it that Yao was father to Tan Chu, 3 Question. Kun was father to Yii ? 4
etherial
Cf.

Bergson

a

dan

vital

;

see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

Chu Hsi and
of the

\e.

Sung School, chap. ix. 2 Ming Huang or Li Lung Chi
See Giles

(^

j^r

3|1),

sixth

Emperor

Biog. Diet., p. 450. 3 The allusion here is to the passage in Menciua referring Ibid., p. 710. o Tan Chu ; see Mencius, p. 235.
4

ang dynasty.

Kun was

y the
9-40.

latter

ither to

Works under Yao and Shun, and was banished Emperor for failure in the task assigned to him. He was Shun s successor, the Emperor Yii. See Shu Ching, pp. 23-5,
Minister of

94

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
This again
is

Answer.

because the

Two

Agents, at the

moment

of their union

Ethers and Five and revolution, differ

in different cases in the degree of their clearness or turbity, and the man at his birth oomee into contact with them! alt

the very
15.

moment
said

of this union.
:

Ya Fu

The Nature
is

is

like the sun

tho turbidity of the Ether
Th-3

like the clouds

and moon, and mist.

Master assented.
the ashes
:

16. The Nature of man is like a fire buried in when the ashes are stirred the fire brightens. 1

Question. People constantly speak of the nature of a man or thing being so and so as, for example, when it is said that the nature of one thing is hot and of another
17.
;

not such statements include both the physical element and the immaterial principle with which they are
cold.

Do
?

endowed

\

Answer.
18.

Yes.
2

T uiChih s

theory that Capacity

is

of three grades

and that the Nature has five grades, is superior to those of Hsiin and Yang. He defines the grades of the Nature as Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, which is still
better.

But as

to three grades of Capacity,

we might

in

the samo

way

discover hundreds
this

and thousands of

varieties,

and

just the doctrine of the physical nature without the name. I Ch uan s state "If ment you take account of the Ether and
to

summarize then! in

way

is

:

1

The

allusion

in the ashes,
2

is to the charcoal brazier in which the live charcoal but glows immediately the ashes are stirred. is

is

buried

T

ui

Chih

Han Yu

;

see p. 80.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
if

95
;

disregard the Nature your statement will fail in clearness you take account of the Nature apart from the Ether will be incomplete," 1 expresses the idea exactly. it

For example, in teaching that in their Nature men ore 2 nearly alike but by practice grow wide apart, the physical element cannot be left out of account and this is precisely the theory propounded by the two Ch engs. Lien Hsi teaches the same truth in his exposition of the Supreme Ultimate. From the time of the Han and Wei dynasties 3 till the sudd en appearance of Wen Chung Tzu philosophers were few. In the T ang dynasty T ui Chih 4 appeared,,
;

whose

teaching

reached

a

generally,

however,,

moral

truth

higher level. Speaking has never entirely

disappeared from the world.

Even though

generation there are none who there will not fail to be some in another age.
19.
"

in the present understand these principles,

To make them two Questioned as to the phrase, entities is the separate wrong," Philosopher said You must
:

not divide

Nature
is

sections, and say that the nothing but the Nature, and the Ether How then shall we nothing but the Ether.
1

them into two separate

is

not separate them
incomplete"

?

By

taking
in

Ming Tao s

expressions,

and applying them on both sides, the reason will be understood. Hence, in the statement, To make them two separate entities is the make them two separate entities," wrong," expression,
"fail

and
"

clearness,"

"

1

See

p. 74, n. 2.

2
3

The
See

allusion

is

to the Analects, xvii,
f.

ii

(p. 182).

jf If,

pt. xix,

16.

4

See p. 80.

96

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

defers to the

two preceding sentences. (Ying s 1 record says: take account of the Nature apart from the Ether, and to take account of the Ether and disregard the Nature,

To

is

make two separate entities.) 2 Someone asked When Ming Tao,
to
:

in his assertion that
"

what is called the Nature", says, The Nature is the Ether and the Ether is the Nature," 3 is this what he means by not making them two separate entities ? Answer. That, again, means that the Nature resides in
"Life

is

the etherial endowment,
is

imparted the Ether and the Ether
"

to it.

This

is

When the Ether is received Law The Nature is why it is said
"

:

at the statement that

Ether

is

the Nature

",

you stop The Nature is the Ether, and the then still more will you have failed
Nature."

is

the

But

if

to discriminate

between the two.

20.

It is necessary to recognize the differences in the

In the u^niformity and the uniformity in the differences. is difference iso far as Law there is no concerned, beginning

when Law is deposited in the Ether there is likeness only in the coarser features, such as the capacity for hunger
but

and
the

thirst,

and seeking what

is

advantageous and avoiding

injurious, with man, so that, apart

which: birds and beasts have in

common

from moral

principles,

man would

not differ from them.

1

See See

p. 82, n. 1.

2

pt. lix,
3

ff.

(Conversations), f jff preceding page. See also $C 13-14, for a clear and detailed exposition of this passage.
fl:, pt
.

?

Seejf

i,

f.

10.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
The Philosopher
great
said

97
"

further

:

The

passages,

The

God
1

sense,"

has conferred on the inferior people a moral and "The people hold within themselves
principle
of
2
good,"

a

normal

The
I

saying,

"The

mass

represent the of people
3
it,"

"differ-

cast

it

a way, while the noble

man

preserves

means that we
to be
"

must preserve
jdistinguished
:iggling

this difference.

from the brute.
of

Only thus are we We must not say,

The
like

movement
;

the

worm
the

holds the

spiritual

dthin

it

all

things

have

Buddha nature

>urselves."

4

21.

Question.
"Life

The
is

chapter
is

commencing

with
5

the

mtence,
1

what

called the

Nature,"

is very,

Shu Ching,

p. 185.
1.

2
3
4 5

Odes, p. 541, vide p. 54 of this volume, n. Mencius, p. 201.

A

quotation from Buddhist pantheistic statements.

10. See also ffi ^j|, pt. xiii, f. 29, where the Jfi lH Pk i ^ xt of the whole passage referred to is given. The following is a transla-

ion

:

Life

is

what

is

termed the Nature.

The Nature

is

the Ether and

he Ether

the Nature, and this is what is called Life. All men at their irth are endowed with the Ether, and in law there is both good and evil, ut it is not that originally, when man is born, there are in the Nature
is

i

two things in opposition to each other. There are those who are from their youth, and there are those who are evil from their youth ; ut this results from the differences in the etherial endowment. Goodness certainly the Nature, but evil cannot be said not to be the Nature, or Life is what is termed the Nature. The time preceding man s birth d the repose which then exists needs no discussion. The moment you ply the term Nature, what you are speaking of has already ceased to the Nature. All who expound the Nature define it simply as what is of The law of their succession is goodness," the the dictum, ,me as Mencius refers to when he says The Nature of man is good ow that which is spoken of in the dictum, The law of their succession is
>oken

m

*

"

".

"

ii

98

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

difficult to follow.

the sentence,

the beginning of the passage to Evil cannot be said not to be the Nature,"

From

i

makes two or three sections. Answer. This chapter is extremely difficult, but if you look carefully at the connexion you will understand its It is not meaning. The statement at the beginning that when man is born there are these two things in opposition to each other," means that the Nature is good,
"

i

i

:

;

i

Question.

It is true that it is stated that the

Nature

is
\

good; but following this it is said, "Goodness is certainly the Nature, but evil cannot be said not to be the Nature."

1

i

My

difficulty

is

that to

introduce

the

Nature of the

i

etherial

endowment seems

inconsistent with the preceding

i

context.
goodness",

flows to the sea itself without defilement

water downwards. It is all water; som how can such be achieved b? human strength ? Some becomes gradually turbid before it has proceedec far on its way ; some becomes turbid after it has proceeded som distance in its course ; some is more turbid, some is less turbid ; bu
is

like the flow of

i

though
is

you cannot say that the should not fail to apply themselves to th work of purification. By this means those who are earnest and courageou in their efforts will be speedily cleansed ; while in those who are slow an* lazy the cleansing will be slow. When it is cleansed it is nothing els than the original water, and you do not bring clear water to take th
differing in the degree of turbidity

turbi<

not water.

Therefore

men

place of the turbid, nor do you take the turbid water and place it in a spc by itself. The clearness of the water represents the goodness of the Natun Therefore it is not that in the Nature there are the two things, good an
evil,

Th in opposition to each other, each with a different origin. law is the Decree of Heaven. To follow it and accord with it is tt Moral Law. To accord with it and cultivate it so that each receives From the Decree of Heaven according to his capacity is Religion. the inculcation of it in me there is no injurious admixture in the proces It was by this that Shun and Yu held possession of the Empire as if it we nothing to them.
1

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
aent which
It is not the
is

99

Nature of the etherial endowiWhat
is is

spoken

of.

said is that the Nature

vas originally

good and
that
it

now
thick

evil,

and that

it

is

the
by,

ame Nature, but
vil
ret
;

has been thrown, into disorder

just as water is

made

by mud and
refers to

sand,

and

you do not refuse
it

to call it water.

Question. heory, dees

The question just asked
not
?

Nan Hsien s

Answer.

,nd contained
lis

f

treatise was issued too soon, and contradictions. It includes may discussion on the Commentary on Mencius>. Many, the nobles urged him and it was difficult to with-

Ching

Fu s

l

errors

tand them.
Question.
entence
? 2

Should the words,
exists,"

"

Man s

birth
as

and the

epose which then

be

regarded

a separate

Answer.
Nature
I*

They should be taken with

the words which

immediately follow, in order to complete the sense.
seta

thins

The from the time of its endowment. In the time preceding man s birth and the repose which. hen exists there there was as yet no material form as nothing to receive Law. How then could it be called
is so-called
"

;

he Nature
Question.
2ocfl>

?

How do you explain the section,
Nature."

"

The moment

ou apply the term Nature, what you are speaking of has
iready

ceased to be the

(At

this point the

-

2

Ching Fu is the Nan Hsien named in the question If taken as a separate sentence they would read :
is repose,"

;
"

see p. 102, n. 1. At man s birth
"

as*

here

and the sentence following
discussion."

this

would be

:

The time

receding needs no

100

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

writer could not recall clearly what the master s reply was, and would not venture to record it. The next evening the

question was repeated, and is given below.) Question. iWith reference to the statement,
in the dictum

"

All who

expound the Nature define it simply as what is spoken of The law of their succession is goodness
,"
"

how can
ness

the phrase The law of their succession refer to the Nature ?
"

is

good
most
to
is

Answer.
germane.

The question
Here, however,
"

raised
it

by my friend
is

is

really

in

reference

man

that the sentence,
is

The law
if
it it

of their succession

goodness,"

quoted
at the
1

;

for

transcendental

reference,,

would
of

were quoted with a refer to Divine Law,
outflow could not be

and Divine

Law

moment
"

its

called the Nature.

Life is what is termed the Question. In the passage, Nature ; the Nature is the Ether and the Ether is the

not the meaning that at Nature and the Ether combine ?
is

Nature

"

man s

birth the

Answer.

When man

is

formed from the Ether,

Law
it

is

inherent in the person so created. called the Nature.

Then only can
ui

be

Question.

Some time back T eng Te Ts
"

questioned
is

you with reference
termed the

to the statement,

Life

what

is

Nature."

You, Sir, said
it is

Master Ch eng
1

s

statement,

all
"

you follow the right. At that time.
:

If

twofold application of the dictum, The law of their success it It may refer to Divine Law pervading the univers< possible. in the mutual succession of the two Modes, or it may refer to the Chu Hsi says that in the passagr law, but. as imparted to the individual.
goodness," is
sam<

A

in question it

is

obviously the latter.

Cf. p.

56 of this volume.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
p

101

Ithough further elucidation was repeatedly sought for, you ave no answer. Afterwards, when thinking it over careully,
it

we

recalled that this
ireally

had

was Kao Tzu s statement, and accorded with that of the Master Ch emg
;

here
ds
s

mind

would have been nothing to object to in it but in the reference was directly to the etherial element

the Nature, and thus the meaning of his statement ffered from that of the Master Ch enig.

The Master Ch eng s words do indeed confirm Kao Tzii as not incorrect. But if the truth is as Kao Tzii contended, why should Mencius oppose leally ? From this we may assume that the principles jiim 1 |nunciated by Kao Tzu were really wrong. The Confucian
Answer.
he language of
jchool,

in their discussion of the Nature, for the most part

efer to the etherial element, just as the Buddhists also
iegard the operation of Intelligence only as the Nature.

Question. In your Commentary on Mencius it is said The teaching of the Su and Hu schools 2 in the present y is similar to this." But on examining the tenets of
:

ese

two schools

it

looks as if they do not hold the

"Ether"

eory.

Their tendency is so of necessity. Question. When the Hu School maintain that the Nature not to be defined in terms of good and evil, does it not
lofts

Answer.

em

as

though their desire
?

is

to represent the greatness

the Nature
That

the language was not inis, there is a verbal correspondence but the fact of Mencius vehement opposition shows that Kao Tzu eant something very different from the teaching of Ch eng Tzu. 2 See T. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. iv.
rrect

102

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
No,
it is

not with the idea of representing the It is simply that they do not greatness of tho Nature. Otherwise they would not the matter clearly. perceive

Answer.

1 Ching Fu also formerly held this speak in this way. I to view. But isaid When every tiling that exists is him,
"

relative,

why do you want

to

make

the Nature like a one"

The Master branched horn, 2 a thing with; no correlation ? The Gh enig in, his treatment of the Nature says simply
"

:

Nature
matter
?

is

Law."

Is this not a clear discernment of the

He

Question.

truly deserves well of the school of the sages. Was it the Master Ch enig who first discerned
"

The law of theitf clearly the bearing of the passage, succession is goodness, their realization is the Nature ? 8
"

is

I

Answer. Previously no one had expressed it thus. fact that he did is the evidence of his clear insight.

The

to

the Philosopher was again questioned Life is what with reference to the passage beginning,
"

The next evening

A
A
to

is

termed the Nature.
"

"

We

apprehended your meaning.
sentence
:

have not, it was said, wholly We do not know whether the
the term Nature, what

The moment you apply

you are speaking of has already ceased to be the Nature," refers to the time preceding man s endowment with the
Nature, or to the time following it. Answer. It refers to the time following the endowment. The Nature is nothing else than the all-comprehensive
1

k

X

k

Chang Ch

ih

(g

/fjj),

also called

Chang Nan Hsien, a great
iv.

friend
"h

of^Chu Hsi, but holding very different views. duction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap.

See J. P. Bruce, Intro-

2 $Q ia a perverted point leaning to one side with nothing on the other side to match it, as in the case of a cow having only one horn. 3 Yi Ching, pp. 355-6.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

103

Hvine Law, but the moment you can speak of it as existing already carries with it the etherial element. In the
;
"

tatement,
o

Apart from the Two Modes there would be
x

Moral

Law,"

Question.
f
[f so,

The

great discrimination needs to be used. The flow passage following the sentence,
"

water downwards/
seeing that
? 3

2

refers to the etherial

endowment.

all is

fixed

from
"

birth,

how

can.
"

we

f

the

difference

between

nearly

alike

and

"

speak wide

part"

Answer.
22.
3

means that there is practice also. In the chapter beginning Life is what Question. called the Nature", in the passage extending from the
It
" "

But evil cannot be said not pening sentence to the words, 4 o be the Nature," it appears to my poor judgment that t is the original nature combined with the physical nature
that is referred to.

At the very beginning of the passage he writer uses the single word "Life" which combines
oth natures.

Chu

Hsi.
said
:

But what about the word
It seems to

"

Nature" ?

Yung

me

that the

word

"

Nature

"

is

also applied to both.

Some time ago arising out of this used the simile of water to illustrate the you and the one and perfectly pure Divine then said that Nature,

Yung asked

further.

ery subject

Liaw is like water in its original clearness.

The cloudiness

and turbidity resulting from the complex interaction of the Two Modes and Five Agents is like water as it is defiled by
1

Cf -

^C
n.

l.
>

i,

f.

26

;

or

J

2 8

^

,

pt. xv,
*

f.

22.

See

5 on p. 97. Analects, XVI, ii, p. 182.

See

n. 5

on

p. 97.

104

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The
possibility of restoring- tho cloudy and turbid due to the fact that its source was

mud.

to clearness again is clear. Is it not so ?

Answer.
incapable
smelling-

Yes, of

and the lower
are

foolish

people,

who
is

are

amendment,
filthy.

like

water which

foul

and

Question.

Answer.

Can they not also be cleansed ? The impurity can be reduced to some
went on to say
:

extent.
earlier

From

this the Philosopher

In

times it was the custom for people to fill their vessels with water at the Hui Hill Well and carry them into the city. If after a while the water became foul, the city people .had

a way of cleansing it. They filled a bamboo pipe with sand and stones, and, pouring the water on them, let it run through. By doing this several times the water would
gradually be restored to its original purity. Some one asked Can the lower foolish people be cleansed?
:

Yung
cleansed.

said

:

Possibly they would not be willing to be

Answer.

Even foul-smelling water would
filth.

scarcely

be

regarded as the extreme of

that when a thing has reached Question. the stage of being past such conversion it is more like

Would you say

putrid mud ? Ansiver. Yes, that

Question. the Nature" to

The

what I mean. For Life section, from
is
"

is

what

is called

"like

water flowing
?

downwards",

refers

to the original nature, does it not

Answer.

what

is

do you explain the phrase, called the Nature ?
"

How

"

For

life is

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Yung Yung
"

105

said

simply a quotation. then proceeded to ask further
:

It is

The time preceding man s then exists needs no discussion," the writer, in the phrase, man s hirth and the repose which then exists," refers to
"

In the sentence, birth and the repose which
:

the beginning of life but does he not also, in the phrase in which he speaks of "the time preceding", refer to the
;

Divine Decree

?

Answer.
"Great

is
;

Yes, and therefore the sentence in the Ye, the Principle of Origin, indicated by
1

Ch

things owe to it their beginning," refers solely to the source of Truth. 2 It is when you come to what is ien
all
"

j

The method of Ch ien is to expressed in the sentence, and transform so that change everything obtains its correct nature as ordained by Heaven," 3 that the Nature is in
existence.

The

passage,

"All

who expound
,"

the Nature
*

simply define it as what is spoken of in the dictum The law of their succession is goodness 4 implies the physical
|

element.

Question.

Is it not that

Feeling only
the

is

included

?

Feeling Mencius, in his reply to
"

Answer.

includes

physical.

Therefore

Kao Tzii s question with respect to the Nature, said, If we look at the Feelings which low from the Nature we may know that they are constituted
or the practice of what 1 F Ching, p. 213. Ch ien
Iso

is
is

5
good."

Referring to Love,
of the first diagram. It
is

the

name

used for Heaven as one of the dual powers, Heaven and Earth.

See

ntrod. to
2

Chu
is
(

Hsi,

etc.,

chap.

vi.

!$
^C

here

Truth

in the absolute
of

and transcendental
6

sense, the

synonym

or
3

&

The Decree

Ft Ching, p. 213.

Heaven). 4 See p. 97.

Mencius, p. 278.

106

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Reverence,

Righteousness,
solicitude,

and

Wisdom,

he

conscientiousness,

respectfulness,

and

spoke of moral

insight

;

for the

Nature

is invisible,

their objective manifestation in deeds,

but the Feelings have and it is only by way

of the Feeling s that you are able to define the Nature. Question. To know the Nature by way of the Feelings
is just like

"

knowing the river s source by the flowing stream. Ts ai Chi T ung 1 ask K ang Shu Lin: Formerly Everything has two termini. Solicitude is the terminal
I heard
Is it the initial or the final terminal
it
?"

of Love.

Shu Lin

regarded

as the final terminal.

Chuang Chung

report
all.

you

Recently I heard Chou as saying that there ought to be

no such division at

Chu

Hsi.

What

To know know the

Questioner. the substance by means of its movements is to source by means of the flowing stream. It seems

do you say ? Solicitude is the movement of the Nature.

to me, therefore, that it is the final terminal.

Answer.
Question.
"

That

is right.
"

What about the section, from

It is all

water
"

"

to

but you must not regard the turbid as not water ? Answer. Water here is simply the physical element.

degree of cloudiness in the physical element strength of creaturelj desire, just as you know
scientiousness.

you can estimate the from the Love and Righteousness from the presence of solicitude and con

Yung

said

:

It seems to

me

that

Answer.

That
:

is

true also.
is

Another asked Are those in whom the Ether therefore free from creaturely desire ?
1

clear

See

p. 65.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE

107

Answer. That cannot be asserted. The desire of taste and the desire for musical sounds are common to all. Even though the Ether with which h,e is endowed is clear, the

man

will drift into desire at the least relaxation of

watch

fulness

and

self-control.
"

Therefore Question. With regard to the section, from men should not fail to apply themselves to the work of
purification"

to "place ifc in a spot by itself", is the meaning that when men have sought the conversion of the

physical element in their constitution, their success in that conversion and their return to their original nature are not

imparted from without Answer. It is so.

?

The Question. Is the meaning of the section, from clearness of the water represents the goodness of the Nature"
"
"

Yii held possession of the empire as if it were nothing to them that the learner in his search for moral truth does not obtain it from without, and the sage
to

Shun and

V

in teaching men does not force natural sphere of duty ? 2

them

to act outside their

Answer.
"

You may
is

This
23.

Law

gather that also from the sentence, the Divine Decree."

Does not the passage, "Goodness certainly is the Nature, but evil cannot be said not to be the Nature," 3 contradict Mencius ? Answer. This kind of statement is difficult to explain.
1

2 3

That

Analects, VIII, xviii, pp. 77-8. is, the sage does not inculcate monasticism as

Buddhism

does.

SS

H

P*-

*

f-

10

see P- 97

>

n 5
-

-

108

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
get the meaning
formerly, was
all at onoe.

One cannot
looked at
it it

I myself, as I

But as I read and the distinction between the two passages again again became clear, so that now I am confident that there is no mistake and no contradiction. It is only necessary to devote time and care to the study of it, and not, with an over
also perplexed.

weening confidence in one preceded us to be wrong.

s

own

ideas, declare those

who

same

Question. Is the Nature in the vegetable kingdom the as in man and the animal kingdom ?

Answer.

You must

recognize

the differences without

and recognize uniformity without losing sight of the differences, and then you will be right.
losing sight of the uniformity,
<

explain the section The time preceding man s birth and the repose beginning: which then exists needs no discussion." *
Question.
"

24.

How

do

you

Answer.

"

The time preceding man s birth and
"

the repose

which then

exists

is

the time before the creature, whether

man or animal, is born; and before birth the term Law only can be applied, the term Nature is as yet not applicable. This is what is meant by the statement, On its Divine
"

The sentence, The moment the what term Nature, you apply you are speaking of has ceased be the to Nature," tells us that when you already the "Nature" man is already bom, term apply and tihe ethical principle has lodged in the midst of material ether, so that what we have is
side it is called

The Decree

"

."

"the

1

See

p. 97, n. 5.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
not wholly the hence the phrase,
original
"

109
;

substance

of

the
"

Nature
Nature"
;

and

it is

has already ceased to be the this that is referred to in the words,

From

the

point of view of idea is that it
that

man
is

it is called

the

Nature."

The main
fooim

when,

man

possesses
1

material

Law becomes
at

inherent in

it, and

is

termed the Nature.

But at the stage
it is

which you thus apply the term Nature, involved in life and combined with the physical, so
;

that it is no longer the original substance of the Nature and yet the original substance of the Nature has not become

confused.

The important thing in this matter is

to recognize

that the original substance is neither separate from nor confounded with the material element- In the passage,

All who expound the Nature simply define it as what spoken of in the dictum, The law of their succession
"
"

is is

goodness
portrayed
;

1

the meaning

is

that the Nature cannot be

expound

excel in their exposition of it simply it according to its manifestation in the Terminals. 2

those

who

And

of the Nature can most certainly be recognized intellectually, as when Mencius speaks of the goodness of the Nature and the Four Terminals. yet the
25.

Law

the words,

Questioned concerning the section beginning with The time preceding man s birth and the repose
."

which then

exists,"

Ch eng used the word
nature,

the Philosopher replied The Master Nature in the sense of the original
:
"

"

and

also in the sense of the physical nature.

In
the

the case of
1

man

as dwelling in the material

body

it is

See

p. 97, n. 5.

2

The Four Feelings

or

Terminals

enumerated

by Mencius

;

see

Mencius, p. 79.

110

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

physical nature. In the phrase, the term the work! Nature
"

The moment you apply
refers to the

"Nature"

physical element in combination with the original nature. In the phrase, "Has already ceased to be the Nature," the

word Nature

refers to the original nature,
;

meaning that the

moment you
original.

predicate

After

man

the physical it is no longer the s birth, the moment of repose, man

has bodily form, so that he can be said to posses^ the Nature. Before this moment of birth and repose he has as yet no
bodily of him
26.

form
?

;

how can

the Nature,

then,

be predicated

"The

moment you apply

the term Nature, what
"

* you are speaking of has already ceased to be the Nature for directly you apply to it the term Nature you are speaking
;

of

it

the

in combination with the physical element. In The time passage beginning with the words,
as it
is
"

preceding

man s birth and the repose which then

exists needs

birth the opening phrase singles out with the repose which then exists, and, for the purposes of discussion disconnects; it from the time preceding, for the
discussion,"

no

man s

term Nature cannot be applied until the appearance of the physical element, and of the time preceding the birth of

man and
"

the

moment
is

Heaven s Moral Law
This
"

able.

of repose we can only use the term Nature is inapplic the word the explanation of Tzu Kung s language
"
"

"

:

when he said, His discourses about the Nature and Heaven s Moral Law cannot be heard." 2 The statement The Decree of Heaven is what we term the Nature that
"
"

points to this element in
1

man

s

personality as the Nature of
3

See

p. 97, n. 5.

Analects, V, xii (pp. 41-2).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the Divine Decree without confusion with the

111

etherial

The moment you apply the In the phrase, term Nature," the Nature is referred to as in combination with the etherial endowment. Therefore, at the very time
endowment.
"

implied in the term used,

it is

Hsi

"

said,

The Nature

consists

already not the Nature. Lien of the five qualitiesi

Lien Strength, Weakness, Goodness, Evil, and the Mean." Hsi defined the Nature as consisting only of these five, but

when he also spoke of the Nature of the four ethical principles Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Widsom. Now, the nature of the etherial endowment does
there were times

not go beyond the five qualities mentioned by Lien Hsi, it it is still the nature of the four ethical, principles whole the is not a different nature. the nature of Indeed,

but

;

universe

is

not

outside these

five
;

Goodness, Evil, and the
subject carefully

Mean

for

Strength, Weakness, if we follow up the

we

find that, vast as is the variety of

phenomena, with their thousand species and hundred genera, beyond our powers of investigation, we still do not
get
1

away from
See

these five categories.
vii (gjjj).

Tung

Shu, chap,

N.B.

These

five are

given as the

principles of the physical nature, not of the essential nature, of which Chou Tzii himself gives the constituent principles as Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom. Strength is the manifestation of the positive

and weakness of the negative. Each of these again is and then it is good evil or negative, and then it is
ether,
"

either positive,
"Strength,"

"

".

",

when when

"good",

is

righteous, straightforward, resolute, majestic,

and firm

;

evil it is harsh,

proud, and cruel.

"

Weakness,"

when
and

"

Good

",

ia

kind, yielding,

meek

;

when

"

evil

"

it is soft, irresolute,

false.

The

Mean
is

the maintenance of these principles in equilibrium so that there no excess of the "Good" qualities, and the "Evil" are moderated so that
is

they come to be not Evil.

112

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

(FOURTEEN SECTIONS FROM THE COLLECTED WRITINGS.)
1.

Question.

Men

constantly have differences in clear

and translucence, which undoubtedly are due to the etherial endowment. But the mind, necessarily following
ness

the variations in the etherial endowment, also differs to

some extent.

The mouth,

the ear, the eye, and the mind,
;

Heaven makes no and translucence in the case of the mouth, the ear, and the eye, and does so only in the case) of the mind, ? If we say that the ethical principle of the mind
difference in clearness

however, are all organs of intelligence in imparting the physical, element,

how

is it

then that,

so that

does not differ, but that it is fettered by the physical element it cannot maintain its translucence, we have on the

other side the fact that Yi, Hui, and Yi

Yin were not

fettered by the physical element, and yet their righteousness in the handling of affairs was not equal to the timeliness of the Master. 1 For we find that Mencius in discussing

the three sages said that their wisdom was not equal to that can of the Master. But moral insight constitutes wisdom
;

it

be that these three could be

filled

with

solicitude,

conscientiousness,

and courtesy, and lack only moral insight? Answer. The mouth, ear, and eye also differ in clear for example, Yi Ya, the musicness and translucence master K uang, and Li Lou 2 possessed a very high degree
;

See Mencius, pp. 245-8 and 69-70, where the virtues of the three * time sages are characterized, but declared to be still not equal to the as it arises occasion i.e. the power to meet the demands of every liness
1
"

of Confucius,
2
"A

"

the Master

".

Yi Ya was cook to Duke Huan worthless man, but great in his

of

Ch

i

of the

seventh century

B.C.

that he could distinguish between

his palate was said to be so delicate the waters of two rivers. See Mencius,
art,"

1

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
of clearness.
It is precisely the

113

same

with.

Mind.

Yi and

Hui were

element, therefore Mencius regarded from his own, and did not way"

not free from the limitations of the physical them as of a "different
"desire

to

learn"

of

them. 1
2.

(Reply

to

Chu

Fei

Ch ing.)

iWith reference to the Nature and Decree, Question. are born sages are wholly and perfectly good, and in them there is a clearly marked distinction between
those

who

the etherial

and

ethical

elements,

so

that

the

two

have no entanglement with each other. In their case there is no need to speak of the physical element. In the case
of such as are inferior to those

who are born
yet,

there
e

is

no defect in Divine Law,
is

sages, although being tied to

etherial

principle

Ether,
e

element, the brightness of the ethical in proportion to the clearness of the and the obscurity of the ethical principle to
of

turbidity
2

the

Ether,

the

two being constantly,

together.

the idea
>.

is

Hence, when referred to as the physical nature, that the advancement and retardation of the
*

281 ; cf. Giles Biog. Diet., p. 351. Li Lou, it is said, was of the time of [uang Ti, a legendary ruler of China, circ. 2600 B.C. Li Lou was so acute )f vision that at a distance of 100 paces he could discern the smallest lair uang Tzii Yeh was music-master and a wise counsellor of See Mencius, p. 161 and note. ?sin, a little prior to the time of Confucius 1 See Mencius, pp. 69-70, where Mencius says Po Yi and Yi Yin were of
".

K

*

".

iifferent ways from his own, and gives reasons why he had no desire to Hui is not mentioned here, but is included in the three ^earn of them. jntioned on pp. 245-8, as stated above.

the difference between the sages and others is, that in the two elements are perfectly separate, and in the other conSo says the questioner, who, however, is wrong. Chu Hsi itly united. lys the difference is not because in the one case the two elements are
is,

2

That

case the

jparate and in the other not, but simply because of the varying degrees the purity, etc., of the Ether.
i

114

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
element in
itself is

ethical principle depends
plrysical

upon the Ether, and not that the the Nature and Decree.
are

Answer.

In those

who

born sages the Ether

is

extremely clear, and the ethical principle is unclouded. In the case of those who acquire knowledge by learning,

and

all

below them, the clearness of the Ether varies, jand
is

the ethical principle

correspondingly affected

An

the

degree of
3.

its

completeness.

1 (Reply to Cheng Tzu Shang.)

we

From the Great Void Question. Henig Ch ii said have the term Heaven from the transformations of the
"

:

;

Ether we have the term Moral Order

;

Void with the Ether we have the term Nature
Mind."
2

by the union of the by the
;

union of the Nature with Consciousness we have the term

Does not Heng Ch
?

ii

in his reference to
3

the

Nature combine the Nature of Heaven and Earth
the physical nature

with
does

And
"

in his reference to

Mind
"

he not combine both the

natural

mind

"

and the

spiritual

mind

"

?

Answer. Apart from the Ether there would be no form, and without form there would be nothing to which the
goodness of the Nature could be imparted. Therefore, those

who expound
Inherent
1

the Nature all start from the physical element. in it, however, is the imparted ethical

See p.

5, n. 3.

Quoted from the Cheng Meng, chap. i. Chang Tsa (or Herig Ch u) uses two expressions rarely used by the other philosophers, namely, "The Great Harmony" ft) and "The Great Void (-fa jig). (
"

2

The former refers to the Moral Law of the Universe, i.e. the Moral Order and the latter to the Nature of the Universe, the substance of being. 3 The essential nature.

;

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"
" "

115
"

principle.

in

tlie

The natural mind and the spiritual mind same way are not two separate entities. (Reply (to
Ghiu.)
It is stated in the Dialogues
1
:

LinTe
4.

Question.

"But

and perfection, 2 and creaturely desire differs in its intensity and fullness therefore the saint and the foolish, men and animals, are at the extremes apart, and cannot be alike." The state ments of this passage respecting the physical element and 3 creaturely desire, the saint and the foolish, seem to me, If we distinguish between the saint and the perplexing. foolish according the clearness and turbidity of the and between men and animals according physical element, to its perfection and imperfection then to. what can the fullness of and phrase, intensity creaturely desire," refer ? If we say it refers to the saint and the foolish, the difficulty is that the saint is free from the selfishness of creaturely desire and if we say that it refers to men and animals,
their physical element differs in clearness
;
to>

;

"

;

the difficulty then is that in the case of animals the differ ences in intensity and fullness do not apply. I fail to

understand
1

it.

Dialogues, by Chu Hsi. The expression ^j| j here translated tion is literally It true and deflected
2
,
"

"

perfection

and imperfec

refers to the regularity and evenness or otherwise in the consistency of the ether. the Ether is of even consistency, that is, when the proportions of the yin and the yang
",
".

When

permeable by uneven, that

is said to be J and it is equally the nature-principles, as in the case of man. When it is is, when the yin and the yang are in unequal proportions, the ether is said to be and the manifestation of the nature-principles is unequal, as in the instinct of animals.

are correct

and harmonious, the ether
all

^

J

JtjjC

(Hui)

is

the writer Li Hui

Shu

s

ming, by which he speaks of himself.

Hui Shu (P|

jg[) is his style.

116

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The expressions clearness and perfection taken from the phraseology of the Cheng Meng, and
" "
"

Answer.
are

"

Doctor Lii 1 in his exposition of the Doctrine of the Mean has further [developed the subject. But he also
contrasts

with the foolish

animals, and wise men and learned men and degenerate, and necessarily so. Speaking in general, in man the Ether is clear and in

men with

animals turbid, in

man

it

is

perfect

imperfect. Again, learned we have the

to distinguish clpar

and in animals more in detail, in the
clear,

within the

in

the
in

wise

man we

have the perfect within

the

perfect,

the foolish
in the
perfect.
"

we have the turbid within the clear, and degenerate we have the imperfect within the And in what Hong Ch ii refers to when he

says,

that of

man/

There are animals whose nature approximates to 2 we have the clear within the turbid, and the
"

The expression, intensity perfect within the imperfect. of fullness and creaturely desire," is spoken of the human
race as a whole. If you were to classify men as possessing or not possessing it, those who do not possess it are so few that they could not make a class. are therefore shut

We

up
1

to this

method of speech.
is to

If

it

presents
men"

any
for

difficulty,
"saints",

the best

way

substitute

"wise

Probably Lii Tsu

Ch<ien

(g

jjjjj.

f),

style

Po Kung (fg gg),

a

scholar of the twelfth century greatly admired by Chu Hsi, who said that if a man would study as Po Kung he would be able to transform his physical
of

He was a native of Kuei Lin Fu in Kuangsi, and the author famous works on history as well as on the Odes and the Yi Ching He received the title of -fc J|| f|| J^ , Doctor of the Imperial See Shang Yu Lu, pt. xv, p. 4 also Ones Biog. Diet., p. 561. Academy." Cf. J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. iv.
nature.
" " "

".

"

;

2

Cf. p. 73.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and so avoid the ambiguity.
regarded
as

117

The

saints

may

well be

above

the

rest,

and therefore outside the

classification.

(Reply to Li Hui Shu.)

5. The production of a man by Heaven is like the command of the Throne to a magistrate man s possession
;

of the
office.

Nature

is

like the magistrate s possession of

his

The duty imposed by the Throne

consists
:

of

administering the law and governing the people how can there be in it anything but what is good ? Heaven in

producing a man does not fail to impart the principles of Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom again, where is there room for anything that is not good ? But in
:

producing a particular being there must be the Ether, which

by subsequent consolidation furnishes the physical substance of that being. But the Ether in the constitution of the
creature
differs

in

the

degree

of

its

clearness

(and

translucence.
is

When

the Ether with which the individual
translucent, there is freedom

endowed

is clear

and

from

the entanglement of creaturely desire, and we have the saint. When the Ether with, which the individual is

endowed

is

clear

and

translucent

but neither pure nor

complete, some entanglement of creaturely desire is unavoid able but it can be overcome and got rid of, and then we
;

have the wise
individual
is

blurred and turbid, there is the beclouding by creaturely desire to such an extent that it cannot be shaken off, and we have the foolish and degenerate.
is

man. endowed

When

the Ether with which the

All

this

is

the

action

of the etherial

endowment and
itself

creaturely desire,

but the goodness of the Nature

does

118

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

not vary. The Nature received by Yao and Shun at their birth was the same) [as that of others, but because of the

endowment there was no beclouding by creaturely diesire. Therefore to be Yao and Shun did inot mean that something* was added over and above the Nature itself and the learlner, knowing that the Nature is good, knows that the holiness of Yao and Shun was no forcing of the Nature. To know how Yao and Shun became what they w*ere is to know what is the type and model of the good ness of the Nature and that the means by which we all) may day by day banish human desire and return to Divine Law lies within what is our proper and natural duty, a strong favouring force and free from difficulty. (Yii Shan s Commentary.)
clearness

and transluoence of

their etherial

;

;

6.

Hsiao Shu said: The expressions

"Excellent"
"

and
and

probably originated in tihe phrase, in the Tung Weakness, Goodness, and Evil
"Evil"
",

Strength,

Shu

*
;

it

appears to me that the degree of clearness applies to the Ether in its etherial form, while the terms Strength
"

",

"Weakness",

"Excellence",

and
"

"Evil"

apply to the Ether
"

in the form of solid matter.

Clearness
"

and

"

"

turbidity
"

are terms pertaining to Heaven. Evil ness," Excellence," and
"
"

Strength,"

Gentle

"

earth.
to

Clearness
"

"

and

"

are terms pertaining to are terms applicable turbidity
"
"

"

knowledge

;

excellent
"Clear"

to capacity.

and evil and "turbid

"

"

11

are terms applicable correspond to the

terms

"wise"

and

"foolish".

"Excellent"

and

"evil"

correspond to

"worthy"

and

"degenerate".

In those of

1

See note on

p. 111.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
highest

119

wisdom the Ether

is perfect

invariably excellent. as well as excellent, 1 and invariably clear.

* pure as well as clear, and In those of greatest worth the Ether

is

The
;

highest wisdom corresponds to clearness, and greatest worth to excellence. But it is not that there is any inequality just as in the Doctrine of the Mean, Shun is called wise and Hui worthy. 2 Below these are those who .are
called wise, in

whom

1

thero
called

is

not sufficient of the excellent.
is

the clear ether abounds, but possibly In those who are

worthy there

goodness leaning

,to

excess in the

direction of either strength or weakness, but perhaps at the same time an insufficiency of clearness. This results in an

incompleteness in the character of the worthy and the wise, so that their wisdom cannot be termed highest wisdom nor
their

worth greatest worth.

Even in

the case of the

degenerate there are also degrees. For the difference in. clearness and excellence appears to be due to differences

between the positive and negative modes in the physical
element.
the positive
intricate
ethers,

(The positive is clear and the negative turbid is good and the negative evil.) Therefore in the complexity and myriad transformations of the
;

four, yet the proportions in

though the main divisions are not more than these which they interact are so
I do
if this is correct.
in the genus in
" "

unequal that the myriad varieties naturally follow.
not
1

know
That
is,

clear

"

there

is

the species
"

highest

wisdom belongs,

which case the ether
"

is

to which pure pure as well as clear
" "

".

Similarly in the genus 2 D.M., pp. 252-3.

excellent

there

is

the species

"

perfect

",

etc.

they chose the Mean.
wise, as in the case of

Both Shun and Hui were what they were because There is no inequality in the virtues of either the

Shun, or the worthy, as in the case of Hui, because both are governed by the Mean.

120

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
Ch/en Liao

Answer.
had
this idea.

Weng 1
"

speaks of
.

"the

ether of

heaven and solid matter iof earth

Our

predecessors already

(Reply to Li Hsiao Shu.)
"

In the phrase, Man s birth and the repose which then exists," the word it is true, refers to the repose Nature but the word birth in itself implies the physical element. The time preceding the "birth" "needs no
7.
"

",

"

"

;

for the ethical principle has not as yet any means of material manifestation. Therefore at the very
discussion,",

moment when we apply

the term "Nature" the physical included element is necessarily you cannot suspend the The Nature you are describing in mid-air. The dictum,
:
"

law of their succession

is goodness,"

primarily describes the

Ming Tao, how processes of creation and development. ever, is here speaking of the operation of the Nature, just
as Mencius does

when he

"

says,

If

we look

at the feelings

which flow from the Nature, we may know that they are What constituted for the pra.ctice of what is good." 2
I

1

Ch uan

calls

"the

original

and
;

essential

nature"

3

is

in

contrast

to

the

physical nature

although the physical
evil,
is

element differs in respect of good and
trace it to its origfin

yet,

if

you

and

essence, the

Nature

never other

than good.
1

(Reply to
is

Wang

TziiHo.)
(jJ?
is

Ch en Liao Weng
5lf)

Ch en Ch uan

Jg), who was

called Liao Chai for the

(T

ky

his pupils.

Weng (||)

an honorific substitute

second word in the sobriquet, in accordance with frequent usage. Liao He was fond of books when Chai was a native of Chien Chou in Fuhkien.

young.

See

^^

,

pt. 35, f ols. 1

ff.

The sentence quoted

will

be found

on
a

f.

3.

Mencius, p. 278.

jg fj,

pt.

iii, f.

4.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
8.

121

P an Kung Shu
and

said

:

I should say
to

1

that the terms
"Virtue"

"Nature"

"Decree"

apply
is

Law;

and
the

the etherial

element"

apply to the person.

When

(embodied in the personality it is Virtue, and that which crushes 2 and submerges it is the etherial element. For Virtue cannot be other fohan
good,
it is

Law of

the Nature and Decree

the Ether which

is

unequal.

Goodness

is

that

whereby the Nature is completed and the Decree established, but the Ether by reason of its inequality constitutes an obstruction. These two elements 3 in the personality grow

and diminish in relation
"

to each other

;

and, following this

variation in degree, the one overcomes or is overcome by the other. The phrase, When Virtue fails to overcome the
Ether,"

means

that Virtue

has

no means

of

over

coming the inequality in the Ether. When ,the Ether is thus unequal it becomes relatively more powerful each day, while goodness becomes less and so the Law of the Nature and Decree is thrown into confusion by the etherial
;

element.

Therefore
4

"

it is

said

:

When

virtue fails to over

come the Ether the Nature and the Decree follow the
Ether."

The

phrase,

"If

the

Ether,"

means

that

Virtue succeeds in overcoming Virtue has the power to

overcome the inequality in the etherial element, and good ness daily becomes more abundant, while the inequality melts away and $o the Law of the Nature and Decree
;

|lies
1

within the sphere of Virtue.
Lit.
Jfjt
"

Therefore

is is said,

Your

friend
ffi
,

Kung would submit
fettered.

".

2
3

is

used for

That

4

is, Virtue and the Ether. Quoted from Chang Tsai s Cheng Meng

;

see p. 9 of this volume.

122

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Virtue overcomes the Ether
Virtue."

"When

the

Nature

and

Decree follow

,1

do not know

if this is right.
;

Answer. The Ether differs also in purity you cannot speak pf it only as crushing and submerging. But when Virtue fails to overcome the etherial element, what there is of good also proceeds from the fleshly endowment. (Reply,
to

P an Kung
9.

Shu.)

difference between the teaching of Confucius and that of Mencius respecting the Nature is not easy to explain in a few words. 1 But, express it as briefly as possible, the Master spoke of it in combination with the physical,
(p>

The

while Mencius spoke especially of the Law of the Nature. It is because the Master spoke of it in combination with
the physical that he used the term and did nearly alike 2 not say he alike for the "reason that realized that
",
"

"

"

;

men

cannot but differ morally, and yet have not reached
"by

the stage of being
point of view of

Law

practice wide we are told
:

2
apart".

From

the
has

"

The great God

conferred on the inferior people a moral sense." 3 "The 4 people hold within themselves a normal principle of good."
could there at the beginning be two Laws of our But there is that about the indwelling of this being ?

.

How

Law in man which it is not easy to find.. Mencius, therefore, in his explanation to Kung Tu Tzu, expounded the Nature
5
1

l

U
Shu

here

=
;

J

J
cf.

,

to compare.

2

Analects, XVII,

ii,

p. 182.

3
4

Cliing, pp. 185-6.

Odes, p. 541

5

A

disciple of

Mencius

see also p. 54 of this volume. Mencius, p. 279 see Mencius, p. 277.
; ;

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
in terms of

123

1 For example, Capacity and Feelings. is water that if you want to ascertain essentially clear, and cannot get at the source, then observe its flow at a point

man s

ta
n

not Jar

source itself it

from the source, and you will know that at the must be clear. (Reply to Sung Shen Chih.)

10.

Questioned as to

Ming Tao

"

s

words,

The time

receding man s birth and the repose which then exists The repose eeds no discussion," 2 the Philosopher said hich exists at man s birth is before there is any outgoing
:
:

The time preceding is before the birth of e creature, when the term Nature is not applicable. The The moment you apply the term Nature/ refers irase, the post-natal period when Law has become inherent in
the Nature.
"

e physical element,

and so man

s

constitution

is

not wholly

e Nature in its original substance. And yet the original ubstance has not come to be outside of it. It is important

hat

we should recognize at this point that the original bstance of the Nature is not confused with the physical sment. In the Great Appendix of the Ti the
"succession"

xpressions

atal period.
ood,"

and "goodness" refer to the anteThe Nature is Mencius in his dictum,
"

refers to the post-natal period
stillj

;

but even

so,

the

iginal substance is

not confused with the physical

sment.
1

(Reply

to

Yen Shih Heng.)
/f~
:

Mencius, p. 278.

Legge renders
Chinese gloss
"

as

"

natural powers
jfef"

"

;

in his

te

he

quotes
"

the
"

ich he translates e rendering
2

man

See

p.

capacity 97, n. 5

jfc f8 4fco f? o natural powers I have adopted as best fitting the various contexts in this work.

/t*

=

A

s ability, his

".

124
11.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Question.

Ch eng
it

,Tzu said:

the Nature define

simply as what

is

dictum
as
"

The law
l
2
:

of their succession is

who expound spoken of in the the same goodness
"All
,

Mencius
said

refers to

when he

says,

The Nature

of

man

ie

good.

you

Just now, sir, in your reply to Yen Shih Heng The dictum The law of their succession it
"

in the Great Appendix of the refers tc goodness the time before birth, while Mencius in his dictum refer*
,
"Yi,

to the time after

birth."

This seems to

differ

from Ch

enj

Tzu s statement. Answer. The Master Ming Tao s language is lofty, far! The interpretation o seeing, comprehensive, and broad. it must not be restricted to its literal meaning. Sue
3 passages are many. If you hold to a rigid interpretatio you will find that this is not the only passage you will no be able to understand. Grasp the fact that the Nature in it

origin

is

good, that in

its

issue

it is still

no other than gooc

then the meaning of the Great Appendix and Menciu
will appear as perfectly consistent. Hsi Hsiin.)

(Eeply

to

Ou-Yan

The time preceding the birth of tt 12. Question. creature is that referred to in the dictum, "The alternation (
the negative and positive modes is what we term Mori 4 The permeating activity and in the phrase, Law,"
"
<

the Divine
their
1

Decree."

So that the phrase,
goodness,"

"The

law
"

<

succassion
p. 97, n. 5.

is

refers;
2

to

the

tin

See preceding section. the opposite of a round thing which will r "square", along the ground, while a square thing is immovable and rigid. 4 See p. 56.
See
3

Lit.

i.e.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
receding
".

125

Why,
.
.

then, should it be said that
discussion" ?
"

"

The time
certainly

receding )fore the creature
.

needs no
is

For
"

to the time
is

born the word

Nature

ot applicable

;

it is

after the creature has been born that
"

term must be used.
rth

Although you

say,

After

man s

Law

an
vil

s

becomes inherent in the material form, so that constitution is not wholly the Nature in its original
1

ubstance,"

still,

in the etherial

the inevitable presence of both good and endowment is the Nature s flow, while
evil in the

e presence of

But to both you The important thing for .3 student is to embody in life and apply to himself what e finds in the books he reads. Now to say, The moment m apply the term Nature, what you speak has ready ceased to be the Nature," I very much fear, simply men to exhaust their! brains upon an insoluble roblem. 2 Then again, you say 3 that the expressions
,culty is

good and the absence of the Nature s original substance.

moral

ust apply the term Nature.

"

succession"

and

"goodness"

in the

Great
:

efer to the ante-natal period,

that

is

it

is

Appendix what the

rinciple^of the Decree,
"ature
;

which cannot

as yet be called the

while Mencius

dictum concerning the Nature
:

efers

reat

the post-natal period, that is it is what the Appendix of the Ti refers to in the words Their realization is the Nature and not what is referred
to
",

>

in the phrase
1

"

The law

of their succession

is

goodness

".

See Chu Hsi
15:

s

previous answer to the same questioner, p. 123.
examine."

2

ft

=

"

to

3 4

See

p. 123.
f or

JJt is used

g| a
,

principle or law.

126

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the other hand
it

On
*

Ming Tao

says,
is

Nature define

simply as what

All who expound the spoken of in the dictum
"

The law of

their succession is goodness

;

the

same

as
is

Mencius
."

refers to

when he

says

The Nature of man

This again mystifies me. good Answer. This passage I have already explained in the section replying to Hsi Hsiin. 1 There are many such
passages in
literally

Ming Tao s
cannot
is

writings.

If

you

understand

you take them too any of them. The

important thing

letting

meaning and not

aliiow yourself to

go the letter, to grasp the be tied to one way of
to

looking at a passage.
13.

(Reply
"

Yen Shih Heng.)

The
"

Nature

The moment you apply the term phrase, refers to what is received by man. This is Law
but
to

combined with the Ether,
it refers directly to

be

correct,

since

the Nature, you must recognize in the Ether another entity which is not to be confounded with it.
to

As

Chiang Ch nan
is

s

statement that the Nature of lower
evil,

creatures

originally

how can such an
to hand.

idea possibly

be true
well

?

still

Your communication is more earnestly to ponder

You

will do
to

these truths.

(Reply

Li Hui Shu.)

In the passage by Ch eng Tzii, 2 from the sentence Life is what is termed the Nature to what is called life the meaning is What is imparted by Heaven to the universe is called the Decree, what is received by the creature from Heaven is called the Nature. But in the must be of Decree there the Divine permeating activity
14.
"
" "

:

",

1

See

p. 124.

2

See

p. 97, n. 5.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
:he

127

Ethers and the Five Agents interacting and The then only can there be production. consolidating Mature and Decree are immaterial, the Ether is material.
;

Two

lio

immaterial

is

one

all -comprehensive
is

Law,

and

[nvariably good.

The material

endliess

confusion and

Therefore in the miplexity, and is both good and evil. iroduction of man and other creature?, this Ether, with
riiich
ie

they are endowed in order to their production, becomes This repository of the Nature of the Divine Decree.

how Ch eng Tzu expounds the words used by Kao Tzu, Life is what is termed the Nature," l and expresses the The Nature is the Ether and the icught in the words,
"

]ther is the

Nature."
"

In the section, from the sentence All men at their birth :e endowed with the Ether" to the words "cannot be

dd not to be the
Ferences
ie
te

2

nature",

the cause of the necessary;

,of

good and

evil in the etherial

endowment

is

Law

of the Nature.
it is

For in the permeating
is

Ether

the Nature which

|ividing

i

into good and So then it is not that within the ipurity of the Ether. ature there are two mutually opposing principles for fen in the case of the evil in the Ether its Nature is
;

activity of the controlling factor, evil according to the purity or

tiled

other than good, therefore evil cannot but likewise be the Nature. 3 The Master also said, Good and evil
"

both Divine Law.
1

What

is

termed evil

is

not originally

2 See p. 97, n. 5. Mencius, p. 272. 3 Note the paradoxical statements, characteristic of Ming Tao, as if :ended to startle the reader. The context shows clearly that they do

)t

mean what

at

first

sight they appear to

mean.

Evil

is
is

in the

Nature

ly in the sense that it is the perversion cf the

good which

in the Nature.

128
so,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
but becomes so by excess or by
nothing1

shortcoming."

For

there is

in the universe which lies outside the
is

Nature.

All

evil

good originally, but
"
"

it

has lapsed
is
2
",

For life is what In the section, from the sentence termed the Nature to the flow of water downwards
"

the Nature
to

is

express

simply the Nature. .What words are there Therefore even those who excel in it ?

expounding the Nature do no more than expound it in terms of its manifested phenomena, from which the mystery
of the Nature may be apprehended by the intellect, as when Meneius speaks of the Four Terminals. 3 When you see
that water

inevitably flows downwards, you deduce the downward tendency of water and similarly when you see that the outflow of the Nature is inevitably good you deduce
;

its

immanent goodness.
"

In the section, from the words It is with a different origin", 4 the subject

all
is

water

"

"

to!

each

again illustrated

by the clearness and turbidity of water. The clearness of the water corresponds to the goodness of the Nature. Its
flow to the sea without defilement illustrates those in

whom

the etherial

endowment

is clfear
;

from

their

youth are good

and translucent, and who such is the Nature of the Saint;
is

so that in

him the Heavenly type

perfected.

The stream

which, before it has proceeded far on its way, has already become turbid is like one in whom the etherial endowment

and impervious to an extreme, and is evil from his youth. The stream which becomes turbid after it has proceeded some distance in its course, is like one who when
is

deflected

;

1

"

3

See Jf$ pt. Meneius, p 79.
,

iia,

f.

2.

2
4

See

p. 97, n. 5.
n.

See p. 97,

5

PHILOSOPHY
grown up follows
his child-heart
1
"-

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
"

129

has lost after everything he sees, and The varying degrees of turbidity in the

.and impurity in the
jthat

stream are analogous to the varying degrees of cloudiness etherial element. You cannot say
the turbid
is

evil is not the

Nature.

not water, and you cannot say that the But though man is beclouded by

the etherial element, and 30 lapses into evil, the Nature does not therefore cease to be inherent within him. Only,, if you call it the Nature it is not the original nature, and if
\yo\i

say

it is

not the Nature,
"

jBecause this
:bo
i

is so,

men

not separate from it. should not fail to apply themselves
still it is

the

work of

Culture a

man

It is only when by eelfovercomes the etherial element that he knows
purification."

Jthat this

i

all-comprehensive and has not perished, the original water !;hat it is what in the figure is called illthough the stream is turbid the clear water is there never-

Nature

is

"

".

"

i

jheless,
j)lace

so that

you
"

do not bring clear water to take the
;

of the turbid

and when
"

it is

cleansed there

is

no

urbid water, so that you do not take the turbid water nd place it in a spot by itself". From all which the
onclusion
is

that the Nature in its origin is good.

How

an there be within it two principles mutually opposed, nd side by side with each other ?
In the section, from the words
...
"

This

Law
",

is

the Decree

was by this that Shun held possession of 2 be Empire as if it were nothing to him the sentence This Law is the Decree of Heaven includes the beginning lad ending, the root and the fruit. Although the cultivation
f
Heaven"

to

"It

"

|

If

moral principle
Mencius, p. 193.

is

spoken of in relation to
2

human
K

affairs,

1
I

Analects, VIII, xviii, pp. 77-8.

130
still

PHILOSOPHY
the means whereby

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
;

it is

cultivated are nothing else than
it is

the essence of the Divine Decree

own wisdom can

accomplish.

Were

not what man, by his it not for the saints,

man would
of

find

attainments

impossible, therefore the
forth.

Shun 1 is used to set i,t example of Ming Tao s "Exposition of the

(A

discussion

Nature".)

THE DECREE.
(NINETEEN SECTIONS FROM
1.
THE"

CONVERSATIONS".)

The Nature is the source of all things, 2 but in the etherial endowment there are varying degrees of clearness
and turbidity which account for the differences between the sages and the foolish. The Decree is what all beings
alike
receive
;

but in the rotation of the negative and
there is irregularity in varying degrees, exist in the
3

positive ethers

which accounts for the inequalities which
happiness or misery
1

of

man s

lot.

That
Lit.
:

is,

Shim

"

s

possession of the

Empire as if

it

were nothing to him

"

2

The Nature
"

3

former

the source of all things. is identical with Jjj. (Law), Of th the five happinesses and six extremes of misery r( "The first is long life (U), the second riches (S?), tne
".

^

soundness of body and serenity of mind (j^
"

^)?

the fourth the love

o

virtue (fl^ $? $? J fg), and the fifth an end crowning the life Of the six extremes of misery : The first is misfortune shortening th
life

(^

(KI

S

&),

tne second sickness
fifth

(

^),

the third sorrow (|J), th

fourth poverty (j^), the

wickedness

(),

and the sixth weaknes

(||).

See Sriu Ching, pp. 324. 343.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
2.

131

An Ch ing

ways in

asked for an explanation of the different is used, sometimes which the word Decree
1
"
"

referring specially to

Law and

sometimes to the Ether.

They cannot be separated, for, apart from the would have no means of imparting the Heaven Ether, Decree to man, and man would have no means of receiving
Answer.

me
I

Decree conferred by Heaven.

3.

nds

:

You, sir, say that the Decree is of two Question. the one relating to wealth and honour, to life, and
;

longevity
earness

and the other relating to the

difference between

turbidity, perfection and imperfection, the se and foolish, the worthy and degenerate. The one rtains to the etherial element and the other to Law. As look at it, the two kinds both belong to the etherial

and

ement
olish,

because

the

differences

between

the wise

and

the worthy and degenerate, and in the degree of earne&s and turbidity, perfection and imperfection, are the result of the Ether.

Answer.
tiho

That

is true.

The Nature, however,

consists

ethical principles of .the Decree. 3
"Decree"

The word ecree of Heaven
4.

in such a sentence as
Nature"
4

"The

is

what we term the

refers to

Ch en Ch
"Hsien"

un, see p. 195, n. 2.
({J}]) refers to the speaker. class are all related to the

The second
nstitute the
erefore,
s

ethical

essential

nature, which

is

not true

principles which of the first class,

wise and foolish,

though what Hsien says is true, and the difference between etc., is due to the Ether; nevertheless, that they
is

what they are
D.M., p. 247.

also

due to the ethical principles (3E) in them,

ich constitute their essential nature.

132

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
with which

in the passage, These the but there are is the Decree Nature, things concerning them/ * it refers to the measure of man s etherial endow
is
;

Law

man

endowed

"

ment which
5.
"

varies in the degree of its fullness

and depth.
in
the

Question.
2
"

How

does the word

"Decree"

sentences,
Nature,"

The Decree of Heaven is what we term the and Death and life have their Decree," differ
?
"

in meaning

3

Answer. have their
"

Decree

Decree,"

in the sentence, includes the etherial

"

"

Death and

life

element, which,

varies in fullness

and depth. "Decree" in the sentence, The Decree of Heaven is what we term the Nature," refers only to Law. It should be remembered, however, that that which is decreed by Heaven is never really none the less, the, separated from the etherial element statement in the Doctrine of the Mean refers to Law. Mencius in the sentence These things are the Nature, but there is the Decree concerning them includes the etheriai endowment and the sensations of taste and colour in the term Nature and the word Decree in the sentence, These things are the Decree but there is also the Nature,"
;
"

",*

"

"

"

"

;

"

includes

the
is

etherial
5

element.

The

"

statement,

Th(
the

Nature

good,,"

again, refers to

what transcends
"

etherial.
tto .With regard to the statement that 6 the cardinal virtues Master seldom spoke of the Decree

6.

Question.

"

,

Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, are all alik decreed by Heaven, but in the Decree relating to honour
1

:

4

Mencius, p. 365. Mencius, p, 366.

2
5

D.M.,

p. 247.

3 e

Analects, XII, v, Analects, IX,
i,

3, p. 11

Mencius, p. 110

p. 80.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
life,

133

and longevity there are
explain
this ?

different degrees.

How

do

iyou

All are decreed by Heaven. Those whose endowment is pure and bright are saints knd sages, and they receive the ethical principle Those in whom |n its completeness and perfection. endowment is clear and translucent are eminent S;he those ,in whom! it is simple and generous laid refined

Answer.

dtherial

;

lire
l-ncl

gentle

and.

genial

elevated are honourable
;

Ind generous are rich

Extended are long-lived Jeteriorating, attenuated and turbid (one copy reads Those n whom the endowment is decaying and solitary are the
;
:

whom it is clear whom it is abundant those in whom it is enduring and those in whom it is feeble and
;

those
;

in

those in

boor,

[.egenerate, the poor, the
jver
[

the mean, and the short-lived), are the foolish and mean, and the short-lived. When-

Heaven by means of the ethorial element produces man, a large number of other creatures are produced at ne same time. The Philosopher said further: That which Heaven decrees, is true, is one and homogeneous, but in the etherial endowb.ent we find inequalities, and all depends on what that
it

jndowment
erfect.

is like; if it is generous, the ethical principle is I have said before that the Decree is like letters

atent conferred
fficer
..

sent to his office.
:

by the Throne. The Mind is like the The Nature is like the duty of

:

f prefect,

the prefect has the duties belonging to the office and a magistrate those of magistrate. But duty One, and only one. Heaven in producing a man instructs itn in numerous ethical principles, and thereby entrust^
office

mt

134
to

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
:

The ethical duties (another copy reads is like The etherial endowment one is only). principle the emolument honourable status is like high office, lower

him numerous

;

status is like a small post

;

wealth

is
is

like

high pay, and

poverty like small pay

;

longevity

like filling the office
;

for two or three years and then having a second term short ness of life is like one who does not even complete his term

;

and when the Throne sends a man in his wake a numerous retinue.
7.

to his office there follows

Question.
"

For Yen Yuan
short".

"

the time decreed

un

fortunately was
said,
office or not,

1

When Po Niu
"

died Confucius

It is decreed, alas

2
"

!

Confucius said, there no distinction between
"

In regard to his obtaining That is as decreed." 3 Is
in these cases and
is

"decree"

in the dictum,
the Nature
"

The Decree of Heaven
its

what we term

? *

Answer.
its

The Decree in

true

meaning proceeds from

variations proceed from the physical element. The Law, important thing is that in both cases it is imparted by

Heaven.
causing
in
its

Mencius

it to

to fulfil his

That which happens without man s but man ought himself happen he then whatever with is the Decree meets part,
"

said,
is

the Decree

"

;

true sense.
:

of this arose the question At the present time the school which expounds the mystical meaning of numbers 5 according to ang Chieh s theory teaches that all is fixed

Out

K

and unchangeable.
1

What do you

say

?
2 4

3
5

Analects, VI, ii, p. 49. Mencius, p. 241.

Ibid., VI, viii, p. 52.

D.M., p. 247.
ii.

See

J, P.

Bruce, Introduction

to

Chu Hti and

the

Sung School, chap,

PHILOSOPHY
Answer.
All;

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
is

135

gather the main trend of growth and decay, diminution and increase, in the

you can do

to

The saints and sages, how-* negative and positive ethers. Those who in the this not did ever, teaching. emphasize s Chieh theory of numbers as ang present day expound

K

teaching that every single event, and every single thing has its moment of success or failure all such are superficial
in their exposition.
8.

Wen
him.

Yi asked

:

In the plaint of Confucius,
?1
!

"It

is

killing

It is decreed, alas

does the word

"decreed"

refer to the etherial

endowment
:

?

The Philosopher
brevity of

life, it is true,

Life, death, longevity, and replied are the endowment of the Ether.
"

These things Mencius words, are the Nature, but there is the Decree concerning them." 2 Tse Chih 3 asked: What about the word "Decree" in the phrases, Without recognizing the Decree," * and To
to look at
"

You have only

"

know
"

the Decreie of
It

Answer.

Heaven ? 5 has not the same meaning.
"

In the sentence,

To know

the Decree of

whence

this

Law

is

Heaven," the meaning is to know derived. Take water as an illustration.

All know

it

to be water, but the sage
"Without

knows

its source.

In the sentence

ever, the reference is

recognizing the to the Decree of death,

Decree",

how

life,

longevity,
"A

wealth,

and honour.
p. 52.

But Mencius

said again,

man

1

Analects, VI, vii

2

,

Possibly Liu Tse Chih, cf. see p. 300. likely Lin Tse Chih
;

3

^

^f

^

fff

,

pt. iv, p.
5

Mencius, p. 365. 54 but more
;

4

Analects,

XX,

iii,

1 (p.

218).

Ibid., II, iv,

4

(p. 11).

136

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
its

should receive submissively the Decree in in defiance of natural laws, he If,

true

1

meaning."

"stands

beneath

a precipitous wall
meaning.

V

then he has not received

it

in its true

The Master was mild Li Chih quoted the saying, and yet dignified, majestic and yet not fierce, respectful and
"

9.

yet

and with reference fa it asked Those who receive the clear and translucent ether are saints and sages
2

easy";

:

;

those

who

receive the clouded
;

and turbid

ether are foolish

and degenerate those in whom the ether is generous are those in whom it is attenuated wealthy and honourable
;

are poor and lowly. All this is true, but when the sage receives the clear, translucent, equable,, and harmonious Ether

of the Universe he ought to be without any defect, and yet the Master was poor and lowly. How was that ? Can it be that his horoscope was unpropitious Or is it that his
;

endowment was inadequate ? Answer. It is because there was a deficiency in the endowment. His clear and translucent ether could only secure his being a saint and sage it could not guarantee his being wealthy and honourable. Those in whom the endowment is elevated are honourable those in whom it is
; ;

generous are rich
lived.

;

those in

whom

it is

extended are long-

and short-lived the reverse is the case. Although the Master was endowed with the clear and translucent ether and was therefore a sage, while on the other hand his endowment was low and attenuated, and therefore his lot was one of poverty and lowliness. Yen Tzu
.In the poor, lowly,
1

Mencius,

p. 326.

Analects, VII, xxxvii, p.

71,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
1

137

was not even equal to Confucius, being endowed with the contracted ether, and so was short-lived as well as poor. Question. The negative and positive ethers should be
equal and homogeneous, and therefore the worthy and degenerate ought to be in equal proportions. How is it that the noble-minded are always few and the ignoble always

many

?

Answer.

It is because the

phenomena of the two
:

ethers

are so complex and intricate as to make equality impossible. Take coins thrown in gambling as an illustration l it is

very rarely that they turn up all alike, more often they are mixed. It is simply that the Ether, either at an earliier
or
at

a later

stage

is

alloyed and complex

;

the Ether

received, therefore, cannot be perfectly fitting,

and

so

can

not be evenly proportioned. For example, in any one day, it may be cloudy or bright, windy or rainy, cold or hot,
clear

see

and sparkling, or keen and biting so that you may many changes in the oourse of one day. Question. Although the Ether is alloyed and complex,
;

yet after all there are but two ethers, the one negative and the one positive how can there be all this inequality ?
;

If there were but as you put it. a single negative and a single positive ether, then there would be equality. But it is because of tho infinite variety

Ansiver.

It is not

and complexity of their phenomena that we cannot meet with that which would be exactly suitable.
The allusion is to the process of gambling by which several coins are thrown by the gambler on to a stone slab if all are obverse or all reverse the gambler wins, if they are mixed he loses. Obviously it is a rare and
1
;

lucky chance that gives them to the gambler.

138

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

In that case Heaven and Earth l produce the saints and sages by accident and not intentionally.

Answer.
Earth
to

Whenever

it is

the intention of
is

Heaven and
thefe in due

produce a saint or sage the Ether

proportion, and thus the
will of

saint or sage is produced.

The
by the

very fact that he is produced seems to

show that

it is

Heaven.

Ching Tzu 2 asked a question about natural pro portions in the etherial endowment. Answer. There are those in whom the etherial endow ment is generous and their happiness is full, or the Ether is attenuated and the happiness is meagre. Those in whom the etherial endowment is bright and glittering have abundance of riches those in whom it is weak and feeble are in humble station. When the Ether is extended there
10.
;

is

long life when it is contracted there is premature death. This is a necessary law. Question. Is there any foundation for the doctrine of
;

spirits

and

fairies ?

But certainly exist. their work is generally speaking difficult. It is only when they lay aside every tiling else, and concentrate on the task
says not
?

Answer.

Who

They

in hand, that they can accomplish
1
"

it.
"

Note : the expression Heaven and Earth is here used interchangeHeaven alone; cf. the last sentence in the answer ably with the term to this question. See J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung
"
"

School, chap.
2

xii.

Li

Fan

(^
"

$g),

style

Ching Tzu, a native of

Nan

K ang,
s

where

Chu Hsi held

office,

and a

death he was invited by
President of the

After Chu Hai a disciple of the Philosopher. the Governor of Nan ang to the post of

K

Whita Deer College

",

associated with

Chu Hsi

name.

PHILOSOPHY
He
said further
:

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

139

I saw in a famous temple pictures of

the patron saints representing them 1 as majestic and heroic. It must he that they stood out thus as heroes among men.

Thus Miao Hsi, in praise of a Buddhist priest, says, Originally if it had not been for this religion he would And sight was certainly have been a great chief." enough to convince one that the remark was true. How
"

t<he

avarice hold ensnared

could riches, honour, gain, advancement, music, women, or man with such a countenance ? He
>a

regarded them all as powerless to move him. Some one asked If the Buddhists had not picked up, would he have followed our Confucian cult ?
:

him

Answer.
a

but simply a man of independence and individuality, a man who in all that he did must be conspicuous. If a sage had taken him up,
",

He was still not of 2 King Wen rouse themselves

the sort

who

"without

probably he would have been all right. But at that time our teaching was obscure and eclipsed. Scholarship

Such a man as this could no more be controlled by such pedantic teaching than a dragon or tiger. He was bound to break loose very soon. There can be no doubt of that. The serious tiling is that it went so far that good men were led away by these Buddhist
consisted of stilted phrasing.
saints.

11.

Question.

and honour are
1

-With reference to the statement, "Riches 3 decreed," how did the low and mean, such
s

A

%f here means a man
speech.

appearance.
$

It

is

frequently so used in
3, p. 117.

modern
2

Mencius, p. 320.

Analects, XII, v,

140

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

as appeared in after ages, obtain riches and honour in the time of the three dynasties of Yao and Shun ? 1

Answer. In the period of the three dynasties of Yao and Shun they did not attain to riches and honour. That they did so in kter generations was because it was so
decreed.

Question.
uncertain,

In

that
?

case

the

etherial

endowment

is

is it

not

to
is

Answer. For those endowed with this kind of ether be born in a favourable time 2 is because the Decree
favourable.

For the same phenomenon

to appear

in
is
".

another than this particular age is because there is what spoken of as the natural endowment just fitting the age
"

For example, that 400,000 men died
because they fell into the hands of

at
i

Ch ang P
3
.

Po Ch

ing was That he should

be the one they should come into collision with, was owing to the Decree.
12.

When

the saints and sages are in high position
is

it is

When equable and harmonious. otherwise it is because their Ether is unequal in its flow. Therefore in some the Ether is clear, and these are intelligent
because their Ether

but without wealth.

In others the Ether is turbid, and they are wealthy but without knowledge. In both cases the 1 That is, of Yao, Shun and Yil. 2 The first low and (this ether) refers to the ether of the Jfc mean the second (this time) to the later generations in which they
" "

"

"

"

"

;

obtain
3

"

riches

and honour
is

".

to the incident which took place in a war between the feudal states of Ch in and Chao in the third century B.C. Four hundred
allusion

The

thousand

men

of

Chao were treacherously pu: to death at a place

called

Ch ang P

ing, after surrendering to the enemy under Po Ch i, the mander-in- chief of the Ch in forces. See Giles Biog. Diet., p. 629.

com-

PHILOSOPHY
determining factor
is

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

141
Yao,

in the proportions of the Ether.

1 Shun, Yii, Kao, .Wen, Wu, Chou, and Shao all received the Ether in its perfection, whereas tho Ether as received 2 by Confucius, Mencius, Yi, and Ch i was imperfect. In the period of the Five Dynasties, after exceedingly turbulent

times, there again appeared

numerous
the

saints

and sages
of

as

though revolving cycle patriarchal times came round once more. (The Yang record It is the same principle as is expressed in the saying, says 3 It is like "A great fruit which has not been, eaten.")
:

in

the

statesmen

the

renewal of energy when he awakes from a deep (The Yang record adds Now, however, is a time of sleep. deceit and folly from which we have not yet awakened.
a
:

man s

When
1

the extreme of disorder fails to reach

its

limit in the

All these are celebrities mentioned in the

Shu Ching.

The

first

three

famous emperors, Yao, Shun, and Yii. The third was Shun a Then follow the two kings Wen and Wu, and minister Kao Yao. lastly the two dukes, Chou and Shao, mentioned in the Books of Chow. See
are the three

Shu Ching, p. 420. 2 For Yi and Ch
sons of

They were Po Yi and Shu Ch i, kingdom to Shu Ch i, who refused to take the place of his elder brother Po Yi. Po Yi in turn declined the throne, so they both abandoned it and retired into obscurity. When
i,

see Analects, V, xxii.
"

King

Ku

Chu.

Their father

left his

King

their appearance,

was taking his measures against the tyrant Chou, they made and remonstrated against this course. Finally, they died of hunger, rather than live under the new dynasty." See Analects, p. 45 and note. They were thus a noble instance of the ether being

Wu

favourable to virtue, but not to material wealth or power. 3 The quotation is from the Yi Ching (p. 106). The picture is of one large specimen of fruit which remains on the tree, the one survivor of the autumn gathering. The passage occurs in a chapter which treats of the * Small men decay of the power of the good, but with hope of its return.

have gradually displaced good the lesson for him is to wait.
"

men and great, ... A change

till

but one remains

;

and

for the better will shortly

appear

(See Legge a note, pp. 106-7.)

142

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
iii its

course of fifty or sixty years, the Ether becomes fixed dormant condition and does not revive. Alas, the

pity

of

it

I

)

The Philosopher was questioned about I Oh uan and 1 Heng Ch/ii s theory of the Decree and Chance.
13.

Answer.
of the

What

is

termed the Deere

is

like the

Emperor

to

occupy some

official post.

command The degree

of simplicity and ease, of complexity and difficulty, and the question where one can succeed and where not, belong to the

Decree of the particular period. All one has to do is to go Therefore Mencius says simply: and occupy the post. 2 Every thing is decreed." But there is what is truly called the Decree and what is only indirectly so. 3 What I mean by the true Decree is what Heaven appoints for me at the
"

beginning, euch as loyalty in serving piety in serving my father, in which
included.

my

prince

and

filial

many

principles are

The differing degrees of fullness and depth, on the

other hand, pertain to the etherial endowment, which though it would not be right not to call it the Decree, is still not the
true Decree.
"

Death under handcuffs and

"

fetters

4

can

not be described as not the Decree, for the simple reason that it results from a perverse ether with which the subject
1

I
"

Ch uan was asked the
to

difference

between the decree and chance
"

"to meet with calamity or not thus denying the existence of chance. Heng Ch ii is not so clear ; he said that to explain the difference in recompense for the same deeds was as difficult as to explain the difference between decree and

(j[

meet wit k

")

an(* replied that

is

decreed

chance.
2 3

See JjJ ^ff, pt.

xviii,

f.

23.

4

See Mencius, p. 325. For the force of the word J See Mencius, p. 326.

see Mencius, p. 325.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
was originally endowed, but
to call it the true
"

143

Decree would

be wrong. Therefore the noble man trembles as if on the because his brink of a deep gulf, or t-reading on thin ioe in its true Decree the desire is to receive submissively

V

meaning, and not that which is only indirectly termed such. Again, if a man says he is destined to die in water or fire,
he does not, on that account, himself leap into the water, or But what is needed to-day is to regard it fire, and die. simply as the Decree, and not concoct a number of fine
distinctions, saying, this is the Decree and that these are uniform and those are diverse. 2
is

Chance,
"

14.
is

Question.
"

Does the exclamation of Confucius,
3

It

decreed, alas

!

mean

that [in the case of

Po Niu]

the

proportion of the Ether determining his life was exhausted
at this point
?

Answer.
this

It

way.

The Decree

was that he received his endowment in just is like what we have said before
There are two kinds of Decree, is the Decree which includes the
is

concerning man s mind. There not two Decrees.
physical,
15.

and there

is

the Decree which
"

wholly Law.

Question. In tha t part of the Literary Remains"* in which the Decree is discussed, what is the meaning of the The sages were not ignorant passage in the commentary,
t
"

of the Decree, but in

human
"

affairs
?

they did not fail to

use their utmost endeavour
1

See Analects, VIII,
for the

ii

(pp. 72-3).
ii

2

Probably referring to Heng Ch

s

remark

about^the"
;"

difference in

recompense
3
4

Introduction to

same deeds (fj [p] ^g fl) Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. vi.
viii (p. 52).
.

see J.

P.

Bruce,

See Analects, VI,

The

-

Jf

144

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
is
"

Answer. For man there receive must not fail to
1

certainly the Decree, but he it submissively in its true
"

meaning",

as taught in the words,

He who

understands

what the Decree is will not stand beneath a precipitous 1 is decreed", goes and stands If a man, saying wall." beneath a precipitous wall and the wall falls and crushes attributed solely to the Decree. In human him, it cannot
"It
t>e

affairs

when a man has done

his utmost

you may

talk of

the Decree.
16.

length of a

Heng Ch ii man s
is

said,
life."

"The

unchangeable thing
is

is

the

It is important to bear in

mind

that this too

changeable, but the statement

true in the

main.
17.

Question.

With

"

reference to the statement,
s

That

which happens without man 2 Decree" in the case of Pi
:

causing
s

Kan

the happen death, from the point
it to
3

is

of view of

Law it may be

called the

Decree in
"

its

true sense,

but not surely from the point of view of the etherial element. Answer. How can you say so ? Death sustained in the
discharge of duty
is

the Decree in

its

true

sense."

4

When

one who ought to die does not die, that is to lose the Decree in its true sense. This kind of passage must bo looked at broadly, as when Mencius said, Death under handcuffs
*

2 See Mencius, pp. 325-6. Mencius, p. 235. Pi Kan was uncle to the tyrant Chou, the last Emperor of the Yin dynasty, 1153-1122 B.C. Owing to his remonstrances against his nephew s tyranny he was thrown into prison, where to escape death he
3

1

Pi Kan, persisting in his remonstrances, was bar feigned madness. barously put to death, the tyrant having his heart torn out that he
"

might

see,
4

he said, a sage s Mencius, p. 326.

heart."

See Analects, XVIII,

i,

i

(p.

195).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and

145

fetters is not the Decree in its true sense," 1 you must have regard to what Mencius himself meant. And again, in the case of Kung Yeh Ch ang, who, "although he was put

had not been guilty of any crime," 2 if he had died in bonds you could not have said his was not the true Decree.
in bonds,

He

could say with truth, innocence or guilt rests with How the ancients by their death could establish myself." 3 virtue, and what they could accomplish after their death

"

My

may

be seen in
"

this.

It is

he says,
"

I will let life go

what Mencius refers to when and choose righteousness," 4 and
never forgets that his end the brave officer never forgets Let the student get a clear

again,

The determined

officer
;

may be in a ditch or a stream that he may lose his head."

5

grasp of this principle, and when face to face with the, choice between gain and loss, he will willingly give himself up to be
cut in pieces.
6

high.

He must be set, too, like a wall 10,000 rods But now-a-days, if there be a question of choice

between even small gain or injury, there is calculating comparison. How can it be correct to speak of death in the case you mention as not the Decree in its true sense ?
"

18.

Heaven and Earth have a mindless Mind

"

"

;

The

Fu

diagram represents one positive mode as produced under

1

Mencius, p. 136.

2

Kung Yeh Ch ang was
bonds

the son of Confucius.
;

Nothing

is

known

aa

to the cause of his
3
6

See Analects, V, i, p. 36. 4 5 Analects, xv, viii, p. 161. Mencius, p. 287. Ibid., p. 265. That is, so that no temptation can get over his resolute will. The
.

word rod ({$)

is

a measure equal to 7 or 8

feet.

L

146

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE
:

the negative
"

this is the

Mind which delights in creating

"

l
;

The

great
2
;
"

God has
The
"

sense

"

conferred on the inferior people a moral way of Heaven is to bless the good and

3 these passages indicate that there is punish the evil a Person, as it were, 4 ruling in it all. The Mind is His agent, and the Feelings are His purpose.

The further question was asked 5 How may we know what are the Feelings of Heaven and Earth ? Answer. Man is true and great, whence we may know that the Feelings of Heaven and Earth are true and great. But the truth and greatness of Heaven and Earth are
:

absolute

;

there

is

never anything false, there

is

never any

thing small in them.

When we consider the inequalities of the Question. seem as if there is not really One who does it not Decree,
19.

imparts

it to

intricate complexity

man, but rather that the two ethers in their and inequality follow wherever they

happen
1

to strike, and,
is

knowing that these
s

inequalities do

This passage

quoted from Chu Hsi

commentary on the

F

Ching.
"

It

must be taken
:

which says "Do Yi Ching, p. 233. Legge in his note on the same page says The Mind of Heaven and Earth is the love of life and of all goodness that rules in the course of nature and providence."
"

in conjunction with the passage in the First Appendix we not see in Fu the mind of Heaven and Earth ? See
:

2
3 4

Shu Ching,
The

p. 185. Ibid., p. 186.

translation here given

is literal,

as also
s

on p 147.
s

The

discussion

of its import goes to the heart of

Here it is Hsi, etc., chap. xii. the phrase as meaning a Person,
universe.

teaching, see Introd. to Chu sufficient to say that the Translator regards

Chu Hsi

i.e.

the Supreme Personality ruling in the

5 The 5C suggests that there was a previous question not recorded, to which the preceding paragraph is the answer.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
not proceed from
as decreed

147

man
?

s

town powers, people speak of
flow. from the

them

by Heaven

Answer.
there
is
is

They simply
V

Great Source.

The

phenomena may
not really

be such as would lead one to think that

0ne imparting

the Decree

;

but that there
things
" "

a personal Being above us by whose
to
pass,,
"

command these
Odes

come
"

seems to be taught by the

and

in such passages, for example, as speak of the wrath of the Supreme Ruler. But still, this Ruler is none
is nothing In the passage which says, The great God has conferred on the inferior l the very word confer people a moral sense,, conveys

Records

other than

Law.
"

In the whole universe there
the term Ruler.

higher than

Law and hence
*

"

"

tho idea of

One who

exercises authority.
is
!

Question. indicated by
2

"Great

Yuan, the principle of Origin,

Ch ien
"The

From

it

all

things derive their
is

beginning"

;

method, of
2
;

Ch ien

to change arid

transform so that everything obtains

its correct
fill

Nature as
"

ordained by
"

Heaven"

"All

things
"

the universe in
;

an endless succession of production and reproduction The ssun goes and the moon comes The cold goes and the heat comes 3 in the phenomena referred to in these passages, (and in the causes at work in the rushing wind, the torrent of rain, the rivers flow, and the mountain peaks,
"

;

"

is it

that the

Empyrean

truly possesses the power which
;

and transforming processes or is it that the simply Supreme Ultimate is the PIVOT on which all transformations turn, and therefore that the universe is
controls the creative

what
1

it is

by a

process of self -evolution
2

?
*

Shu Ching,

p. 185.

Yi Ching,

p. 213.

Ibid., p. 389.

148

PHILOSOPHY
This
is

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

Answer.
answered.

the same question as the one already

(THREE SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

"COLLECTED

WRITINGS".)

People

reckon

prosperity of

men

and happiness, longevity, by the time of their birth in its con
the

1 junction with the Celestial Stemkaraid! Terrestrial Branches, 2 together with the quality of the Ether indicated by them.

Although the art is apparently simple, it nevertheless frequently happens that the calculations of its disciples are For the means whereby not very successful in detail. Heaven arid Eiarth produce all things are no other than the
1

The

Celestial

Stems (Jf

f) and Terrestrial Branches

(ftjj

])

are the ideographs used to denote the days of the month and the sixty years of the Chinese cycle. There are ten of the former and twelve of the

so latter, of which two numbers sixty is the least common multiple ; that the two series, combined together in fixed order, give sixty different combinations, one for each year of the cycle. The Celestial Stems repre sent the Five Agents, two stems for each Agent, corresponding to which are the five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Mercury. Each planet bears the name of its corresponding Agent, and is represented by

Thus Jupiter is the Wood Planet, Mars the Fire Planet, Saturn the Earth Planet, Venus the Metal Planet, and Mercury the Water Planet. The Terrestrial Branches represent the
the same combination of Stems.

twelve signs of the Zodiac, and the twelve periods into which the divided. Each of these signs, in both series, represents either the

day is Yin or the Yang according to the order of their notation, the odd numbers and in com referring to the latter and the even numbers to the former bination they represent different proportions of these two modes of the Ether.
;

From this it will readily be seen how men s horoscopes may be made to indicate the proportions of the Two Modes in their etherial endowment, with variations ad infinitum.
2

$I

W

is

^e kind of ether, whether Ligneous or

Caloric, etc., indicated

by the horoscope.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Two Modes and Five
Agents.
expansion, their diminution

149

Their contraction and and increase, their intricacy and

transformations, are truly beyond the power of human while the difference between the wise and investigation
;

foolish,

between the highly placed and the lowly, does not represent more than a liair s breadth of difference in the

degree of translucence and fulness in the Ether imparted to the creature. Is it to be supposed that such a science

can be easily understood ? Mr. Hsii is a Confucian scholar and understands this science. He thinks deeply, and most
of his pronouncements are accurate, and confirmed as correct. If those who are high-minded come into contact with him

and seek to know their horoscope, not only will his art be adequate to win their faith in the art itself and increase its fame, but it willj also enable them to realize that the
proportion in which the etherial endowment was received by them at birth is even as thus reckoned, and so learn that
wealth, honour,

and fame are not

to

be obtained by coveting

them, nor poverty, lowliness, and calamity to be avoided by
skill. They will therefore take the straight path and follow Destiny and their own virtuous resolves. Thus, at one go, evil habits will be changed, and there will be a return

man s

to those customs of honesty, incorruptibility,

and modesty,

which have been handed down
all this

to us

from our ancestors

may be achieved by the help of Mr. Hsii. But none the less will he teach those who are sons to rely on filial
piety,

and those who are statesmen
"

their true destiny.

When

to rely on loyalty, for neither premature death nor

long life causes a

man

to hesitate, but, cultivating

his

personal character, he awaits them, whatever the issue

may

150
be

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
this is the

way

in which he establishes

Ms

1

destiny."

(A Preface on Tuan Shu.)

the subject of Destiny written for

Hsu

is exhaustively to {strong desire Question. laws the the of but the phenomena universe, investigate
12.

My

2

are so multifarious that I cannot find
to begin.

any point
is

at

which

At

present

all,

I can

(see

that riches

and

honour are not to be obtained by coveting them, and poverty and lowliness are not to be avoided by our own efforts.

from the point of view of Destiny you must further consider, from the point of view of Righteousness, whether you ought to seek them and whether you ought to avoid them and still further, from the point of view of duty, you must examine your
Answer.
;

What you

say

is

;

desires as to why you seek or avoid them. Moreover, must know whether it is or loss, glory or shame, gain you which will have the greatest effect upon your own moral gain and loss, advantage and injury, and so have that whereby you will be able to take a stand. (Reply to Chu Fei

own

Ch

ing.)

3. Question. The fact that some men are long-lived and others suffer premature death is due to the Ether the fact that some are wise and some are foolish is also because of the Ether. Longevity and premature death proceed from
;

1

Menciua, p. 325.

2

_
fifc

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
the Ether, and therefore, while all alike receive
is
life,

151
there

a difference between Yen Tzu and the Rohber Chih.. The wisdom of the wise and the foolishness of the foolish both

proceed from the Ether, and therefore, while both alike are in their essential Nature good, there are different types of men such as Yao and Chieh. 1 Now I thought that the

Ether of the Universe was one, that the cause of long life and premature death was this Ether, and that the source
of the difference between the wise

and the foolish was

this

same Ether.

But when we think of the Robber Chih, an extreme instance of folly and yet long-lived, and Yen Tzii, the acme of wisdom and yet subject to premature death, it looks as if the Ether of longevity and the Ether of wisdom were not the same. Ming Tao in his epitaph on Ch eng Shao Kung says Having regard to the trouble he met with in his time, that his days could not be many was well. My ^on So pure and yet so contracted was the Ether he received Considering this carefully, it would seem that
"

:

!

"

!

the jEther differs in clearness and in extension.
it is clear,

Because
it is
is
;

we have
Because

the wise

man

;

but though clear
of
his

contracted,

and therefore

the

measure

life

contracted.

it is turbid,

we have

the foolish

man

but though turbid it is extended, and therefore the measure of his life is extended. I am not sure whether I am correct
or not.

1

Yen Tzu was

the favourite disciple of Confucius, and the Robber

Chih was a famous robber of the same period ; see Mencius, p. 161 and note. Yao was the famous sage emperor. Chieh was the notorious tyrant emperor, the last of the line of Hsia, and overthrown by T ang, the founder of the Shang dynasty. See Shu Ching, p. 170.

152

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

Answer. Your explanation is correct. It is the same But before the Three Dynasties * with honour and wealth the proportion of the Ether was generous and abundant,
.

was unfailingly full and and sages were at the same time Afterwards it came to honourable, long-lived, and wealthy and therefore the
clear

Etjher

extended/ so that the saints

.

be the opposite.

(Reply

to

Cheng Tzu Shang.)

2

CAPACITY.
(THREE SECTIONS FROM THE
Question.

3

"CONVERSATIONS".)

What

is

the difference between the Feelings

and Capacity ? Answer. The Feelings are the roads and paths issuing from the Mind. Capacity is the power of the Feelings to emanate from the Mind in a particular way. For example, the difference is due solicitude may be earnest or otherwise
:

to a difference in Capacity.

In that case the operations of the Question. Capacity are of the same class.

Mind and

Answer.

Capacity

is

up

of etherial force.

The Mind is the
is

the power of the Mind, it is made controller and ruler ;

it is

in this that its greatness consists.

The Mind may be
the
;

likened to water.
principle, as it were,

The Nature

the law of water

which resides in water as still Feeling is the principle which works in water as moving; Desire is the
1

That

is,

2

See p.

5, n. 3.

the three Emperors, Yao, Shun, and Yu. 3 See p. 123, n. 1

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

153

flow of water extending to an overflow Capacity is the force of which reason it is physical by possible for water
to
flow,

the

difference

in

the

rapidity

of

its
is

flow

corresponding to the difference in Capacity.
I

Ch uan means when he
element." 1

ment of
etherial

what The Nature is the endow Heaven, and Capacity is the endowment of the
This
"

says,

2. The Nature is the law of the Mind. The Feelings aro the activities of the Mind, Capacity is the power of the Feelings to act in a certain way. Feeling and Capacity are in fact nearly alike. But the Feelings

are called forth

by contact with
;

object, their roads
is

and
to be

paths are crooked and curved sO. Bear in mind that the

Capacity

their

power

web of

consciousness with its

innumerable threads proceeds wholly from the Mind.
3.

Some pne asked
"

:

In the

"Collected Comments" it

Capacity is akin to ence between these two ?
is said,

ability."

What

is

the differ

Answer.

The word
"Ability"

"

"

The word
"

refers to the principles. refers to their operation. In the

Capacity

passage, When people see the bare and stripped appearance of the mountain they think it was never finely wooded," 2

Mencius uses the word ts
the
"It
"

ai with the

"wood"

radical

3

with

meaning is not owing
P*- 18,
*

of

suitable in operation

".

In the

sentence,

to their natural capacity conferred

by

1

3
^f,

19",

2

lff>

Mencius, p. 283.
"

3

"

finely

wooded

is

the same word as that rendered

"

ability

above.

154

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
A

Heaven, that they are thus moral principles.
Question.

different,"

tho reference

is

to

The word

"

"

Capacity

is

used with, reference
"

to its explaining mental operations. includes the corporeal, does it not ?

The word

"

ability

Answer.

Yes,

it

includes the corporeal, hence

you speak
?

of useful abilities.

Question.

Is it not similar to the

word materials

Answer.

Yes.

(ONE SECTION FROM THE
1.

"

COLLECTED WRITINGS

".)

The use

!of

the

word

"Capacity"

by Mencius and

Ch eng Tzu is different. As the teachings of saints and saiges, we learners of a later generation would not venture But on. such to criticize. subject as this we need
a,

only to realize the truth
in order to understand

and recognize
it
;

it

in our

own persons
apprehend
"

nor

shall

we

fail to

the reasons for the correctness
of our predecessors.
it is

and accuracy or otherwise
"

Thus in the Collected Comments out that Ch eng Tzu is very detailed, while pointed
1

2

in

what Mencius says lacunae have not been altogether avoided. To-day we are iguided solely by Ch eng Tzu and gather from his teachings what we need to make up what is lacking in Mencius. Thus nothing is lost to truth, and, at the same time, the w ritings of (both are found to be not seriously conflicting. (Reply to Lin Shu Ho.)
r

1

Mencius, p. 280.

2

The Collected Comments

of

Chu

Hsi.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE
BOOK
III

BEING BOOK XLIV OF

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF CHU HSI

MIND

BOOK
MIND
(FORTY-NINE SECTIONS FROM
1
.
"

III

THE CONVERSATIONS

".)

Chih Tao l said

:

Lin Cheng Ch ing said Ultimate. Chih Tao raised the question with the Master. Such points are very minute and The Master replied difficult to explain. It would seem that Mind is both active and passive. Its substance is termed Flux, 2 its law is termed Moral Law, and its operation is termed Spirit." 3 Chih Ch ing 4 in expanding and explaining this statement The Master s teaching is very ripe, he expresses him said self easily, and always explains a subject thoroughly.
:

Mind is the Supreme Ultimate. Mind is indwelt -by the Supreme

:

"

:

1

Surnamed Chao

(

jg)

;

cf. p.

387.

the same as that whioh occurs in the title of ( J^), the Yi Ching (The Canon of Changes), the book on which the philosophy cf. J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hs\ of our school is professedly based here translated "Flux", is and the Sung School, chap. x. Yi,"

2

The word

is

Yi

;

"

used to represent the substance of Mind, the material of which it is com posed. The word itself in such a connexion inevitably reminds us of the
doctrine of
Heraclitus.
all

But
also
1

things as a perpetual flux in the Sung School there

and reflux, enunciated by was a further development
,

of its meaning, as indicated here in the text.
pt.
3

i, f.

19)

;

Cf.
,

note

Cf. T ung Shu, f. 19 1352 J Complete Works, book xlix, f. 16. The whole sentence is by I Ch uan ; see on p. 159.

style of Huang Kan (3^ ^), a native of Foochow, who held office in Hupeh and Anhui. He was a disciple and son-in-law of Chu Hsi, and assisted his teacher and relative in the commentary on

P t.i,f.4. it 4 Chih Ch ing was the

the Li Chi (Book of Rites)

;

see Giles

Biog. Diet,, p. 335.

158

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
asked

Huo Sun
termed

Flux,"

In the statement, Its substance ia what is meant by the word "substance" ?
:

"

Answer. Substance,

is

not substance as used in contrast to

1 operation, but rather in_ he sense of material, as if we said, the material of which Mind is composed is to be defined as

FluXjjvnd

Law is the Nature.

taken not too literally. has its different connexions
"Love

The word
;

Passages of this kind need to be mind for example,
"

",

as in the

statement by

man s mind/ 2 in. which Love is saidi Mencius, to be man s Mind and Mind is regarded as in combination with Law while in the passage, There was Yen Tzu, for three months his Mind did not offend Love," 3 Mind
is
"

;

the ruler and is said to do nothing contrary to Love. 4 must look at the connexion and then we shall be jdght.
is

We

2.

The law

of the

activity

and repose
alone

Mind is the Supreme are the Two Modes.
is

Ultimate,

its

3.

Mind

absolute.

4. Question. or the Nature ?

Is the spiritual faculty in

man

the

Mind
the

Answer.
Nature.
1

The spiritual faculty The Nature is Law.

is

Mind and

not

Cf; the

same double meaning
p. 290.

of the English word.

2
3

Mencius,

Analects, VI,

referred to
*

by

That

is,

v (p. 50). N.B. Yen Tzu in the name Hui (fBJ) instead of Love being identical with Mind
his
.

original passage

is

it is

spoken of as

if

it

were a principle distinct from Mind.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
5.

159
the
isi

Question.
1

With regard
of the
?

to consciousness
is

:

is it

spiritual faculty

Mind

that

thus conscious, or

it

the action of the Ether

Answer.

It

is

not
.

wholly etherial.

There

is first

the

law of consciousness But Law in itself cannot he conscious: there must be union with the etherial element before there
can be consciousness.
candle, it is

Take for example the flame of
it

this

because

receives this rich fat that

we have
?

so

much

light.
Is the efflux

Question.

from the Mind Ether

Answer.
6.

No,

it is

simply consciousness.

Mind ia QoflacfamsnftaR a.nd the .Nature is Law. How do the Mind and Law come to be united as one ? ^~Anwer. You must not think of their being made to
Question.
unite.

They

start united.

Question.

How

do they start united

?

Answer.
which"

La_w.apart_from

Mind would have nothing

in

lu irnhepa*

7.
8.

Mind

is

the pure and refined portion of the Ether. 2
" "

Expounding the word mind the Philosopher said: One word will cover it, namely, Life. "The highest attribute of Heaven and Earth is the production of life. 3
*

with this difference, Ling (f[|) and Shen (jp$) both mean spirit is substance and ling operation, a favourite distinction with the Chinese philosopher. Because of this meaning of ling, it has often the meaning of intellect, or intellectual ; and may be good or evil, whereas shen is only good, like the Nature in its source as distinguished from its
1
"

",

that shen

flow.
2 The Ether is regarded as of two kinds, the grosser and denser portion becoming physical, and the finer or purer portion becoming mind or spirit. 3 Yi Ching, p. 381.

160
It is

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

by receiving the Ether of Heaven and Earth that man lives therefore the Mind must love, for Love is life.
;

9.

In your consideration of the

Mind you must combine

the ideas of immensity 1 and permeating activity, and then add that of the Vital Impulse. 2 Ch eng Tzu, too, defined

Love as the life-producing Mind of Heaven and Earth which means that immensity is an attribute of Heaven and Earth, and that in the production of things their activity
;

permeates

the

universe

in

endless

production

and

reproduction.
10.

Mind and Law
by
side with
:

entity side
thetm.se] ves.

Law is not a separate but inherent in Mind. Mind Mind,
are one.
issues forth as

cannot be confined

it

phenomena present
:

At this the Philosopher smiled and said Saying this makes one smile. It is just like a library with all the books removed and a lamp lighted on all sides and in every
:

corner

it will

be flooded with brilliant light just as

it is

here at this spot. 3 To-day, however, few people are able to look at the matter in this way.
11.

Question.

Mind

as

a distinct entity possesses

all
1

laws in their completeness, so that the good manifested
1
" "

The expression refers to the power of the Mind to immensity penetrate in thought to an infinity of distance, whether in space or time ;
of.
2

pp.

170-L

See J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hs\ and the Sung School, chap. xiii. 3 That is, instead of the shadows created by the books obscuring the It must be confessed that the application of the simile is difficult light.
to follow.
It suggests the Philosopher s favourite doctrine of the
Cf. p. 164.

Ether

and Law.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
undoubtedly proceeds from the Mind.
evil

161

But what about the
desire
?

manifested, which

consists entirety of the selfishness of

the material
also

endowment and creaturety from the Mind ? proceed

Does

this

Answer.

Mind,

It is not indeed the original substance of the but_it~ fllsft pro^-pAds fram t^ A Min^
*

Question.

Is this

what

"

-*-""

is

called the-

natural

mind

"~~"^~"-^

"

1

?

Answer.
"

Yes.
:

Tzu Sheng, following on the above, asked natural mind include both good and evilj
"

DQR^

f,hg_

Ansiver.

Yes, both are included^

12. Question. Is there any connexion between bodily movements and the Mind ? Answer. How can it be otherwise ? It is the Mind which causes bodily movements.

Before there are any stirrings of pleasure, Question. anger, sorrow, or joy, the body exercises its functions for example, the eyejsees and, the ear^ hears. Is this before
;

or after the activity of the Mind ? Answer. That, as yet, there are no stirrings of pleasure,

bat sight, hearing, and anger, sorrow, or joy, is one thing locomotion also imply the presence of Mind. If the Mind
;

is

ignorant of the bodily movements, then and has not noticed them, in which case
1

it is

to

not present before say
"

?

aetLvity>

M8~Tiot~ttp^
js

activity"

does not
It is

mean that the Mind
1

steeped in unconsciousness.
if?)
is

The
"

"natural

mind"

(^

contrasted with the

"

spiritual

mind
n. 1.

(?j[

J&).jn the Shu CUng,

p. 61.

See also p. 19 of this volume,

M

162

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

spoken of the Mind as continually awake, and not as though it were asleep, as your way of expressing it would suggest.

and conscientiousness, and joy, are, it is true,, the outcome pleasure, anger, sorrow, of the Mind, as may be clearly and easily seen from the
13.

Question.

Solicitude

fact that before their issue is the time of perfect stillness

and repose. But it cannot be like a log of wood. The eye and ear have their automatic sight and hearing, and the hand and foot their automatic movements. What I do not
understand
this period is called. there are no stirrings of pleasure, anger, Answer. sorrow, and joy, it is the Mind which has not as yet put forth its activity. The movements of the hand and foot
is

what

When

are purely bodily
14.

movements

.

Question.
1

The Five Agents become in man the

Five .Organs, but the Mind possesses the principles of the Five Agents. Is this because the Mind is formless spirit ?

Answer.

Mind
2

as a bright

and

active thing belongs to
it

the Igneous class,

and therefore
it.

can

have numerous

principles inherent in

15.

man s
organs
1

Question. How do you explain the statement that heart is both corporeal and incorporeal?

Answer.
is

The heart 3

as

one"oT

the internal physical

certainly a concrete. thing.
*

What modern

scholai

See

p. 20, n. 1.

Fire

is

one of the Five Agents.

"heart" is the same word ( tf?) as is elsewhere rendered^ Like the word "heart in English it has the meaning of tht as well as of heart mind and both are discussed an physical compared in this and the following section. It has not been possible tc retain the same rendering throughout. The reader, however, will bear ir mind that in Chinese only one word is used.
"

3

The word
"

"mind".

"

"

",

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE
speak of as the
preserved"

163
go",

Mind
"lost"

to be
1

"held

fast"

or

"Jet

or

is

unfathomable in

its spiritual

Thus the physical heart if diseased can be cured by medicines, but this Heart is not to be healed by Calamus and China Root.
intelligence.

Question.

In that case
?

is

Law which

is

inherent in the

Mind

incorporeal

The Mind as compared with_the Nature has more something ^ojLnsible^traces, and as compared with the Ether it is in the nature of the case more spiritual.
Answer.

The Question by 1 Kong. You, Sir, once said Heart is not this particular piece of flesh." I venture to
"

16.

:

suggest that the whole person is the Heart, and that this
particular organ

Answer.

no more than the pivot. Not so. This is not the Heart but the home
is

whence the spiritual intelligence of the Miad-^oes forth and to which it returns. When, .paople- s hearis~axfi-_.diseased it
so it is of their Minfd which is suffering with the rest of the organs. The Mind cannot be without
is

the

home

;

activity

;

it

body, just as the magistrate of this county, Chien

must always be within the confines of the Yang,
Office
:

must always be in his Magisterial
I

only thus can

be administer the affairs of his district.

But Ch eng Tzu said "Let your mind 2 by which he meant, did he not, that your the Mind should be in its home and not outside ? Answer. Not necessarily so. It is as if he said the

Kang

said:

:

be in

breast,"

1

Mencius,
jfi

p. 285.

2

If*

Pt- vii,

f.

i

;

cf. ibid.,

pt.

iii, f.

3.

164

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
not be in the foot, or in the hand, but in the

Mind must

body as a whole ?
17.

Han Ch
is like

ing

2

asked:
;

Is

not the passage,

"The

on all sides and in every corner a library Mind it is flooded with brilliant light just as it is here at this
like the Buddhist illustration of a monkey in a room with six windows ? ^Whichever way he calls therai&an echo?
3
spot,"

deal in
it

The Buddhist teaching on Mind has a great is good. Former philosophers declared that was Jiettex than that of Yang and Mo. 4
Answer.
it

that
"~"

^

~"

Q

-^^.^

""-

^

jjfv^**--"^

18.

The word
"
"

"Miner* is itself
"

&

radical. 5

Hence the

words

Nature and the word "Mind".
19.

"

Feeling

are both derived from

Chang Tzu combined the Nature and Consciousness

as the explanation of the term Mind. This, I think, cannot be quite correct because it assumes another consciousness

outside tta Nature.
Lit. in these i.e. in the body and its members. The Mind not in the physical breast any more than in any other part of the Breast is merely a form of expression for the person. It ia body. a popular way of saying preserve your mind
1
" " "

",

"

"

is

"

"

"

"

(^ &)

2

Fu Kuang (ff
disciple of

and

^) style Han Ch ing, a native of Ch ing Yuan ( Jg $g)i Chu Hsi, a man of singularly pure spirit and keen intellect
;

;ei!

he was specially gifted as a poet. 3 See p. 160 and n. 3.
4
;

See

^

f|f

,

pt. xvii,

f.

20.

Yang Chu and Mo Ti see Mencius, p. 158.|4 One of the 214 root ideographs of which all the ideographs in Chinese language are compounded. The word (nature) is composec

th<|

^

of

j (mind) and (birth), [ also occurs as its radical.

and

in the

word

jgf (feeling)

the f (mindl!

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
20.
"

165

The daughter of Fan Ch un Fu 1 said, "How can ihe Mind have outgoing and incoming ? I Ch uan said, This woman did not understand Mencius, but she underThis remark should be noted. from Confucius by Mencius, going and incoming cannot be defined as to time or Elsewhere this saying of I Ch uan s is given as
tood the
o the quotation
"

Mind." 2

It refers
Its out
8
place."
"

:

This

woman Ch un
/o

understood the Mind, hut the Mind is easy understand she did not, however, understand what
;

Mencius
21.

meant."

perfected is like a clear mirror hich isjEreaJrom. blemishes. If you IboFTnto a mirror with patches which da -&ok r&ect, the effect will be that
that
..is

The Mind

our

own

pe.rgon.. appearsJblptchy.

jonduct of

many

is

marred by a number of

In the present day the follies and

lemishes because their vision of themselves is imperfect. - The Mind is 4 alTlaWs" are essentially formless spirit ;
jomplete within it, and phere of its knowledge.
elj.

phenomena come within

the

In these days people are for the part perverted by their physical nature, and beclouded y creaturely desire. Thus their minds are darkened and
1

Fan Tsu

Yii, style

jentury. e f
2

He

assisted

Ch un Fu (Jg Ssu-Ma Kuang
f.

(*),

was a scholar

of the eleventh

in the compilation of his history.

/& 31,

P*. xvii,
f.

5.

^h If,
"

P*- xi,

6.

3 Mencius, p. 285. Legge in his note quotes a comment by Chu Hsi, hus Mencius quoted these words of Confucius to illustrate the un:

athomableness of the spiritual and intelligent mind, how easy it is to ve it or to lose it, and how difficult to preserve and keep it, and how t may not be left unnourished for an instant."
xxxii,
f.

6.

166

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

This is why the they are unable to perfect knowledge. saints and sages placed such emphasis on the exhaustive
investigation of principles.

Again, take as an example a graduate in his studies. First he would study this, and then he would study that again, he must learn penmanship, and then he must learn
!22.
;

the poetic art this reason I

;

and so the whole mind

is

scattered.

For

taught that thejmJd_4iojj]d^o^ be He would have the used in any but the one direction. student exclude penmanship and essay- writing from his
studies.

Ch uan

This was not prejudice, but in accord with right it is not reasonable principles. Men have only one mind
;

you give.only spare time to the use of the of mind, to what good scraps proper will it lead ? It does not help the original object of study in any sense. Further, consider those scholars of ancient
times

to divide it in so

many

directions.

If

who were

experts in essay-writing.

They

have, it

an undying fame, but who of them to-day can be regarded jas men of knowledge ? At the beginning, it is true, they jia4 bent their- miads-in the one direction only [but in the opposite sense] and so in their (Case also the mind was scattered. But to attain.. to making the desires few" and to "preserve this mind exfrem^Ty^difficTilt; -Even
is true,
_"

"is

of the saints,
;

T an^aM.Wu ..Meiiciiis
J
"by

what they were
return
;

conversion".

1

says thaT they .were Conversion means to

mind.

to return and receive again the original For example, the passage which says T ang "did not come within the .sound of lewd music, nor approach

that

is,

1

Mencius, p. 371.

PHILOSOPHY
dissolute
1

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

167

women, nor seek to accumulate property or means simply that his desire was to preserve this money,", mind. Look at the book The Round of Lit. 2 To receive one hound was ,so grave a thing that repeatedly, and earnestly the Grand Guardian warned King Wu against accepting it. From this we may see how desires should be feared wh.ether ^reat_oreimalli there must be no carelessness
:

withrggard
23.

to

any pt

Lu Yu Shu 3 said: "Before activity Question. is put forth the substance of the Mind is present in its After (activity is put forth entirety, brightly luminous.
you 4ia^a4fee-tJperation of the
Mind."
"

Nan Hsien

criticizes
"

the statement, contending that it is brightly luminous after activity is put forth. Is this not somewhat beyond

the

mark

?

Answer.
1

The
p. 180.

criticism has

no meaning in

it.

Ching

Fu 4 was exceedingly clever,
Shu Ching,
2

but not sufficiently exact in his
"

Hounds Legge renders the word Jj* in the plural, The critics generally understand the term in the text in the singular I know not why. There is nothing in the Book, and no ancient references to it, which should make us do so. We more naturally take it in the plural, and it seems to me more likely that several It is generally hounds, and not one only, would be sent to King Woo." understood, however, by Chinese scholars that the hound was of a very rare species, large in size, and regarded as exceedingly valuable. In any case, here the context shows conclusively that Chu Hsi understood it
Ibid., p. 345.
",

and says in

his note

"

:

as
3

a single hound, and See
p. 60, n.
1.

therefore

the word must be translated in the

singular.
4

Chang Ch

ih

(fjj|

^),

Ching Fu, and

Nan Hsien were

his tzu

and hao

He was Chu Hsi s great friend, but holding very different respectively. views. See J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School,
chap.
iv.

168
study,

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATUKE
of philosophy.

Mr. Lu 1
"

is

simply

criticizing

I

Ch nan s
it

statement that

all

who

discourse on the
2

Mind
But
"This

refer to
later, I

Ch

as having already put forth activity." uan corrected his former statement thus

:

statement, I admit, is not accurate. Some refer to its substance that which

The Mind
is

is

one.

still

and without
that

movement

;

others refer to its operation

which,

when acted upon penetrates forthwith all phenomena. 3 We must have regard to the nature of its manifestation."
(

This

is

an

alll-round statement

and

faultless.

Generally
terse,

speaking the sayings of

;the saints
;

and sages are
to.

presenting only the germs of truth

these are developed

hy later must see

teachers,

and then expanded and added
;

We

to it, however, that we get at the original meaning of the saints and sages otherwise at what point shall we in our begin development of their teachings ?

24. Question. The Mind is essentially an active thing. I do not understand whether before activity is put forth
it is

absolutely still, and in repose, p condition holds within it the principle of activity. Answer. It is not that the principle of activity
^

is

con

tained in the repose.
ens"

Chou Tzu
is

said, "Repose is
4

the nonjaot^non-

and

"activity

the

ens".

But repose

is

existence.

It is called the non-ens as being
is

without form.

The meaning
but that
it is

not that

it is

existent because of its activity,

so

named because

of

its

manifestation.

Heng
is
f.

Ch
1

u

s

way

of combining the Nature
2

and the Feelings
Jg,
9
;

Lu

Yii Shu, quoted above.
see

3

4

7 Ching, p. 370. T ung Shu, chap,

^
f.

pt. xxxi,

18.

i ;

^ ^

,

book

ii,

or

|^ jj

,

pt.

i.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
excellent. 1

169

The Nature

is

passive, the Feelings are active, passive.

and the Mind combines both the active and

We

refer to its substance or to its manifestation according to

the point of view. The moment the passive state is past, I Ch uan said, the principle of movement is present. 2 "At the moment between the active and passive states the
ear cannot hear

and the eye cannot see, but the principle of both hearing and sight is there." And when movement

takes place it is still that same thing which was passive. Ch un 3 raised the question of I Ch uan s theory that
"

The

principle of activity

is

the Hindi of

Heaven and

Earth".*

Answer.
Earth
;

Activity

is

not the

Mind
of

it

simply reveals the
?

Mind

Heaven and Heaven and Earth.
of

For instance, in the tenth .month-,- 5 do we not have the Mind
of the Universe

Of the Four Ultimata 6 Yuan, the Principle is the season when the young sprouts begin to
:

It is permeating all things just as before. of Origin,

shoot up

;

Heng, the Principle of Beauty, is the season of growing 1 Li, tbe^PHSCTpfe of ^UtSity^is.. the fruit-bearing foliage
;

season season

;

and Cheng,- -the Principle of Potentiality, is when the fruit returns to the place of its rest.

the
-If

in the end thgre-wm-e, JQO jsuch return to would restjthere be no Yuan.__ But because therels" the reiturnto rest Yuan

springs forth from

it.
*

When Yuan
;

has completed

its

course

-

=
see p. 195, n. 2.

3

Probably Ch en Ch un
;fc

4 6

&

That

xxvi, f. 16. , Ptis, in the winter when

all is still

and apparently

lifeless.

6

Yiian, Heng, Li, Cheng, the principles of Origin, Beauty, Utility,

and

Potentiality.

\
170

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE
returns,

Cheng

Yuan

returns,

and when Cheng has completed its course and so on for ten thousand ages in endless
"

revolution.

It is completely expressed in the words,
!

The
"

Decree of Heaven

How
all

In the tenth month

* and undying things are stored up, and leave no

profound

it is

!

traces, until the positive ether is again active, when the Mind that produces all things becomes once more manifest.

Question.
case of

Is not ,the return of tlie positive ether*

2

in the

sprouting of goodness ? Answer. As goodness, it is the first sprouting of good ness. As virtue, it is that first thought of repentance and
the
first

men

turning towards goodness which arises in the midst of the darkness this is a "return". The sudden awaking from

Or when, the repression return of moral principle in man having reached its climax, there is a sudden clearing of the channel, which, although slight,
sleep is a picture of the
"

".

is still, is

a

"

the earnest of the full flowing stream this again The principle has countless transformations return
".

and, whenever you find
mysterious.

it,

it

is

always

profound

and

25.

The Mind

is

most spiritual.

So

fine is it that it

penetrates the very point of a hair, or the smallest blade of grass, and I become conscious of them. So great is it that there is not a single place from nadir to zenith, or

within the four points of the compass, where
present.

it

is

not

Back through the oountless ages of the

past, or

forward through the unknown periods of future time,
1

my
note

Odes, p. 570.

2

Compare the Fu Diagram

in the Yi Ching, p. 107,

and Legge

s

on pp. 108-9.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

171

thought reaches to the end of them the very moment it proceeds cfrom my Mind. It is unfathomable in its spiritual
intelligence,

in

its

orderliness

most intangible, most spiritual and marvellous And yet, though there is no one who
!

does not possess this Mind, most men know only the desire for g&iiviilL the Mind becomes completely submerged in it.
or abroad, all that they seek is pleasure and selftheir every thought the moment it is born, indulgence
;
(,

At home

is

of these things.

26. Question. The word "Mind" never occurs in the while Mencius constantly speaks of man s Analects and as in the discusser it again and again Mind,
"

",

;

"

expressions, "Perfect the

Extend
mind,"

this
3

*
heart,"

"

Seek the
4
heart,"

lost

2 mind,"

"The

child

"Preserving

the

mind

"

5

.

.Was

themselves

knew

because the disciples of Confucius and. understood all about the Mind, and

this not

did not trouble the sage to discourse upon it, whereas by the time Mencius appeared the world had very much changed, men had become inferior ^n ability to the ancients, andf
therefore

Mencius did his utmost
in its origin
?

to teach

them what the

Mind

is

Answer.

Although Confucius did not discourse on the

Mind, yet he could not have replied to the questions of his disciples on Love if he had not understood Mind; fo^"l76ve
is

Mind.
".

"Mind

Only at that time they did not use the word Studjrjhfc f^^ffi oaref nlly,, and ynn wjll find
is

that there
1

no great

difficulty in it.
2
5

Mencius,

p. 15.

Ibid, p. 290.
Ibid., p. 285.

3

Ibid., p. 324.

4

Ibid., p. 198.

172

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE

127. Question by Li Te Chili. Ming Tao when repairing a bridge had to choose some long beams. Afterwards, every time he saw a specially fine forest he immediately began

mentally to measure the
course to his students

trees.

From

this

he began

to dis

on the

anything on the mind. must think about everything in order

desirability of not having It seems to mo obvious that you
to

understand them.

How

could he say
?

:

you must not have anything

on

your mind

Answer. How can you not think about things ? But the right course is, when the matter is ended, not to keep it on the mind any longer. Ming Tao had one beam in his
mind.
several

He

still fell

short of the people of to-day

beams

in. thair

minds.

who have The Buddhists have the

idea of consciousness being like a stream of flowing water. (Water naturally flows on, but if there be several leaks in the channel the flow will be checked. 1
"

Question. It is said 2 breast." What should; be the
:

28.

Let your mind be in your

s attitude to thought about phenomena, and the response to external influences ?

mind

Answer.

Thought and responsiveness are indispensable,
the.

but the mind should be concentrated on
Question.

thing in hand.
the
external

In

that

case,

then,

when

impression is received the mind must be fastened on the matter before us, but when the matter has been dealt with
the
1

mind must not continue

to

busy

itself

with

it.

That is, the mind should set aside all thought about things which have been dealt with and pass on to other duties, just as water flows on unless, indeed, the channel is leaky.
2

it ff.pt-

vii,

f.

1

;

cf. ibid., pt. iii, f. 3.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
29.
living,

173

Certainly, that

is

how

it

should be.

Question.

In the passage,
l

"Man s

mind should be
"

permeating confined to one spot,"

in all directions
wha,t is the

without limit, and not

meaning

of
it

"

living

?

Answer. If the mind is without selfishness, and enlarge. Living is the opposite of dead.
30.

can expand

The mind
is

into

which

"anxiety
"

external things can find no entrance
"there
"

is

the

mind

arising from in which

a controlling principle and is therefore filled". The mind into which evil arising from external things
"

can find no entrance
1

is

the

mind in which
2
".

"

there

is

a

controlling
is

principle and

is therefore

made

the controlling principle in one s

empty mind and nothing

When this

else

to

enter

has any existence! in it, where is it possible for evil ? How otherwise can it be described than
?

as

empty
is

But in the writer

"

s statement,

The mind

in

which there
"

there

is a controlling principle is empty," the words, a controlling principle," in themselves imply

being

filled.

The Philosopher
in which there

said further

:

The

"

sentence,

The mind

is a controlling principle is filled," means that when one s mind has within it a controlling principle,

anxiety arising from external things can find no entrance what is this but to be filled ? The sentence, "The mind
:

in which there
that

is

no controlling principle

is

filled,"

means

controlling principle, evil from external comes in and fills it. How can arising tilings this be described otherwise than as filled ?
1

when oneY mind has no

1?

"s

P*.

,

*

40.

:

2

$

|c, pt. xv,

ff.

7-8.

174
31.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Question.

What

is

.meant by concentration?
nqt-io.
is
lose,

Answer.

Concentration means

-the

mind

in

this or that directionr Concentration

the .opposite of

mind-wandering
Question.

.

What
There

about thought upon things that need

to be thought about ?

Answer.

is

no objection to that

;

but there should

be no incoherent thinking, and the thought should be on one To be thinking about a certain thing and thing only. to let then your thoughts go off to something else will
not do.
32.
"|When

the

mind
1

is fixed,

to calmness of
is
:

speech."

importance is attached The meaning of this statement
If the

Speech

is

the outcome of the mind.

mind

be fixed there will be careful discrimination in the use of
language, with the result that it will carry the accent of assurance, and wilj. be calm and deliberate. When the mind
not fixed, confusion prevails within, while language flows forth without previous thought, and is shallow and hasty 2 in consequence. This, too, is the fruit of the action of
is

the will upon the physical element. 3

Question. Does the statement, "The Mind is the enceinte of the Nature," mean that the Nature is enclosed

33.

in the

Mind

?
:

The Master nodded assent, and said Yes, but Heng Ch u s statement, The Mind unites the Nature and the
"
>

ft *,pt.*i,f.4.
The
jjfc

2

(this) refers to

the passage quoted at the beginning of the

paragraph.
3

An

element

allusion to the teaching of Mencius on the will moving the physical and vice versa ; see Mencius, p. 65. jjfQ

(^

^

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
1

175

Feelings,"

is

spoke of the you consider
this.

not to be improved upon. Mencius often Mind, but said nothing so exact as this. If
it

carefully

you

will see that in the books

of the other philosophers there is nothing even approaching

34.

Fang Pin Wang
:

The question the Nature," should be explained as meaning that the Mind is the seat of that ruling principle which controls
the personality.
enceinte
principles
3

in a letter asked the following statement, "The Mind is the enceinte of

Ko

Hsueh 2
4

says,

that

the

means
replied

to enclose.

The Mind
its
is

expression contains these

as a city wall
:

does

inhabitants.

too vague; 5 Who is it that explains the external operation Question. of the Mind as the exhaustive investigation of principles ?

Chu Hsi

Fang

s

statement

Answer.

It is

Questioner.

The manifestation

a statement of the Kiangsi School. of the Mind in speech

cannot be regarded as the external operation of the Mind, 6 because in that case the external operation of the Mind would be wholly dependent on the brief moment of time
occupied in speech, and what dependence could be placed

upon it ? Answer.
1

The Hunan School 7
f.

all

take this view.
see p. 3.

^^
That
Lit.
siz

,

pt. xviii,

14.

2

Surnamed Cheng,
and

3
4

is,

the principles of Nature.
"

?R 9R

The outermost
",

walls enclosing the city
clear.

suburbs."

5 6

".slow

i.e.

not crisp and
jfo

refers to

Jj

J5S

$h

,

immediately above.

7

The

Hu

(

j) School,

founded by
p. 28, n.

Hu An Kuo
;

(see p. 24), also called

the

Hu

Hsiang School, see

4.

Nan Hsien
see
ffi

(see p. 102)
,

was a

prominent representative

of this School

^

pt.

1, f.

3.

176

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
When Mencius spoke to

the King of Ch i * his desire was by means of speech to help him:, but if he had depended only on speech he would have failed, would
Question.

he not

?

Answer.
Question.

Yes.
"

The necessary

existence of life in the seed

corresponds to the necessary existence of

Love in
life

man."

Thus
is

life is

taken to illustrate Love.

The

of the seed
life^

the principlp of life, so that the principle of regarded as Love. Is it not so ?

is

Answer.

It certainly should be so.
s
2

The Philosopher further explained Nan Hsien
ment that the
is

state

active manifestation of the

Mind

s

substance

incessant.

When
:

it is

manifested

it

should be preserved

and be master of whatever phenomenon it is dealing with. K o Hsiieh said How can the Mind wait till after its
manifestation before
it

controls the

Answ&r.

If

you

force the

phenomenon ? meaning of a passage in

this

way you
35.
1

will find

many

seeming mistakes in
"

Nan Hsien s
3

statements.

In the statement,

The Mind moulds
2

the virtues

Mencius, p. 194.

Chang Ch

ih (ijjt fj).

3 The word ^j? generally means "wonderful" or "mysterious"; I cannot find that there is any other instance of its use as a verb meaning

mould except as this sentence is referred to in other The sentence is from the writings of Hu Wu Feng (see j^ pt. xlii, f. 12), and means that the province of the mind is to mould the powers or virtues of the Nature and Feelings, and so unite them in harmonious operation. It is similar to Heng Ch u s saying, The
"

to fashion

"

or

"

",

parts of this work.

^

,

"

Mind
jjjl

and Feelings (jfr fj ff), see p. 174. the object of the verb j? $? ; and the statement means that the Mind is like a pivot, controlling the operations of the Nature and Feelings.
unites the Nature
"

$

Jfj is

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE
of the

177

Nature and

Feelings,"

the word

"moulds"

means

to direct their activities.

36.

I

Ch uan

said at first that all

who

discoursed on the

Mind

referred to

Mind

as manifested.

Subsequently he

1 acknowledged that this statement was not correct. 2 Feng, however, adhered to the earlier statement
;

Wu

and, regarding Mind as already "manifested and the Nature as not yet manifested, he contrasted the one with the other

in this sense.
37.
to that

The Chih Yen
"

is

full of such statements.
3

The expression,
which
is

the natural mind,

refers solely

affected /tv^jjig material body^

Tha pnasftSRAr

add the ethical element and termed Law -^-und-tha^jwhich has what ,is Mo^aL youjiaye consciousness is termed the Mind.
;

of Tv^-ftyHWrm-^wA-ra. n

man

The positive ether is clear when it prevails the virtuous nature operates the negative ether is turbid when it prevails creaturely desire becomes active." 4 You
"

38.

;

:

;

need only to examine and test your
will find it so.

own thoughts and you
is

When man s mind
it is

empty and

still, it

pure and clear. When it is clouded by creaturely desire, it is sunk in the densest darkness. This is how the turbid negative ether comes

wQj follow

naturally that

to be

predominant.
-W8 and
of
n. 2.

1

See p.

2

The son

Hu An Kuo and author
"

of the

Chih Yen (Words

of

Wisdom)
1.

;

see p. 23, n. 2.
3
*

Contrasted with the

spiritual

mind
(gjj
13.

"

(Jjf
0fl

IJJ)
Jj|),

;

see p. 19, n.

Quoted from the Cheng Meng

by Chang Tsai

;

see

X,

&,

pt. v, or

gi jg,pt.

iv,

f.

178
(39
.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

.When the mind

is

enlarged^it
.

can enter into every
"Of

thing throughout jiie umv^
*

.

.

The mind

the

man

of the world rests within the

narrow limits of the
"

senses,"

aad therefore cannot enter into every thin|^ r throughout the who develops his Nature universe. It is the sage alone lie
and .so does not allow his mind to be fettered and hears" whose* mind is large enough to embrace all things, so that under the whole heaven is a which he there not does not look upon as single thing he looks upon himself." 2 All other distinctions lost in this distinction between greatness and littleness. 3 Mencius means the same thing when he says, By
to its utmost,

by what

he. gees-

"

a>re

"

developing the mind to the our Nature and know Heaven.

utmost
"

we understand
to develop the

4

For

mind
it is

to the utmost is to enlarge it to its utmost.

When

enlarged to its

utmost we understand our Nature, we
is

know Heaven, and there
>Tao

no

trace of egoism. 5
not, like the

Fu

6

asked
p. 261.

:

To-day,

we who have

1

Cf.

D. M.,

2
3

Quoted from the
"

CMng Meng (ft fa
sentence

Littleness

"

refers to the

speaks of the heart of the worldly
to

man

j|), see above. above, in which Chang Tsai as so small that it confines itself

what
4

it sees

and

hears.

See Cheng Meng.

p. 324,
5

For the quotation from Mencius, see Mencius, and Legge s note. When the mind embraces all things there is nothing outside it. The
is

opposite of this
6

egoism, or ^f

fy\*

jjji

.

Chu Hsi s disciples whose surnames were respectively Huang (j|), Chao (Jg), and Yang (;jj but whose style in all three cases was Tao Fu. For Huang Tao Fu, see Yang Tao Fu was a disciple of Chu Hsi in the latter s declining p. 50. see Chu Tzu years, and a faithful companion at the time of his disgrace
either one of three of
;

Tao Fu may have been

\

Nien

P

u (jfc

^

f

|f), pt.

iv,

f.

44.

Chao Tao Fu (ming

tjfr

jj

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE
sages, attained to such

179

development of the mind, must we
? *

not also extend

it

so as to influence others

wo must

Although we have not attained to that standard learn to say naLa^^aHidllEQ senses there is If of a realm principles which cannot be seen or heard.
still

A nsiver.

we Eave~5ot learned so much, how can the mind be extended? The important thing is that this is what Heng Ch ii meant; 2
what Mencius meant. 3 Tao Fu. For Mencius real meaning we must rely upon the passages quoted in the Dialogues on the Great
it

does not follow, however, that

it is

Learning ? Answer.

4

Yes, Mencius

meaning

is

simply that when

your investigation of principles is perfect the mind naturally attains to the fullness of its upmost capacity, and not that

you must enlarge it in order to understand your Nature and know Heaven. But simply as Heng Ch ii expresses it, it is T0jo Fu.
very
difficult to

carry out.

Answer.
times, as

That is just Heng Ch ii s way of talking at though ho were carried away by his imagination.
is

The mind

large

by nature [why

talk of enlarging

it]

?

was the grandson of Chao Ju Yii, Chu Hsi s friend and the Emperor Ning Tsung s Prime Minister see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung He held office in various provincial posts, in all of which School, chap. iv.
;

he followed the principles of government adopted by his grandfather. The education he received from the same source also bore fruit in ripe scholarship and a well-balanced mind.
1

2
3 4

The meaning of is the same as in Mencius, p. 20, q.v. That is, in the statement quoted on the previous page. That is, in the passage (p. 324) referred to by Chang Tsai. A work by Chu Hsi see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and
;

^

the

Sung

School, chap. iv.

180

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
mean
that

Passages like this really

from an exhaustive
"

investigation of phenomena there follows naturally and from the study freely communion with all things. This is l and the meaning of the lowly to understand high things"

;

of Mencius
40.
enter

is precisely

the same.
"

.

In the passage,
into
"

When

the

mind

is

enlarged, it can
"

everything
"

tfarougliouFI^

the enter into 3 is like what is spoken of as expression and that Love in means actions universal embodiment of
",

the principle of the mind permeates everywhere like the blood If there is a single thing into which circulates in the body. it does not enter, its permeation is incomplete, and it fails
perfectly to

embrace

all things,

which

is

egoism.

For

selfishness produces separation

between the ego and the nonstand so that ego, opposed the one to the other. The they result is that even towards those dearest to us there is no

"The assurance of a perfect altruism. egoistic mind," 2 therefore, "cannot be one with the Mind of Heaven."

When there is any Question. In the statement, 3 thing which the mind do,es not enter into, it is egoistic," which is the meaning of the expression enter into (t i) ?
"

41.

"

"

Answer.

It

means
eo
is

to
to

import

the
it

mind

into

the
its

phenomenon,
principle.
1

and
It

investigate

as to grasp

4

the same

meaning as

that

of

the

Analects, xiv, xxxvii, 2, p. 153.
.

"

Cf. p. 350. Cheng Meng, ft j$ jf 4 Cf. Bergson s doctrine of intuitive sympathy as the means whereby we get into the heart of things in the making ; see Eucken and Berg son,
"

2

by E. Hermann, pp. 149-152.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
expressions
knowledge"
"investigation
x
;

181

and

differs

of things" and "perfection of from that of t i 2 meaning sub

stance as contrasted with its manifestation.
42.

Heng Ch u

said:

"When

there

is

anything which
;
;

the
"

mind does not enter into, it is egoistic" 3 and again, The egoistic mind cannot be one with the Mind of Heaven." 3 For Heaven is great and altruistic, when in my investigation of things embracing all things there is one principle in them which eludes my search, my mind is egoistic and unlike the Mind of Heaven.
;

43.
*

Answer.

Someone asked It means

:

What

is

meant by egoism
is

?

:

When

there

selfish

thought,

obstruction arises bet vveei^ the ..subject

and

jobj-aet-.- We-eee

only ourselves, and every thing- external is regarded a& having no relation to the self. Such is egoism.
44.

principle

Question. be in

How can the mind by means of moral communion with external things to an
?

unlimited extent

Answer. The mind is not like a horizontal doorjfibich has to be made largerjby foroe. 4 You must clear away
it will

the obstructions arising from creaturely desire, and then be pure and clear with no limit to its knowledge
;
"

in investigating the principles of phenomena there will be free communion. Heng Ch u said, Do not allow the mind
to be fettered
1

by

the senses

"

";

When the Mind is
i
,

enlarged

G. L., p. 222.

2

The same word as

to enter into.

3

Cheng Meng,

^

jfr

4 It is upright and of adequate size ; all that is needed is to clear the obstructions, and then there will be no difficulty of access.

^

.

away

182
it

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

can enter into every tiling throughout the universe/ L The expression, "To be in communion with external things by
principle,"

means of moral
munion.

means

this unobstructed

com

Merely to guard the senses of hearing and sight a narrowing effect. has naturally
2 The Mind is the principle of This sentence 3 was recordqd by, Chang Ssu Shu. I question whether there is not some statement omitted. It must be that when the text was corrected it was accidentally, lost. Po Feng 4 said! Why was it included in your work,

45

"

.

life."

:

Modem Thought ? Answer. How dare
I fear there
is

I do other than reoord

it,?

But

some

defect.

These four words are not

adequate to express the idea.
46.

The Mind The

is

Mind, and the Mind

the principle of life man possesses dwells in a material form and thereby
;

man How

lives.

solicitous

mind

is

the principle of

life."

5

do you explain this ? Answer. The Mind of Heaven and Earth 6 which gives
is

birth to all things
1

Love.
f|
.

Man by his endowment
see
|f|

receives

CMngMtog, ft

ifr

2

A

statement by I Ch uan
"
"

;

^

,

pt.
is
li

translated

principle is tao ( Jf|). Its meaning text indicates. It is probably equivalent to tao

The word xv, f. 28. somewhat obscure, as the SI) =
"principle
",

(jjj
22.

a frequent use of the word.
3 4
8 b

A

pupil of I

Ch uan

;

see

Wu Pi Ta (J%
See

jj
style

:fj

,

pt. xii, f
;

.

jg

^

^J ^),
.

Po Feng

see p. 17.

,

pt. xv, f

28.

The use of this expression here is Mind of Heaven in the next section
"

in the
cf. J.

same sense

as that of

"

;

P. Bruce, Introduction to

The Chu

Hsi and

the

Sung

School, chap.

xiii.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
this

183

Heaven and Earth and thereby his life. Hence the "solicitous mind in man is also the principle of life.
of
"

Mind

47.

The statement,
"

"

The Mind is

the principle of

1
life,"

means that the Mind is the principle which produces life. The statement, The solicitous mind is the principle of life in man," means that we receive the Mind of Heaven and
thereby
live.

To

give birth to things

is

the

Mind

of

Heaven.
In the section on the Mind as the Question. of does not the first part, The Mind is the life, principle
48.
"

* principle of life," refer to the Mind of Heaven and Earth as giving birth to all things and th/e latter part, The
"

;

solicitous

mind

is

the principle of

life in

man,/

*

to the

is nothing but this Law, and apart from material form Law would have nothing in Which to inhere. Hence the statement, "Man possesses Mind, and Mind dwells in a material form, and thereby

Mind of Heaven and Earth as Mind? For in Heaven there

received

by man

to be his

lives.

""*

The

first

law of their succession
the statement,
"

part corresponds to ^fh& statement,;/ The 2 is goodness the latter part to
"

;

Their realization
the
first
1

is

the

Nature." 3

Answer.
principle

To make
of
;

part,

"The

Mind

is

the

life,"

refer
is

solely;

to

Heaven

is

not

correct either

man

is

one all-comprehensive Law, and Heaven and Earth. united to inseparably
for

Law

49. Let the mind go, so that it may be broad and tranquil and it will be enlarged. Do not l!et it be pre possessed by the divisive influence of selfish thought, and it
;
1

See

p. 182.

*

Yi Ching,

p. 355.

*

Ibid., p. 356.

184

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
With the mind enlarged it naturally will be no hastiness; if we meet with be no fear; if we meet with prosperity
;

will be enlarged.

follow that there

calamity there will there will be no exultation

for in a very little while calamity

give place to prosperity, and prosperity to calamity. The noble man with a mind enlarged Hsiin Tzu said, will be one with the Divine, and in accord with Moral Law,

may

."

If his

mind be

small

he

will

be

inspired
1

by

awe
the

and righteousness and be self-controlled." noble man, when his mind is enlarged it

For with
the

is

Mind

of

Heaven, when it is small it is the watchful and reverent mind of King Wen, 2 and both are good. With the ignoble

man,
small

if

his

mind

is

enlarged

it

will

be reckless,

if

it

be

it

will

be petty and narrow,

selfish

and miserly, and

both are bad.

(THIRTY SECTIONS FROM THE COLLECTED WRITINGS.)
1
.

Man

lives

by the union of the Nature with the Ether.
find,

But given

this

union we

when we analyse

it,

that the

Nature pertains to Law and is formless, while the Ether pertains to form and is material). The former as pertaining to Law and formless is altruistic and invariably good the latter ajs pertaining to form and material is selfish and
;

potentially evil.
it is altruistic

The manifestations

of the former, since

Law
1

;

.

and good, are all the workings of Divine the manifestations of the latter, since it is selfish

See ~p
this

^ ^
a.

-f-

2

H, } ,,

p t.
;

ii,

char.
Ifjj

iii.

A

note

on

phrase in the work referred to says

5c
8

9 m

3

|

"*

&

lK

See Odes, p. 433.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
"

185

and potentially ,etvil, are all the actions of human desire. Hence the distinction between the natural mind and the 1 For this mind" in Shun s admonition to Yii. "spiritual distinction is a root distinction, and not to be explained as excess or shortcoming) in the action of the Ether, with
"

But the statement subsequent Lapse jntto human desire. and implies, natural mind does not go beyond the term
"

",

go beyond the term unstable", and equally implies that it is not necessarily foredoomed to become criminal. But seeing
"

surely, that it is not necessarily wholly evil.

It does not

that it pertains not to

Law

and even crime
"instability",

is

not

difficult.
it

but to form, its lapse into evil This is the reason for its
differs

and herein
is

from the
its

"spiritual

and and can standard, be relied upon. In regard to these two, therefore, we must use the utmost discrimination and singleness, and so make the altruistic and invariably good the perpetual master of our
",

mind

which

infallibly

good and never

evil, is stable

never falls to one side or the other, has

and of all our conduct, while the selfish must be allowed no place in our lives. Then, in everything we do and say, there will be no need to choose between excess and shortcoming: it will spontaneously and unfailingly accord with the Mean. (Whenever you
entire personality

and potentially

evil

begin

your

examination

of

anything you should

first

consider and decide

upon

its goodness or otherwise,

and

or not.

then proceed to consider whether it accords with the Mean By discrimination and singleness * you examine
" "

1

See Shu Ching,

p.

61

;

also J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

Chu Hsi and

the

Sung

School, chap. x.

186
its

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

sincerely holding fast goodness or otherwise then by l nor there is excess the Mean" neither shortcoming, and You do not seek the the Mean is attained to naturally.
;

Mean, by means of discrimination and singleness. ) This was r the real meaning of Shun s admonition to Yii recorded in
"

the

Preface

2
".

The manifestations

of the Ether are not

when

directly regarded as wholly evil, with no allowance for times it is clear and translucent, pure and unadulterated, as

But such clearness and treatise. and unadulteratedness, seeing that they transhicence, purity
suggested
in

your

belong to the accidental condition of the material Ether, can do no more than retain connexion with Law and assist
its

animating influence. They cannot be regarded as the spiritual mind, or as a substitute fx)r discrimination and concentration. In Mencius, for example, although he speaks
"

of the Ether as ,the
nevertheless, that

restorative influences of the night
it is

3
",

which

desired to retain

by them

resides

in the moral mind,
"

and he does not

directly regard such

influences as paramount.
"

Again, although he speaks of
"

resides in

nourishing the ether", yet the power it employs for this 4 he does the accumulation of righteous deeds
;

not directly select the non-excesses and shortcomings of the

Ether with a view to nourishing them.

you
not,
1

place too

much emphasis on
examine
your

the word
other

"

In your treatise I will Ether
".

therefore,

statements.

For

Shu Ching reputed to be written by This admonition of Shun to Yu, however, is not specifically mentioned in the Preface, but in the body of the work, p. 61, as above. 3 * Lit. Ibid., p. 66. night-ether", Mencius, p. 284.
to the
p. 1.
;
"

See Shu Ching, p. 61. The Chinese Preface Confucius see Shu Ching,
2

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
example, the distinctions you make between the ether", the "excess ether", and the "inadequate
"

187

medium
ether",

to be at fault, but as they do not affect the of the "minuteness of the spiritual mind" it is subject worth while to discuss them. hardly (Reply to Ts ai Chi

seem

to

me

T umg.) 1
2.

T have received your
Piao.

Hu

Your

and two essays replying to criticism of Mr. Lii s treatise 2 on the
letter

Mean is most trenchant, and very striking. But there are some points not clear. Permit me to set out in order my reasons for saying so, and I beg you will submit them to your friends for their criticism. Your reply to Kuang Chung 3 on the faults peculiar to the scholar 4 hits the mark exactly, but in my opinion the chjief fault lies in
Doctrine of the
is

the fact that in ordinary times the illumination of principles imperfect and the nurture of the mind immature, so that
Affairs present themselves there is

when

no preparation for

To say that at the very time when dealing with them. affairs crowd in upon us we should make a careful
investigation of the
1

Mind

s

origin,

means that in addition

See

p. 65, n. 3.

1

Probably Lu Tsu Ch ien
is
;

(g

fjj.

ff )

;

see

p.

116,

n.

1.

Or

possibly the reference
criticized

to Lii

by Nan Hsien

Shu, whose writings were, in fact, I have not been able to find the see p. 458.
p. 37, n. 2.

Yu

treatise referred to.
3
4

Hu Kuang

Chung, see

The idea combated

in the following

argument

is

that

we can

attain

to perfection by understanding the mind (ffij jft) as a pre-requisite, and that this should be done in the time of the mind s activity and when its workings and springs of action can be investigated.

188

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
with these
affairs

to the task of dealing

we have

at the

same time the further thought of investigating the Mind Thus with the Mind we examine the Mind, and the itself. difficulty and complexity of our task are intensified. More over, the importance of using such effort before we meet with affairs is lost sight of. This makes me question your

The essence of Confucian teaching is to the investigation of principles first, because each put This must be first under individual thing * has its own law
line of reasoning.
.

stood,

to have in each case a standard

and then the phenomena of the Mind will be seen 2 by which their character

may
as

be estimated.
"

The Shu

Chmgm
",

Divine
"

isocial

arrangements
,the

such expressions Divine social
"

distinctions",

"Divine

appointments",

and
"The

"Divine

retributions

3

and Mencius in

words,

relations

of all things

may

be thus determined, and

it is

of the
"

greatest importance to estimate the actions of the 5 If we fail first to both express this same idea.

mind
"

4

extend

our knowledge to the utmost
1

"

in respect to this fact,
;

and

2

Thing here For the force
"

"

refers to the of
<jjjQ

mental faculties

see p. 54.

]|r

J|

@,

see Mencius, p. 20, verse 13, in
"

reference to which Legge says in his note ^jj? means that the t\j $j mind, as affected from without, and going forth to affect, may be light or heavy, long or short, i.e. may be right or wrong, and that in different
:

degrees,
3

etc."

Shu Ching,

4
5

pp. 73-4. Mencius, p. 20 ; see note 2 above. That is, that each individual thing has
ji{j

its

own law
jlfc
>

as stated above

;

the

in

if |f

jlfc

^

and
>

in

S

/
5fc

US
?B

refers to * h e
viz.

same

as that referred to in the sentence

^

Jfc

above,
jO|

the state

ment immediately preceding thing has its own law).

J\^

%fy

o

^

(each individual

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
are content -with knowing and understanding

189

how

the

Mind

comes to be what
to guide us

it is

and that vaguely, with no standard
is it

then

how

or

the manifestations, of the

possible for either the content, Mind to accord with eternal

Consider, moreover, the teachings of the Buddhists on rigid posture and hard discipline. 1 They, indeed observe and contemplate the Mind, and yet with it all
principles ?

we cannot in their company attain to the moral ideal of Yao and Shun, simply because, not recognizing the Divine
Law, they regard Mind alone as
ruler
;

and thus there

is

no security against falling into selfishness. This accords with a saying of our predecessors that the sages regard Heaven, and the Buddhists regard Mind, as the foundation
In your treatise you speak of the mind being continuously emptied of anxiety and evil. I grant this so far as the original substance of the mind is concerned, but
of things.

1

when you have regard to human desire and selfishness in which the mind has so long been submerged, how is it
possible in [one

day suddenly

to attain to this

standard

?

sages therefore insisted that the mind must be rectified, that to rectify the mind there must first be sincerity of thought, and that to be sincere in thought, knowledge must
"

The

first

be extended

fco

the utmost

2
".

When

efforts

are

made
it

in this order, then the truB-miiid~i^fbttairLaH%

a retnfiTto its~~ori^maLstate of emptiness
to be achieved in

;

but this

is

not

a single day!

You, howeyeg_speak baldly
so empty.

of the
1

mind being continuously
"

Again you say

:

Lit.

rigid position), carrying
2

Holding a dusting-brush with the hands erect (i.e. in a forced all as acts of self-discipline. water and fuel
",

G. L., p. 222.

190
"

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Mind be
it

If the

ever direction

understood, it-^willJia^iiccessful in what may..be_ employed." Here again you are

mistaken in representing the process as too rapid, and BO

According to the teaching of the Conthere must be perfect righteousness and fucianists, spirituality in (Order to succeed in whatever direction the mind may be employed. Then indeed you may say that the mind is continuously emptied of anxiety and evil.* When
fall into

error.

Mencius speaks of preserving and losing "outgoing and "incoming", 2 hi|s meaning surely is that the mind should be held fast and preserved for one must suppose
"
"

"

"

",

;

that he did not use such expressions with the idea merely that the mind should be understood. If we can constantly hold fast and preserve it, then the reverent care of which

you speak will be same whether in

If this be perfect it will be the or activity inactivity, and the mind will
perfect.

ba continually preserved. You insist, too, that we should seefc it in activity, with the idea of avoiding the onesidedness
of inactivity, overlooking the fact that the result must be a leaning to the onesidedness of activity. The man, how ever, who can claim to hold fast and preserve his ,mind

one who surpasses even Yen Tzu. Again, you say that by understanding the mind that we can guard it. As to which my 3 fear is that the method is all too easy. The,
is

it is

Master Ming Tao said, we can enter into things with * we need fear not We joy, inability to guard the mind."
"If

i-e. your statement that the mind 3$f fiff Itf emptied would then stand see above. 2 Mencius, p. 285 ; cf. Legge s note in loco.
j

1

W

^

is

continuously

;

3

1H

refers to the speaker.

4
jjL

|j|, pt. xiii, p. 5.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
must adopt
According
the
this attitude
;

191

only thus will our position be

unassailable, without flaw,
to

and free from vitiating

errors.

mind
is

is

jour esteemed opinion this preservation of to be sought for in its manifested operations,

exactly the idea of the Buddhists when they speak of sparks from the flint and lightning, 1 while you appear

which
to

pay

little

attention to the

work of prolonged
it is

leisurely

nurture.

Hence the search for

too hasty, its attainment

is with apprehension, the reliance upon it is weak, and its What the Yi Clfiing manifestation too evanescent.
"

expresses as

with broadness of mind continuing in what
2
,to",

has been attained
into this error.
.

means

the unwillingness to fall
in Fu.)
3

(Reply to

Chang Ch

3 The position of the Buddhists is that we need only to Understand the one Mind, but, as a matter of fact, they themselves do not know what the mind-substance really is.

Although they assert that all laws have their origin in the Mind, they really hold that there is a law external to it. 4 Hence there is no room in their philosophy for the First Cause of the Universe, and their doctrine of subject and But those who teach this doctrine object is incomplete. know enough to make them mask their position on both sides,
1

2

Possibly refers to their quality of instantaneousness. Yi Ching, p. 416.
>(S)

3 see J p Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi Chang Ch ih (fi and the Sung School, chap. iv. Ch in Fu was probably his style in early life and was subsequently changed to Ching Fu, the style by which he is referred to in his biographies. That Ch in Fu is identical with Nan Hsien (Chang
;
-

Ch
4

ih s literary

name)
"

is

clear

from a passage in the

j^JT

That
"

is,

that outside the
:

Mind

Chu Hsi
sense
?

replies

No, how

another Law. can there be two * Laws
there
is

j, To

jfc

,

pt.

i, f.

5.

this doctrine

in the ultimate

See below.

192

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

in so

and, skilfully veiling their ideas, persistently decline to say many words that outside the one Mind there is another

First Cause. According to the account of our sacred Confucian cult the Divine social
"

Mind

given by

arrangements",
",and

"

Divine social distinctions

"

",

Divine appointments
"

"

Divine retributions
",

V
"

"

solicitude
2
",

",

conscientiousness",

"

tooral insight and courtesy and there is no law external to it.
"

.

are

all

included in

it,

Mencius said

therefore,

He who

develops his

Mind

to the

utmost understands his

Nature.

preserving his
Heaven." 3

Understanding his Nature he knows Heaven. By Mind and nourishing his Nature he serves

Here, then, we have Heaven and Man, the Nature and the Decree, united in one : how can there be
"

two

Laws

"

in the ultimate sense

?

But

those

who to-day

propound! this theory
to the

Mind

there

is

maintain on the contrary that external another First Cause that apart from
;

another method by which the Nature may be developed, and the Decree perfectly embodied. I fear that this only means an ungrateful disregard of the teachings
is

Love there

which the saints and sages have bequeathed to us, and of their lifelong devotion to learning and inquiry into truth.
itself to attack

I fear also lest this theory should spread and, exposing by heretics, seriously involve our doctrine.

Fu.) In seeking to regain the lost mind 4 it is not necessary to explain what it is, but through the hours of the day, in its various activities, continuously and carefully to watch and in course of it, not allowing it to get beyond control
4.
;

(Reply to Chang

Ch

in

1

Shu

Cliing, p. 73.

2 *

3

Ibid., p. 325.

Mencius, p. 79. See Mencius, p. 290.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
be illuminated,

193

time the result will appear naturally, the moral nature will and steadfastness attained, without any
effort.

abnormal expenditure of
5.
"

(Reply

to

Li Shu Wen.)
the
Ye,
1

The sentence

in

the

Commentary on
it is still

Although free from heart depravity
principle,"

not in accord

with right
inactivity^

really includes
j3pl|tjyg^

both activity and

If in a time of

leisure

I am

affected

rpmfliim ripjfjly a r\A obstinately unresponsive, then, although there is the absence of heart depravity, the inaction is in itself out of- Tcccord
iiftJTirl

by some particular way, but *PT

the

externaT~~Worlcr~ and

.oughlTTo^pespond

in

wkh^rjght principle. Or if I ought to respond to a certain phenomenon in a certain way, but I actually respond to it
in a different way, then, although not necessarily proceeding from intentional selfishness, this alone is out of accord with
right
principle.

Seeing

that

it

is

out of accord with
?

right principle, what is not depend solely on

it if it is

not depravity

We

must
this

rectitude

and carefulness for

preservation and nurture, thinking that if I preserve the Mind in this way, there will be no heart depravity. On the contrary, we must bear in mind that it is possible for
carefulness to fail through anxieties and distractions, and pave the way for falseness and heart depravity. In what

you say about the modern heresy with respect to under
standing the Mind you strike at the very root of the error. What the learning of the ancient/s emphasized in the
preservation of the
to investigate the
1

Mind was
I.

to extend it so as exhaustively

laws of the universe.

What

the moderns
j

A

commentary by Ch eng
>

It is included in the

j^

^|y

ijjf,

and

entitled

!

.

194

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the

mean by understanding
therefore, the

Mind

is

tQ stand outside the laws of the universe.

by reliance upon it With the ancients,

more exalted their knowledge was, the deeper was the humility which characterized their Reverence while with modern scholars, the loftier their discussions are, the greater is their arrogance and licence from which you may
;

judge of the correctness or otherwise of their teachings. (Reply to Fang Pin Wang.)
6.

It is not necessary to

of the natural
shall rule.

mind That is,

;

go out of one s way to get rid needs only that the spiritual mind if the natural mind is to be rendered
it

powerless to play the robber,

it

must be by the
desire.

spiritual

mind.

But

this is exceedingly difficult to secure, so

sudden

and rapid are the movements of human 1 Cheng Tzu Shang.)
.

(Reply to

7.

The
*

intellectual

powers of the Mind,
>

when they

stitute the

manifest themselves on the plane of ethical principle, con l when they manifest them sS4iirj]Mj3ainiL
<

;

selves in the region of desire,

they constitute the

"natural

mindr. 2
8.

(Reply to

Question.

Cheng Tzu Shang.) The Mind of man is a

spiritual

3

tiling.

It is true that
to

by day, before there has been any response external phenomena,, it is still and without activity *
;

true that, in this state of inactivity, the Mind is 2 See p. 5, n. 3. See Shu Ching, p. 61. J here is a different word with a different meaning Spiritual (fjj|) from that in the expression spiritual mind (jjf[ e f rmer ^n JJjOit is also
1
"

"

"

"

^

spiritual in the sense of pertaining to_-spirit, ..or the intellectual part of man s being in contrast to the physical. In the latter case it IB spiritual in the sense of morally pure and good.
it is

case

Yi Ching,

p. 370.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

195

while in continuously awake and not blindly unconscious dreams of the night again tho Mind is active as in thought by day. When dreams cease, however, and there is no
return to consciousness, we have deep sleep, and at such times to speak of the Mind as still and without activity 13

a mistake
ness,

;

for

when

the

mind

thus sinks into unconscious

total

and that unconsciousness is so deep that there is as an absence of knowledge or perception of things as
tr ees,

in

rocks -and

unconsciousness of death
"

hardly differing indeed, from the still and itself, the expressions
"

"

without activity
is

"

are not applicable.

But what

mystifies

me

Where is the mind-substance at euch times, and where is what we call the spiritual faculty ? What is the difference at such times between the sage and the common man ? And what ought the inquirer to make the object
this
:

of his search in such

phenomena

?

states of the

Waking and sleeping are the active and inactive Mind. Thought and absence of thought are the active and inactive phases of its active state. Dreams and dreamlessness are the active and inactive phases of its inactive state. But the waking state belongs to the positive mode, and sleep to the negative mode, waking to the clear,
Answer.

and sleeping to the turbid ether. Waking is under control, and sleeping not. Therefore the mystery of that
stillness,

and,

when

acted upon, that penetration to
"

all

1 phenomena, referred -to in the

Yi

",

of the waking state.
1

(Reply to

Ch

can only be predicated en An Ch ing.) 2

See Yi Ching, p. 370.

2

Ch en Ch un (fj

f|r),

style

was a native

of Fukien.

An Ch ing, also called Ch en Pel Hsi He was first interested in ethical

196
9.

PHILOSOPHY
[Question.

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

On thinking over your statement, and Waking (sleeping are the active and inactive states of the Mind, etc.," the subject presents itself to my. 1 mind All men possess the two ethers. The spirit has in this way
"

:

its

origin in the positive and the body in the negative ether. Mind enters into these two ethers and resides in

both alike, whether active or passive. It is the home of the By day the negative spirit and the ruler of the body. ether subsides land the positive is in operation. Since th,e
positive
is

kctive, the spirit is in motion, and, the

responding
condition
tho negative

to the

movement

of the

spirit,

(results.
is

At

night the positive
the spirit
is

body waking ether subsides and
the
is

in operation.
is rigid,

The negative
is inert,

passive

;

the

body, therefore,
is sleep.

and the
is

result

(When
its

the spirit

active the substance of the
clearly,

invisible psychic powers

and of consciousness
life

manifested

can be seen, as when, with the return of the positive mode, the whole world puts on the garment of spring. This is how it is that the Mind,
;

budding

whether
control.

still

or affected

by the external world,
is

is

under
of

When; the

spirit

inert

the

substance

the invisible psychic powers and of consciousness sinks into hidden depths it is silent and leaves no traces of its exist
:

2 just as, in the vvin,ter months, every, sign of life and became study by reading Chu Hsi s Modern Thought ( (J Jjfj, J), his pupil at Chang Chou. Chu Hsi spoke of him as eager and in
;
"

ence

domitable

".

He was
J|)>

(tt
1

S ^
Jg, used

the author of a glossary of philosophical terms an d the first to use the term Hsing Li ( J which

g|),

formed part
a

of the title of his book.

for J^!, refers to the writer
,

Ch en Ch un
;

;

see note above.

are

|^ the negative mode, jg = wholly thus f fg J$ ; the months wholly under the influence of the negative mode, i.e. winter

$$

=

$

months.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE

197

throughout the universe is hidden beyond our power toi search; it out. This is why the Mind, whether still or affected

hy the external world, differs in sleep from the wondrous mystery of waking hours, and there is the absence of control. Nevertheless, there is that within which does not perish
;

there
it

still

and

it

remains the unfathomable mystery. answers you startle it and it responds
;

You
;

caJJ

so thafi

it is still

not without some control, nor

is it

without a wonder

Therefore, speaking broadfy, the waking state is positive and the sleeping state negative, in which the Mind
is

of its own.

respectively active an.d passive.

More

particularly, the

thought of the waking hours is the activity of the active The absence state, the positive within the positive mode. of thought in waking hours is the inertness of the active
state, the

negative phase of the positive mode. The dreams of sleep are the activity of the passive state, the positive
;

while dreamless sleep is the phase of the negative mode inertness of the passive state, the negative phase of the)
negative mode.
still

further, thought divides itself

Again, to show their complex interaction into good; and evil

thoughts, in which the clearness of the positive ether and the turbidity of the negative ether affect the activity of the active state. The absence of thought is divisible into the
right and wrong kinds of responsiveness to phenomena, in which the clearness of the positive ether and turbidity, of the negative ether affect the inertness of the active state. Dreams are good and bad according as the activity of the
passive state is affected

by the clearness and turbidity of the two ethers respectively. And in dreamless sleep there ie a difference in the degree of responsiveness to external

198

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the

impressions corresponding to the difference between clearness and tur bidity of the two ethers by which

the

Thus we have inertness of the passive state is affected. the active and the passive in continuous alternation and
complex interaction. The sage and the ordinary man are one, and yet differ in the trans! ucence and turbidity of
their positive

and negative

ethers respectively.

The

sages,

whether active or
in

inactive, are actuated

by singleness and

them purity and perfection are paramount, while the masses are mixed in their motives and uncertain. But from
this

may

be seen

how

great are the consequences attaching

to earnest study.

Answer.
10.

.Correct.

(Reply to

Ch
s

en

An Ch ing.)

1

Qwstion\. In 2 controlling the mind,
of the

Ch eng Tzu
it

doctrine of the

mind

appears to

me

that the double use

word

"

"mind

is best

distinction between the natural
:

explained as referring to the mind and the spirii ual mind.
"

In the one case the "mind is the spiritual mind That is and refers specially to right principle and right conduct 3 * is the natural mind and refers in the other case, the mind
;
"

1

See

p. 195, n. 2.

2

The

allusion is to one of I
is

Ch uan

s

sayings

;

see
:

^ ^
]%

,

pt. xv,
-JJJ*

f.

10.
Lt J

The whole sentence which
Plo

here referred to reads
(

jjj

jjj

A

*fr

9
;

control the

mind

&OS$C^&o man mind
if

You

musfc u s e the
it will

mind
be

to

a

s

is

allowed to go free

lost.)
j

3 See Mencius, p. 283, where these expressions occur, and to which the phrase as here used probably alludes. Legge, in his note in loco, explains it thus , jjji HH * ne mental constitution, the
:

^1

moral nature
acting

;

and

sjj%

= =

>

j

fo

J3

^ na ^
>

constitution,

or

nature,

outwardly."

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
to the physical element.

199

To say

that the

mind should

control

the

that the spiritual mind should rule thai entire personality, and the natural mind obey its behests. Ansiver.
It is so too.

mind means

But

if

meaning, you will see that should be master of yourself. you
s

Ch eng

you look at the Master it is no more than that (Reply to Ch en An

Ch

ing.)

11.

Qiiesticm.

Recently, I understood you to say that

some years ago, when you were at
the sound of a bell

from hearing you learned the method of conserving
I
1

T ung An,

the mind.

At

first

did not understand

how

this could

be, but on Jurther examination I saw that it would be so. Answer. That was not the real meaning of what I said

at the time about hearing the sound of a bell. All I said was that the time of the outgoing and incoming of man s mind is indeterminate, for before the sound of one stroke of the bell had ceased my mind had already changed many

times.
12.

(Reply to Chang Ching Chih.)

Hu Wen
rises

Ting

2

"

said,

into consciousness nor subsides is

That which neither rises the substance of the Mind.
If
onej
the,

and subsides is the Mind s operation. and preserve the Mind, though in a hundred risings and subsidings, there be day may
That which

we can hold

fast

Mind

will

maintain

its character."

This

is

well said, but

the reader

rising or subsiding is not a solid
1

must remember that what is referred to as not immovable thing without
3C
refers to the writer,

H

Chang Ching Chih.

2

Hu An Kuo,

the founder of the

Hu

School

;

see p. 24.

200

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
;

consciousness

nor

is there,

amid the hundred

risings

and

Bubsidings, a separate thing which does not rise or subside. But when the Mind is luminous and wholly without selfish

then you have the original substance of the Mind, 1 and when its risings and still and without movement*" alike to arc according right principle, then you subsiding^
ness,
"

;

have

what

is

described
all

as

"acted

upon

and

forth

with penetrating

the phenomena of the

universe". 1

(Eeply to Shih Tzu Chung.)
13.

Your

treatise

would be

better if it were

on Mind is excellent, except that it more concise and restrained. Your

questions on the for Ch eng Tzu s

controlling the mind are good too, meaning also is that you should be master

mind

of yourself, and not allow the mind to become scattered or* wandering. It is the same idea as that of Mencius when
or holding fast and preserving the mind 2 of How can it mean to use seeking the lost mind one mind to control another ? But in the present day the

he speaks of
"

"

"

".

words

"

examine"

and
BO

"

understand"

discussion,

and
the

and
and

"seizing",

get the which are altogether different from
fast", expressions by the saints and sages.

we

are brought into the ideas of seeking
" "

the

spirit
"

of

"hold

"preserve",

rule",

as used

Though

the

point is a fine one, it is essential that we should clearly understand it otherwise we shall slip into the heresy of the Buddhists. (Reply to Shih Tzu Chung.)
;

14.

In the essay you sent
370.

me you

"

say
2

:

The Master in

discussing Love regarded
1

the mastery of self as the
Menciuc, pp. 285, 290,

See Yi Ching,

p.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
important thing
1
;

201

the Buddhists in discussing the Nature the regard negation of Mind as supreme, denying- Kuei Shan s doctrine that the Mind cannot be non-existent."

According

to

my

view,

what

is

termed

self

so termed in

opposition to external things is a selfish recognition of self, which gives rise to a calculating comparison and pro
This, therefore, ought to bo liking and desire. mastered. If it is mastered, there naturally follows the

duces

"return

to right

2

principle",

which

is

Love.

The Mind

has a real existence.
1

It is pure, undivided, penetrating,

and all-pervading in its influence. The perfect develop ment of the Nature and the practice of the Moral Law both proceed from this. You, however, regard it as vain and would get rid of it, and yet you yourself recognize that this would not do, arid therefore say there is the true Mind which must be preserved (this is the language of In this and so after all there is a Mind your essay)
"

"

!

;

case

how can
?

right

the theory of the negation of Mind be wholly And how can those who do not assert this doctrine
?

be wholly wrong

Suppose you take the negation of Mind
?

to be correct, then, I contend, the mastery of self presupposes

Mind, for how otherwise could one master himself
if
1

Or
your

you take self-mastery to be a reality, then make
Analects, XII,
Ibid.
i, 1

it

(p.

114).

here is almost equivalent to g! ; cf. Legge s note in loco. j|g what is right and proper Soothill renders the word as and, like Legge,
"

2

",

Li , quotes gloss, jjg j?t fj is the restraints and graces of Divine Law", see Soothill s Analects of It is probable that the sage in his use of the Confucius, pp. 557-8.
s

Chu

Hsi

g

g

&

"

word
"

in

this

passage had
".

the

Divine

Law

in

mind more than

its

restraints

and graces

202

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE

business to practise it, and that is alj. that is required. Again, why speak of self-mastery in one connexion and of

the negation of Mind in the other, as if they had their origin in two different sources, and so cause inconsistency

in your statements
15.
"

?

(Eeply to Li Po Chien.)
is

The

Mind
"

a

unity.

What
"

is

called

Mind. Your idea of seeking the Intelligence Mind and using the Mind by means of Intelligence *,
is

also the

feverishly trying to get hold of it in various w ays, I fear is a mistake. Not only is it exactly like pulling up the
r

young
to

corn,

1

but, in itself, it is not so

good

as in daily life

Then, naturally the real

be guided by reverent care and never to lose sight of it. Mind will be unclouded when acted
;

upon by
to

external! thingls it will penetrate

them

;

and ba

reispeet to everything without waiting Therefore Confucius spoke of self-mastery and return to rigUt principle, 2 and not of making oneself
"intelligent"

with

be made

so.

intelligent or exercising reverent care. Mencius speaks only of holding fast and preserving the mind, or of letting go

and losing
it is

and does not say that it and preserved by unintelligenoe it is
it,
3

is

by

intelligence

lost.

The Master
in

Hsieh,
of

although

.he

liked

to

define

Love

terms

Consciousness,

.nevertheless

did

not

speak of being

by Mencius, in which he who, grieved that his growing corn was not Sung I am tired to-day, I have longer, pulled it up, and said to his family been helping the corn to grow long," upon which his son went and found
tells of

1

An

allusion to one of the illustrations used

the

"

man

of

,

"

:

it

withered.
2
3

See Mencius, pp. 66-7.
i,
1

Analects, XII,

(p.

Hsieh Shang Ts

ai,

114). see p. 322, n. 3.

PHILOSOPHY
consciousness."

OF*

HUMAN NATURE
"The

203

conscious of the Mind, but said,

Mind must have

(Reply to
is

Yu Ch

eng Chih.)

18.
it

The mind-substance
it is

originally in repose,

and yet

cannot but have movement.

Its operation is originally

good, and yet

Now

its

movement and

possible for it to lapse into the not-good. lapse into evil cannot be called

the original character of the mind-substance, and yet it cannot be termed otherwise than Mind. It is only because
it

has been beguiled by external things that it becomes evil. The former sages therefore said only, "Hold it fast and
(If it is preserved

you will preserve it. then its movement
it

and thus

is

in repose,
;

will not be otherwise than good)

let

go and you

will lose it (It is thus that
;

movement

results

in the lapse into evil) its outgoing and incoming cannot bo defined as to tipne or pljace (Its outgoing and loss, its

incoming and preservation, are without any set time or place. They depend wholly on the way in w hich men hold
T

the

mind

fast or let it

l
go)."

In

this sentence the

Mind s

substance and pperation,
falsity,
it
its

its

source and issue, truth and
all

depravity and rectitude, are
is its

included

;

and from

wa
it

see that not to hol;d fast to it is to let it go, that
:

incoming there is no middle position According to your argument the rectitude of the Mind consists in the outgoing and incoming; having
non-outgoing
to rest in.

for

their set time

;

in which case the indeterminateness of thd

is

outgoing and incoming of which a disease of the Mind r and he
categorically concluded his
1

Confucius

speaks
"

ought not to have It is statement with the words
p. 285.

Mencius,

204
the

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
Mind
of

which

this is said

"

*

!

(Reply to

Yu Ch

eng

Chih.)
17.

The

instructive communication

and

treatise

on Mind

which I have received from you. are excellent, though, as it appears to me, somewhat incomplete. For the incoming is the and preserved (mind true mind, and the outgoing

and

lost

mind

is

also the true mind, but has

become

lost

2 You say that through the seductions of its environment. the preserved mind and the l;ost mind, -the outgoing and the

incoming mind, are dike produced by the seductions of the
environment.
is still

Thus in addition

another true mind. 3

to the preserved mind there But, in that case, why did

Confucius not speak of it ? Tzu s Chung s * contention contains the same error. Tzu Yo 5 too would combine the
outgoing and lost mind with the incoming and preserved mind, and not distinguish between the true and false, but regard both as an unfathomable mystery. Both
ideas are wrong. My recent reply to these The two correspondents 6 was not altogether complete. 7 I which Yu somewhat made later to Ch Chih was reply eng

these

more
upon

satisfactory.

hope that
it.

a copy of it, in the have your instructive opinion you As to the Mind s substance and manifestation,
I
will let

now send you

me

however, with
1

its

origin

and

issue,

although

it

is

to

This sentence immediately follows on the others quoted above. Legge s note on the passage referred to ; see Mencius, p. 285. 3 If the preserved mind, as well as the lost mind, is the result of the true seductions (!) of its environment, then there must be still another
2

Cf.

"

"

mind which
4

seeks to bring

it

back from

its

seductions.
6 7

6

See pp. 199-200. See p. 208 for reply to Tzu Yo.

See pp. 206-8. See pp. 202-3.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
be distinguished as to
rectitude, it is
its

205

truth and falsity, depravity and none the less unfathomable in its mystery
;

and, although
tihe

it is

unfathomable in
I do not
to

its

mystery,

it is

none

less

to

be distinguished as to its truth
rectitude.

and

falsity,

depravity and

opinion
18.

may

be.

(Reply

know what your Ho Shu Ching.)
on Mind.

exalted

I have studied your treatise
is

You

say,
still

The mind of the sages
water
:

like

a mirror or a sheet of
is

the Divine

Law

in

them

pure and

perfect."

In

this sentence

mind.

you are speaking of the preservation of the But although it is true that the sages, without the
;

holding fast the mind, continually preserved! while it, ordinary men preserve it by holding it fast nevertheless, when ordinary men do thus preserve it, it does
special, effort of

from the mind ap preserved by the sage it is if they do not hold it fast they fail to preserve that eimply it. The mind preserved is the spiritual mind the mind
not differ
; ,

lost is the natural

mind.

But the Mind

is

one

:

it is

not

that really there are these two minds, each a separate entity without any connexion the one with the other, but only that different terms are used to distinguish between preserving

and losing.
there
is

It is true that

when

it is lost it is

not the

original state of the

mind

;

another mind which

is

but neither must you say that both preserved and lost, out
its source,

going and incoming, waiting to return to
that

and

exchange which has no distinction between preserved and lost, out going and incoming. There is only this one Mind. The
failure to preserve it is in itself to lose
it,

we are

to seek to

it

for

still

a different

mind

not to lose

it is

to

206

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
it.

preserve

There

is

not the smallest conceivable middle

The student, therefore, must be earnest in holding and preserving the mind. For even between Shun and Yii there was the warning to cultivate discrimination and 1 And as in the case of peace and danger, good singleness. government and disorder in the world, although in the time of the sages Yao and Shun there was peace and good government and no danger and disorder, still you would not say that the expressions peace and danger
ground.
fast
" "

"

",

"good

government"

and

"disorder",

cannot be applied

Yao and Shun. If you were to do BO you would be falling into the same heresy as the Hu School, who maintain that there is no distinction between 2 good (and evil in the Nature. I beg you to consider the subject once more, and give me your views. (Reply to Ho
as a whole to the time of

Shu Ching.)
19.
it

Mind

as referred to in the sentence, "Hold-fast to

and you will p r ee eryej.tj ^ is itself th original substance, and there is no need to seek for another. But when the holding fast is long continued and mature, there naturally ensues resting in righteousness and moral principle, and
1

See Shu Ching, p. 61.

Ching s position is, that the preserved mind and the lost mind two different entities ; or, if they are one, there is another, the true mind, which has no such distinction aa that between preserved and lost, the Hu which means that it has no distinction between good and evil With this Hu heresy in his mind, Chu Hsi combats their favourite heresy. argument that the Nature cannot be said to be good because that would imply that it was evil, and uses the illustration of the times of Yao and Shun, to which, though there was no confusion whatever, the opposite is applied. term Similarly, the term preserved peace may be applied to the mind which has not gone, and yet may go, astray.
2

Ho Shu

are

"

"

"

"

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
in which case tho absence of evil activity will manifest itself without stillness"
;
"

207
called

what any
You,

is

so-called

"examination"

and
"

"understanding".

however,
"

would make out that in

by you may
of the
that
is

the application of
arrive at

momentary holding fast and examination" and understanding
this
"

"stillness".

I fear that the substance

Mind

as still cannot be understood in this
call
"examination"

way and

what you

and

"understanding;"

but to accelerate movement and activity, and lapse into care and vexation. The same idea is expressed in the Master

Ch eng s
nurture

"

statement,

The moment thought comes
its

into

existence the
is

Mind

is

already manifested; therefore,, while

possible before

into accord with the

Mean

manifestation, to bring before its manifestation
is

it

is

not

possible."
fast"

But the Mind
"preserve"

one,

and the expressions

"hold

jand

cannot

mean

that there are

two minds, each holding fast to the other in the same way as two wrestlers grasp each other and will not let go. Tho Master said further, 1
absent-mindedness
;

"Let

there be concentration and no

let there
;

be no activity unless in accord

with right principle 2 then there will be self-control and The countless utterances the preservation of the mind."
oft the saints and sages, if you trace them to their beginning and follow them to their conclusion, you will find have no other meaning. (Reply to Lii Tzu Yo.) 3

1

2fc
2

refers to
is

Ch eng Tzu.

jjg here

equivalent to
jg.

gl

;

see p. 201.

3

LuTsuChien(g
of the

$>),

style

TzuYo (J- $j ),
fi SB ( \ I/!**
I

pupil of

Chu

Hsi,

and brother

more famous

Lii

Tsu Ch ien

|f). W\v* /

208
20.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The
"

expressions
anid

holding
",

fast"

and

"

letting

go",

"preserving"

"losing
;

represent the instability of
spiritual

the
"but

natural

mind

hut

the
other

a
are

spark"

is

no

than this

mind which is same mind.
these
2

You

mistaken
1

when

you

interpret

four

sentences

as referring, not to

man s Mind,

but to the

mystery of its activity and inactivity, without beginning or ending, without location, without corporeity. You
are wrong, too, when you say Even in the wild restless which does not know where to rest, to fro and turning
:
"

although

original Mind, you may see the for if impossibility of restraint of the Mind s essence" the mind-essence is reaJJy as you say, why should you dis

not

the

;

approve of
find its

It must not knowing where to rest and say ? rest in reverent care (Reply to Lu Tzu Yo.)
its
"

"

21.

Everyone regards the passage on preserving and

losing the mind as teaching that the selfish actions of the natural mind are due to relaxing hold of it and losing it, but forgets that preservation is simply by holding fast this

very same mind.

Tzu Yo

says the terms
"incoming

"preservation"
,

and

"loss",

"outgoing"

and
s

alike express

the excellence of the
intelligence
;

unfathomable spirituality and hence he makes no distinction between true
is

Mind

and
is
:

false.

In both these respects he

wrong.

The

truth

the preservation and loss, the outgoing and incoming,
That
is,

1

sentences in Mencius in which the expressions quoted occur
"

;

see Mencius, p. 285.
2

A
man

&
s

but

nere probably means not the mind in a general sense.

natural mind

"

specifically,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
of the

209

Mind

are indeed the operation of
;

its

unfathomable

1 but its truth and falsity, its spirituality and intelligence error and rectitude, the beginning and ending of its activity and inactivity, must be distinguished. (Reply to

Lu Tzu
22.
is

Yo.)

Your account of

the natural

very good, for if the spiritual
is

mind and spiritual mind mind is allowed to rule,
the

then the natural mind

transformed into the spiritual
dress are originally
but,

mind.

For iexalnpTeT^ood and
of

outcome

the

natural

mind,

as

is

shown in

the Hsiang Tang, 2 in the case of the sage tEey proceed (Reply to Huang Tzu wholly from the spiritual mind.

Ching.)

23

.

It

is

of the

Mind
reply
It

a& taught
is
:

asked whether the doctrine of the contemplation by the Buddhists is true.

My
objects

his body.

by w4ich-ioaii rules It is subject and not It is one and not divided. controls the external world and is not its slave.
is the^ agent

The Mind

Therefore, with the

and

"so

contemplate external objects, discover the principles of the universe. According

Mind we

to this theory, however,

and contrariwise, we examine the
;

Mind by means
to this

my

that is, in addition of an external object Mind external to it, by, I another have Mind,

which
1

it is controlled.

But

is this

thing that
"

we
"

call

Mind
"

and himself says that the terms loss preservation express the operation of the unfathomable spirituality, etc., but not the excellence of them as Tzu Yo says they do. By saying they express the excellence of the unfathomable spirituality Tzii Yo excludes everything

Chu Hsi

",

etc.,

not excellent, such as
-

falsity.

The

title of

book x in the Analects.

The passages

referred to are

in chaps, vi to viii (pp. 94-7).

210

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
?

one entity or two
free or
tot

Is it subject or is it object
?

?

Is it

is it

the slave of the external

We

do not need!

ba told in order to see the fallacy of

it all.

If this argument is correct, how are we to explain such expressions in the writings of the saints and sages as Discrimination and singleness Hold fast

Someone may say
"

:

V

"

and preserve
3

2
it",

"Perfect

Nature",

"Preserve

the

the Mind and understand the Mind and nourish the Nature", 4
".

and

See them in front of you and resting on the yoke 5 I reply 6 The apparent similarity but essential differ
:

"

ence between this theory and such sayings in the classics 7 or is just like the difference between wheat and tares

between them.
natural

vermilion and purple, and the student must discriminate When we read of the instability of the

mind 8 and

the budding of
8

human

desire, or of the

smallness of the spiritual

mind and the mystery of Divine Law, we must remember that the Mind is one, and that
different terms are used

simply to express

its

accord or

otherwise with what

The meaning
ness"

9

is

is right. of the phrase "discrimination and single to fasten upon what is right and discern all that
p. 61.
2
5

1

Shu Ching,

Menciu?, p. 285.
Analects,

3

Ibid., p. 324.

4 6

Ibid., pp. 324-5.

XV,

v, 3 (p. 160).

The answer is first given in general terms, and then in detailed sections corresponding to the sayings quoted by the questioner, and in the same
order.
7

Yu,

^

,

is

a weed, very similar in appearance to the young sprouts

of corn.
8
9

is

Shu Ching, p. 61. The first of the sayings quoted in the question, To right and discern all that diverges from explains
"

fasten

upon what
all

it,"

"discrimination"

"

(St)

to discard everything that
"

is

opposed to
"

it

and

restore

that

ie

in accord with

it,"

explains

singleness

(

).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
diverges from
it
it,

211

to discard everything that is opposed to

and restore

all that is in accord
"

with

it.

If

we can do

thi*

we

sEall indeed

hold fast

,the

Mean

V

and be free

from

either excess or shortcoming.

The phrase does not

mean
tli3

that the spiritual
is

is

one mind and the natural one

mind, and that there

another mind by which we make
"

it,"

mind discriminating and single. The meaning of the phrase, hold it is not that one mind is used to hold
;

the other
that one
is!

nor

is .the
is let

meaning
lost

of

"letting

and preserve and preserve 2 and go losing
fast fast
it"

mind

go and

it is let

held fast by the Mind go and not held fast, then the preserved
"holding

by another. When the itself, then the lost is saved
;

Mind
when

is lost.

jSL.jEjjBflL_.iQ__he_ explained as ^^^^P^^ the day to fettejiJLnrL destroy the natural goodness of the virtuous nature, 3 and not that we are to sit in rigid posture and preserve a manifestly useless

But

at

fast"

4
"intelligence"!
"

To

perfect the

Mind

"

5

means

"

to investigate things
7
",

6
",

"

to study exhaustively the laws of the universe
to

and

"

be possessed of a wide and far-reaching
p. 61.
"

penetration",

1

Shu Ching,

2

Occurs in the same connexion as

hold fast and preserve
it

it

".

See

Mencius,
3

cf.
4

p. 285. Alluding to the context of the saying, "hold the whole of chap, viii, Mencius, pp. 283-5.

fast,"

in

Mencius

;

As the Buddhists do. This paragraph explains the third of the sayings quoted in the question, but not -wholly part of it, viz. understanding the Nature", is explained in the next paragraph in connexion with the phrase nourishing the
5
"

;

"

Nature
6

".

G.L., p. 222.

7

Ibid., p. 229.

212

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE

and so to, have that by means of which we may develop to their utmost extent the principles inherent in the Mind. maintain inward To preserve the Mind" means to and correctness by seriousness, regulate outward conduct
"

"to

what has already been said in discrimination and single explanation of the expressions, There and fast land preserving the Mind ness/ holding Nature our understand fore by perfecting the Mind we can
1

by, righteousness",,

as in

"

".

and know Heaven, because, the substance of the Mind being
unclouded,

we

are able to search into this

Law
"

as the Self-

Existent. By preserving the Mind we can nourish our Nature and serve Heaven 2 because, the substance of the
",

Mind

being not Ipst, we can obey this Law as the SelfExistent. How can this be regarded as one mind perfecting

another mind, or one mind preserving another mind, like two things holding each other and not letting go ? The passage, See them in front of you and resting on
"

the

yoke,"

is

in reference to the preceding expressions,
truthful,"

"sincere

and
is
:

"earnest

-and

serious."

3

For what
and

it

means

If sincerity

and truthfulness,

earjiestnesjL

seriousness, do not perish from the Mind, then we cannot and not that go anywhere but we shall see them facing us
;

we

see our

Mind

in front of us.

Moreover, what rhyme

or reason would there be in saying that the body is here and the Mind in front of us, or the body in the carriage

and the Mind resting on the yoke
.To isum up,
:

?
is,

The teaching

of the sages

that ^ith the

Mind we
1

exhaustively
p. 420.

investigate
2

principles,

and by

Yi Ching,
Analects,

Mencius, p. 325.

3

XV,

v, 2 (p. 159).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

213

following these principles we determine our attitude to external things, just as the body uses the arm, and the arm the hand. Their doctrine is even and dear, their attitude

broad and caljm, their principles real, and the practice of them spontaneous. The teaching of the Buddhists, on the other hand, is with the Mind! to seek the Mind, with the Mind to use the Mind, like the mouth gnawing the moutli,
or the eye gazing at itselif Its methods are uncertain and its course is feverish, dangerous and clogged, its principles are hollow, and its tendency antagonistic to what is right.
.

These, then, are the reasons

I maintain that, though in phraseology there are some points of similarity to that of the sages, their teaching is essentially different. And yet

why

who but

the high-minded with careful reflection and clear
?

discrimination! can avoid error on such a subject on the Contemplation of the Mind.)

(Treatise

24.

Question.

Heng Ch u
;

said,
"If

"Let

the

mind be

are large-minded expanded widely" we shall possess penetration in all tHings, if we are small/and again,

we

minded everything will be wrong." 1 Sun Ssii Miao 2 said, Be great in courage but small in mind." My own explana tion of these two statements is that Heng Ch ii was speaking of the mind-substance, while Ssu Miao was speaking of its I do not know if I am correct or not. manifestation. 3 The Answer. mind, of course, ought to he large in some If you insist upon forcing directions and small in others.
"

1

2

A

^

fljf.pt. iv,

f.

19.
;

scholar of the seventh century
Biog. Diet., p. 695.

see

fjj^

^

^,

pt. iv, f.17

;

also

Giles

214

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

the letter of the text, then all thinking becomes impossible. (Reply to P an Tzu Shan.)
25.

We

We must turn inwards and examine our own mind. must examine it in its outgoing and incoming. We
we hold
it fast.

shall preserve it just in so far as

Our
to

labour must be continuous and unbroken.

(Reply

Li

Hui Shu.)
26.

Question.

I

1

once said that
1

the

student

should

in rectitude and singleness, and not allow the smallest shadow of selfish thought to
constantly preserve his

mind

intrude
will be

itself.

Then

it will

follow naturally that there

an inward controlling principle, and the mind will not be scattered and wandering, and we shall come verynear to the comprehension of the original substance of

spirituality

and

intelligence.

But

if

we would

really

and

truly understand the original substance of this spirituality and intelligence, we must also cultivate daily intimacy with

moral principle, and eradicate selfishness

:

only thus shall

we

attain to

an understanding

of the original mind-sub-

stance.

Ansiver. You need to get rid of a lot of superfluous methods and useless verbiage to look only at what is meant 2 by the saying, Hold it fast and you will preserve it and not add redundant comments. (Reply to Li Hui Shu.)
;
"
"

;

Scholars of the present day for the most part busy themselves for the most part with irrelevant matters, and do
27.
r
1

j$

refers to the questioner Li

Hui Shu

(^

flj$

<g[)

;

jjji

was

his

ming,
2

Menciua,

p. 285.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

215

not realize that the mystery of the Mind is the source of all 1 phenomena. Those who do know can do no more than, with

brows and glaring eyes, shout and swear away the views they are opposing, asserting that this alone is the virtuous mind and original nature, and that it is invariably
beetling-

good.

no holding fast and preserving it, no practical conduct, no explanation, and no thorough examination, then all this beetling of the brows
that if there
is

They do not realize

human

and glaring of the eyes resolves itself into selfish thought and passion, and Ihe more earnestly sincere it is the
morei wild will it be.

You must not fail carefully
this error.

to

examine

and studiously avoid
questioner.)

(Reply to an anonymous

28.

nor death

I regard the theory that the Mind has neither birth 2 as very nearly akin to ,the Buddhist doctrine of

transmigration.

In the production of things by Heaven

and Earth

"

it is

man who

receives the ethers in their highest
".

3 excellence, and is therefore the most spiritual of all beings What we call Mind is the psychical faculty and conscious

ness, as seen in the hearing and sight of the ear and eye. In the case of Heaven and Earth, there never has been and]

never can be either creation or dissolution
of

;

but in the case

man and

all

other creatures, on account of their material

form, there is both beginning and ending. If we under stand that Law is one but its functions are diverse, then
1

See

p.

217

ft.

2
3

A

tenet of the

Cited from the

Hu School see Jf| T ai Chi T u Shuo
;
:

jjfc
;

,

pt. xlii,

f.

8.

see J. P. Brace, Introduction to

Cliu

Hsi and

the

Sung

School, chap. vi.

216

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
need

why
from

we

devise this theory of the
,

Mind being

without
(Extract

birth or death and startle the ear of the student.

Chu

Hsi

"

s

Criticism

of

Hu
and

Tzu

s

Words

of Wisdom".)*-

29.
2

Now

between

"holding

fast

preserving"

the

Mind on
it

the one hand, and

"letting

go and

losing"

on the other, there can be no gap.
it

recognize
exists.

as bst and seek

3

it,

it

Seeing that we follows that the Mind
is lost

It is said that the

Mind which
;

cannot be

held fast and again preserved we can only lay aside our wait for other time when we see the Mind s some quest,

manifestation in pome other direction, and then follow it up and hold it fast. 4 But. in this interval, while you are

waiting to see its manifestation, there is a break in the [Mind s continuity, and no means of renewed activity. Even

you could see its manifestation again and hold it fast, what you thus hold fast would not be the wholo Mind but 5 When, so far as its original and entire only a part.
if

substance

concerned, not a single day s labour has been used in nourishing the Mind, to expect to be able "to
is
fill it

expand and
seems to

so that it

may be

great as
!

me

contrary to all reason
of

Heaven itself (Extract from Chu
",

Hsi
1

s

"Criticism

Hu

Tzu s Words

of Wisdom". )i

The

treatise

Words
Hsi
s

of

Wisdom

($
in

ftf),

by

Hu Wu
,

Feng,

is

to be

found with Chu
2
3
4

criticisms

the

JJ|

||v

pt. xlii,

S. 2-12.

Mencius,
Cf.

p. 285.

Ibid., p. 290.

the whole paragraph
5

the Chih Yen (see note is taken.

1),

from Chu Hsi

s

criticisms, of

which

$|

i-e.

one only of the

Jjg.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
30
Question by
wrote a treatise
of Heaven,

217

Ch en An Ch ing. Some time back I 1 on Mind in which I said: "The Decree
it is

how profound

and undying

"

2

!

That

is

by means! of which it rules over the production of things the Mind of Heaven. Man receives the Decree of Heaven and so is born and because this by which Heaven
;

gives by me in its entirety to be lord of my complete personality, and in its entirety to reside in

me

birth is received

me, spiritual and intelligent, continuously illuminating and unclouded, living and imperishable this we call the Mind of Man. Its substance, answering to what are termed th e
:

principles
is

3

inherent in

of ^Origin, Beauty, Utility, me as the nature-principles

and Potentiality,
Love, Righteous

ness, Reverence,

and Wisdom. 4

Its operation, answering-

to what are termed the ethers of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, 5 is manifested in me as the Four Feelings 6 solicitude, conscientiousness, courtesy, and moral insight. Therefore, though the substance resides in a very minute 7 spot, that which constitutes it the substance is really as the countless laws of the great as Heaven and Earth universe are present in their completeness, and there is not
;

a single thing outside their scope.
1

Although
(style

its

operation
see p. 195, n.

\&

refers to the questioner

Ch en Ch un

An Ch ing)

;

2

Odes, p. 570.

3
4
5

51

=

Jt

Sh

principles.
to

See J. P. Bruce, Introduction
Ibid., chaps, vii Ibid., chap. xi.
"

Chu Hsi and

the

Sung

School, chap.

vii.

and

xi.

6 7

is a term for the mind or heart and, of cours?, has ~Jj TJ* that meaning here, but the force of the expression in this connexion is
"
"

",

in its literal meaning.

218

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

proceeds from a very minute spot, yet that which constitutes its operation is really in union with the pervading activity
of

Heaven and Earth
by

;

universe are united

it,

and there

the countless phenomena of the is not a single law which

Herein lies the mystery of the Mind it unifies activity and repose, the manifest and the hidden, the external and the internal, the source and the
does not operate in them.
;

issue, to the exclusion of all harriers.

But man

is

fettered

by

the impurity of the

Two
is

fall to his lot, to

which
;

Ethers and Five Agents which added the entanglement of the
is

desires of the senses

and thus the Mind

cramped by

cannot be enlarged in a lofty sympathy and unselfishness, nor has the spiritual faculty any means of ruling in the Mind. Those who would give full
material form,
it

substantiality to this Mind so that it the ruler of their entire personality,

may
must

continually be see to it that

their energy in perfecting knowledge is adequate, their cultivation of seriousness whole-hearted, and their inward

light brilliant

and pure, and
desire.
is

thjus rise

above the material

endowment and human
in so far as it
is is

original mind-substance, in greatness to Heaven and Earth, equal in brightly illuminating every direction, so that there not one principle which is not luminous. In the original

My

Mind, in so far as it is in union with the all-pervading activity of Heaven and Earth, there is nothing to divide or separate, and there is not even a momentary
operation of

my

cessation

of

life.

Thus, before being

afTected
brilliant,

by the
clear as

external world, the

Mind

is

pure and

a mirror and poised evenly as a balance, truly able to stand before God, with all laws established within. After being

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
affected

219
or

by the external world, the favourableness
phenomenon.
1

un

fa vourabl en ess, as well as the degree, of the

responsedepends
all

upon
its

this particular

For this Law is

com

prehensive, and resides in every single thing- as the law of The as is said in the Yi Climg individual existence
"

;

:

method of Ch ien

is

to

change and transform BO that every

thing obtains its correct nature as ordained

by

2

Heaven,"

and without the smallest

error.

The Mind,

therefore, does

not linger with a matter that has once been dealt with. In repose the substance of Heaven and Earth remains one
source with an infinite plurality of phenomena. the operations of Heaven and Earth go forth
plurality

In activity an infinite one
unity.
itself,

of phenomena but The substance constantly enfolds

united
its

in

operation within

and

The

operation substance and

its

is

never separated from the substance. its operation are united in one revolving

wholly that Divine Law which daily and manifests itself in motion and rest. Now*, continuously I received in its entirety from what have following this,
unity,

and

this is

Heaven becomes in me the assurance of a return to the source, and I too, like that Decree of Heaven so profound,

may
way
1

be

3
"undying".

in which
==
"

man may
",

This, I apprehend, preserve his mind.
"

is

in brief, the

or The response to reception of treatment of a particular phenomenon by a mind such as
J?K
".

is

response to or here described

depends entirely on the nature of that phenomenon, just as the treat ment of a man by a perfectly good man will depend entirely on what kind of man the former is. The treatment will be perfectly appropriate to
the subject treated.
2
3

Yi Chinj, p. 213. See p. 217.

220

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
eng
style

Your way of treating the subject is most excellent, but what you Bay about the mind-substance being as great as Heaven and

Wang Ch

Tzu Cheng

said: 1

Earth, and
I

its

operation as in union with the all-pervading
substantiating, and

operations of Heaven and Earth, needs

would be glad to receive your further instruction. I therefore prepared another supplementary treatise as

follows
as

The statement, that the mind-substance is as great Heaven and Earth, is made from the point of view of
:

Law
Law
1

;

as the ultimate reality, the pivot of creation

for permeating the whole universe there is but one and trans
all

formation, received alike in all ages by men and creatures. Yet among all creatures it is man who

other

is Spirit.

embody and receive congregated in Mind all those my principles which are comprehended in that one Law, and which constitute what is termed th$ Nature. But although these principles are thus congregated in my Mind and become my Nature they are never severed from the Divine. What in my Mind is called Love, is
So true
is this

that I

Reverence,

the Divine principle of Origin whlat in my Mind is called what in my is the Divine principle of Beauty
;

;

Mind

is called Righteousness,, is
;

Utility

what in

my Mind

is

the Divine principle of called Wisdom, is the Divine

2 principle of Potentiality. They are really identical and not; simply used as illustrations. The Moral Law of Heaven

all-comprehensive and the Law of my Mind is all-com the Moral Law of Heaven is limitless and the prehensive
is
; 1

Ch en An Ch

ing tells

Chu Hsi what Wang Ch eng bad
Chu Hsi and
the

said in criticism

of his essay. 2 See J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

Sung

School, chap. vii.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Law
of

221

Moral Law of Heaven enters into every single thing without exception, and there is not one thing in the universe which is not Divine, and

my Mind

is

limitless

;

the

the

Law

of

my Mind

also enters into everything

without

exception, and there is not one thing in the universe which is not my Mind. (What is there that is not done by
the

Mind ? What principlo is there not inherent in the Mind ?) In all the world h|OW can there be anything out

side the

Law
it is

Nature, or not included within the of my Mind. From the point of view of Law only the all-comprehensive universe, and we do not think

bounds of

my

of it as in its close relation to myself.
it

the substance of

of

Law

as it

is

But when I call from the point of view my Mind, then, is arch-controller an inherent in me, there

and its operations are traceable. This is why the Mind is most spiritual and most wonderful. To whatever point Law
reaches, the thought
greatness
it

of

my Mind

follows
it

it.

If in its

reaches to infinitude, or if

be so fine as to

pierce things indescribably minute, the Mind penetrates and permeates all. If it reaches back to the most ancient time,

or forward ten thousand generations, the Mind comprehends all. Whether it be near or distant, a foot or ten thousand
miles,; it is all alike.

order in
still

Even though it extend to heaven and earth, and nourishing all
:

*

establishing
1

things",

it

does not go beyond the fullness of the original mindBubstance it is not something accomplished outside its
sphere.
"

This

The

egoistic

is what Chang Tzu means when he says mind cannot be in union with the Mind of
:

1

D. M.,

p. 249.

222

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
l

Heaven."

is

that the operation of the Mind in union with the all-pervading operations of Heaven,

The statement,

and Earth, 2 is made from the point of view of the pervasive For Law pervades and revolves throughout ness of Law.
the universe without a

moment s

cessation.

Of

all

things

phenomena, large and small, coarse and fine, there is not one which is not pervaded by Divine Law. This Law I receive into my Mind in its entirety, and being in

and

all

my Mind

there, is

not a

moment when

and in union with th|e and Earth. Let men s desires be pure, and their feelings far-reaching, with no barrier in their all-pervading
operations, then they will be continually in union with the all-pervading operations of Heaven and Earth. Take, for

not productive all-pervading activity of Heaven
it is

example, the feeling of solicitude. In the case of those who are near, it is manifested in family affection. When we
are affectionate towards those to

whom we

ought to be

affectionate it is the pervading activity of the Decree of Heaven. I simply unite with it in its pervading activity,

and then I do not defraud the objects of

my
its

affection.

If there is the slightest lack, it is because Divine

Law

is

impeded in the sphere of family
activity ceases.
to

affection,

and

pervading

Or in a wider circle, in the sphere of love such as the men, obligation to comfort the aged, to treat 3 the young tenderly, and to be apprehensive for one falling
j

into a well, 4 this, too, is the pervading activity of the Decree
1

2

Cheng Meng, ft ,fr See p. 220, and Wang Ch eng
.

^

e

criticism, to

which

this passage is

an answer.
3 4

Analects, V, xxv, 4

(p. 46).

Mencius, p. 78.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
of Heaven.

223

I simply unite with it in its pervading activity,

and so do not

fail in cherishing, in comforting, and in If there be failure in the slightest being apprehensive. it because Law is impeded in the sphere is Divine degree,

of love to men,

and

a

still

wider

circle,

pervading activity ceases. Or, in in the sphere of kindness to inferior
its

creatures, such as sparing the

young sapling, saving the life of pregnant animals, and avoiding the destruction of young 1 creatures, this, too, is the all-pervading activity of the
Decree of Heaven.
activity

I simply unite with it in its pervading and so do not injure the growing, the pregnant, and the young. If there be the slightest injury, it is

because Divine

Law

to inferior creatures,

impeded in the sphere of kindness and its pervading activity ceases. And
is

the
all
is

same is true of the response of all the Four Feelings in the affairs of everyday life. If in only one thing there not the appropriate response, it is because in that one
If in a single
is

thing Divine Law is impeded. time there is lack of union, it of time Divine

because in that
if in all the

moment of moment
innumer

Law

is

impeded.

But

able threads of life

we
is

Heaven, and there

follow the simplicity of the laws of on the part of the Mind an all-round

carrying of them into effect, then in its operation it will be one with the principles of Origin, Beauty, Order, and Potentiality, in their all-pervading activity throughout the
universe.

This

is

why
"

in the Yi Ching. formations produced by Heaven and Earth, plants and trees

Ch/eng Tzu refers to the saying Through the changes and trans

1

See Li Chi, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxvii,

p. 221.

224

PHILOSOPHY
1

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

grow luxuriantly," to represent the picture of the fullness and growth of a mind ruled by sympathy. But we must have the substance great as Heaven and Earth, then only can we have the pervading operation of Heaven and Earth. And we must have the pervading operation of Heaven and Earth, then only can we have the substance great as Heaven and Earth. We must remember, however, that they are really two separate entities.
2 eng criticized this supplementary treatise somewhat more closely, saying further The Decree of
:

Wang Ch

Heaven, the Nature, and the Mind, although not separate entities, yet have each their own sphere which must not be mistaken. In your discussion of the mind -substance,

you ought

to

be content

to

show

the

Mind s connexion with
is

the Nature and with Heaven, for then what

there

to

which such a statement would not apply? Once we under stand this clearly, half a sentence, or a word even, will be

enough

to

make your meaning

plain.

You need

to give the

matter further consideration and investigation. On thinking over the matter further it seems to
"The

me

3

that

speaking in the ontologies! sense it is still correct to say,

mind-substance

is

as great as

Heaven and Earth,

and its operation is in union with the all -pervading activity of Heaven and Earth/ but to express it only in this way would be to fall into the opposite error of speaking on too
lofty a plane,
1

and of not bringing the subject into touch

Yi Ching,

p. 420.
;

2
3

Ch en An Ch ing s treatise cf. p. 220. Ch en An Ch ing again states his own opinion in
That
s
is,

reference to

Wang

Ch eng

further criticism.

PHILOSOPHY OS HUMAN NATURE
with our
"

225

seems best simply to speak from our own point of view in our daily experiences, and say, is within the is That which ail-comprehensively
faults.
It

own

substance

;

that which

is

affected

by the
as the

external world

and responds thereto
spoke in simple

is its operation,"

statement of the matter.

I recall

most pertinent saints and sages that the
I

common

speech.

fear that

my

ideas
will

must

all

go beyond

the truth,

and

trust

that you
If

correct them.

Answer. 1
a
still

This treatise

is

indeed excellent.

you take

broader view in your consideration of the subject, your understanding of it will be all the more exact. More over, do not be content to confine your study to the direct
investigation of the metaphysical aspect of the subject. Devote some labour also to the study of daily practical,

of the teacjijing of the classics, of the lessons of then, the subtle and the coarse, the external and history the internal, will be united together in perfect union, and
affairs,
;

there will not be a single principle lost sight of.
to

(Reply

Ch en An Ch

ing.)
1

That

ig,

by Chu

Hsi.

is:

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
BOOK IV
BEING BOOK XLV OF

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF CHU HSI

THE MIND, THE NATURE, AND THE
PEELINGS

THE STEADFAST NATURE
FEELING AND MOTIVE

THE WILL AND THE ETHER. THE WILL AND MOTIVE THOUGHT

BOOK
(TWENTY-ONE SECTIONS FROM

IV.

THE MIND, THE NATURE, AND THE FEELINGS,
"THE

CONVERSATIONS".)

1. The Nature corresponds to the Supreme Ultimate. The Mind corresponds to the Two Modes. The Supreme Ultimate is inherent in the Two Modes and is inseparable

from them, but the Supreme Ultimate is the Supreme Ultimate, and the Two Modes are the Two Modes. is So it with the Nature and Mind. As is in the "One and yet two, two expressed; saying:

and yet one." The philosopher Han 1 defined the Nature as Love, Bighteousness, Reverence, Wisdom, and Sincerity, and the Feelings as Pleasure;, Anger, Grief, and Joy. This was an advance upon the teaching of the rest of the philosophers with respect to the Nature. But in his
doctrine of the Three Grades he dealt with the material

element only, and did not take the Nature into account.
2.

Question.

That which

is

imparted by Heaven to
is

men and other

creatures is the Decree, that which

received

by them from Heaven is the Nature. The ruler of the Is it the case that some obtain personality is the Mind. from. Heaven that which is bright and dear, true and great, 2 and that this is Illustrious Virtue" ?
"

1

See

p. 77, n. 3.

2

G. L., p. 220.

230

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Hsi.

Ch u

the Nature?

How do you distinguish between Mind How do you place the word
"receive"

and
?

"Illustrious"?
"obtain"

What

is

the difference between

and

.What are the distinguishing features of "men", "other and the person" ? Does Illustrious Virtue creatures
"
"

"

",

pertain to

Mind

or to the Nature

?

Questioner. The Nature is concrete, but if you take into account affection by the external world and the response
thereto, emptiness of self and the resulting clearness, then are many. the meanings attached to the word "Mind Answer. Of these two, to speak of one is to imply the
"

other.

to distinguish.

They cannot be To be

separated, and are perforce difficult withjout the Mind would be to be

without the Nature and vice versa.
account of the
two.

Hence Mencius in

his

Mind and
;

the Nature always associates the

Ho

Wisdom
the

epeaks of Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and and then of the solicitous mind, as the Nature
,

mind, the courteous mind and the 1 You need to study the subject still discriminating mind.
conscientious

more thoroughly.

Although the Nature is formless it consists of concrete principles; Although the Mind is a distinct entity, it is formless and therefore can contain innumerable principles It is desirable that people should examine this for them
3
.
,

selves,
4.

and so arrive at the truth.

The Nature

is

essentially without form, but consists
it

of concrete principles. The Mind is as though but its substance is really formless.
1

had form,

Mencius,

p. 79.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
5.

231

The Nature consists of the concrete principles con tained, in the Mind. The Mind is the seat of the assemblage
of those principles.

the receptacle which holds and stores the principles of the Nature, the agent
6
.

The Nature

is

Law. The Mind
sets

is

which distributes and
7.

them in operation.

To

the

substance.

Mind the Nature stands in the relation of The Mind holds the Nature within it like the
Nature that
it

stuffing of cakes, for the simple reason that it is in virtue

of its possession of the
principles.

possesses these

8. When you have succeeded in describing a thing, and when you have succeeded in naming it, you may claim are also clearly to understand it. The Mind and the Nature

very

difficult to define.

Answer.

A
is

definition

which I have already given
;

is

:

The Nature

the law of the
;

Nature in action

and the

Mind the Feelings are the Mind is the ruler of the Nature

and Feelings.

The Nature is undefinable We are able to assert that the Nature is good because we observe the goodness of the Four Terminals. From these we infer the goodness of the Nature, just as we know the purity of the stream from the purity of its source. The Four Terminals are feelings, The issues are! while the Nature consists of principles. Feelings, the source is the Nature. It is the same principle as when you infer the presence of an object from the shadow
9
. .

it casts.

232
10.

PHILOSOPHY
Po Feng 1

"OF

HUMAN NATURE
as

raised the question of the Nature

having both a pre-active and a post-active state. Answer. The moment the Nature has put forth activity you have Feeling. The Feelings are divisible into good

and

is wholly good and the Mind and the Feelings. Generally that the remember in Nature mu^st you speaking, defining Its in its origin it is the Decree received from Heaven. endowment thus has its source outside itself, and it cannot,

evil,

while the Nature

;

includes both the Nature

as in the case of the

Mind, be defined by a single word.

The Confucian
is

scholars of the
2

Han
"

dynasty, however, in
of

their explanation of the dictum,

The Decree

Heaven

what we term
"

th,e

Nature

"

as,

The Ligneous
is

disposition is
"

made use of such expressions the Metallic Love
;

disposition Righteousness did not adopt them heedlessly. these expressions closely.

;

and did so advisedly they The student should examine
:

At

thip point the

Philosopher sighed and said

:

Granted

you do not clearly open up the matter and are content with simple nurture, you will attain your object and even savs eome strength nevertheless, if you would expound
that if
;

teach, you must combine investigation with carefulness in teaching, and thus, it may be, avoid disrespect to the

and

ancients.
3 Feng long time ago I saw a statement by in which he spoke only of the Mind in contrast to the

11.

A

Wu

Nature, leaving no place for the Feelings.
1

Subsequently

2

Wu Pi Ta, style Po Feng, a pupil of Chu Hsi cf. J^ s Hu Wu F D.M., p. 246.
;

^
see

,

pt. xlix,
p>

f.

53.

ng>

25, n. 2.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
I

233

saw the statement by Heng Ch u that the Mind .unites the Nature and the Feelings, 1 and recognized it as exceedingly

valuable, because it gives us the true application of the term treatment of the Feeling", and accords with Mencius
4

subject. Mencius says, of Love." 2 Now Love

"

A solicitous mind is the terminal

is the Nature, and Solicitude is we have the Mind recognized in Here then, Feeling. ,he Feeling. says, "Love, Righteousness, Rever Again 3 Here and have their root in the Mind." Wisdom ence, wo have the Mind recognized in the Nature. For the Mind includes within it both the Nature and the Feelings. The

Nature
12.

is

the substance and the Feelings are
define the
it

its

operation.

Most people
first.

Nature

first

and the Mind

afterwards, whereas

w^ould seem as if the

Mind

should

come

The ancients also in their construction of the the "Mind" ideograph first: the words made ideographs
"Nature"

and
".

"Feeling"

word
first

"

Mind

It is true that it is at

being both derived from the man s birth that he

receives these principles, but at the very moment of birth they are inherent in the Mind. Them again Love and

"

Righteousness are the Nature, but Mencius speaks of the Solicitude and con Heart of Love and Righteousness
".*
" "
"

scientiousness are Feelings, but Menoius calls them th)e and the conscientious mind 5 It is solicitous mind
".

because the Nature is the Law of the Mind, and the Feelings arq the operation of the Nature. Now by defining tho Mind
first,

men

are taught to recognize a lie&d to the Nature
pt. xviii,
f.

1

See

J^ |g,

14.

2
6

Mencius, p. 78.
Ibid., p. 79.

3

Ibid., p. 336.

4

Mencius,

p. 283.

234

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE

and the Feelings, and a receptacle for the principles of the Nature. If we put the Nature first, it gives the impression
of

an

additional

mind present

in the Nature.

Heng Ch
and

ii

s

statement,
Feelings,"

"The

Mind

unites

the

Nature

the

is

excellent.

13.

The Nature

is

that
;

which precedes

activity, the

and the Mind includes both the Feelings follow activity and the pre-activo post-active states. For the Mind s preactive state is the Nature,

and

its

post-active
"

state

is

The Mind unites Feeling, as is expressed in the saying the Nature and the Feelings." Desire is Feeling in its
:

The Mind is like water, the Nature is the of water at rest, Feeling is the flow of water, and Desires are the waves. But waves are good and bad. So
manifestation.
still ness

with desires
virtue
"

l
;

I desire there are good desires;, as when and there are evil desires which rush out pre
"

:

cipitately like wild

and boisterous waves.

For the most

part, evil desires destroy the

Divine Law, as when a

dam

bursts and carries with it universal destruction.

Wjitn

Mencius speaks of the Feelings as constituted for the practice of what is good, 2 he refers to the Feelings as they ought to
be.

As

they flow from the Nature they are infallibly good.

14. The Mind must be thought of as ruler. In activity and repose alike it is ruler. It is not that in repose the Mind is unemployed, and only rules when there is activity. I say "ruler" I mean that a,n all-comprehensive supreme ruler dwells within. The Mind unites and controls
1

When

Analects, VII, xxix, p. G8.

2

Mencius, p. 278.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the Nature
;

235

and Feelings but it is not united with the Nature and Feelings in such a way as to form one entity, without any distinction.
15.

Question.
clear,

When

a

man is
:

empty,

and unclouded

is

unoccupied and his mind not this the Ether, and
?

his spontaneous activity the

Nature

clear, and unclouded is the Mind. which dwells within in its entirety and without the Law,

Answer.

The empty,

slightest defect, is the Nature.

Activity in response to

by the external world is Feeling. Heng Ch ii it well when he says, From the Great Void we have puts the term Heaven from the transformations of the Ether we have the term Moral Law." 1 This is said of the universal. 41 By the union of the Void with the Ether we have the term Nature by the union of the Nature with Conscious
affection
"

;

;

ness

we have

the term

Mind."

This

is

said of

men and

other creatures.
16.

Question.

What is
?

the difference between the Mind,
"

the Nature, and Feeling

Answer.
corn
:

Ch eng Tzu

said

:

The Mind

is like

the seed
;

the principle of life contained in it is the Nature the putting forth of life on the part of the positive ether is x Extend this principle and you will find that it Feeling."
is

so with everything that exists.
17.

directly of the Nature.
i

Mencius, in his account of the Nature, did not speak What he said was, If we look at
"

Cheng Mtny,
f.

ft
f-

g

.

see

^
is

or

ft

f|

also

$

,

pt. xvii,
*

11.
P*"*

7TI

il?

7

-

The statement

by

I

Ch uan,

see p. 333.

236

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

the Feelings which flow from the Nature we may know that * they are constituted for the practice of what is good /

From

the goodness of the Feelings you

am infer the good

ness of the Nature.

The Philosopher eaid further In the case of solicitude and conscientiousness, for tho most part we infer the Nature from things contrary to its principles. It is when we see something calculated to wound that the feeling of solicitude is stirred it is when we do something hateful that the
:

;

conscientiousness feeling of "serving one s parents"

of

is

stirred.

In

the

casej

and

"obeying

one

s

elder

brother

2
",

the Nature

is

manifested in spontaneous accord

with these principles.
18.
Mind"
"-The

perfecting the 3 the Nature", you, sir, say: "understanding Mind is without substance: the Nature is its

Question.

In your comment on

"

and

substance."

How

is it

so
is

?

Answer.
are

The Mind

a hollow receptacle

:

the Nature

constitutes its inward content.

The principles of the Nature contained in the Mind, and when activity is put forth
is is
;

put forth pertains to the Nature. It is not a perceptible object inside called the Nature it is simply the inherent tightness of Law which constitutes the Nature. man ought to act in a certain way this
that there

that which

A

:

is

what constitutes his Nature. As to the passage in Mencius beginning with the words,: "The feeling of solicitude is 4 the terminal of Love these four sentences refer to the
"

;

1

Mencius, p. 278.
Ibid., p. 79.

2

Ibid., p. 189.

3

Ibid., p. 324.

4

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Nature, to the Feelings, and to Mind, which, well to consider in conjunction with Heng Ch
"The

237

it
ii

s

would bu dictum

:

Mind

unites the Nature and the

Feelings."

19.

The meaning of

the statement that the
:

Mind
r

unites

When th e Mind is the Nature and the Feelings is this still and as jet without movement, 1 the principles of Love,
Righteousness, Reverence, and
it is active

we have Feeling

1

.

Wisdom are present when Some assert that the state of
;

repose

is

the Nature, the activity the Mind, hut this is

dividing the

Mind

Mind and

the;

into two separate compartments, the Nature. It is not to be accounted for in terms
1

Everything has Mind and within, it is hollow like the heart of a chicken or pig which you have in your food, and which when you carve it you see to
of activity

and

repose.

,

1

be hollow.

Man s Mind

is like

that

:

it consists

of such

hollow places in which numerous principles are stored. If we take into consideration the whole universe with eternal
time, and apply this reasoning,

we

shall recognize that in
is

the whole heaven and in the whole earth there

nothing

origin here and that this is what constitutes the mystery of Man s Mind. Law inherent in

which does not have

its

;

man s Mind
Law.

is

what we

call

the Nature.
fills

the soil of the

Mind
is

:

that which

The Nature is like the Mind is simply

the seat of the spiritual intelligence, the ruler of the entire personality. The Nature consists of
T

The Mind

numerous principles received from Heaven and contained in the Mind, the manifestations of w hich in knowledge and
thought are all Feelings. unites the Nature and
1

Hence the statement
2

"

:

The Mind
See above.

Feelings."
a

O

Ti Ching,

p. 370.

238

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
You have discussed the Mind from the man s personality. Can you take what man s personality and apply it to
all

20. Question. point of view of we learn from

the universe

?

Answer.

The Decree of Heaven pervades
;

things

;

the

agent by which these principles are controlled is the Mind o Heaven 2 that which possesses these principles is the

Nature of Heaven,
the four seasons
;

and nourish
21.
If

all

as, for example, the law which produces and those influences which are put forth things are the Feelings of Heaven.

we

illustrate the relation

between the Mind and

the Nature by a grain of corn, 3 the envelope represents the Mind, from which in some cases there develops millet and
in other
cases! rice
;

the cause of the difference in the develop

ment from the
to produce.
1

different seed represents the Nature.
is

The

agent pf the development

the

Mind
by

;

its

province

is

simply

Or we may

illustrate
is its

the taking of medicine.
;

The healing
it is

which, follows

medicinal property whether
;

warm or warm or cold

and the cold in its property is its Nature effect as actually experienced after it has
Feeling.
"THE

been taken

is its

(TEN SECTIONS FROM
1.

COLLECTED

WRITINGS".)

Tso Hsii

4

said

"

:

Feelings proceed from the

Nature

and therefore stand in contrast to the Nature. The Mind has consciousness of both, and can unite and control both.
1

As
3JL

in the preceding section.

are the principles of the fo is the Mind of Heaven. 3E|| Nature which, in the universe at large, as in man, are controlled by Mind. 3 * See 235, n. 2. Feng Tso Hsu see p. 35, n* 5.
;

2

^

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

239

In a pre-active state, apart from a uniting factor, there would be inertness and nothing- more in the post-active state apart from a uniting factor there would simply be
;

confusion."

as the

why
mind

is good, but to regard inactivity If the Mind is originally inactive wrong. should Mencius "at forty attain to an unperturbed

This passage

Mind
?
*

is

If we recognize that the pre-active state is the Nature, that the post-active state is Feeling, while the Mind connects the activity and repose and is present in both, then
"

we

shall have the true account of all three.

In the

Word s

it is said, "The Nature exists in all things the universe, the Feelings follow the activities throughout of the universe, and the Mind moulds the virtues of the

of Wisdom"

Nature and the

2

Feelings."

This statement

is

very exact.

(Eeply to Feng Tso Hsu.)
2.

? Tho Mind
is

rules the

Nature and the

3
Feelings."

This principle

any further argument in

well understood, and time will not permit its support. But, as I view it,

the fact that in the pre-active state consciousness is unclouded shows unmistakably that the Mind is ruler of the Nature ;

and the fact that in the post-active state there is perfect order shows unmistakably that the Mind rules over the Feelings. The "Mind connect^ the hidden and the manifest, it unites
"

the higher and lower, it is everywhere present, and cannot be described in terms of extension or form. (Reply to Hu

Kuang Chung.) 4
1

same
2
3

Mencius, p. 61. The words in the original.

"unperturbed"

and

"inactive"

are the

$
Ibid
:

!>

P1

-

xlii
f.

P- 12 14.

;

see P- 32 of this

volume and note
4

-

,

pt. xviii,

See

p, 37, n* 2.

240
3
is
.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
It is

granted that you cannot say that before activity

put forth tlie Nature and the Feelings are non-existent, but neither can you say that they are one and without any distinction nor can you say that there is no time when
;

For before activity is put empty and still. are contained within it but the countless forth, principles midst of the formless, and the activity in concrete in the the stillness, are as jyet wholly without manifestation or
the
is
;

Mind

location,

1

and

therefore

this

state

is

described

as

After activity is put forth, the concrete equilibrium. principles contained within operate in the midst of the
activity.
4.

(Reply to Hsu Yen Chang.)

I do not

know what your

later opinion

your

teaching as to the distinction between the

may be on Mind and

The Nature consists of principles, the Feelings are their outflow and operation. The Mind s consciousness is the agent by which these principles are possessed and the Feelings put into practice. Take Wisdom for example the principle by which we know the difference between right and wrong is Wisdom a principle of the Nature that by
the Nature.
;

:

which we actually regard a particular act as right or wrong is Feoling and the agent which possesses the principle and
;

is

conscious of the distinction

made

is

the Mind.

These

distinctions are subtle, but

they are examined with discrimination they will be understood. Affection, respect, the sense of obligation, and discrimination, 2 pleasure, anger,
if
1

j|l
2

=
:

"

to settle

",

as also does

^

.

correspond respectively to Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, and stand for the Four Feelings more usually given as Solicitude, Conscientiousness, Courtesy, and Moral Insight.

Note

These

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
grief,

241

and joy arc

the rest

may

Feelings. From what has been said be easily inferred. (Reply to P an Oh ien
all
1

Chin.)
5. The principles of Origin, Beauty, Order, and 1 Potentiality, are the Nature production, growth, maturity,
;

thq agent which causes Feelings of production by principle Origin, growth by the principle of Beauty, maturity by the principle of Order,
iare

and storage

the

;

the

and storage by the principle of Potentiality, is Mind. Lovej Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom are the Nature solicitude, conscientiousness, courtesy, and moral insight are the Feelings and the agent by which Love is affectionate,
;
;

by which Righteousness hates evil, by which Reverence is courteous, and by which Wisdom knows, is the Mind. The Nature is the law of the Mind the Feelings are the operation of the Mind, and the Mind is the ruler of the Nature and
1

,

Feelings.

Flux,

its

Ch eng Tzii s statement, Its substance is termed law is termed Moral La^v, and its operation is
"

termed

2
Spirit,"

is

just this idea.
:

The Philosopher went on to say When we speak of the Divine self-existence we refer to what is termed the Moral

Law of Heaven when we speak of the Divine immanence we
;

refer to the

Decree of Heaven.

He said

further

:

the state

ment,
Earth,"

To give birth to things is the Mind of Heaven and 3 expresses the same thought. (Treatise, on the Four

Ultimata.)
1

See
See

J. P.

2
3

p. 157,

Bruce, Introduction notes 2 and 3.
"

to

Chu Hsi and

the

Sung

School, chap.
"

vii.

The phrase The creative Mind of Heaven and Earth expresses the same idea as the immanence of the Divine Decree referred to in the preceding
sentence.

E

242
6.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The possession
of

form implies the possession

of Mincl

;

the principles received by the Mind from Heaven are termed the Nature, and the movements of the Nature when affected
by,

the external world are termed

the;

Feelings.

These

three all

the rest

men have. The of men is not that

distinction betwesn the sage

and

have not. 1 But
the

the sage has them and that others in the case of the sage the Ether is clear and

Mind

true, therefore the
.

Feelings are without confusion his Mind so as to nourish
the Feelings.

Nature is complete and the The student should preserve the Nature and control

You, say that in the sage the

non-existent, and go on to maintain that keep Anything in our Mincl for a single

Mind we ought not
moment. 2

is

to

But

among

iall

those benefits which
it

now comes
useless drag
7.

that there
?

is

3 given to us just this one thing tn at is a

Heaven

lias

(

upon us

(Reply to

Hsu Ching Kuang.)
;

Question.

The Nature inj its beginning is only good

there is no evil originally which can be attributed to it. It is the Principle of Origin, the first of the Four Attributes,

Love the parent of the Five Cardinal Virtues. This is what is implied in Mencius The Nature of man is dictum, 4 what Ming Tao means when, quoting the. statement good," The law of their succession is goodness", 5 he says it refers
"
"

to the manifested operations of the Nature, the

Mind

of

the

Four Terminals.
?

6

,How then can you describe

it as .one

with Feeling

1

Cf.

Mencius, p. 288.
p. 356.

2
4 6

The Buddhist

idea.

3 5

Ibid., p. 294.

Yi Ching,

Mencius, p. 110. Mencius, p. 79.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
wholly
tho

243
is

The
:

Nature from

good

you

must

not

beginning to end in at it is say

at

good. wholly beginning that the Nature is Could you, in line with what your statement suggests, say that the Nature in the end is evil ? If the manifested
operations of the Nature are not Feelings, what are they ? What you may say is that the Feeling^ in their beginning are wholly good and without any ovil. In the phrase, If
"

the feelings which flow from the Nature/ I do not to accord think that the word jo (if we lo,ok at) means
"

we look at
with",

i

(Reply to

Wang Tzu

Ho.)
"
1

If we look at the Feelings Question. Mencius said, which flow from the Nature we may know that they are
8.

constituted for the practice of what is good and Chou Tzu said, "When the five nature-principles act in response
1

"

;

to affection

by the external world there omes the distinction
<

between good and evil." 2 This again connects both good and evil with activity. Can it be that Mencius is speaking from
the standpoint of the condition prior to the activity of the Feelings, and Chou Tzu from the standpoint of their postactive condition ?

necessarily wholly good, but in their origin they are constituted for doing good, and not for doing evil it is when they are perverted, that
;

Answer.

The Feelings are not

they issue in the practice of evil
1

3
.

Mencius spoke
(jo), in

of

them in

Ibid., p.
*

278
its

;

cf.

Legge

s

note on the word ^j
"

which he quotes
to

the view of
2

See the
the

interpretation referred to here. T ai Chi T u Shuo ; cf. J. P. Bruce, Introduction
s

Chu Hsi

and
3

Sung

School, chap. vi.|

See Legge

note on the original passage

;

Mencius,

p. 278.

244

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

their original perfection
their original perfection

Chou Tzu spoke

of

them both

in

and as they are when perverted.

Chuang Tzu has the same idea when he speaks of forsaking Heaven and violating the Feelings. (Reply to Chang Ching
Chih.)
9. Ch eng Tzu in his later writings clearly states that his statement that the Mind refers to the post- active period

was

inaccurate. 1
If

It is not easy to avoid slight error at

some

time or other.

we follow

his later statement there will be
is

no mistake
are
its

;

for the

Nature

the substance, the Feelings
"

operation, and the Mind connects the two. We must The Mind keep to the Master Heng Ch ii s statement unites the Nature and Feelings his way of expressing it
:
"

;

is

very exact.
10.
4<

(Reply

to

Fang Pin Wang.)

Borrow, or joy, the
2

Before there are any stirrings of pleasure, anger, Mind may be said to be in a state of

equilibrium."

This

is

the Nature.
in their

"After

they have
is

been

stirred,

and they act

due degree, there ensues
3

what may be called a

state of harmony."

This

Feeling.

Tzii Ssii in writing this desired the student to recognize what ho said as referring to Mind. The Mind
!

How

wonderfully
*

it "moulds

the virtues

of the
5

Nature and

Feelings"
1

!

(Reply to Chang Ching Fu.)
xxxi,
ff.

Jfl

gs,

pfc.

13-14.

The Philosopher

referred to

is I

Ch

uan.

See
2
3 4

p.

168 of this volume.
p. 248.

D.M.,
Ibid.
j(

H|,

pt. xlii,

f.

12

;

see p. 32

and

note.

Chang Chi h (J;J| Sung School, chap. iv.

*

|j^)

;

see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

Chu Hsi and

the

PHILOSOPHY OP HUMAN NATURE
THE STEADFAST NATURE
(FOURTEEN SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

245

"CONVERSATIONS".)

How do you explain Ming Tao s state The highest attainment is with broadness of mind to be actuated by a high altruism, and to respond naturally and fittingly to each phenomenon as it presents itself ? * Answer. If with broadness of mind we are actuated by a
Question.
"

ment

:

"

2 high altruism we shall not be full of anxious thoughts if we respond naturally and fittingly to each phenomenon as
"

"

;

it

presents itself we shall not be in the position of having 3 only our friends follow us and think with us". It is just

the same idea as in the passage which speaks of a man being 4 I partisan and not catholic, or catholic and not partisan.

used to regard this section as calculated to confuse one, but
Quoted from the Essay on the Steadfast Nature (^j? ^y Ch eng Ming Tao; see Bfl Jff jJC $| pt. iii, ff. 1-3. The essay, which covers How little more than two pages, was written as an answer to the question is it that, even with a steadfast nature, we cannot but be active, as though we
1
1f)>
,
"

^

:

were one with the external world

^
"

o St (jjj? {4 1L The q 116811011 was P*- xiii i Do) See propounded by Chang Tsai, and therefore the essay is often referred to as The word The Essay on the Steadfast Nature in reply to Heng Ch ii in the passage quoted, includes the ideas of appropriateness and a
?"

%\*

$fa

fa

H

%

"&

^

^

f>

l&>

".

JH

,

spontaneous ease in the response to the external things. Jpp %fa which indicates with broadness of mind I have translated by the phrase the sphere in which the operates, corresponding to the high altruism
,
"

",

"

"

JJ&
2

2K tiie sphere in which a natural and fitting response is called for. That is, irresolute and unsettled. The allusion is to a passage in the
>

Yi Ching, p. 389 the complete sentence you go and come."
;

"

is

:

Full of anxious thoughts

3
4

Ibid.

This
ii,

is

a continuation of the sentence quoted above.
(p. 14).

Analects,

xiv

246

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
I have come to see that
"

now
2.

its

arguments are particularly

clear.

Shun Pi asked
"

:

Is not the essay
?

on

"

The

Steadfast

Nature
fast

very

difficult to
it is

Answer.

No,

grasp not very difficult.

The

"

title,

Stead

Nature,"

"Nature"

somewhat strange. The word jmeans Mind. Ming Tao s style is very com
bounds

prehensive.

reading one fails to understand or grasp liis full meaning, but with more careful study the divisions of the subject and their mutual relation become
the
first

At

clear.

This treatise was written when he was at
very young.
1

Hu

and

was
3.

still

Ming Tao s

treatise,

"The

settled

Nature/

gushed

out from his mind, as if there was some power behind pushing the ideas out so rapidly that he could not get them
all into

writing.
2

Chin Ch ing

said

:

This

is

exactly

what

is

described

as the language of a creator of truth. Chu Hsi. Yes, but throughout the whole treatise one
fails to find

any indication of howi

to

Fei
of

Ch iag. 3 Does not mind to be actuated by

the sentence,

make a beginning. With broadness
"

a high altruism and to respond
it

naturally and fittingly to eadi phenomenon as 4 furnish the point of departure ? itself,"
1

presents

See J. P. Bruce, Introduction

to

Chu Hsi and
ing,

the

Sung

School, chap.
s

iii.

2

Huang Kan (if| 1$), slyle, Chih Ch

one of Chu Hsi

most honoured

After some years of official life, he himself became a teacher of philosophy and had many followers, who gave him the name Mien Chai
disciples.

(16
3
<

*)
Surnamed Chu
See
p. 245.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Chu
Hsi.

247

This represents the goal.

present age men s selfish distract and distress them with no

Moreover, in the desires in innumerable forms

means
"

of escape:

how

can they ho
is iall

by a high altruism ? Their conduct to contrary principle, how can there be the natural
actuated
"

"

and fitting response to their environment ? Tao Fu. 1 -It is as you said the other day,
preserve our
mind."

sir,

We

must

2
,

Chu
ever

Hsi.

It does not lie

with you to preserve

it.

What

remedy you

find for the distraction

and

distress of the

cannot regain its lordship. You must perceive and understand the principles of the universe without the

Mind you
slightest

admixture of

selfish motives,
:

then you will succeed^;

The point where to rest 3 Otherwise, you will being known the mind is settled." find that selfish desire becomes like a live dragon or tiger,
as is expressed in the saying

impossible to master.
4.

Question.
4
"The

It is said in the treatise

on the

"

Settled

things to be feared are for the most part self -concentration and the calculating mind. 5 With selfcon^entration there cannot be the action appropriate to the
Nature,"

for. 6

circumstances in which response to a phenomenon is called With the calculating mind there cannot be the

spontaneity of clear insight/
1

What

is

your opinion

?

See

p. 178, n. 6.

3
4 5

G.L., p. 220

;

see

Legge
;

s

quotation from Ying

Ta

in his note

on

p. 221.

See

p.

245,

and
is

note.

^ (wisdom)
Jfi

good

but to

^ ^
SB, *

"

(lit.

to use

wisdom

is
")

bad,

i.e.
8

to rely on calculating cleverness.

3$

=

JS

^

$J

p. 253.

248

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
This treatise from beginning to end has only

Answer.

these two thoughts. I Oh uan s style is to divide clearly, into sections. Ming Tao generally favours con At first it seems to lack a governing tinuous discourse.
carefully grasped you perceive the unity and connexion running through the entire work. "In the
unity, but

when

study of the noble-mindM the highest attainment is with broadness of mind to be actuated by a high altruist, and to respond naturally and fittingly to each phenomenon as it
1 There is a great deal that follows after, presents itself." but it says no more than is expressed in these two sentences.
r

The passage in the Yi Ching: "When one s resting is like that of the back, and he loses all consciousness of self when he walks in his courtyard and does not see any of the persons
;

in

expresses the same idea as the phrase, With broad ness of mind to be actuated by a high altruism." The
2
"

it,"

passage in Mencius,
the

"What

their boring out their

I dislike in your wise men is 3 conclusions," expresses the idea of
naturally and
itself."

phrase,

"Respond

fittingly

to
"

each

phenomenon
1

as it presents

In the passage,

Only

See p. 245, n. 1. Yi Ching, pp. 175-6. Legge explains the hexagram referred to as the mental characteristic of resting in what is right of which denoting the symbolism is taken from different parts of the human body. One of
2
"

",

these parts
"

is

the back, of which Legge says in explanation of this passage

:

The back alone has nothing to do with anything beyond itself hardly with itself even. So should it be with us, resting in principle, free from the intrusion of selfish thoughts and external objects. Amidst society, he who realizes the idea of the hexagram is still alone, and does not allow himself to be distracted from the contemplation and following of principle." See It is this attitude of mind which Chu Hsi says corresponds ibid., p. 177. to Ming Tao s high altruism
"

".

3

Mencius, p. 207.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
let

249

s anger straightway forget the and the consider right and wrong of the principle anger 1 the phrase involved/ straightway forget the anger"
"

one in the midst of one

answers to the phrase, "With broadness of mind to be consider the actuated by a high altruism," and the phrase,
"

and wrong of the principle involved," answers to the phrase, "respond naturally and fittingly to each phenomenon
right
as it presents
itself."

If

you thus study the passage care

fully

you

will get at its

meaning.

In Ming Tao s essay in reply to Heng Ch ii s question 5. on our experience that "even with a Steadfast Nature we cannot but be active," 2 his idea is that we should neither
despise external things nor banish

day in their and in banishing things are nevertheless things reject led away by them whereas true goodness is neither to reject them nor drift with them, but in all cases to respond to them in exactly the right way. 3 For Heng Ch ii s idea is that we should cut ourselves off from the outward, and make stead
all,
;

of the present

them from us. People disapproval of some external

fast the

inward

;

while

Ming Tao

s

idea

is

that

we should

harmonize the outward and inward in one unity. Alike in activity and repose the Mind should be steadfast, then in the
response to external things we shall naturally avoid being in bondage to them. If the Mind is steadfast only in the time of repose, then it is to be feared that in the time of
activity
1

we

shall

be ensnared by external things.
the Steadfast Nature, see p. 245.

Quoted from the Essay on
Ibid.
rfft BO

2
3

f&
H3

,|A Itl

250
6.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Question.

fast alike in activity

In the case of the sages, the Mind is stead and in repose. Is what is described
?

as
;

"steadfast"

the substance

Answar.

Yes.
it

Question. Does
fast

mean

that the

Mind remains
or

stead

when

evil

good and evil When Answer.

things approach and affect us, things approach, and affect us ?
evil

when both

things approach us they do not affect us, and of course there is no response from myself.
Question.

What
There

Answer.

is

about good things ? response in every case where there
I myself remain steadfast. Master bewailed Yen Yilan

should be response, and just in proportion to the degree
of the approach.
Question.

But through all
"

When
"/

the

exceedingly

Answer.
right.

wherein did the steadfastness appear ? There was response which was in accord with
also

We

must

with broadness of mind be actuated

by a high altruism, and respond naturally and fittingly I have thought to each phenomenon as it presents itself this over often, and regard it as an all-round statement
:

of the truth.
7.
tlie

Question. I do not clearly understand the nature of steadfastness in the case of the sages
.

Answer.
is

"The

point where

)to

rest

steadfastness." 2

Look only at

this

being known there one sentence iand

you

there

meaning. In everything in the universe the right point in which to rest. Know this, and naturally the Mind will not be moved by external things.
will get at the
is
1

2

Analects, xi, G.L. ; p. 220.

ix, 1, p. 104.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Question.
heavens".
1

251

sorrowful

;

and wept toward the pitying "When Hsiang was sorrowful he was also when Hsiang was joyful he was also joyful." 2
cried out in this
?

Shun

"

.When Shun acted

way

in

what respect oould he be

said to be steadfast

Answer. This is a case of response where there should be response when that is the case there is steadfastness. To respond where there should be no response is confusion not to respond when there should be response is to be dead.
;
;

8.

Question.

"It

is

the constant rule of Heaven and
to
It

Earth by means of the Mind to fill all things, and yet do so spontaneously and without effort of the Mind.
is

the constant rule of the sa^es by means of the Feelings to be in harmony with all things, and yet to be so

spontaneously and without effort of the Feelings. There fore in the study of the noble-minded the highest attain

ment

is

with broadness of mind to be actuated by a high

altruism,

and

to respond naturally
itself."

and

fittingly to each

phenomenon

as it presents

3

What

about che learner

who

has not yet attained to this
"

?

Answer.

Although we may not have attained

to this,

With broadness of mind to bo yet such is the ideal. actuated by a high altruism" is to expel selfish motives, to act in given circumstances in harmony with the principle
by those circumstances. Suppose a case in which you yourself recognize that you shoiuld act on certain principles towards a certain man, but from motives of
indicated
1

See Mencius,
Ibid., p. 223.

p. 218.

2 3

The whole passage

is

quoted from Ming Tao

s

Essay

;

see p. 245.

252

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
you accord
this treatment to

partiality
Tliis
is

some other man.
response.

the Opposite of just, and does violence to those

principles, so that there cannot

be the

fitting

The

saint has the saint s measure of altruism, the sage has the sage s, the learner the learner s.

Question.
attain to it

I certainly dare not ask

what

is

the measure

of altruism attainable
;

as though I could but what -should be the attitude of the learner ?

by saints and sages

Answer.

Simply

selfish desire.
altruism"

preserve his mind and crvercome These two sentences are complete; "high
let
;
"

him

"natural expresses the matter comprehensively in detail what is fitting response expresses comprised within it. Altruism is ingenuousness ; it corresponds to

and

the passage

"

The Decree of Heaven, how profound
J>1

it is

and undying
"

!

"Fitting

response"

corresponds to the

passage

The method
2

of

Ch

ien

is

to create

and transform

so that everything obtains its correct nature as ordained

by
9

Heaven."

.

The

phrase,

With broadness of mind

to be actuated

by a high altruism," corresponds to the expression, "Still and without movement." 3 "To respond naturally and to each phenomenon as it presents itself" fittingly
corresponds to
to all
"When
3

acted upon

it

penetrates forthwith

phenomena".
"It

10.

means of

the constant rule of Heaven and Earth by the Mind to fill all things, and yet to do so
is
1

Odes, p. 570.

2
3

Yi Clung,

p. 213.

Ibid., p. 370.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

253

It is the spontaneously .and without effort of the Mind. constant rule of the sage by moans of the Feelings to be in harmony with all things and yet to be so spontaneously

and without
"

effort of the Feelings."
"

1

In

this passage the
all

phrases,
things",

fill

all

things
to

and
"

"

be in harmony with
broadness of

be correspond while the phrases, without actuated by a high altruism effort of the Mind" and "without effort of the Feelings",
"With
;

mind
"

to

correspond

to

"respond

naturally

and

fittingly to each

presents phenomenon makes high altruism with broadness of mind impossible, and then there cannot be the action appropriate to the
itself".

as

it

Self -concentration

for

circumstances in which response to a phenomenon is called a calculating use of wisdom makes a natural Paid
;

response to each phenomenon as it presents itself impossible, and then there cannot be the spontaneity of
fitting

clear insight.

11.

In

Ming Tao
is

s

statement:

"There

cannot bo the

action appropriate to the circumstances in which response
to a

phenomenon

called for/

the expression ying

clii

means the circumstances in which response to a phenomenon is called for. As to the Mind, it is not yet active.
12.

Question.
C?

Yesterday, arising out of the statement

that

Ch eno; Tzu. attributed self-concentration to the 2 Buddhists, Wei Tao quoted from Ming Tao s essay in to Ch ii. You, sir, replied But this refers reply Heng
:

to the selfishness of people generally.
1

It

was objected
his

2

Quoted from Ming Tao s Essay on the Steadfast Nature. Wei Tao was a disciple of Chu Hsi. His surname was Yeh, and Chih Tao
ri
.

254
that
"

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
if

self -concentration," expressions, the of use with wisdom," expression "checking calculating which follows, then the statement seems limited anger
"

we

"

take

the

but if we have in mind the complete in its application be self-concentration there cannot be If there sentences,
;
"

tho action appropriate to the circumstances in which response If there be calculating to a phenomenon is called for," and,
"

wisdom there cannot be the spontaneity of clear insight," we shall realize that what is referred to is very wide. You, That is true but Ming Tao was speaking of men s sir, said selfishness in a general sense. Wei Tao then referred to the
:

;

theory of looking at one s reflection in a mirror, and the theory that advocates aversion from external tilings. You
said:

men and

These also are selfishness. The selfishness of ordinarythe self -concentration of the Buddhist are one
selfishness.

and the same
then said
of

referring to the
:

But Oh eng Tzu was not specially You self -concentration of the Buddhist. But there are some whose minds 2

This was said by way of admonition because
ii

Heng Ch

s error. 1

are naturally
to their

in a

empty and therefore are not able to respond and there are those who are immersed self-induced emptiness and will not respond to their
environment
;

environment
with,

and both are self -concentration. If we can openness of mind be actuated by a high altruism,
;

then the exalted will not

fall into

a vacant

solitariness,

3

and the lowly will not be entangled by creaturely desire
1

;

That
"

is,

his
2
*

"

Essay

in the question which was the occasion of see p. 249, and p. 245, n. 1. ;

Ming Tao writing

4 =
1

j&-

As do the Buddhists.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE
as a matter of course

255

we

"

shall be able

to

respond naturally
itself".

and

fittingly to each

phenomenon
and

as it presents

1

13.

The Master
stirred

referred to the fact that
difficult

men s

are

easily

to

control

feelings that ;

anger is the most difficult to control, but that in the midst of the anger we can rapidly check it and consider the right and the wrong of the matter involved. Formerly
he said that
of
itlie

when we thus matter we shall see

consider the right and wrong ourselves to be right and the
is intensified.

other to be wrong, and thus the contention
"

Afterwards he came to see that this was a mistake and that Mencius is right when he says The noble man will say
:

*

I Inust be lacking in love
.
.

and will examine himself and

be loving

perversity and unreasonableness of the other, however, are still the same Then he will
. .

The

.

.

say

This

is

simply a lost

man

"

2

!

14.

Questicm.

The

sages, one

would think, never wore

an angry countenance. Answer. Why should
countenance
?

they never wear an angry :When one ought to be angry the anger ought also to be manifested in the countenance. For example, it would not be right to go and reprove a man when he is wrong with a smile on your face.
1

The whole
is

of this section appears to
all of

answer

recorded, unless one or

form one question to which no the instances in which

^ ^R

occurs are taken as the Philosopher s answers. could not be consecutive, and the
-ffc

But in that case the dialogue
|^[ is
is

^

not generally used in

this

manner.

It

seems most probable that this

given as the only record

of the conversation received
2

by the questioner.

Mencius, pp. 209-10.

256

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

In that case the quality of the anger would Question. be affected, would it not ?

Answer.
criminals
it

When Heaven
was right
for

is

angry

there
cut
off

are

the

reverberations of thunder.

When Shun
him
also to

the four

be angry.

Bub

in

the midst of the anger there should be moderation, iand when the matter is past the anger should subside and not
revive.

(ONE SECTION FROM THE COLLECTED WRITINGS The expression "Steadfast Nature" means the attain ment of the original quality of the Nature by the completion
"

".)

has become steadfast

work of preservation and nurture. When the Nature it remains the sajme whether in activity or repose, and there is no difference between the internal and external. Is it not because of their steadfastness that Heaven and Earth are Heaven jand Earth, and that the sages are sages ? The study of the noble man, too, aims Therefore with broadness of mind solely at steadfastness. to bo actuated by a high altruism is what makes Love to bo the substance and what makes Righteousness its
of the
"
"

;

operation
established
is

is

the
as

"natural

(and fitting response to each
itself".

phenomenon

it

presents

When Love

is

and Righteousness practised, then the Nature mado steadfast and activity is everywhere unified,, as

1 expressed in the term "Cheng". Why, then, should he be in haste and in a fever of anxiety about putting away

external temptations
1

?

The reason why ordinary men
and therefore
true",

fail
fixed

Cheng (Jj) means

"correct

i.e. it

is

j,

or steadfast.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
n
steadfastness, however, is not because the
defective, but because
its

257

>riginally

Nature wag Love has been violated

yy self -concentration, its Righteousness has been injured yy calculating cleverness, and so the Feelings are beclouded

They do not think of turning and themselves eliminating the evil, but fix their upon attention upon hatred of external things as their object, and
d feverish anxiety prevails.
seek illumination in solitude.
ihey toil

The

result is that the

more

and expend their energy, the more beclouded is Jie illuminating principle within them, and they are all the more feverishly anxious and jself -ignorant. When "the l we shall be free from selfresting is like that of the back
"

sonccntration.
processes"

When we can
ishall

we

accomplish things by natural be free from a calculating cleverness.
is

c

To be oblivious of both subject and object
If

not oblivion.

we

act in accordance with right principle

we

shall not
;

assert the subjective at the
if

expense of the objective

and

we do not assert the subjective at the expense of the objective, we shall attain a high altruism and be in harmony,
with our environment, in which case what is there of all The pleasure and ihings external that can entangle us ?

anger of the sages, because they were actuated by a high, altruism and were in harmony with their environment, were
pleasure and anger of the mass of men, because they are actuated by selfconcentration and calculating cleverness, are the ebullitions
the perfection of the Divine

Law.

The

human passion. Discard anger and cherish altruism, observe principles and act in harmony with them those are the prescriptions for examining oneself and eliminating
of
:

1

Yi Ching,

p.

175

;

cf. n.

2 on p. 248 of this volume.

258

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Now
it is

the evil.

not for us who come after to

criticize

Chang Tzii s philosophy, but, in view of his way of forcing arguments and his lack of wide penetration and mature
consideration, there could not hut be doubts
It
1

on this subject. was for this reason that Gh eng Tzu issued his treatise his ftim was profound. (Discussion of the "Steadfast
;

Nature".)

FEELING AND MOTIVE
(FOUR SECTIONS FROM THE
"CONVERSATIONS".)

1. Question. N1^re Motives the operation of the Mind, or the emanation ^from the Mind ?

Ansiver. the Mind.

The

operation of the

Mind

is

emanation from
what, then,
is

Question. Feelings are also emanations the difference ?

;

Answer.
determines

refers to the character of the
its

Feelings emanate from the Nature. Feeling emanation Motive is wfojat
;

character. For example,
;

when I like

a certain

the wherefore of my liking it is thing, that is iFeeling the Motive. Feeling is like a boat or a cart, Motive is like

the

man s

use of them

1

.

\

it is also Motives issue Question. said that Motives come after Mind, so that their emanation

2.

from the Mind

;

is still

But when selfish motives controlled by the Mind. abound the Mind also follows them. Is it not so ?
Answer.
3.

Certainly.

\

\

Li

Meng Hsien asked
?

:

What

is

the difference

between Feeling and Motive

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
Feeling
is

259
is

the ability to act

;

Motive

the

ways of how to act. Motives come into operation after, and because of, the existence of the
consideration in various

Feelings.
"

4.

Question.
Nature"
l
;

The Decree

of

Heaven

is

what we term

plenum of the body is the Ether; affection and stimulus by the external world are Feeling
;

the

the

;

the ruling faculty is the Mind that which determines the direction is the Will that on which thought is fastened as
;

its

objective

is

the Motive

;

and the driving force is Desire.

Answer.
is

The
,the

correctness or otherwise of these statements

a matter of speculation.

The important thing
;

is

in

subject not to be hurried,, but to exercise a wide penetration with mature consideration thus in course

discussing

of time it will

become

clear.

I have heard the Master;2
is

say that the definition of terms

exceedingly difficult to determine. For example, in defining the Nature there is the Nature of Heaven and Earth and there is the physical
;

nature

in defining Love, I Gh uan sometimes speaks of Love in the universal sense and sometimes in the particular sense. Such distinctions must be thought about quietly and

thoroughly understood.

THE WILL AND THE ETHER. THE WILL AND MOTIVES
(Six SECTIONS
1.

FROM THE

"CONVERSATIONS".)

The Nature

is

Divine Law, with which
is

all things are

endowed so completely that there
1

not a single principle
Chu Hsi and

2

D.M., p. 247. Probably Li Yen

P ing

;

see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

the

Sung

School, chap. iv.

260

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The Mind
is

the ruler of the entire person. The Motives are the emanation of the Mind. Feelings are
lacking.

the
the

movements of the Mind.

The Will

is

the direction of

Mind, and is stronger than Feeling or Motive. The Ether is what constitutes the fleshly element and
the

plenum The

of the body,

;

it is

more corporeal and
is

coarser

than the
2.

rest.

direction

1

of the

Mind
"

termed the Will

;

the
"

direction of the pun
is

is

termed time.

The

"

ideograph,
"

will

towards derived from the ideographs The ideograph "time" is derived from
"gun".

2

and

"

mind
3

".

"towards!"

land

The idea in
fat

the formation of the ideograph for

"time"

was taken from the sun s forward movement as
noon or daybreak.

seen, for example,

The Will

is

the

direction in which the

Mind

4 moves, going straight forward.

Motives are the working processes, backwards and forwards, of the Will they are the feet of the Will. A1J the doing of business and calculating and going to and fro of the
;

Mind
Will
3
.

are the Motives.
is altruistic

Therefore

Heng Ch u

"

said

:

The

and the Motives are

egoistic."

Question.

What is

the difference between Motive and

Will?
1

Z
The

= %.
old form of

2

J^ was composed
~, of

of
is

an(*
>&

^r

-

Chalfant gives
5

its

probable original as
pi. xxii.

which

S(^

the original of

8ee

Ear ty

Chinese Writing,
3 4

cf. the old form The j^ in fl wa3 originally given above. Chu Hsi thus explains these ideographs as expressing the idea of motion,
;

^

but the old form of
Chinese Writing,

J^,

,

as
"

rather the idea of will as
pis. xxii

given by Dr. Chalfant (see n. that which issues from the heart
viii.

2),

suggests

".

See Early

and

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
two terms
weak, Will
4.

261

Heng Ch u
Motive
is

said

:

"The

difference between the

and

Will

is

that Will is altruistic
is

and the Motives are

Will is strong and Motive positive and Motive is negative."
egoistic,

Question.

Motives are the outcome of the

Mind how
;

do they compare with the Feelings and the Nature Answer. Motives are closely allied to Feelings.
Question. Ansioer.

?

What
is

about the Will
is

?

The Will

also closely, allied to the Feelings.
"

But the Mind
its

originally "still and without movement first activities are called the^ Motives. Heng Ch ii said
is altruistic,

x

;

:

and the Motives are egoistic." This well The Will is clear, Motives are to be paid. appears Will thle turbid the is strong, the Motives are weak
; ;

The Will

Will

is

assertive,

Motives are in the background.

You

need only to consider this carefully and you will see that it The Motives we speak of are for the most part selfish. is so.

Of

the Will it

"

is

said

:

The Will of even a common man
2

cannot be taken from

him."

The Will pertains to the positive element in the 5. 3 universe, and the Ether is the negative.
6. When the Ether is concentrated it naturally energizes the Will, as the ancients were nourished in their activity

and
1

rest.
2

3

The

Ft Ching, p. 370. fact that

Analects, X,

xxv

(p. 88).
ftff,

^

is

here contrasted with

J^ and

said to be

the

negative mode, shows that it is used in a limited and narrow sense. It is not the primordial ether, which is both positive and negative, but the negative ether which becomes solid matter and the physical element in man s

the pure and bright portion of the being, in contrast to the positive, which becomes spirit. It is to the latter that the will pertains.
"

ether,"

262

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

(ONE SECTION. FROM THE "COLLECTED WRITINGS".) The Ether is one. When it is controlled by the Mind, it becomes resoluteness when undJer the control of the body it is passion. (Reply to Li Hui Shu.)
1
.

;

THOUGHT
(Six SECTIONS FROM THE "CONVERSATIONS
1.
.)

Te Fu

jsaid

:

Thought
lost,
it
1

is

perspicacity.

Learning

without thought
thought. not think

is

labour

How
?

then can

simply because there is no be maintained that we must

Answer. Yes indeed, if we must not think, of what value would the books left us by the sages be ?
2.

A
;

Answer.

question was asked about thought and distraction. Without thought you cannot know what the

Mind is it is when you apply thought that you know that You know it the Mind is thus subject to distraction.
gradually, but also
3.

by mental
evoked.
.a

application.
;

Learning originates in thought
is

it is

by thought
s

that intelligence
4.

Ts a,i

;asked

question about Clr eng Tzu
to

words,:

"When

you

seek

cease

from thought, you

find that

thought does not cease." Answer. You must not try to cease from thought. Simply exercise care and all anxious thought will die away.
5.

Question,.
2

Heng Ch

ii

said:

"When

undisciplined
less
;

thoughts
1

abound the constant mind becomes
",

when

Analects, II, xv (p. 14).
"

2

Lit.

guest thoughts
s control,

i.e.

under the mind

and hankering

thoughts that come in from outside, not after the impossible.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
the

263

practised in error prevails the true mind is not Is there any difference between the expressions perfected."

mind

"

"

undisciplined thoughts
"

and

"

the

mind

practised

in

error

?

Answer.

Yes, there
"

is

a difference.

"Undisciplined

"The thoughts" are thoughts that (overflow like a flood. mind practised in error is the mind which in the past has

by practice become contaminated and obtained the mastery on the wrong side. The "true mind 7 is the moral mind. 6. Question. The manifestations of the mind in thought
are both good and evil. It seems to me that evil thoughts there are those wh,ich appear in the are of two kinds
:

thoughts and proceed from within unconsciously. There are others which arise from external temptations and so The way to exclude depravity is to be stir the thoughts. unremittent in effort, to examine the mind s outgoings in thought, and not allow them when wrong to be actualized in deed. In temptations arising from external things there must be watchful tare over sights and sounds, speech and actions. But the most important thing is to maintain
seriousness
:

if

there be seriousness, then there will be

a dignified interaction of the bodily and mental functions, the inward and the outward, and no injurious divorce

between the two

.

Answer. To say
is

that there are two kinds of evil thoughts

undoubtedly correct.

But

after all, those

which appear

unconsciously in thought are also from outside. The Divine Law is one, and if there be anything evil it does not proceed from the Divine Law,; if it does not proceed from the

Divine

Law

it

must come from

outside.

Sights and sounds,

264

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

speech and actions, include both the outward and the inward, and must not be referred to as if they were purely external functions. If in your thought you make one set
of functions to be internal and another set of functions to

be external, then the internal and external are separated the one from the other, which is an impossible idea. There

must be sincerity in thought and watchfulness in action, then there can be the proper interaction of the internal and
external functions.

(SEVEN SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

"COLLECTED WHITINGS".)

Man s mind is never without the
thought
is called for

principle of thought.
to think,

When

we ought

and not
l

make painful
2.

efforts to

banish and crush thought, and so

fall into the evil

of unrest.

(Reply to

Wu

Po Feng.)
2

Question.

How may we

"repress

desire" ?

It is thought that can repress desire. Some one said If thought be not correct it is inadequate to repress desire this is how it happens that the business
:

Answer. Simply by thought. In nothing more important than thought.

learning there

is

;

of life

is
?

injured.

How

about thoughts which are not

depraved
desires.

Answer.

Thoughts which are not correct are simply To think on the right and wrong, the ought and
tlijing desired,

ought not, of the
correct.

can never be other than

(Reply to the students at the

Tu Ch ang

District

School.)
1

A

pupil of

Chu Hsi
p. 317.

;

his

ming was Pi Ta,

See

2

^

|j|

,

Ixix,

f.

53.

Yi Ching,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
3.

265

The expressions
true"

"guard

your .mind

"

and

"make

do not mean that we are to be immersed but that we should be con in a condition of no-thought
the inind
;

stantly on the watch, think upon what we ought to thiink (Reply- to Kuo upon, and not violate moral principle.

Hsi
4.

Lfl.)

perfecting even though the response to environment be natural and easy, how can there be neglect of thought when approaching any matter ? And still more, when we
"investigation
1

In the

of

things"

and

"

of knowledge",

have not attained to that condition,
exercise repeated thought?
5.

(Reply to

how can we fail to Ch en. An Oh ing.) 2

To

the time has

consider the principle involved in an affair after: come for dealing with it, or to consider the

principle of anything
is

when

past, is to fail

of attainment

the time for taking it in hand from lack of forethought.
it

On

the other hand, to discuss

beforehand

is to fall

into

the error (spoken of as thinking about what is not my, But with business 3 and so creating confusion of thought.

prolonged
difficulty.
6.

effort there will

appear a

way
ing.)

of settling this

(Reply to

Ch eng Tzu Ch

What you

say as to thoughts being so multifarious

that the breast becomes solidified

and clogged,

is

what

all

learners deplore, but it is very difficult to rid ourselves

of

them

all at once.

It is better to use the
it to

mental energy

devoted to such thought and devote
1

the investigation;

G.L., p. 222.

2
3

Seep. 195,

n. 2.

See Analects,

XIV,

xxviii, p. 150.

266

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

of principles

let us

be earnest and whole-hearted in

the!

latter direction,

and the things that trouble us in the former any
effort of ours

direction will unravel themselves without
to solve them.
7.

(Reply
la

to

Wang Tzu Ho.)

question on the subject of thought and distraction, someone has said the Mind is really with for the most part its consideration is of things out thought

In answer to

;

past or of things

still

to

come.
is

I say that the relation
-of

between
its

Mind and thought

that

the substance and

operation, and it is for this reason that the knowledge of the future and the memory of the past are united together
so ithat there is not a single thing outside its iscope. 1 If

only

we can be
it

careful

and so hold

it fast,

then we

may

have

in its perfection and be free from anxiety as to Your anixiety as to distraction, and your distraction.

statement as to the

Mind

being originally without thought,
distinction between

show that you have not grasped the

substance and operation. And further let me ask how can your theory of the Mind being originally without thought cure the -avil of distraction which already exists ? (Record
of Doubts.)
1

That

is,

of the

Mind.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE
BOOK V
BEING BOOK XLVI OF

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF CHU HSI

MOEAL LAW

LAW
VIRTUE

BOOK V
MORAL LAW
CONVERSATIONS".) (FOURTEEN SECTIONS FROM THE 1. The term Moral Law 1 includes both substance and its hidden essence and its wide peration, both
"

manifestation.
2.
is

efers

The word Tao means a road. Generally speaking the road which all men follow while Li 2 to each principle as distinct and marked off from.
;

rest.

tatement,
is

Arising from this the Philosopher quoted "Tao is a road. But Tao itself
in

K ang

Chieh

s
;

is invisible

men s

made
t

manifest.

actions as they, walk along this road that it It is like the road itself so level that

can be travelled upon for countless myriads of years,
all

nd
3.

men

find their

way

to

it."

3

Question.

How
is

do you distinguish between
is

Tao

nd Li?
Answer.
Question.

Tao
Yes.

a road, Li

like the veins of

bamboo.

Is it like the grain in

wood

?

Answer.
Question.
e alike.
1

In that case the two terms would seem to

The word

for Moral

Law

is

Tao

(jit).

In

many

contexts

it

is

mpossible to translate, particularly in this book (Book V), largely taken as it is with controversies with Taoists, whose use of the word is .p
lifferent
2
3

from that
*s

of

Chu
f

Hsi.
r

^

(SI)

*ke worci
is

This statement
It will be

Law, the immaterial element in the Universe. by the philosopher Shao Yung, canonized as K ang

lihieh.

found in the

JE |g

,

pt. ix, f

.

8.

270

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The content of the word Tao is wide Li numerous vein-like principles included in the
;

Answer.
consists of

<

term Tao.

jt

The Philosopher further
tion to the vast

said

:

The term Tao
;

calls attencalls

it

and comprehensive

the term Li

attention to the minute and infinitesimal.
4.
"

Question.
sets
1

The sun

Viewing the universe comprehensively, and the moon rises, the cold passes and the
"

heat
all

returns,"

the four seasons pursue their course, and
2

!

This is the things are continually being produced." pervading and manifested operation of Tao. Speaking in a collective sense, does the continuity of this going and
returning,

moment s
Answer.
is

transforming, without a single cessation, constitute the substance of Tao ?
creating

and

:

Your explanation of substance and operation but right, you ought not to use the word "collective/ because then you are including the operation. Take only the immovable and abiding element, and you have what
is

I!

the substance.

For

instance, the flow of water,

the

cessation of its flow, or the lashing into billows
its (operation
;

these are

flow,

or to be lashed into billows
:

the unchanging power to flow, to cease from this is the substance.

Or take the human frame

the body

is

the substance, the

sight of the eye, the hearing of the ear, and the movements The hand is the of hand and foot, are its operation.
substance,

the

movements
its

of

the

fingers

in

picking

up things are

operation.
7i Ching, p. 389. Analects, XVII, xix, 3 (p. 190).

1

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Ch un 1
"

271

aying,
ie break

2 quoted the Commentary on the Analects as The past is past, but the future joins on without

a single 16 substance of Tao
oj:

moment."
is.

This

is essentially

what

Answer.
5.

That

is

the idea.

The other evening it was said that there Question. in the relation between substance and operation, fixity ut that it varies according to circumstances. What if we
no

phenomena together and regard them as one vast and operation ? Answer. The relation between substance and operation nevertheless fixed. The present is the substance, the merging future is its operation. The body is the substance, movements and activities are its operation. Heaven is
ike all

ibstance

ie substance
its

"

;

that

all

things owe,to

it

their

3

beginning"
"all

operation.

Earth
birth"

is the substance,

that

we
f

to it their

4 is its

operation.

From
is

view of the positive mode, the positive
its
;

things the point the substance

nd the negative
ie

from the point of view of operation the negative mode, negative is the substance, and the
said sometime ago,
"

ositive its operation.
6.
j

Question. the substance

You,
"

sir,

"Reverence
is

;

now you

say,

Reverence

the graoe-

nl

expression of Divine Law, the pageantry of human which is more like operation than substance. [fairs,"

Answer.
1

Your people in Kiangsi have a
2 3 4

particular

way

Probably Ch en Ch un see p. Chu Hsi s own Commentar}
;
"

1

90 and note.

".

Yi Ching,

p. 213.

Ibid., p. 214.

272

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
When you
have
is the operation foot rule without

of talking about substance and operation. divided a thing into sections you. say it

and not the substance.
the divisions into inches
into inches,
it is

For example, a
is

the substance

;

with the division

,

the operation.

A

scale

without the dots
;

.

with these marking the different weights is the substance d ots, it is the operation. 1 Or again, a fan has the handle, the bones, and the paper pastel on this is the substance
:

.

;

;

when one waves

Yang
\

you have its operation. Chih Chih asked about the term substance.
it

Answer.
7.

The inherent
call

fitness of a
is

thing

is

the substance,
j,

.What we
ordinary

Moral Law
has
to

not something out of
sought.
It
is

!ii

the

which

be

what

Li

we commonly speak
by me, and

of as moral principle, and not eome other Tao which needs suddenly to be discovered and seized
so recognized as

Ji

Moral Law.

It is no

than the ordinary principles of everyday life, that this is right and that is wrong. The recogni tion of right in everything is Moral Law. In the present

more by which

we know

.

day the Buddhists talk of a
suddenly. handled.
8.

But Tao

is

Tao which is to be apprehended not a thing which can be felt and
the

The Moral Law

is

past and in the present. filial obedience of the son, the benevolence of the sovereign, and the loyalty of the minister, are one principle common
to all people.
1

followed by all in the The kindness of the father, the

Law

Virtue
is

is

the reception of this

Law

in one

s

A

Chinese scale

a steelyard with the different weights indicated bj

brass brads.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
wn
person
;

273

just as, when the sovereign cannot but be Benevolent and the minister loyal, it is because they have
eceived this

Moral

Law

within themselves, and therefore

nanifest this disposition.

o the virtue of Yao. o the virtue of Shun.

Yao cultivated it and Shun cultivated it and

attained

attained

From

before heaven and earth,

rom the incarnation
.as

of the Imperial Hsi, 1 in all there from the ages of the been but this one Moral Law
;

ast right
acli

up

till

now

there has been no othjer.

Only in
truth into

generation there appears one
2

who

stands out as leader;
th|is

ut he is leader because he has received
tis

own

personality.

It is not that

jaw, and

another, }how, with Confucius, each h ad theirs.

Shun
is

Yao had on Moral while King Wen and the Duke
Lao
Tzii said,
3

iWhen Tao

lost people follow after

Virtue,"

which

bows that he did not understand either of these terms.
distinguish
?ao lat
tie

them

as

two separate

entities is to

make
to all

an empty abstraction. Our they are simply one entity

Confucian school teaches
;

it is as

common

ages, and not from the point of view of the individual Virtue is this Tao received ion, that it is termed Tao.

by the individual personality. Lao Tzu ays, "When Tao is lost, people follow after Virtue, when r irtue is lost people follow after Love, when Love is lost 3 But if We separate eople follow after Righteousness."
its

entirety

1

>

Fu Hsi, the first of the Five Emperors of the legendary period, supposed have been miraculously conceived by his mother see Giles Biog. Diet.,
;

.

233.
2
3

Showing that the apparent exception is no exception. cf. The Sayings of Lao-Tzii, See the Tao Te CMng, chap, xxxviii
;

y Lionel

Giles, p. 25.

274

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
ethical

Tao from Love and Righteousness we have no
principal at all.

In that case how can

it

be

Tao?
:

9. The Master in consequence of some remark said Modern scholars exhaust their efforts in the search for the

transcendental instead of beginning with
fault of

what

is

near.

Someone replied to this modern scholars is

:

It is inde3d the case that the

too great a love for the trans
".What is

cendental. I

uan, however, was asked, and he replied, It is seen in conduct."
"

Ch

Tao

"

?

Ming

Tao, too,

and he taught the student to seek the answer in the relation between father and son, All sovereign and minister, older and younger bro.th.er. the Masters spoke in the same sense. In these there was no talk of the lofty and distant. Ansiver. That was certainly Ming Tao s teaching, and yet in the relationship between father and son, elder and younger brother, sovereign and minister, there is, in each case, the principle of inherent right, wLich is Tao.
"

was asked,

"

What

is

Tao

?

10.

It is just this principle

which

is

universally indis-to their

pensable. For instance, the Buddhists and Taoists discard

human

relationships,

and yet they pay reverence

teacher as to a father, they regard their younger brethren as eons, their seniors as elder brother teachers, and their juniors as younger brother teachers. that they are all imitations.
11.
"The

The only

thing"

is

incorporeal

is

termed Tao, the corporeal
*

is

termed the vehicle of
1

manifestation."

The Tao

is

the
21.

Yi Ching,

p. 377.

But

cf.

Chinese text, Imp. Edition, pt. xiv,

f.

PHILOSOPHY OP HUMAN NATURE
ethical principle
;

275

which every phenomenon has the vehicle Tao is the corporeal vestigia which every phenomenon has. must have its vehicle of manifestation, and the vehicle of manifestation must have its inherent Tao. That is, Inherent in every single thing there must be its rule of
"

existence."

1

12.
is

Question.

Is it correct to
its

say that the substance

termed the Nature and

Answer.

Moral

Law

is

operation Moral Law ? simply the comprehensive term

for these cardinal principles and must not be regarded as their operation. Love, Righteousness, Reverence, Wisdom,

and Sincerity are

principles,

and Moral

Law

unites

them

in one comprehensive term.

Chih Ch ing 2 said: The term Moral Law appears to combine both substance and operation. For example, when we say that these principles are termed Moral Law we are Con and when we say, referring to it as substance 3 formity to the Nature is what we term Moral Law," we
"

;

are referring to its operation. Answer. This saying in its higher application refers to Heaven, and in its lower application refers to man.
13.

Cheng Ch ing asked
statement,
"The

:

How

Tzu s

concrete

do you regard Shao expression of Moral
all

Law"?*

Amiver.

This

is

what
stated

is

taught by

the Masters, but

by none

is it

expressed so exactly as
first

the doctrine is
1

by Shao Tzu. When there does not seem to be even
2 4

8

See p. 54, n. 1. D.M., p. 247.

See p. 246,
See

n. 3.

p. 6, n. 4.

276

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

the semblance of a moaning in it. But the truth of the The Nature is the concrete expression of Moral statement,
Law,"

may

be apprehended with certainty.
:

We

need not

empty and far away things only let us turn inwards and study our own personality, and we shall know whether this principle really exists or not. For this reason I said once before, If we would know the reality of Moral
talk about
"

Law, we must seek

it

in our

own

Nature."

Shao Tzti
"

Preface abruptly said not more than a few sentences in his to the Chi Yang Chi," but what he said was most
excellently said.

.When Kuci Shan l regarded the satisfying of hunger with food and the quenching of thirst with drink
14. as T&o,
r"

jhe lost

the

"Tao,

in the

"

manifesting
in the
"

vehicle",,

and

lost the

"rule

of

existence"
:

thing".
"

The Philosopher
Moral
be left

said further
be, left

In

the

passage,
:

The

Law may
it

not

for an instant;

if it could

would not be Moral Law," 2 it is what cannot be left that is called Moral Law. If we regard the common actions of everyday life as Moral Law, then in all that we do there is nothing that is not Moral Law. But in that case, why should the noble man be cautious and
"
"

apprehensive

3
;

why

should he
"it

still

study the action of

Moral Law? It is because must not be left" that he must walk in conformity with Moral Law. Take speech for example You would hardly say that the act
:

1

Yang Kuei Shan
D.M.,
p. 248.

;

see p. 26, n.

1.

2
1

As the author

of the saying

quoted above admonishes us

;

see ibid.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
of speaking
is
;

277

ness, Reverence,

Moral Law there must be Love, Righteous and Wisdom in the speech before you can Moral Law. If you take ordinary bodily there is that say movements to be Moral Law, why should you say further
that
"it

must not be

1
left".

(NINE SECTIONS FROM THE
.

"

COLLECTED WRITINGS

".)

1 The infinite greatness of the substance of Moral Law, and at the same time the necessity that the student in his study of it should be "accomplished, distinctive, contem 2 plative, and all searching", an d n t allow error even to the extent of a hair s breadth this is what the; saints and sages exhibited in discoursing upon Moral Law. There It sends forth and nourishes all things, fore, having said,
:
"

3 and so pictured its on to embr&ces the vastness, they of necessity go say, three hundred rules of ceremony and the th**ee thousand rules of demeanour," 3 in order fully to recover its extreme

rising

up

to the height of

Heaven,"

"It

minuteness.
task of
virtue",

And

in their instruction to the scholar in the

"actualizing

Moral

Law by
on
to

the cultivation

of

having spoken of

"perfecting its

ness

",

they of necessity go

show that

breadth and great none of its
"

exquisite

Modern and minute points may be omitted". 4 teachers in expounding the meaning of Moral Law are} very different. In discussing its vastness, they rejoice in its comprehensive completeness, but dislike research into its
therefore, that
2

There must, or ought to be, tao in what we do, but you cannot say what we do is tao per se otherwise, why should the Doctrine, of the Mean say it must not be left
1
" " "

"

;

"

".

D.M.,

p. 292.

3

Ibid., p. 286.

4

D.M., pp. 286-7.

278

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

ramifications

they delight in
"

but gloss over its broadness and greatness
" "
"

transcendent mystery, So far as its infinitesimal minuteness
its
.

are concerned, they do not differ but from the they do not examine into its materially sages, so that even in respect of what exquisite minuteness
;

they

call its "broadness

and greatness

"

they are not in a

position to discuss the true account of its entire substance.

(Reply
2.

to
it

OhaoT iChu.)
maintained that Tao
is

Ijs
l

lofty

and

distant, inscrut

able

jstudy

and mysterious, and beyond the possibility of human ? Then I answer that Tao derives its very name from
that
it is

tlie fact

day

life for all

the principle of right conduct in every men, that it is like a road which should be
countless myriads of people within

travelled

upon by the
tajid

It is not what the Taoist and Buddhist describe as Tao, empty, formileas, still, non Is it existent, and having no connexion with men. maintained that Tap is far removed from us, so vast as to be out of touch with our needs, and that we are not called upon to study it ? Then I say that Tao, present as it is

the four seas

nine continents.

in

all

tho

world

in

the

relation

between

sovereign

and minister and between father and son, in down-sitting and uprising and in activity and rest, has everywhere its unchangeable clear law, which cannot, fail for a single instant. For this reason the saints and sages exerted them
selves

and gave

,us

their instruction

so

as

clearly

and

perfectly to manifest its jneaning, botli in its vastness

and minuteness,

in its fineness of detail
1

and broad

outlines

;

is

for

.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and the student of
,

279

their books

examining the letter only, for the

must not be satisfied with mere pleasure of analysis

[and -synthesis, he must discuss their teachings intelligently, and .examine them exhaustively, in order to remember them,
practise them,

only

(thus

can he

universe.

He

and manifest them in the business of life fulfil his mission and take his place in the must not- examine the letter only for the mere
;

pleasure of tracing out and compiling. Tzu Yu quoted the Master as saying

When,
1C

therefore,

:

When

the

man
;

of high station is a disciple of Moral Law he loves men when the man of low station is a disciple of Moral Law he 1 How is easily ruled," the Master endorsed his words.
"

different is

here,
to

from the teaching
I

as presented to us the study of Moral Law of the scholars of ,this age [(Reply
",

!

Chou
3.

Kung.)
the heretical doctrine of
to
?

You regard
that
"

Tao

as useless,

and therefore go on

make

Can

bq

right
"

On
"

a useless tiling. the contrary, while the word
the
itself

Tao

"Jjove

refers directly to the mystery pertaining to

man s

Mind, the word
moral -nature
description of
it

Tao

common

the comprehensive term for the to all. Therefore, although the
is

combines both the individual and the trans

cendental, there are not really

two

entities, the

Doctrine
Love."

of the

Mean

"

says,
"

Moral

Hu Tzu

also says,

If a

Law is cultivated by man has not Love, the essence
idea.

of

Moral Law is gone," which conveys the same to Lien Sung Ch ing.)
1

(Reply

2

D.M.,

Analects, XVII, iv, 3 (p. 183). p. 269.

280
4.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
There is only one Law of Heaven and Question. The root and fruit are identical. When the Moral

Man.

of man s Nature is perfected, the Moral Law Heaven is also perfected. The realization of the fruit does jnot mean separation from the root. Even those whom we regard as saints spoke only of perfecting- the relation ships |of human life. The Buddhists discard man and dis course on Heaven, and thus separate the fruit from the root, as if they were two horns of a dilemma 1 of which you must choose one and reject the other. The presence of the Four Terminals and the Five Cardinal Virtues in man s nature 2 The indispensable they regard as masking the Nature. relationships between father and son, sovereign and minister, husband and fwife, senior and junior, they regard
of
as accidental.

Law

and
so

Ejarth,

creatures, as

They even go so far as to regard Heaven, the Two Modes of Matter, mfcn and other, phantasmal transformations. They have never

much

Nature of the Great Void.
the universe
;

as inquired into their reality, but simply assert the Now there are no two laws in

how then

can they take Heaven and Man,

the root and fruit, summarily asserting the one and denying the other, and yet call this Tao ? When their perceptions
are so partial, so small and incomplete, what possibility is there of the familiar doctrine of a perfect union between

the transcendental iand the lowly

?

Those who follow the
"from

sacred Confucian school, on the other hand,
Note them as a
1
:

the

the

jfjjr

and the
".

^

ffi

^=

"

separate

.

.

.

and present

case for choice

SB fjt is a Buddhist expression, meaning that these principles hide the true nature from us ; cf j|J :fj- pt. xviii, f. 15 ; 4| |J pt. xvii, f 44.
. .

2

,

,

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
tudy of the lowly understand high things
"

281

*
;

they advance

m

the humble accomplishments

of

"sprinkling

weeping,
eceding
!

answering
2

".

and replying, advancing Whether in food and drink or in the relation
were never lacking in seriousness.

and and

tween the
or
"the

sexes, they

Moral Law which, the noble man follows after far-reaching and yet mystical". Far-reaching, it
;

braces the whole of his daily life

mystical,

it is

Divine
in the
sorx,

w.

With

this

Divine Law, then, in daily

life

elation between sovereign

and

minister), father

and

usband and wife, senior and junior, or when engaged in

and pledging of social intercourse, or when eating, resting, seeing, and hearing there is not one sphere activity which is not under the guidance of Law, and
e toasting
>f

ot lone that can be confused

;

for wherever there

is

con-

usion Divine

has perished. 3 "Therefore the noble n is never lacking in seriousness." 4 By this means the
is

Law

held fast with firmness, the practice of good is and so the hidden and manifest are blended, the utward and inward are united and Moral Law dwells

ind

ture,

;

ithin

me

to express

What is this;! What
!

there

in

Buddhism
call

adequate
is

Buddhists

"Intelligence"

morej than a glance at the connecting thread.
reality

The

Mind
"

and unchangeableness of Divine Law and man si they have not apprehended. What they call
",

culture
1

also, is

nothing more than control of the Mind

Analects,
Ibid.,

2
3

XIV, XIX, xii,

xxxvii, 2 (p. 153).
1 (p. 207).
is

The charge against Buddhism
Cf. Analects,

the

"

confusion

"

of

the social

relationships.
4

XII,

v,

4

(p. 117).

282

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

and

sitting in silence. Discarding human relationships, destroying the Divine Law, they reap no good that can bo after all, they fail even to perceived. As you, sir, said
:

geit

near a solution of the problem.

"

Before the stirrings of
1

pleasure, anger, grief,

and

joy,"

is

the condition

and without movement". Heaven and Earth, the Source of the universe. There are not two sources in the universe therefore the transformations of Ch ien and K un, and the classification of species, all proceed from this one source. Every form, produced and reproduced, has each the Nature of Heaven.
Nature
is

still

when the Here we have
"

the

Mind

of

;

This

is

from

its source. 2

the reason for the inseparableness of the creature Receiving its spiritual essence we become

man, and within the confines of the four cardinal principles it resides, inscrutable, formless, still, and, it would seem,
unnameable.
it

Tzti Sstt, having regard to the absence in

any leaning to one side or the other, called it The Mean. Mencius, having regard to its perfect purity called it Good. The Master 3 having regard to its life-producing substance called it Love. The terms differ but the thing named is the same, and is not separable from everyday,
of
life.

This

is

why you
it.

said that its

meaning

is

manifest

without our seeking
drift

Formerly

I read

many

books from

different points of view,
;

but failed to grasp their main

I studied vaguely such subjects as

Heaven and

Modes, man and other creatures, good and but did not find any principle of unity. With the truth near me, I was seeking it afar off, suffering prob
Earth, the
evil spirits,

Two

ably from the mistake of over-eagerness in
1

my
".

search.
5

I

See Ft Ching,

p. 370.

2

Lit.

"

fruit

from the root

Confucius.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
t is fcaid

283
*

hoard that in the discourses of the Master Kuei Shan
:

list
is

"Before we speak of perfecting the Mind, we understand what the Mind is after we have realized
;

clearly and

distinctly,
"

we may proceed

to discuss the

dea of perfecting
single instant

it

ith this exactly.
2
".

and my former explanation accorded Ti But Moral Law cannot be left for In everyday life it is brightly shining
; ;

hy should there be any waiting to search for what you,
t

it ?

This

venture

have enjoined: and taught, and I could to do other than respectfully receive your
sir,

As to the misleading character of the mirror d image illustration, were it not for your teaching my nderstanding of the truth would have been in considerable
ching.
eril.

perceived

Formerly, in a time of leisure and meditation, as its all-comprehensive, omnipresent, and all-

3 ervading attribute, and realized that every single thing n the universe is manifested in it, it seemed to me that the

,ble
jof

guro of the mirror and image was approximately euitI therefore expanded it and elaborated the statement
;

the

hawk and

fish,

jshowed the error of this

regarding this as an apt simile. You by reference to the Great Void and

the myriad phenomena. After considerable study I fully realized that my statement was not correct. If it were, then the hawk and fish, on the one hand, and my Nature, on
the other, would become two separate entities. carefully your meaning, it is that there must be

Examining some reason
p. 248*
i

why, when the hawk and
1

fish

come

into existence, they are
2

Yang Shih

;

see p. 28, n.

1.

D.M.,

1

* H

=

3K 88

a,

<>

HE

0r

xm;

ft

=

284

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
fish,

hawk and

and that the cause

is

in the presence of the
flies

j

s|

and the fish leaps not by the individual choice of the hawk and fish, but because of the Divine Law imparted to them in unceasing flow. 1 Between "not forgetting" and "not assisting the
"

substance of Moral

Law.

The hawk

m
j

]

growth
is
"

2

of the physical nature Divine
s

Law

flows in
;

its
!

:a

operation with not a hair
exactly the

breadth of selfishness

which

Q

same idea. This is what Ming Tao calls 3 Such is my unworthy opinion. I should uniformity". like to know, sir, whether or not it accords with yours. For the rest, such as the doctrine of life and death, good and evil spirits, I must wait till I have opportunity of
receiving your instruction in person.

:

:

[

Answer. Your communication accords with my own mind It shows your fine ability. I now know in all respects. were mistaken, former not that my surely expectations There are One or two points not quite accurate, but they
I am now travelling and are not of very great moment. I unsettled, and therefore unable to reply point to point. would advise you still to apply yourself to discriminating
1

i

f

^
j

fjl
\

The

illustration of the
(pt.
iii,

the Odes

bk.

fish is taken from a stanza in one which reads The hawk flies up to heaven ;
i,

hawk and

of

ode

v),

:

The

fishes leap in the deep.
;

Easy and self-possessed was our prince Did he not exert an influence upon men ? The hawk rises in the sky. and the Upon which Legge s note says
"

:

fishes

leap about in the deep, without an effort ; it is their nature so to do. So there went out an influence from King Wen, unconsciously to himself." This spontaneous flying and leaping is here attributed to Tao, the Divine Moral Law. See Odes, p. 445 and note. 2 See Mencius, p. 66. * That is, the uniformity of nature in man and other creatures.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
tudy, and ad correct.
5.
E

285
true

your

ideas
to

will

gradually

become

(Reply

Liao Tzu Hui.)
s
1

explanation of Tao as the walk life is certainly too wide, and you, Tzu Yo, 2 are right contradicting it; but his use of the word "walk" ia

Chang Yuan Te

evertheless not without reason.
eglect to follow this
nt,

When, therefore, you and up analyse his argument for him, taking a different line, answer him by quoting Ch eng
simile of the boundless desert, 3

it is not surprising are conscious Off you yourself having fallen into the Tor of being neither clear nor relevant. (Ch eng Tzii in

zu

s

lat

is

statement

is

comparing Moral

Law

with Righteousness

that his simile has a natural appropriateness and is ithout fault.) The effect of your method of answering
is

argument

is
4

ifferent things

that you and he are talking about two which have no connexion with each other,
5

his is because your

own

perceptions are not perfectly

ear, and so you cannot avoid resorting to guesswork, 6 and forced statement, with the result that eneralizing, ou branch off into superficial and vague arguments, and
re

unable to
Chang Hsia

make your meaning
(5j|

clear.

According to
s

my
most

ominent
2

disciples.

^), style Yuan Te, was one of Chu Hsi He was a native of Ch ing Chiang (^ fQLii,

pia
3

Tzu Yo was another disciple, surnamed section was a reply. See p. 207, n. 3.
See yJ
3lC
"

to whose communication

^, pt.
*$C
my,"

xv,

f.
"

11

;

cf.

also p. 291 of this
side

volume and
I

n.

1.
side."

4
5

Lit.

but

= W=

He

is

on the east
own,"

and

am on the west
Tzii

"

one

s

and

refers

to

Yo, to

whom

section
8

is

addressed.
to cover, or include, in a basket, hence to generalize.

^

^

=

286
idea,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Tao obtains
|1
fl
|

its name simply from the principle of inherent right present in all phenomena. Yuan Te says baldly that it is the walk of life, in which he is certainly;

j

wrong. If at the time, however, you had contented yourself with answering him by saying that Tao is the road
along which we ought to walk, you would have succeeded in making your own l idea clear in his language, and the phrase "boundless desert" would also have its place in

"

j

*

P
lf

p

your argument. Further, with regard to your reference to the expressions "negative and positive modes", "the

1 J
j

^

between sovereign and minister and between father "the corporeal and incorporeal," and the simile of "the boundless desert": if we first combine and then analyse them, the negative and positive modes, the relation between sovereign and minister and between father and
relation

and

son,"

IJ
i
;

son, are

all

phenomena, the actions of

man

;

while the

corporeal consists of the varied

species

o f the

myriad

phenomena each one of which has witliin it the principle of right, what we call Moral Law, the road along whictt we ought to walk and the incorporeal is the void of the
boundless desert.
the
If

we speak

of

it

from the point
desert"

of

view of the incorporeal,
is

its "boundless

character

substance, and its manifestation in If we speak of it from the its (phenomena operation. of view of the corporeal, then phenomena constitute point
certainly

the substance and the manifestation
operation. incorporeal is the substance of duties of universal obligation
"

of

the principle

it?

You must

not combine

them and say that tht Moral Law, and "the fivj
operation.

its

What

Yiiac

1

See

p. 285, n. 5.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
?e

287

nwards,

from the sentence "Tao cannot act of itself" is without error, and yet you argue against it. The answer says what is so far true, but as a reply is
says,
"

rrelevant.)
ay,

The incorporeal
of

Referring again to a later statement, you is termed Tao, and constitutes the
things,

rinciples
chicle

the corporeal

is

the manifesting

and constitutes the things

themselves." 1

You

ould do well to cast everything else aside and confine our argument to these two sentences! for if you get lese clear, the rest will of its own accord become per;

ectly clear
6.

and complete.

(Reply to

Lu Tzu

Yo.)

2

The reason why I cannot agree with explanation of Tao as the walk of life is that the rord "walk" is not adequate to express the meaning of tie word Tao; you must also include the reason for the
Question.
s

an Te

was it necessary Tzu s simile pf he "boundless desert", anxious that Yuan Te should earch deeply into this great substance, and by meditation perceive the mystery which lies beyond the perception of senses then, as a natural consequence, he would realize hat the word was altogether inadequate. If
alii.

3

But

still,
?

in order to find the one,
I therefore used

look for two

Ch

engi

;

"walk"

.

had said "the road along which we ought to walk then fear he would not have been able to grasp the idea of universal obligation", 4 nor would the origin of Tao have
",

1

f.

Yi Ching, p. 377, where, however, the passage the Chinese text, Imp. Edition, pt. xiv, f. 21. 2 See above.
3

is

translated differently

;

4

See p. 285 for the argument to which this whole question refers. See D.M., p. 270.

288

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
The
corporeal
the

been easy to explain by such language.
is

the incorporeal.
"

When
subtle
is

the

Commentary on
it
is
"

Yi

1

says,

The most

law,"

which
is

phenomena,

The
fore,

says the corporeal which is referred to. substance and operation have one source, the mani
",

is

referred to, and
it is

when

it

the incorporeal the most manifest

festation

and the subtle principle are inseparable. There though there is the distinction between the corporeal
incorporeal,

and

they
fault in
2

are

still

but

this one ethical

principle.

Answer.

The

Yuan Te

s

statement I have fully
case will
i

II

explainelcl already.

But your way of stating the

it

not meet his point. I fear you can only see yourself and have not carefully examined what I said. You right
say that the law according to which we ought to walk con stitutes the universal obligation, and that the phrase,
"

void like the boundless

desert,"

represents the origin of

This really does not amount to a serious statement, and is not what I would have expected of Tzii Yo. That
Tao.

you can write this

is in itself sufficient to account for your You must lay hold other statements not being correct. of the truth that there is only this one natural principle

of right.
less

When we
it is

any such entity in addition to this principle. As to the corporeal and in You have to corporeal there certainly is a difference.
desert,"

use the phrase, not that there

"

void like the bound

is

divide

them

(and say that this is substance

and

thatl is

operation, before you can say that they have one source.
1

That

2

is, the Commentary by See pp. 285-7.

Ch cng

I.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
You have
to say that this is

289
is its

phenomenon and that

principle, before you can say that they are inseparable. [f they were merely one entity there would be no need to

peak of one source, and of their being inseparable. (Reply

Lu Tzu
7.

Yo.)

l

)RjI

Lao Tzti taught us about Bay but of said little the ao, manifesting vehicle, because, the student confines himself to the knowledge of the |f
school
2
"

The Su

:

ehicle,

then Tao will be obscured
Righteousness

;

he therefore excluded

ve and
"

and rejected
Tao."

Ceremony and
3

usic, in order to

make

clear the

I explain the

ord

Tao

"

as the general

term

for Love, Righteousness,

eremony, and Music, and these four are the substan ce operation of the Tao. The cultivation of Love and ighteousness, and the development of Ceremony and
in?

by the sages, were in order to manifest the Tao. the Su school to say that Love and Righteousness jJV)r e .excluded, and Ceremony and Music rejected, in order
usio

manifest the Tao,
f

is to

discard the multiples two and
is

ve in order to find ten.
the

This surely
s

wrongt

!

(Criticism
4

Su Huang School

Exposition of Lao
"

Tzu.")

>e

The Su school say Heaven s Moral Law cannot what can be so expressed is its expressed in words imilitude. The understanding know the true by means
:

;

>

the similitude,
1 2

and the ignorant by fastening upon the
to

See above. See
Ip:
J. P.

Bruce, Introduction
pt.
s

Chu Hsi and

the

Sung

School, chap. iv.
;

8

H|

,

xcix,

f.

25.
the

See also Tao Te Ching, chap, xix

cf.

V.
4

Gorn Old

The Book of
xcix
f-

Simple Way,

p. 54.

SH

>

Pt"

24

-

r

290

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
l

similitude fall into

error."

My

position is this
1

:

The

sages explained Moral Law as the relation between sovereign and minister, father and son, husband and wife, elder and younger brother, and between friend and friend what I ask is, do these express Moral Law or only its similitude ? Does fastening upon these and acting accordingly mean that we shall fall into error ? But why really ehould Tao be inexpressible in words ? It is only because men do not realize that Tao and the manifesting vehicle are never separate, and seek it in the inscrutable and formless, that they use such language. (Criticism of
;

the
9.

Su Huang School

s

Exposition of Lao
;

Tzii.)

A

principle is invisible

it is

only in actions and

wrong are perceived. The more we minutely investigate and understand it, the more
speech
,that

right and

1

exquisitely fine ,the principle appears. When the ancients spoke of investigating things" and "perfecting know 2 ledge they meant no more than that we should make
"

",

a beginning at this point.

(Reply to

Hu

Chi Sui.)

3

LAW.
(SIXTEEN SECTIONS FROM THE
1.
"CONVERSATIONS".)

Law
this

is

or

like

bamboo

like a piece of thread with its strands, basket. Pointing to its rows of

bamboo

splints, the Philosopher said,

One

strip goes this

way
1

;

and, pointing to another strip, Another strip goes
f.

Ibid.,

25 f cf. Tao Te Ching, chap,
p. 25.

i

;

see

The Book of the SimpleWa\
J

by W. Gorn Old,
2

G.L., p. 222.

;

See

p. 24, n.

1.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
that way.
It is also like the grain of the
it is

291
:

bamboo

on
of

the straight

of one kind, on the transverse,

it is

another kind.

So the mind possesses numerous

principles.

2. Whether great, as in heaven, earth, and; all things, or small, as in the activities and rest of ordinary life in #11 (alike is the Law of the Supreme Ultimate and of

the
3.

Two Modes.
In
all

thing s

throughout the universe there

is

nothing that is not relative. Given ttie negative, mode, there is the positive; given Love, there is Baghteousness
given good, there
is

;

evil

;

given speech there

is

silence

;

1 And yet there is but given movement, there is repose. one principle, (as when a man walks out, or when he

returns, it is with the

same pair of
:

feet.
it is

It is like the

breath of one s
inspiration
4.

mouth

in expiration

warm,, and in

it is cold.

Whether high or there is but one Law.
5.

low, fine or coarse, root

ior

fruit;,

Whenever
.clearly
it is still

you

consider

principles
all

you

must

apprehend
stages

the fountain-head); in

subsequent

this

Law which

is

diffused in the ^n finite

variety

his teaching enunciated principles on any and every, subject as they were presented to him, but did not point out one supreme But if you take thing s which are all general principle.

of

phenomena.

Confucius

in

about

us,

and generalize

concerning!

them,

you

will

perceive a general law.
1

Men cius drew
|r,pt. *v,f.
20.

attention to this

See jfi

292

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;

in his teachings while in his doctrine of the

Chou Tzu made
Supreme
:

it

specially clear

Ultimate.

Take, for

instance, the feeling of solicitude if from this you trace backwards you will arrive at Love, winch is inherent in

the

Mind but Love is the Principle of Origin, one of the Divine Attributes, anid the Principle of Origin is the Thus positive and active mode oi: the Supreme Ultimate.
;

by tracing backwards stage by stags we arrive at the the Supreme If now, we apprehend fountain-head.
Ultimata clearly, we shall certainly be able to recognize thg numerous laws and principles of the universe as all
is

In every single phenomenon there proceeding from it. a principle, and nothing is without its principle.
6.

Some

truths

are

obvious,

and

it

is

best

to

expression to

them
7.

free and easy terms. in tortuous language is mischievous.

them in

To

give clothe

Throughout the universe

this principle
;

is

in

everything, even in insignificant things Decree of Heaven is what we term the Nature
is

for

present the
"

V But

the

formless, with nothing in which, to inhere, principle except in the affairs of everyday life. These two are

never separate in every single thing there is its law, therefore "the noble man makes an extensive study of all
;

2

learning".

It

might seem

as if extensive study were

an

unimportant matter, but those many principles are all to be found, here, and all proceed from the ono source.
Therefore, whether fine or coarse, great or small, all alike the simple are made use of and mentally grasped,
f<or

1

D.M., p. 247.

2

Analects, VI,

xxv

(p. 57).

PHILOSOPHY OP HUMAN NATURE
eason that there
lire

293
all

is

nothing extraneous to me.
is

When

thus understood, knowledge

perfectly developed,

and

Becomes full-orbed and complete.
8.

The
l
",

"

Great
not

Learning"

hings

but
2

of an
to

"

speaks of "investigating exhaustive investigation of
principles
of.

principles",

because
"

investigate

is

like

lutching at vacancy with nothing to lay hold
t

When

simply says

he corporeal

it means, through investigate things vehicle to seek the incorporeal Moral Law ; 3
",

md when we
>o
"

do that we find that the two are inseparable, that there is no need to say more th,ain intvesti^gata
"

Heaven in giving birth to the multitudes of hings he people so ordained it that inherent in, every single hing there is its rule of existence."* This is what is
".

neant by Tao.

Where do you

find it said
1

that

every

hing
9.
is
;

is itself

a rule of existence

?

it

This principle is infinite. It is present all around runs through all the myriad threads of the web of

ife.

Drawing
:

circles
is

mid

See, there

circle

with his finger, the Philosopher within circle. Horizontally it
it

s so,
.s

perpendicularly
If

it is so,

all so.
1

we

express

backwards and forwards it from the point of view of

G.L., p. 222.
Ibid., p. 229.
" " "

In the original text of the G.L. the word translated by is in the phrase investigation of principles It different word from that used in the phrase investigating things neans exhaustively to search for". Chu Hsi s point is You investi
-egge as
"

2

"

investigation

"

.

"

:

"

gate
3 4

or

"

examine

"

a phenomenon or thing
;

;

you
288

"

search for

"

its

principle.

Alluding to the passage in the Ti Ching
Odes, p. 541.

cf. p.

of this

volume.

294

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

the ,Two Modes, the Supreme Ultimate is the Supreme From Ultimate, and the Two Modes are its operation.
the point of view of the Four Symbols, the Two Modes are the Supreme Ultimate and the Four Symbols are its operation. And {again, from the point of view of the

Eight Trigrams, the, Four Symbols are the Supremo Ultimate and the Eight Trigrams its operation.
10.

This principle
1

K un,
hair.

and
;

BO great as to include Ch ien and sustain the processes of creation and trans
is
it

c

formation
2

minute as to penetrate the All-comprehensive and all-pervadin!g, we
is

so

finest

1

must

nevertheless ascertain
11.

what

it is

that

it

comprehends.
"It

that everything has its correlative and! stands alone nothing why did he go on to quote the the feet begin to dance and the passage, unconsciously
"

of

the

Question. universe
"

iWhen Oh eng Tzu

said,

is

the law

;

hands to olap" ? 3 Answer. If it be true that there is nothing which not have its does correlative, and we realize what it means, As it is indeed a matter for astonishment and laughter. to the Two Modes, now, they have a correlative, but what
is

the correlative of the Supreme Ultimate)? The correlative of the Supreme Ultimate Questioner.

is
1

the Infinite.
The dual
the

creative Powers
School, chap. vi.
$!>

;

see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

Chu Hsi
so small

and
2

Sung
>

31

H[>

that the word
s

itself

and ?& are four measures of which the largest is means infinitesimally minute and of this the
;

smallest

of these measures
jjjj

is

equal to one thousandth part.

;jf

f

p t.

xi, f .

4

;

cf .

Mencius, p. 190.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
This
is

295

Of

the Five Agents,

only referred to in one sentence. Earth appears to be without any
its

correlative,

and yet each one has
is
:

correlative.

The
is

Supreme Ultimate The incorporeal as shown in thq statement what we call Tao, the corporeal is what we l the But the correlation manifesting- vehicle."
"

the correlative of the

Two Modes
call
is

a,

cross-relation.

Earth

is

the

correlative of the other

Four Agents, Metal, Wood, Water, and
four have their location, while Eartjh
these also are correlated.
is

Fire, because the

lias
:

not
2

;

so that

(Pi
all
is

that the

Four Agents are
3

The reason pervaded by Earth.) The

Ta

records

Hu
evil.

School

say that good

not to be contrasted with

the negative of good, just as you have Love and not-Love why should they not be cantdasted! ?
evil is
;

But

If not, then everything in the universe will appear to be

one-sided like a single-branched horn, 4 and nothing can be predicated of anything.

its correlative and nothing Given movement there must be repose, given the negative there must be the positive, and so on to bending and straightening diminishing and growing,

It is Question. universe that everything has

12.

"It

said>

is

the law of the

stands alone.

1

,

1

See

p. 287.
style

2
3
4

Wu Pi Ta,
See
i* J.

Po Feng

;

see
to

P. Bruce, Introduction
is

j|
it.

School, chap. iv. a point leaning on one side, with nothing on the other side
the

^ |g, Chu Hsi and

pt. Ixix,

f.

53.

Sung

to

match

296

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and decaying
?
"

flourishing

;

nothing

is excepted."

1

Is this

naturally so

Answer.
tive of

It is all naturally so.

One

"

is

the correla

and the corporeal of the incorporeal,. But there is a correlation within it, as, in the case of "one for example, in the cose of an object in front of me, there are its back and front, its higher and lower parts, its inside
"two",
"

and

"

outside.
it is

Two,"

also,

lias

its

own
its

correlatives.

Although

said that everything, has
is
;

correlative and;

noihing stands alone, yet there

an aloneness which

for example, on the; nevertheless also has its opposite of in each chessboard, pair squares the two are mutually
correlative,

hut there

is

one in the

centre

which

is

simply an
correlative.
;

empty

track, and apparently without any but this track stands in contrast to the whole
It is

three hundred and sixty squares. 2

what we speak

of

1

Cf Jfj
.

|fj , pt. xv,

f.

20,

where a similar statement

is

made. See

p. 39,

n. 2.

There are two Chinese games played with a board divided into The one is named Hsiang C hi ( jfc fS), and is said to have squares. It is doubtless connected in origin been invented about 1120 B.C. with the western game of chess. The game is played with thirty-two men on a board of sixty-four squares the board, however, differs from that used in the western game in that there is a gap between the fields The other of the two opponents popularly called the Yellow River.
2
;

game

is

called Wei

Ch

i

(pg

fjt).

Its origin is ascribed to the Sage-

white pieces on Emperor Yao. The game is played with 360 black and a board with eighteen rows of eighteen squares each. The pieces are the points of intersection of the placed not in the squares, but on the boundary lines. dividing lines and of the union of the latter with Of the places thus formed there are 361. It is the board used in the

second

of these

two games that

is

referred to in the text.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
s

297
to the

the

One

in contrast to the All,

Tao in contrast

ehicle of manifestation.

Void Question. With regard to the passage, ike the boundless desert lead men to enter the beaten
"

13.

.

.

.

1
bh,"

jpath
[act,

",

when Ch eng Tzu uses the expression "hearten does he not mean the way in which men ought to

and that of everything we ought

exists beforehand, so that

when we
is

to do, the principle are about to do a thing

pre

do not need

to

search for
it

its principle.

Answer.
(there is its

What
law
;

says

that before the case exists

for example, the law of the relationship

sovereign and minister exists before there is the law of the relationship between Sovereign or minister and son exists before there is father and son. It Bather

between

;

cannot be that before the relationships of sovereign and minister, father and son exist, the law of those relation
ships is non-existent, and that it is when they come into existence that the principle is implanted in them.
pt. xv,
f.

jf^

11.

fif-",

The whole passage reads:

yfjl

^

Sj

|}

a"

a*

sis

&n

^So ip f*

A

ft

51

Void

like the
!

a dense forest

boundless desert, but filled with innumerable Forms like Before the response [i.e. to a particular phenomenon] is

not before, and after the response is not after. Just as a tree a hundred feet high is one unity from the root to the topmost branch and outermost leaf, so you must not say that the transcendental is a thing by itself, formless

and

trackless, waiting for

man

specially to prepare

and bring into
Seeing that

his

personality,

and so lead him into the beaten path.
is

it is

a

beaten path there

only one beaten

path."

298

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

What does ;the sentence, Seeing it is a Question. beaten path, then there is only one beaten path," mean? In any one phenomenon there is but one Answer.
principle
:

whether
it

subtle

or

coarse

there

is

one law
see

running through
only the
speak of
it

and no other.

The moderns, can
;

first part, its

formlessness and tra cklessness

and
1

a vast emptiness. They have not realized that though it is "Void like the boundless desert it filled with innumerable Forms like a dense forest
as
",

"is

",

For example, the Buddhists speak only of Vacuum and
the .Taoists speak only of the Non-ens, but do not realize
that it

Question.
is

with innumerable principles. the sentence Before the response not before, and after the response is not after does
is filled

In

<

",

j

the word

"

"response;

mean response
the
response"

to

Answer.
"after

"Before

phenomena means before

?

the:
i

response to a
the

particular

response"

phenomenon, and, similarly, means after the response to!
tlie

a particular phenomenon. is "before" in time, but

Before the response of course! event responded to is sub

sequent, and after the response is made, is, it is true, in time, but the principle of the response is "after" antecedent.

"The Question. It is said good and evil in the 1 Of the schools of Yang universe are both Divine Law."

14.

:

Quoted from Ch eng Ming Tao s writings; see j[| The whole passage is :1 The good and evil in the
1
"

^

,

pt.

ii,

A,

f.

2

universe are botl

Divine Law. What is called evil is not evil originally, but it comes to.bc such by excess or shortcoming, as is exemplified in the schools of Yang and Mo.*

PHILOSOPHY OP HUMAN NATURE
nd
ess.

299

Mo
2

1

the one went too far and the other not far

nough,

but they both started from Love and RighteousTo call these Divine Law is right, but can the great

ickedness of the world be called Divine

Law

?

Answer.

Originally,

it

was Divine Law, but

it

has

een perverted and so come to what it is. For example, is the of reverse and Arson solicitude. murder, too, ruelty

extreme of wickedness, but the use of fire for the ooking of food, and the killing of a man that ought to be illed are not these Divine Law ? It is simply from
re the
:

ie;

perversion

of

it

that wickedness springs.

Ethical
Obedience:

rinciple

has

both

its

obverse and reverse.

Lo it is right,

Law
a

exists that evil exists.
:

sewer

if

it is wrong. It is because Like the mudd|y stream of in the beginning there had beeln no clean

disobedience to

pater there could not have been this

muddy
to
3
:

stream.

15. Some one asked with reference Good and evil are both Divine Law
excess or defect, or in the case of
it

"

the statement, In the case of

many
call

small wickednesses,

is

granted that

you may

still

them Divine Law.

But how can the great sin and wickedness of the world
also

be Divine

Law ?
original

Answer.
1

The

mind which man has

at the

philosophers of the fourth and fifth centuries whose views were combated by Mencius. Yang was the apostle of egoism and Mo of altruism. See Legge s Prolegomena to Mencius, chap. iii. Mo Tzu in his doctrine of universal love went too far, i.e. he went
B.C.,

Yang Chu and Mo Ti were

jeyond the Mean, while
;he
3

Yang Tzu

in

his

egoism did not come up to

Mean.
See above.

300

PHILOSOPHY
is

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
it

beginning
instance,

wholly good, but very early
for pleasure

becomes clouded

by the desire

and shrinking from pain.

For

violence
:

and robbery
is

are the reversal of the

solicitous inind

this

a case of

man

himself reversing

the Divine Law.

Huo Sun
can
Is
it it

asked

:

If it

is

a reversal of Divine Law, how

be said that good and evil are both Divine Law? not that the wickedness of violence and robbery
;

originally issued from the feeling* of shame and hatred that lust and eovetousness originally issued from the and that bo/!h became wrong by feeling of solicitude
;

excess, but that in their issue at the beginning they were

both Divine

Law

?

Answer. This statement of the problem is also good. But with reference to what is called reversal, in the Four
Terminals themselves there are mutual contrasts for of shame and hatred is the opposite example, the feeling
;

of solicitude, the sense of right and wrong is the opposite of the feeling of modesty and humility. What you say is also a good interpretation, and from it I now see the meaning of a former stateiment of yours which I could

not understand.

You

said,

"In

the exercise of

human

reject the disingenuous, in the exercise of human courage reject the tyrannical." In these two sentences I could follow your meaning. But when you said, In

wisdom

"

I could the exercise of human love reject eovetousness, when not understand you. Now, however, you say that eovetousness originally issues from the feeling of love, what you said then becomes clear and is also right. When
"

one

s

thought dwells upon

it,

how easy

it

seems for the

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
perfectly

301

good

man

to contract

the faults of carelessness

ind indulgence, leniency and covetousness.
16.

Chi Jung
"

Fu

asked

:

What

is

the

meaning

of the

tatement,

To

Accord with
is

Law

pertains to the thing

ono

Righteousness Answer. The phrase,
;

in the
"

heart" ?

To

accord with

Law,"
"

applies

done in accordance with Law, Righteous is that by which we are able to do it in aceordanqe ess dth Law. Righteousness implies choice and rejection, he Commentary on fk& Yi 1 says: the thing
3

the thing as
"

"In.

jself it is

Law, in the management! of the thing

it

is

righteousness."

(FIVE SECTIONS FKOM THE
1.

"COLLECTED WRITINGS".)

All in
is

me

ave to do
ale,
j
r

that is not the body is not to allow the body and

Law.
its

What
Law.

I

passions to
It

and see

to it that they wholly follow this

not that outside
e call

Law.

To

my person there is another entity which drift into some side course is not what
(Reply to Lii Tzu Yo.)
2
"

an be called attaining.
2.
o,"

The saying, By the art of Meditation to enter 3 means that when thought reaches the point that
is
is

stream
T

cut

off,

Divine

Law

is

perfectly manifested.
;

his

b.e

True thought IS Divine Law! again continuous flow and operation are nothing else than How can it be that manifestation of Divine Law.
incorrect.

e are to wait till the
1

stream of thought
2

is

cut

off

before

By Ch

eng

I.

See

p. 207, n. 3.

3

Referring to the Buddhist Meditation Trance.

302
Divine
we,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Law
is

manifested

?

Moreover, what
Love,

is this

that

call

Divine

Law

?

Are not
Divine

Reverence,

and Wisdom,

Law

?

Righteousness, Are not the

-ffl

relationships of sovereign and minister, father and son, elder and younger brother, husband and wife, friend and
friend, Divine

I

j

Divine
cut

Law ? If the Buddhist really apprehends Law, why must he act contrary to and confuse,

^
;*.

off, and destroy all these, beclouding his own mind, and losing his true knowledge of himself ? (Reply to

^
j

Wu
3.

Ton. Jtfan.)

say: "For the Buddhist, apart from the one no Intelligence, there are no distinctions ;for him phenomena k

You

have no existence. For us Confucianists, of all phenomena there are none which are not Divine Law." This state-

-m
;k

ment

is correct,

but

for

us

Confucianists
Intelligence.

also, these ^

distinctions are not apart

from

But within

con

this Intelligence there are the differences of height and

;ln

depth as of heaven and earth, and the infinite variety oi i tilings, of all which, not even the smallest hair can be
changed. Divine
"

ITi

This
social

is

exactly expressed in the expressions, ^
"

(arrangements,"

Divine

social
"Divine

dis

tinctions,"

"Divine

Appointments,"

and

re

tribution." 1

(Reply to Chan Chien Shan.)
subtle
is

Law, the most manifest i phenomenon the substance and operation have source the manifestation and the subtle principle ar
4.
; ;

The most

on<

tot

inseparable.

operation

is

For from the point of view of Law thf latent in the substance, which is what is mean
1

Shu Ching,

p. 73.

PHILOSOPHY
"

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

303

From tlie point of view of the subtle phenomenon, the principle cannot be outside the
iy

one

source".

nanifestation,

which

js

what

is

meant by

"

inseparable

".

Reply
5.

to

,Wang Shang Shu.)

Divine

hat

it is called

Law is all-comprehensive but the very fact Law implies the existence of ramifications.
;

of which it consists, Love, and Wisdom, have in the nature Righteousness, Reverence, the case each its own principle, and there is no conPherefore

the

four

virtues

>f

usion between them.
lot

Before their manifestation

we do

see any clue to their character and are not able to [escribe them as any one particular law therefore we It is not that within ise the term all -comprehensive.
;

he comprehensive there are no distinctions, and that subequently Love,
*>me

Righteousness,

Reverence, and

Wisdom

into existence one aften the other, as four visible

hings. You must bear in mind that Divine Law is simply ho general term for Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and (Visdorn, and that these four are the several component
xrinciples of

Divine Law.

(Reply to

Ho Shu

Ching.)

VIRTUE.
(FIVE SECTIONS FROM THE
1.
"CONVERSATIONS".)

The

Doctr.ine

of

the

Mean
when
"the

tween Moral
relationships

Law and
as
"the

Virtue

it

distinguishes be speaks of the five

universal
as

Moral

Law

"/

and

of
2

Wisdom, Love, and Courage
1

universal
2

Virtues".

D.M.,

p. 270.

Ibid., p. 271.

304

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

The sovereign has the Moral Law of the sovereign, the minister that of the minister, and Virtue is the practice
of Moral Law. Therefore the sovereign is ruled by love, the minister by seriousness, and love and seriousness should be termed Virtue and not Moral Law.
2.

In the expressions
1

"

perfect Virtue

"

and

"

perfect

Moral Law is that which is followed by men in common. Virtue is that which the individual all, receives for himself alone. Of the expressions complete 2 virtue" and is what virtue "supreme goodness", complete the person receives, 3 supreme goodness is what the person Of the terms sincerity, ingenuousness, attains to. 4 and truth, singleness of mind is what we call honesty, complete self-expression is what we call sincerity,
Moral
Law",
"

ingenuousness

;

as

it

is

in the heart
it is

it

is

honesty, as

manifested in objective fact
3.

truth.

Virtue

is

what we obtain from Heaven; when by
obtain the very thing that pertains

study
to

we obtain it, we our own duty.
To
serve

4.

to
1

serve one s parents is the virtue of filial piety one s elders is the virtue of fraternal respect.
>

Ibid., p. 286.

2
"

G.L., p. 227.

3

There

is

a play on the word
"

virtue
"

"

here.

In Chinese

"

it is

te

",

and the word
"

to receive

"

is

also

te

",

different ideographs

but the
,

same sound. The allusion is to a sentence in the Li CM |^ Virtue means realization in oneself see Li Ki, vol. ii, p. 95, and Legge
"

^^^
;

;

s

note.
is hardly distinguishable from Ch eng see (jpjj), sincerity 199 and note on p. 200. The word honesty is here adopted to distinguish from sincerity occurring just before, but of course in its older sense of true-heartedness Cf. p. 431.
4

Fu

(Jfc)
p.

Yi Ching,

"

"

"

"

"

".

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
/irtue
is

305

what is received into the heart. Before serving parents and following one s elder brother, to already )0ssess a perfectly filial and fraternal mind this is what ve term Virtue.

me

s

:

5

.

he
told

The Master asked Literary Remains*
the Divine
2

:

How do you regard the section in
which
says,
"If

we wish
"

to
?i

Law

firjmljy,

the secret lies in Virtue
of

Pi Ta

replied:

The Doctrine

the

Only by perfect virtue can the perfect Moral,
ealized."
3

Mean say^ Law be

r

The Master remained silent for some time, until Pi Ta isked him what he thought, when he replied This also is
:

orrect, but

you are only quoting.

What

really is Virtue ?

It is simply this ethical principle. When by we and it into translate conduct, and show tudy practice it is our own certain possession, then we are able to? [hat

Pi Ta.

preserve

and not
Hsi.

to lose

it.

Chu
I

How

do

you

explain

the

sentence
"

:

[Ordinarily you may Pi Ta replied by quoting Heng Ch ii s explanation of rirtue as guarding whatever moral principle we receive
?
"

see the evidence of it in Virtue

n the proportion in which we receive

it

".

Chu
i

Hsi.

You must

receive it before
still

you can guard
".

it.

According to this explanation you
is

thorough understanding of the word
:

"Virtue

have not acquired More-

>ver

you say simply principle"; but ou must be continually watchful, and make the principle
"It

this ethical

1 2 3

The Literary Remains of the Brothers Ch eng, by See p. 295. D.M., p. 286.

Chu

Hsi.

306

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
is

which

you such that action is certain to be in accord ance with it. For example., when sitting in meditation alone before serving my parents and my sovereign, and! before holding intercourse with my friends, there must already be in me the perfectly filial and fraternal, loyal and faithful disposition, which so inspires my conduct that
in

parents I cannot bo othjer than filial in serving my sovereign I cannot be other than loyal, in intercourse with friends I cannot be other than faithful,
in serving

my

,

and this .spontaneously
preparation
Virtue,
2
"

1
"-

without waiting for special For as cherished in the heart it is called
1

"

says

is called conduct. The Y* In the noble man his conduct is the fruit of his 3 completed virtue," which expresses exactly the idea that

as seen in action it

:

Virtue

is

seen in

all

kinds of action.

perfected in me, it is as though there who of necessity is filial and fraternal, loyal and faithful, and would not in any wise do anything that is not filial

When Virtue is were a man in me,

and
one.

fraternal, lioyal
s

and

faithful,.

It is

something
this

like

the Taoist

idea of nurturing a child into existence within

will in

Everything pertaining to no wise consent to let
"

human

desire,

man
it
is

me

do.

Theirefore

of the study of them by silent and the meditation, securing of the faith of others with out the use of words, depended on their virtuous conduct." 4 What this means is Although as yet it is not expressed

said

:

The completion

:

1

See

p.

297 and

n. 1.

2

Though not yet put
Yi CUng,
p. 416.

into practice,

if it is

received into the heart,

it is

Virtue.
3

4

Ibid., p. 378.

PHILOSOPHY

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
thjis

307

which there must be watchfulness, concern, and nurture. The reason why there must be such nurture is to guard against any break. Ch eng Tzu s statement that we must secure that faith of others in us which will be independent of words means that before speech or action there is already this
1 perfectly virtuous "man" in me, but without as yet any It is hard Therefore it is said!, visible manifestation.
"

in words, yet being cherished in the heart, conduct is already determined upon, after

kind of

to picture

it

in

words."
1

See above.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE
BOOK VI
BEING BOOK XLVII OF

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF CHU HSI

LOVE

I
ex;

I
to

BOOK VI
LOVE
(FORTY-NINE SECTIONS FROM THE
1.
-

CONVERSATIONS".)

Some one asked
inactive,

md
does

Answer.
not

Is Truth the all -comprehensive and Love the flowing forth of Law ? From the point of view of the Nature Love
:

forth either, 1 but its energy-producing irinciple includes the four cardinal virtues.

flow

2.

It

is

after

we

Ji,ave

received! this Vital Impul.se, 2

,nd are thereby in possession

of

life,

that

we have
1

From Reverence, Wisdom, Righteousness, and Sincerity. of view of priority Love is first, from the point |the point of view of greatness Love is greatest.
1

To-day we shall endeavour to understand what is the meaning of the word "Love". The saints and sages one it one in expounded frequently, way and another in Their use of words and the meanings attached janother. to them differ, hut when we have definitely ascertained
1

3.

[what the

lleoted together
1

meaning is in each case, and when we have and carefully examined their statements
differ

That

is,

Love does not

from Truth, so

far as flowing forth is

concerned.

The Vital Impulse is Love (fc), the parent of all the virtues, as is repeatedly taught throughout Book VI ; cf. especially pp. 314, 315, 316. See also J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. xiii.

312

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
we
shall find that

scattered as they are like the stars
this is the invariable interpretation,,

and that it is every In the definition of Love as where consistent. The virtue of mind of the the and which affection, principle
"

",

is

given

in

the

Collected
is

Comments, 1
;

affection
is

is

solicitude,

and solicitude
"The

Feeling

its

principle

Love.

In the phrase,
is

virtue of the

inind,"

virtue, again,

why Love is caUed mind is that it is the source of affection. The two elements which make man to be man are Law, which is the Law of Heaven and Earth, and Ether, which! is the Ether of Heaven and Earth. Law is without traces and invisible, so that it is only in the Ether that we can ses it, and if we would understand the meaning of Love,,
simply
affection, because the reason

the virtue of the

we must

think of it as manifested in an all-comprehensive,, 2 and This Ether is the positive spring mild, gentle Ether. time Ether of Heaven and Earth, its Law is the life-praIf now we turn to ducing Mind of Heaven and Earth. man s own personality and suppose him to possess this Law, what do we find ? The moment he possesses it he is 3 good in precisely the same way, and free from drought in the same way, as Heaven and Earth. 4 If we examine the
1

A work compiled by Chu Hsi

;

^

(at)

=

the emotion love

;

(

jen)

=

the dispostion love. 2 Jin (Love) is a principal or law and purely immaterial, but Law can hence the only be discerned in the Ether as its medium of manifestation meaning of each of the four nature-principles is seen in the Ether, which
;

in the case of Jen
3 JlSi

is all -comprehensive,
i>e

mild,

and

gentle.

=

t ^ 1U3

-

man

exhibits the

same

characteristics as

Heaven

and Earth.
*
"

Drought," i.e.

the opposite of

"

life-producing

".

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
we

313

lany passages in which the saints and gages discuss Love find that they alii have the same meaning. Confucius
it to

^described
jof self, is

Yen

"

Tzii as
1

|return to right

principle".

The mastery of self and the To master,, and BO get rid
It is not
;

obviously this very idea.

something

in every one it jthat must be arranged for the occasion is from birth a perfect, all -pervading! thing. This who no man has selfish element the separate (principle
;

|is upon other men as one with himself, he looks upon lower creatures as one with himself. When the altruistic principle has free course, there cannot but

ruled by

it

looks

jbe

this

Jdnd of outlook.

The

disciples

of

Confucius
;

inquired only as to

!

what wo should do to practise Love as to what Love is in itself they all know already. Modern how scholars on the other hand are ignorant of what it is
;

then can they speak of practising it ? Consider further the Master Ch eng s statement, "In the narrow sense it

but one, in the comprehensive sense it includes the four." The statement above this: "The Principle of
is

Origin, of the Four Attributes, corresponds to Love in the Five Cardinal Virtues," seems -to imply that there
is

a great Love and a small Love.

What Ch eng

Tz;i

speaks of as love "in the narrow sense" is the small What he Love, which is simply the one thing, Love. of is ithe as love "in the sense, speaks comprehensive
1
"

great Love, and includes Reverence, Righteousness, and When described in this Wisdom, in addition to Love.

way we

are apt to think there are two kinds of Love, for getting that Love is only one. Although we speak of
1

Analects, XII,

i,

1 (p.

114).

314
it

PHILOSOPHY
it

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
many
principles are in

in the narrow sense, all these
;

cluded in

sense

it is

and when we speak of it in the comprehensive still these principles which are included in it.
:

when

Is it not like the spring, the season; are born, which already enfolds within it the things of summer, the fruitage of autumn, and the storage growth
?

Chih Tao said

of winter

Answer. The spring is the season when things are born. In summer, autumn, and winter there is still the same ether flowing onward but in spring we have the idea of the new-born burst of glory. In the summer, after the fruit becomes fixed, this Vital Impulse gradually be comes old.
;

Huo Sun

said

:

We

can certainly recognize the mild
if

and gentle ether as Love, and

consider it ais including there is refinement, the the four virtues, then naturally sense of obligation, and clear discrimination.

we

Answer.
4.

Yes.
penetrates, whatever

Whenever and wherever Love
be

should be Righteous will should be Reverence or

Righteous,
will

and whatever

Wisdom

be Reverence or

Wisdom.

Consider, also, the storing operations through out the universe how can there be any cessation of them ?
:

All have the Vital Impulse latent in them. Just as seeds or peach and apricot kernels, if sown, will spring into life, and are not dead things which accounts for the use of the

word jen as the name for a kernel 1
1

so

we

see all

A

play on the word jen
".

(),

"

Love,"

of

which a secondary meaning

"

is

kernel

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
|7ital

315

fhings possessed of this Vital Impulse. Thus spring is the Impulse itself; summer is the production of things in in the

shear profusion;

autumn we
;

gradually gathering itself in itored in ;the storehouse.
I

Impulse and in the winter we see it

see this Vital

The Philosopher further said Spring and summer are progression, autumn and winter are the retrocession
:

;

ust as in breathing, when exhaled the breath rhen inhaled it is cold.
5. It is

is

warm,

manifest that we should

*

use our efforts in

all

dnds of virtuous conduct, but how are we to ascertain rhat they are ? All kinds of virtuous conduct are summed
ip
r

in the Five Cardinal Virtues, and the Five Cardinal

irtues are

ind

summed up in Love. Therefore Confucius Mencius simply taught men to seek Love. To seek is to make seriousness the ruling principle, and thus
If

to

seek the lost mind.

we can do

this

we

shall

have

Found the truth.
6. Some one asked an explanation of the statement To preserve the mind this is Love." Answer. To preserve the mind we must not be over come by selfish desire, we must apply ourselves with snergy to everything we meet with requiring our attention.
:
"

must not allow ourselves to be led away by external If we lings, but keep an extremely watchful guard.
e
affairs,
rget,

r

mtinually preserve our minds, then, in dealing with all although we may not hit the centre of the
"

we

shall not be far

from

2
it."

Anxious thought
2

=

ig

}

ought."

D.M.,

p. 234.

316

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
to pre!&i

and inward distraction are because we are unable
servo the mind.

When we
what we
not

are unable to see

preserve the mind, welf to see, or hear what we ^ ought
fail to

ought

to hear.

Question. seriousness

Does
?

the

secret

of

it

all

lie

in

Answer.

Seriousness

is

not a separate thing,

it is

con

stantly to stir

up

the mind.

People

l

fly

through the days
appears;

and never stop
to
is
it.

to collect their minds.

The Philosopher

said further

:

Although Love

have the quality of strength and directness, it really a mild and gentle tiling. But in its operation;
manifests several phases
;

there

must be moral

insight

and judgment, these three, before the deed jod! Love is complete. But when the deed is done, these three retire and Love remains mild and gentle, because its original nature is such. Men only see the moral insight, but to say that these are the refinement, and judgment fundamental qualities of man is wrong. Spring is essentially mild and gentle, and therefore gives birth to thing s this is why we say that Love is the spring.
courtesy,
;
:

7.

serve the

Some one asked mind this is
This
"

a

bout the statement

:

"To

pre
the

Love."

Answer.

sentence

sentence following,

very good, but If a thing is in harmony
is
it,"

in
-wilfch

the

mind do

it,

if

not, then do not do

thei

writer 1ms

digressed, and is treating of what pertains to Righteous ness and not Love. Moreover, we need only to take
1

fl :$

Giles gives the

meaning as

"

to

swoop down

like a

hawk

".

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
encius statement,
ess is
"

317
-

Love
1

is

man s mind and
For
"

Righteous
is

man

s

path,"

in

order to

see the difference

tween Love and Righteousness.
tue of the

Love

the

when we preserve the mind there be nothing but Love. For example, when the sage aks of The mastery of self and the return to right 2 he simply means that when we have put inciplei", ry selfish desires the mind will be continually premind
"

;

"

When ed, and is not at this point speaking of conduct. ou say, If a thing is in harmony with the mind, do it/ ou have stepped over the boundary and trenched upon the ound covered by the phrase, "Righteousness is man s
"

th."

But the

ability to practise Righteousness

e operation of

Love.

is by The student must constantly pre-

erve his mind, then he will be able to estimate both the

enomenon that presents itself and the law it embodies, d so do what he ought to do. This is the teaching of
1

nfucius

and Mencius.
first
;

Therefore

we must put
all

the

ursuit of Love
e
t,

for

Love

is

the source of

laws,

foundation of

we must
The
is

first

phenomena, and we must first know then we shall preserve and nourish it
all
:

ave the point d appui.
8.

virtue of the ear is alertness, the virtue of t|ha

is Love. Think and them. study meaning Take the expression, The principle of affection," and study and consider it with respect to your own mind, and you. will see what Love is.

clearness, the virtue of the

mind

er the

of these statements
"

1

Mencius,

p. 290.

2

Analects, XII,

i,

1 (p.

114).

318

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
is

Love

mild and gentle, soft and yielding.

Lao

Tzii

soft and yielding belong to the class of living said, things, the strong, and hard belong to the inanimate." This represents the idea, of Love. How could you sow
"The

seed upon stone ? Gentle like the mildness of spring These are the Buoyant like the richness of new wine
!
!

true similitudes of Love.
is received from Heaven at the beginning is simply and is therefore the complete substance of the Mind. Love, But Love branches out into .four divisions the first division is thq Love of LOVE,, the second is the
:

What

Righteousness of LOVE, the third is the Reverence of LOVE, and the fourth is the Wisdom of LOVE one sub
stance with four

members united under the headship
contains
these
four, and

of
all

LOVE. The Mind

only things and all events proceed from them. The different characteristics of heaven s four seasons
are very manifest.

summer they grow,
seasons
the

The spring gives birth to things in autumn they are reaped, and
;

in
in

winter they are stored.
Vital

But, although divided into four Impulse runs through them all; even

in the severity of frost and

snow there

is still

the Vi lal

Impulse.

Love in terms of life we are going we need to recognize the purpose of| Heaven and Earth in giving me birth.
define
;

When we

back a stage

but

Note anything which is hard, such as a block of stone: whatever it comes to be it will! be lacking in Love.

Note what takes place when there is a mild and gentle, filial piety and soft and yielding spirit by this come
"

:

PHILOSOPHY
jase of

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
j

319
In the

ratcrnal submission, the foundation of

Love".^

the block of stone you can neither sow seed in it You can see the idea in the prolor reap fruit from it.
"

bial

expression:

A

hard

heart";

when

a

man

is

lard .hearted, how can you talk with him ? In each of the expressions, solicitude, conscientiousness,
,ourtesy,

and moral

insight, there
"

is

a combination of the
"

combines the word Solicitude neanings of two words. which initial with is the "distress which word, grief
1

",

",

neans
*

"

pain

;

conscientiousness

meaning shame at my hatred meaning hatred of wickedness in others combines the word humility", having refer courtesy ence to myself, with "complaisance", having reference
shame",
",

combines the word own wickedness, 2 with
"

;

"

"

o others

;

the expression
as

"moral

As soon
fore

Love

exists it

3 insight/ explains itself. there produces [Reverence
;

spring*, and Reverence to the summer. Righteousness represents decision and restraint, ind when you obtain Wisdom you reach the end therefore Righteousness and Wisdom answer to autumn and winter.

Love answers to the

;

;o

When, having thus clearly understood Love, we com practise it, we must "master self anid return to right? 4 "When we go abroad we must behave to mncipLe".
1 2
"

Analects, I, ii, 2 (p. The sense of the
s

3).

shame which we usually
"

call

conscience

"

;]

see

Faber
3

Mind
>

of Mencius, p. 114.
"

:>f

ri g nt and wrong," or 7lk ^P h t. discrimination between them, which is
:

true

and
"

false

",

with the idea

"

moral insight
(see

".

Faber

calls

(here translated
p.

"

wisdom
"

"

")

Moral Knowledge

Mind of Mencius,
wisdom,

98).
4

Legge also says, It will be seen how to ^jj, (Mencius) gives a moral sense." See Mencius, p.
Analects, XII,
i,

knowledge*,
79, note.

1 (p.

114).

320

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE
if

everyone as

we were receiving an honoured
1

guest,

we

must employ people and we must not do
done to
9.
ourselves."
1

as if assisting at a great sacrifice, to others what we would not wish

This

is

to practise Love.

Cliou

Ming Tso asked about
The
saints

Love.
their discourse

Answer.

and sages in
;

some

times referred to the essential principle, as in the sentence, 2 "Love is man s Mind" and at other times referred to
the practice of Love as in the sentence,
"

To master

self

and

return to right
10.

principle."

Love
;

is

spontaneous,

reciprocity

is

produced
;

voluntarily Love is natural, reciprocity is by effort Love is uncalculating, and has nothing in view, 3 reciprocity is
calculating
11.

and has an object before

it.

earlier philosophers, in teaching men to seek Love, spoke only of its profound depth, its mildness and

The

purity, including all ethical principles.
12.

Love

is

the principle of Love

the principle of affection, and altruism is therefore, if there is altruism there is
;

Love, and
13.
is

if there is

Love there
:

is affection.

Chou Ming Tso

To be

cleansed from selfish desire

Love.

Answer. To say that when we are cleansed from selfish Love in its substance is manifested, is allowable; but you must not say that to be freed from selfish desire is Love. For example, the light of the sun and mooiu
desire
1
3

Ibid.,

XII,

ii

(p. 115).

2

Mencius, p. 290.

f$u

HI

)Ht

=

a visible object facing one.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

321

i

yhen covered by clouds and mist is invisible, but you puld not point to the disappearance of the clouds and and say that that is the sun or rnoon. And so water, jaist
irhen

mixed with sand and

stone, is certainly not in its

Jriginal condition, but when you have removed the sand nd stone and have nothing but water left, you do not Bay

bat the absence of the
14.

sand and stone
said
:

is

the water.
of selfish desire

Yu Cheng Shu
To say
is

The absence

Love.

Answer.
avo Love
esire is
)lfish

that

when

selfish desire is

absent

we

allowable, but to say that the absence of selfish Love is incorrect. For it is simply that when
is

desire
is

absent

Love

is

made

hen there

nothin

to choke the channel water

manifest, just as can flow

Fang Shu 1 said To be one with
:

all

things in the universe
to

Love.

Answer.
ove
:ter
;

The absence

of selfishness is antecedent

to be one with all things in the universe

Love.
;

Let there be no selfishness
things in the universe.
to

comes and Love will
one-<

How
3ss

let there
all

be Love and there will follow the
(It is

with

important to
all
is

Lstinguish between the two.)
Ike ?

Whatj after

Love

e

understand the meaning of the term, must consider the three words, Righteousness, ReverIf

we wish

ice,
r

and Wisdom together.

If

we

really

wish to see the
"

pical expression of Love,
self
1

we must

practise
2
".

the mastery

:

and the return to right principle
Fang Shu, a
friend
i,

(Love

as

Li

and pupil

of

Su Tung

P- O, the poet.

2

Analects, XII,

1 (p. 114).

Y

322

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

explained by the modern schools is like sauce which all say is sweet, and yet they have never tasted it, and do not
even

m
|

know what

sort of flavour sweetness is.)
;

The

sages
to

never explained it it simply rested with the learner it in his own person. embody
15.

;^
ifffl

is expressive of breadth, and the entire substance. The words solicitude and represents

The word Love

^

tender affection express
16.

its essential similitude.
is the young sapling, love of the people, and parents,
1

Love
to

is

the root, solicitude
to

while

i3e

"attachment

kindness

other

creatures",

are

its

expansion

in|

f

branches and leaves.
I

fa

17.

Question.

In your

written

reply

to

the

Hul^f

2 school, you, sir, used the word "affection" tc Love what was your meaning ? explain Answer. It was because Shang Ts ai 3 laid too muolj, |J stress on the word Consciousness", and so he borderec on the Meditation doctrine.

Hsiang

;

!

"

"

"

Question.
"

Kuei
",

solicitude

Shan, did he not

4

however,
?

analysed

the

terr

1

2 3

Mencius, p. 352. See p. 28, n. 4.

Hsieh Liang Tso

(jpjj

J^

),

style

Hsien Tao (jgj

jjfQ,

a nati

Shang Ts ai (Jh. ^), in Honan. His literary name was Shang Ts from the name of his birthplace. He studied under both the brotht Ch eng, and himself established a school called the Shang Ts ai School
of
"

but an earnest student with phenomenal memory. See f Cf. pp. 348-9 of this volume. flj , pt. xv, f. 2 Iff.
*

jfc

^,

pt. xxi
:

See

p. 26, n. 1.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.

323
is

Kuei Shan
etc.,"

s

statement

"

:

The universe

one
?

ith myself,

is

also too wide.

Question.

Does

tins refer to the substance of

Love

Answer.
ove.

It is not the
it is true,

Love,

)nsciousnass is

Love

is

substance but the capacity of has consciousness, but to say. that) not correct. It is also true tjha C

ove can be one with the universe, but to call oneness ith the universe Love is not correct. For example, in

Deaking of a room, without discussing whether :e made of wood or its partitions of bamboo,
so large,
it

its pillars

we say

it

contains

many

things.
it

So with

the phrase,

oneness
ipacity

with the
of

universe,"

Love.

(From

the

simply expresses the mention of the word
"Capacity.".)

Meditation"

arose the subject of

Question. ove as "Consciousness". 1
jgree

18.

Scholars of the

Ch eng!

school explained

The

Ke

Chai Chi 2 doee not
?

with

it.

What

is

your opinion

1 In the Literary Remains Ch eng Ming Tao is recorded as saying, In medical books a hand or foot which is numb is said to be ^ it. without love ) and from this he draws an illustration of Love, ; or Love is the recognition of all things as one with myself, while the ick of love means that I am unconscious of any connexion of other things ith myself, as in the case of the hand or foot when it is paralysed or numb ;

^

"

:

e
ess
I

^
"

^,

pt.

ii,

A,

f.

2.

This
of

is
"

what
"

is

meant by the
"

"Conscious-

theory.

The absence

consciousness
;

in this sense, is the

non-recognition of ethical principle
still

see pp. 332-3.
"

The analogy
(^ij
|jj;),

is

|lsewhere
[he

further applied to the term

solicitude

"

one of

Four Terminals or Feelings, corresponding to Love (fc) as one of the rour Principles. The two characters ts e and yin (||f;) mean pain (*[jji]) r and distress When a limb is numb it is insensible to pity and there is no feeling of and is therefore said to distress pain
"

*

"

"

"

".

"

"

",

>e

/

fc (without Love),

just as in the ethical sphere to lack

"

solicitude

"

324

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

Answer. Love cannot be separated from affection. The if ^ Shang Ts ai school all reject affection as the explanation of a( Love. They had regard to I Ch uan s statement Love is a principle a Universal affection is not Love. 1
of the Nature, 2 affection,
is Feeling".

But

I

Ch

iian did
L

E

not say that affection is not Love. If anyone had asked him the question, he would certainly have said M Affection is the feeling of Love, and Love is the
:

S

J

of principle the matter.

3

affection."

In
is

this

way we can understand
"^

The pity
",

tha,t

those of this school have

taken hold of that one idea, and so explain Love wholly Consciousness to the detriment, it would seem, of hy its true explanation in terms of the emotion love. As
"

-

a
is

consequence

of

this,

having

passed

over

the

true

Tzu

to be lacking in the manifestation of Love (tl). A section of Ch en s disciples, led by Hsieh Shang Ts ai (cf. p. 322), gave an excessiv

,

M

emphasis to this explanation, excluding the idea of "affection" ($j^l ?% from the term Love and so restricting the latter to the idea c 1;
" "

(),

"

consciousness
2

".

See
"

p.

368.

They became a separate
".

school,

di;

tinguished

by the

Consciousness Theory

The

writings of Shih
of

Tzu Chung (fa ~p l|), a
office at

disciple of

Chu

H

a native
first

Tai Chou, and at one time in

T ung An, where Chu H
gf ), the name
Yiian
itH ufj
T<

held

office.

His literary name was
of

Ke
s

Chai (l]

his
1

home.

A

direct contradiction

Han

Yii

statement in the
Love"

iHn that /
sl

"universal

affection

is

fM
\ ITTT

$& ^^

^C^
3>

f~ 1_
lana

interpreted jen (fcj in terms of ai (Zjz) like other scholars w preceded the two Ch engs ; but the latter philosophers maintained th

Han Yii

-:

the word could not be explained simply in terms of ai is its basal idea. See p. 362.
2

(

^),
tlie
>

although

tl

Love, Righteousness,
Lit.

etc.,

are called the

J, tt

nve natu

;

principles.
3

nature or nature -principle.

PHILOSOPHY
pplication
efinition of

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
passage,
"When

325

of

the

word

"Love"

they have no proper
people see

it to give.

The

child about to fall inijo a well, they; will all without
* xception experience a feeling of alarm and distress," ears on this closely. The saints and sages in expounding

ove

all start

Question.
napulse
?

from this passage. Docs not consciousness

also have the Vital

Certainly, but to explain Love in terms of Consciousness pertains more Dnsciousness is too cold.

Answer.

)

intellect,

and only in a small degree to Love. LOVOJS f Jiarmony. But to add another sentence would You must study it for yourself and you repetition.
get the meaning.

ill

19.

The Hunan

school 2 in their

exposition

of

Love

many years, been in the habit of ropounding a speculative theory without any foundation I saw recently that Wang Jih Hsiu, in explaining it.
ave all of them, for
>r

[encius,

said,

"The

.Ch

i

Lin

is

a

lion."

3

Love

is

jsentially solicitous,

mild, and generous, but, as described

y them fictitious notions are imported into it, and the lea of fierceness is added as if it actually had beetling rows and glaring eyes. It is just like Wang Jih Hsiu s
1

,

ying that the Ch
armless
creature
inds of beasts.

i

Lin

the

a lion, attributing to this appearance; of one devouring all
is

All this proceeds from the use of the word consciousness". (The Ch i Lin did not eat raw flesh or
1

2
3

Mencius, p. 78. See p. 175, n. 7.

The

"

Ch
it

.nd

which

i Lin is a fabulous animal said to be a species of would be utterly incongruous to speak of as a lion
"
"

giraffe,

".

326

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

raw vegetable, while the lion, as soon as it hears the sound of any beast, seizes it and tears it to pieces.)
20.

As
"

the

in the narrow
as the

principle of affection" Love is referred to sense of one of the four nature-principles
;

cf

virtue of the

mind"

it is

referred to in the

com

1 Therefore, prehensive senso as including all the four. four virtues are all virtues of the speaking collectively

the mind,
severally,

but Love

is

the

ruling

virtue;

speaking

Love
the

ness

is

the principle of affection, Righteous Reverence is obligation, principle of
is
;

the principle of respectfulness and courtesy and is the principle of moral discrimination.

Wisdom

The statement, Love regards Love as divided
21.
"

is

into

the principle of affection," four. Love is the
for

principle creatures

of
is

affection

;

affection

men
this

or for other
principle.

the

manifestation

of

Righteousness is the principle of obligation, Reverence is the principle of respectfulness, Wisdom is the principle
of moral discrimination.

Principles are invisible

:

it

is

from affection, the sense of obligation, respectfulness, and moral insight, that we know that there are the principles Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom in the mind But this what are termed the virtues of tlhe mind. is in its of to include the four virtues Love thus ability pervading operation, what is called, preserving in union
"

the conditions of great harmony." 2 "Love of life. To be without Love is to be dead.

is

Man

a principle is never
;

without Love,
1

it is

simply clouded by
2

selfish desire
Ching, p. 213.

when

See

p. 312.

r

PHILOSOPHY
le "masters self

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
to right
1

327
is

and returns

principle",

Love

bund to be still present. Chih Ch ing 2 said Selfish desire is not an additional hing, it is simply the mind s perverted condition. Wang Cheng Fu asked The minister Tzu Wen three times took office and throe times retired from office, and the sage could not say that he was actuated by Love 3 but Kuan Chung was pronounced as having Love. 4 Why
:

:

;

was this

?

The thrice taking office and thrice retiring Ansiuer. was a private matter. When Kuan Chung came out, it was really to accomplish a work of Love. For example, one man perishes suddenly where he sits or stands, 5 another
relying on his integrity suffers a violent death for righteous ness sake. Really it is the man who relying on Ms modera
tion, dies for righteousness sake

who

is

counted good, while

the

man who dies where he sits or stan,ds Teaps no benefit. Hwan Ya Fu asked a question about the passage which
life

speaks of sacrificing one s
1

in order to preserve in its

6 completeness, and seeking life at the cost of injuring Love. Answer. The desire for life inevitably means the

heart
1

s

unrest.
i,

If

when
s tyl e

principle

demands death, the
Chu Hsi

Analects, XII,

1 (p. 114).

2

Huang Kan

(^

Chih Ch

^$")>

ing, a disciple of

;

see

p. 246, n. 2.
3

See Analects, V,
Ibid.,

xviii, 1 (p. 43).

xvii (p. 145-6). 5 Referring to the fixed posture of the Buddhist ascetic who remains in that posture until he dies. The point of the argument is in the

4

XIV,

difference
6

between the

altruistic motives,

selfish motives, on the one hand, and the on the other, in the cases cited.

Analects,

XV,

viii (p. 161).

328

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

sacrifice of life is made, then, though, the body dies, the principle abides. Ya Fu said It is important to collect all the passages which refer to Love and study them together. ^Answer. This is indeed a quick ethod, but it is not
:

m

a ,good method. It is best to study the passages in order. Although, sometimes, after you have understood the

meaning of a particular section, it may seem to you as if you have forgotten it, nevertheless, suddenly, as you grasp the meaning of another section, you will find that the idea comes back to you with perfect clearness. 22. Someone asked for an explanation of the sentence.
"Love is

the virtue of the

mind." 1

Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom are all contained in the Mind, while Love is all- comprehensive.
Ansiuer.

Speaking of these separately, Love s special province
affection.

is

Speaking of the other three.
:

them

collectively,

Love includes

Some one asked What is meant by saying that Love has the Vital Impulse ? Answer. It is because of the Vital Impulse that mind is a living thing. There must be this mind 2 before we
can

know humility,

before

we can know

conscientiousness, If the

and before we can know right and wrong.
is

mind

and

not living how can we know humjlity, conscientiousness^ the difference between right and wrong ? Further, it the birth of things in spring when the growing summer comas it is the life that grows, when
:

is like

season of

1

See
"

p. 312.
"

2

This mind

refers to

"

Love

"

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
the fruiting season of
yields fruit,
it is

329

autumn

corners it is

the life that
1

and
that

in.

tho

life

is

consummating season of winter consummated. In the ripening of all
the

kinds of grain, when the process has reached to seven- or eight- tenths of the fruitage, if the root is cut off the life

and not more than the seven- or eight-tenths of the obtained. If the life does not perish the ten are grain tenths may be reached. This is reaped and stored, and
perishes,

but in the following year, if apparently the life ceases The various it be sown, there wiH be the return of life.
;

philosophers of the past have differed in their study of Love. But the modern definition of it as the principle of affection means that in "the mastery of self, and the

return to right principle," 1 we require nothing else than that we should preserve this affection, and that "the

mastery of
itself

self

and return

Love.

"To

make
service

to right principle," is not in friends of the most virtuous

scholar s,

and take
2

great

officers,"

also

means nothing

with the most worthy of the else than that there
It is so

should be a manifestation of this affection.
all

with

the rest. 3

23.

Question.

How do you
and the
is

explain the definition,

"The

principle of affection

virtue of the

mind

4
"?

Answer.

A

principle
is this

in the Nature.

Because in

tlie

Nature there
it is

principle of affection, therefore
is

when
Tzii

manifested there
1

unfailing affection.
114).

Ch eng

Analects, XII,
Ibid.,

i,

1 (p.

2
3

XV,

ix (p. 161).

All the rest of the passages in the Classics

on Love (f~).

4

See above.

330
said
:

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

its life

The mind is Love/ 1

is like

the seed, the nature-principle of
"

of its of

life"

expression "The nature-principle The principle corresponds to the expression

The

affection".

24. In saying that altruism is Love, altruism must not be regarded as parallel to Love. Altruism is simply the absence of selfishness when there is no selfishness Love
;

has free course.
is

near
it,

to

like

the Master Ch eng said "Altruism he did not mean near in the sense of being but when there is altruism Love is present,
it"

When

therefore he used the
"

word

"near".

passage near the
in what
these

To know what
truth"
2

is first

For example, the and what is last is to be
that the truth consists

does not

mean

is first

and what

is last,

but that when we know

we

are near the truth.

Just as when you remove

the

the water flows freely, but the flow of water is not made by the removal of the dam. The water is there
;

dam

as soon as the originally, but dammed up it flows. Love is there originally, but

dam
is

is

removed
off

selfishness

;

when one
said
:

s

selfishness
is

is

by and conquered

cut

removed that which then acts

Love.

Huo Sun

Altruism

is

the substance of Love, and
to do
is

Love is Law. Answer. You need not explain

it

in this way^

:

so is a futile l&ck of discrimination.

What

is

needed

When there is the simply the absence of selfishness. absence of selfishness there is the absence of anything
which beclouds Law.
1

With people

of the present day joy
s.

2

it flf,pt. xviii,f. G.L., p. 221.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
is

331

joy, anger is selfish anger, grief is selfish affection is selfish affection, fear is selfish fear, grief, hatred is selfish hatred, desire is selfish desire. If
selfish

we can master our mind be actuated by
altruistic joy,

selfishness

and

"

with broadness of
1

then joy will be be altruistic anger anger grief, fear, This matter affection, hate, desire will all be altruistic. What Yen Tzil is very important in its consequences.
a high
altruism",

will

;

the mastery learned from the Master was simply that 2 of self and the return to right principle is Love In the
".

"

study of a book one should shun most of all the vice of expounding it according to one s preconceived ideas, and, trying to make the book accord with them, not realizing
that they do not represent the real meaning of what we are reading. ought to make our explanation accord

We
s

with the author

meaning, and
clear

if

in our endeavour

tot

we find that there are obscure meaning with our own ideas. them then compare passages, Hu Wu Peng 3 said: "Man may be lacking in Love, but the mind never." This is most excellently said. Lovei
make
that

may

be hidden by

man

s selfish

desires

and

so rendered

invisible, but

It is like the present in the mind. sun and moon, which are originally bright and clear, and though hidden by the clouds, are still bright and clear or
it is still
;

like water which,

though dammed up by mud and
possesses the flowing nature.

therefore

not flowing,

still

Therefore

1

See See

p. 245.
i,

2
3

Analects, XII,
p. 25, n. 2.

1 (p.

114).

332
"the

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
mastery of
self,

and the return to right principle", 1 is Love only in the sense that when we have conquered! Or it is like a selfish desire we find Love still present. mirror which originally was bright and clear, but because if you wipe away the of the dust has become blurred dust you will find the brightness and clearness still there.
;

26.

Question.
"

In
"

the

Remains"

the

use
is

of

the

pu jen by expression to explain Love. 2 In another paragraph it is stated that the medical school call insensibility to pain "pu jen". 5
Again, unconsciousness, the non-recognition of ethical And yet principle, is regarded as being without Love.
again, the subject

the medical profession

borrowed

Answer. ness with respect
Question. Ts ai * or not
?

explained in tennis of consciousness. is conscious Consciousness Yes, but the
is
"

"

to principle.

Is this in accord

with the teaching of Shang
ai explained in recognizing this stage
;

Answer.
"

No,
"

it

is

different
first

Shang Ts

Consciousness

as the

mind. 5
Question.
1

What do you
i,

think of

Nan Hsien

s

6

statement

Analects, XII,

1 (p. 114).

2
3

it fj,pt.ii,f.2.
"

without love Hsieh Liang Tso, whose literary name was Shang Ts ai; see Jg, Cf. p. 323 of this volume. pt. xxiv, f. 1. 5 this," refers back to g[, principle," That is, the ethical mind jlfc,
Lit.
".

*

^

"

"

;

in

6

Chu Hsi s The literary name
;

preceding answer.
of

Chang Ch

ih

opponent
chap.
iv.

see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

Chu Hsi s friend and (55 Chu Hsi and the Sung School,
J$)>

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
that

333

Shang Ts
"

ai s

account of
"

"

"

consciousness
?

is different

from the Answer.
the

Intelligence

1

of

Buddhism
"

When Shang Ts ai says
he does not
differ

:

It flows forth

from

a great deal from Buddhism. mind," Your statement that consciousness of pain represents the
faculty of consciousness with respect to principle is good, but it is the second stage. For a satisfactory explanation

you must ask How do we know pain ? Where does the 2 Whence does this consciousness pulse come from ?
:

proceed

?

Some one

said

:

If

we do

not discover the source we have

not reached the immaterial principle, but are speaking

only of what is material. Answer. True. The passage in which I
of the nature of the seed-corn
27.
is

Ch uan
3

speaks

very good.

Question.
filled

What
"

is

being

with solicitous

meant by the whole breast mind ? 4
"

Answer.

The word
Does
in
it

breast

refers

simply

to

the

hollow parts of the body.
Question.
solicitous
1

mean

that at birth
?
"

man

possesses the

mind

its

fullness

which is translated above. consciousness The expressions fjjjz and ^J J^ cannot be consistently rendered by one word in English. Sometimes the idea is mere sensation, sometimes fully developed intelligence. Most often it is expressed by the more general term As used by Ming Tao to illustrate Love it is consciousness
as that
" "

The same word

".

"

Consciousness
"

".

"

Intelligence
2
3

is

representing the teaching of the Buddhists the best rendering. Its use by Shang Ts ai hovers

As

between the two.
See p. 342.

^

i

pt.

iii>

f-

7 3

;

see p. 235 of this
cf ibid
-

volume
f-

for translation.

4

31 flh

P1 -

m

f-

P*- vii

l-

334

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
It is so
is

Answer. what I do
is

regarded in the present day.

When

not satisfactory and I feel dissatisfied, this the solicitous mind. Lin Tse Chih 1 once said, "A man
will feel the

as high as seven feet, if he receives a pin prick in his

body

pain."

Question.

Such being the case .with

my

body, will

it

be the same in

my

conduct of
to

affairs ?

2

Answer.
there
is

The response

environment by the Mind
1

is

infinite in its multifaxiousness.

If in every single instance
it is

this solicitous
it is

mind then
,

Love*,; if in

one
still

instance

absent, then
Is

it is

to that extent not Love.

Question.
present
?
3

the

original

mind

in such a case

Answer.
is
it is

Up

1

till
;

now

I have not thought out
to

whether

it

present or not

according

the principle of the thing

present, but not in the particular spot in

feeling of solicitude is lacking.

For example
",

which this Within
"

:

the sea-boundaries all are the king s sen-ants 4 but there is one district where the people do not suibmit to the king s

sway, and rebels set themselves up as princes and rulers. In such a district there is no king and yet the king is You must not say, there, but he cannot be relied upon.
;

howeven
it

"

:

The Divine Law
can
let

is

in some other place and

not here,

5

I

will not
1

matter".

my Wang

selfish desire

have full play and Hsin Po was in a room with

See

p. 12, n. 2.
is, is,

2

3

That That
".

will

in the case

? one minute fault cause pain and distress in one instance the feeling of solicitude where
" "

"

is

absent
4
5

Allusion to Odes, p. 360.
"

Lit.

only

there."

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Fan Po
"

335

Ta, who asked him Ought not a man to regard as in the universe falling within the sphere of everything his Love ? Wang pointed to the window sill and asked
:
"

Fan

"

:

Should the window

fall

Love?"

Fan was
:

silent.

have replied
sphere of

"If

this

To window

within the sphere of one s my thinking he ought to
docs not

come within the
*"

my

Love why do
affairs,

I not smiash it?

If in a

man

every case is dealt with rightly, then every case has come within the sphere of his Love. Take the window for instance to be treated properly, it
s

conduct of

:

should be papered 1 in some part or other, and not be smashed without reason.

When "Love regards all things as one." Question. matters have actually come before us for action, then we have the means of dealing with them but before they are actually present we are not in a position to enter into them.
2
;

What

is your opinion ? Answer. Even when they are not actually present the principle is, and when they are present we deal with them

in accordance with
28.

it.

Question.

How
?

does the solicitous

mind include

the four Terminals

Answer. Solicitude is manifested at the time of the first movement of the mind. Conscientiousness, moral insight, and respectfulness are possible only when solicitude has become active they are seen only in its movement. Take for example the four season^ apart from the vital ether
;

;

1

The window supposed would be one

of lattice-work

covered with thin

paper which has to be renewed from time to time.
2

J

^

,

pt. xiii,

f.

18.

336

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

of things in spring, what growth could there be in summer? What would be reaped in autumn ? Or what would be
stored in winter
?

29. The Principle of Origin is the beginning of the The Yi production of things by Heaven and Earth. Great is of the indicated Yuan, Principle Origin, says
"

:

by Ch ien
"

!

Perfect is

All thing s owe to it their beginning". 1 Yuan, the Principle of Origin, indicated by
it

K un

!

All things owe to

their

birth".

2

From

this

we

learn that the Principle of Origin is the thread running through all stages in the production of things by Heaven

and Earth. Yuan
the

is

development

of

the Vital Impulse, in Heng it becomes the Vital; Impulse, in Li it is its

and in Cheng its completion. It is the same with Love. Love is essentially the Vital Impulse, the feeling of solicitude if this Vital Impulse is wounded, the feeling
fruitage,
;

of solicitude is called forth.

Conscientiousness also
;

is

courtesy is Righteousness Reverencef and moral insight is Love manifesting itself in Wisdom. If a man have not Love how can he have Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom ?

Love manifesting
manifesting

itself in

Love

itself in

;

30.

Question.

Ch eng Tzu

said:

"Love

is

To main

tain inward correctness

outward conduct by be regarded as Love ?

by seriousness, and to regulate 3 How can these righteousness.
".

Answer.

These too are Love.

If

we can

attain to the

perfect cleansing from
1

selfish desire,

and Divine Law have

Yi Ching,

p. 213.

2 3

Ibid., p. 214.

Ibid., p. 420.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
course, all these

337
:

For example Wide learning and earnest purpose, eager inquiry and x or "To ihought with self -application Love is in these" naster self and return to right principle 2 is also Love

may

be termed Love.

;

"

;

go abroad, to behave to everyone as if you were Deceiving an honoured guest, to employ the people as if 3 In private insisting at a great sacrifice," are also Love
"

When you

;

ife

to

>erious,

be sedate, in handling public in intercourse with all to be

business

to
4

be
are

ingenuous,"

ilso

once entered upon, oily let it be followed till the goal of perfection is reached; hen all are equally the paths of Love.
Love.
follow,

Whatever path you

31.

"Probably
5

leld firmly

it is

in every case when the mind cannot be lacking in love." In view of this state:

nent G the question was asked
bf the

The

original

substance

calm, empty and clear, free from the enof even a hair s breadth of selfish desire, in panglernent trhich case the virtue of the mind does not fail to be pre
is

mind

served.
the

The

inability to hold the

mind

firmly

is

the result of

pandering Answer.
j

confusion caused by selfish desire, which means the of the mind, and the perishing of its virtue.

According

to

your statement,

it

is

because
"

pf
|;o

be lacking.
"

the inability to holjd the mind firmly that Love is said But in this instance, the phrase lacking

n Love

means that

it is

because of the lack of Love taa fc

here is the inability to hold the
1
3

mind
2

firmly.
XII, i, 1 (p. 114). XIII, xix (p. 135).
Hsi.

Analects,
Ibid.,

XIX,
ii

vi (p. 205).

Ibid.,
Ibid.,

XII,
,

6

$

(p. 115).
f.

4
6

U

pt. xiii,

17.

By Chu

z

338
32.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Question.

do you explain Chou Tzu s not removing the grass from the front of his window, and the remark that its Vital Impulse was the same as in
himself
? *

How

Answer.
Question.
of
of
fthe a,ss 2

It rwas just that accidentally

he saw what

accorded with his

own impulse. Was Heng Ch u s

reference to the braying
activity.

intended to illustrate the spontaneous

& man s original instinoti ? Answer. Certainly it was so, but he also heard it In the case quoted of the grass according accidentally. with Chou Tzu s own impulse, would not the leaves of a tree also have a likeness to himself ? And in the case pf L the braying of the ass being akin to one s own calling out, would not the neighing of the horse be equally akin ? Question. Was Ch eng Tzu s use of the phenomenon of the production of things by Heaven and Earth the same ? 3
,

a

i

1

:

Answer. He also observed this by accident simply, and then gave utterance to it in order to teach others. But you must not suppose that all you need is to observe the

phenomenon

of the production of things.
"

In observing young chickens we can observe Question. Love." This illustration surely is to the point, express 4 ing as it does the first manifestation of the Vital Impulse.
1

for
2

Refers to an incident in Chou Tzu s an explanation see j^ pt. iii,
;

life,
f.

and
3

his

^

answer to a request
P*. xiii
f>

,

2.

it It,
The
"

P*.

iii, *.

2.
"

it

29

-

tf>

= Love). impulse regarded as a manifestation oijen It represents the instinctive love of life which characterizes all living things, corresponding to the Divine love of life manifested in the love of creating Here there is a further things, as shown in the preceding examples.
4

vital

is

(l

extension of the idea.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
Answer.
It is
their skin that observation, is possible.

339

simply because of the transparency of In the full-grown

)ird it is not that
;he fact

Love could not be observed, except for

that the skin is thick.

33.

Pi

Ta 1

said

:

WhenTziiHou 2 heard of the
was sad

birth of

prince he rejoiced greatly, but

at the sight of

3 starving people eating a meal. Cheng Ch )n this as rejoicing with those that rejoice

un remarked and grieving
"He

vith those that grieve.

Lu Tzu Shou 4
You,
sir,
"

said:

simply
"Have
"

nade the incident a

text."

asked him

:

He answered thought about it thoroughly ? are one in it matter and one in substance hings
;

:

All

is

when

hat which resides in

perfectly altruistic and without goism that there can be the absence of all separating iarriers, and I can rejoice with those that rejoice, and
is

me

grieve

with those that

grieve."

it only represents part of the matter. When Cheng Ch un said this, lie was ndeed using the incident merely as a text, without really

Answer.

That

is

so far true, but

What sort of egoism is there understanding the matter. n earth and wood for instancy ? And yet they have no nion with other things. Man, however, poiss-esses this
aind originally, and therefore, 1 Wu Pi Ta, style Po Feng see Jfl
;

if

he be perfectly
,

altruistic

H

pt. Ixix,

f.

53.

2

Chang Tsai

(JjH
f.

^)>

whose

style

was

Tzii

Hou.

3
4

Jg

fjr, pi. iii,

2.

The second

of the three brothers
s

Lu

Tzii Mei,

Lu Tzu
(j[>

Shou, and

Tzu Ching. Lu Tzu Shou imily home was Chin Ch i (^
ru

The ming was Chiu Ling fft). f) in Fuhkien. He was associated with

is

vere contemporaries

younger brother, Tzu Ching (^p ^), as a teacher of philosophy. Both and opponents of Chu Hsi.

340

PHILOSOPHY

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

and without egoism, all .tilings Mall be under his control, and there will be nothing to come between them and him.
34. Love is latent in the feeding of solicitude) this is Love us substance. 1 When several things are accomplished
:

each action contains
operation.
35.
2

its

own

bit of

Love and

this is its

The

inclusion of the four virtues in Love

is

like

the union of the six ministers under the headship of the Prime Minister.
36.
If thought as soon as it springs up is firmly held, Love but if the thought as soon as it springs up
;

that

is

goes

>astriay,

then

it is

robbed of

its

Love

;

if

when

it

ought
;

to dispense deeds it errs, it is robbed of its Beveren-ce, if when ifc ought to be gathering in it serrs, it is robbed of
its

Piightoousness

;

if

when

it errs, it is

robbed of

its

it ought to be still and at res,t .Wisdom. This principle is present

in everything.

37.

Spring

is

proceed summer, the spring. Therefore Lovei

the beginning of the year. autumn, and winter all
is

From
"born

it

of

said to include the four

But virtues for the simple reason that the four are one. as to three Yuan in Yuan, the principle of Origin, there
are included the principles of Origin, Beauty, Utility, and and conversely the principles of Origin, Potentiality
;

Beauty,
1
*lf*>

Utility,
"

and Potentiality have each

its

Yuan, or

lit

bones

",

as the framework of a thing, or the ribs of a fan.

2

JJ| is equivalent to

^,
"

which

is

an

"

event

"

in contrast to
".

$j

a

"

thing

",

or

"

operation

in contrast to

"

substance

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Drinciple

341

of Origin. If we grasp this idea, the statement hat Love includes the four virtues will be clearer. 38. Question. I

Ch uan

said:

The

Vital Impulse in

ill;

things
?

is

fully capable of observation.

What

is

your

>pinion

ar

Answer. At the beginning of life, when things are not removed from their source, it is certainly easy
;

o observe
>ut

but when branches are formed iand leaves are
it is

forth in their luxuriance,

not easy.

As

in the
solici-

aso of the child falling into the well, the feeling of

ude and alarm
he case of
t is

is

Love in
it

its

elementary stage,
it.

vhen we meet with

we can

easily perceive

and But in

a government dispensing Love" 1 so far-reaching 2 that we cannot see whore the Love is.
"instituting
"

Question. In the In feeling the pulse we
39.

Literary Remains
see

"

it is

said
is."

:

may
who
?

what Love really
it ? 4

3

3oes not this

mean a
Is it the

sincere seeking after

Chu

Hsi.

one

feels

the pulse that repre-

ents Love, or the pulse itself
1

See Mencius,

p. 78.

In the case of solicitude concerning a child who

as fallen into a well, it is easy to watch and analyse the springs of Love, ut in the case of government with its complicated and far-reaching

rganization, often
;

"

masking

its

love

"

in

law and severe punishment,

it

not by any means so easy. 2 Mencius, p. 22.
3

The

origin of the saying

was
"

in

an interview between Ming Tao and

Isieh

Liang Tso.
is."

While

sitting

ulse
eally
4

and Ming Tao remarked,
See

together one was feeling the other s In feeling the pulse we may see what love
1.

jj ^f

,

pt.

iii,

f.

Just as the physician in feeling the pulse

is

intent and sensitive to its

lightest beat.

342

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
The
a,ot

Questioner. Love.

of feeling the pulse represents

Chu
pulse,

Hsi.
1

If that be the case, then,

when

feeling the

we ought

also to cherish the resolve to

embody Love

in practice.

Chu Hsi
opinion of

further asked Fei
jSsii s
3

Ch ing
?

2
:

What
is

is

your

Chung
:

statement

Fei Ch ing

According to

my 4

view

it

the game as

in the case of the

young

chicken.

Chu
Eei

Hsi.

How ?
The young chicken
?

Ch

ing.

Chu
Fei

Hsi.

What

represents Love. about feeling the pulse and embodying
is

Love in practice

the permeating flow of the blood. By feeling the pulse we can perceive Love. Cha Hsi. Yes, it is probably so. The blood pervades the whole body it is so also with the principle of Love.
ing.
1

Ch

The pulse

;

The

Philosopher

further
?

asked

:

How
it

do

young

chickens represent Love Tao Fu 5 said: You,

sir,

onoe said

was because of

the tenderness which characterizes the beginning of their
life.

what
1

Looked at in this way the meaning is some time they drink, they peck their food with perfect self-possession, and as yet have no
Hsi.
clearer, for at this

Chu

That
."

is,

Chu Hsi does not agree with
Love
;

the questioner that

"

feeling the

pulse
2
3

represents

see below.

Surnamed Chu (^). The original questioner.
fg
See

*
5

%

is

Chu Fei Ch

ing.

p. 178, n. 6.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
experience of the alarms pf fighting and raiding. t is that represents Love.
40.
>orrect
.

343
This

s
>f

it is the principle of Love, that Love a principle of flowing movement and the putting forth life, and that it is for this reason that altruism asi em

Question. to say that

With, reference to

jaltruism,

is

it

Dodied in

man
as

is

termed Love

? *

is nob easy to answer. The statement, embodied in man is Love," is somewhat but if we really understand what is meant it, faulty we shall recognize that it is well said. It was on this

Answer.

This

Altruism
;

"by

account that
to
Love."

Ch eng

Tzii also said

:

"Altruism

comes near

For Love belongs
T>irth

to the connotation of the

"man". You possessed it originally, you brought 2 but because of the lack! with you at your 7 of altruism it has been covered up and choked so that it cannot flow forth if you can attain to altruism, Love

word
it

;

will have free course.

It is like the water in

a

dyke,

and clogged by sand and earth, ceases to flow if you can remove the obstructions the water will flow freely. It is not ,that you go outside and bring in fresh water to ihrow into the dyke the water was in the but was impeded by foreign substances* dyke originally
which, obstructed
;

3

;

Remove

the obstruction
"

and the
self

water has free course.

In the saying,
L

To master

and return to right

Cliu Hsi s answer seems to
I

sayings.
following.
!

imply that this passage is from Ch engTzu s have not succeeded in finding either this or the one immediately

fT
?S

=

T *
;

5

5

to obstruct

3

= O a failure of water J$ = Jj| to oppose.
;

344

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
is
1
Love,"

principle

to master self and return to right more than removing- the egoism. If principle nothing we can remove the egmsm Divine Law will, naturally have
is

free course.

It is not that

having mastered
it

self

we

seek

another Divine
it is

said

"

:

implant Altruism comes near to

Law and

within.

Therefore

Love."

Questioner. Altruism is the quality by exercise sympathy and affection. Sympathy
of Love, affection
is

which we can
is

the bestowal

the

outflow

of

the operation of Love. Affection is Love, sympathy extends this feeling of

affection for the object loved, so that it actually reaches

that object.

Is it not so

?

Answer.
in

What you say is not
If

incorrect, but
so<

your

defini

tions are not related to each other, arid

them

to excite interest.
it

way what would no progress is made is
in this

there is nothing were only studied philosophy ? The reason why; accomplish

phenomena no

just because interest is excited.

in

the

study

of

Question. Ought we not in our explanation to retain the word "altruism" as it occurs in the first part of the
sentence
? 2

Answer.

in the Love principle. But apart from altruism there be either ;the one or the other ?

Yes, sympathy and affection both originate how can
Is not affection the initial outflow, but not

Question.

as yet applied to the object, and sympathy the quality by which we can import ourselves into the object ?

Ansiver.
1

The outflow

of

Love

is

simply

affection.

2

Analects XII, i, 1 (p. 114). Refers to the opening sentence of this section on

p. 343.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Sympathy is that which applies the affection, and but s that which is applied by sympathy
;
"

345

affection

for

the

ympathy applying the affection, the affection could not attachment each to the object loved there could be no
o
parents,
1

love

of the

people,

or

kindness

to

other

ireatures",

but simply a feeling of affection.

If there

vere no affection there originally, what would there be to extend ? It is like the clearing of a dyke the water is
:

here originally, and therefore when the dyke is cleared he water flows. If there were no water in the dyke )riginally, how could there be a flow of water when the

On the other hand, although there is lyke is cleared ? vater there, how can it flow out if the dyke is not cleared ?
The water
lyke
41.
is is

the feeling of affection, that which clears the

sympathy.
Questioner.
It is Baid

xhaustively expressed in Altruism is the principle of Love.
s s

The doctrine of Love Altruism the one word
:
"

is
".

It is because altruism

embodied in
that

man

that

it is called

Love.

What

I say

Love is a principle in itself, and that altruism is Therefore he work of self-mastery arrived at its g-oall. il truism l,eadb to Love. The sentence, "Altruism as em
bodied in
e s
it

When is Love," may be expressed thusi if look been we has solely wholly eliminated, egoism man s personality, it is seen to be Love. The word
man
:

embody"
1
"

suggests
"

"bony

framework". 2

Its

meaning

Mencius, p. 352. 2 As the bones are in the body, forming its framework, so is altruism to embody," is the embodied in man s personality. Note, the word t i, in the and same word as that translated enter into sympathy
" " "

"

",

sentences following.

346
is

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
same as in the sentence,
"

They enter into all things and there is .nothing without them," l and the construction is the same as in the sentence, The Principle of Potenti 2 is the of action;." It is not the word meaning faculty, ality
"

the

sympathy. Answer.

3

Altruism

is

the

method of Love
is

;

man
Love
;

is

the
for,

material of Love.

Where man

there

is

having physical form, he possesses the principle of life. If there is no selfishness with its separative barriers, tha
entire substance of

man s

personality

is

Love.

If there

were no physical form, the Vital, Impulse would have no The statement that the word "embody" seat of unity.

Sympathy is to import as in the sentence, and so study Kind and considerate treatment of the whole body of officers/ in the Doc-trine of the Mean.
is

means sympathy
one
"

also allowable.

s self

into the object

it,>

4-

42.

The term

"Love"

is

but from

man

5
;

hence the statement,
is
Love."

not derived from altruism, It is when ial truism
<

as embodied in

man

43.
is
1

"Altruism

as

embodied in man

is

Love."

Love

a permanent principle of
2

man

s

mind. If altruism, then

This sentence is quoted p. 403 (Ch. Ed., pt. i, f. 5). = simply to assist in the interpretation of the word t i (ifff). Kan (^^) a framework When any action is performed, it must embody on framework wisdom, i.e. it must contain wisdom within it as the which it is built then only will it be satisfactorily performed. Similarly
"
"
" "

D.M., p. 261. See Yi Ching,

"

".

"

"

;

"

altruism
3

must be embodied in man. Chu Hsi shows that there is no practical difference between
" "
"

(V)
t

these two

uses of the word
4
5

i;

see the end of this section.

D.M., p. 272.

That

is,

from the ideograph J{

.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
;here is
r

347

Love

;

if

egoism, then there

is

not Love.

But

>e

ou must not therefore regard altruism as Love. It must embodied in man before it can be Love. Altruism,
^mpathy, and affection,
5.

all may be employed to explain antecedent to Love, sympathy and iffection are subsequent ; because where there is altruism

Al|truism

is

;hero can
iffection

be Love, and where there and sympathy.
:

is

Love there can be

In the statement, Sympathy Love s bestowal, affection is Love s operation," what is difference between bestowal and operation ?
44.
"

Someone asked

"

"

"

"

Answer.
Section
;

"That

which
is

is

T>es

towed by sympathy

is

the

if

there

affection, the affection

not sympathy, then, although there cannot reach its object.
the
is
"

45.

Question.
bestowal,

In
"

statement,

Sympathy
what
"
"

is
is

ove

s

affection

Love
"

s

operation,"

operation ? Answer. Bestowal is the flowing forth from one s own erson, operation refers to the thing done. The extension
f the self is
its

e difference

between

bestowal

and

sympathy,

it is

object

;

affection is the first

the outflow from self reaching beginning of it. Affection

water, and sympathy is like the flow of water. The Questioner again asked You, sir, said that affecion is like water, and that sympathy is like the flow of ter. After I l went away, and thought it over, it seemed to me that this was not quite accurate. I would prefer
s like
:

1

f,

^g is for ^jT (Ch un) and is the questioner Ch en Ch un see p. 195, n. 2.
;

s

way

of referring to

him-

348

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

Lovo is like water, that the affection, is like tho quality of humidity in water, and that sympathy is like the flow of water. I do not know what you think of it.
to say that

Answer.
incorrect.
"

You

are right,

what I

said yesterday was*

1

Sympathy is Love s bestowal, affection is Love s The two expressions bestowal and opera 2 tion" must on no account be Such virtues* transposed, were only possible to Confucius arid Mencius. The rest from Hsiin and Yang downwards were unable to attains
46.
"

"

li

operation."

to them,

and therefore
it

their statements could be altered.
"

Formerly
is

was said
call

what we

Completeness of self-expression ingenuousness, and completeness in the
:

I Ch uan said, representation of an object sympathy." the in of an object can "Completeness representation no more than the idea of truth, the extension of express

one s

self to the object is
"

termed
"

2

sympathy."

For the
is

sentence,

Sympathy

is

the extension of the

self,"

the
as

bestowal". only true explanation of this need to be studied very minutely.

Such passages

Hsieh Hsien Tao, 3 the first time he met Ming Tao, was full of self-confidence because of his wide learning he knew every word in the books of History. Minig Tao said, "Honoured sir, you have a prodigious memory, but is it not what might be character47.

Question.

;

1

Sec

p. 345.

2
3

it

*,

p*- xxiii

f - 1-

Hsieh Liang Tso, see

p. 322, n. 3.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
ized as the kind of
*

349

familiarity

by which one

s

aims are

ruined?

5>1

When
said
:

Hsieh heard
"

this the perspiration

poured

down

his back

and his face flushed crimson.
This
is

Whereupon

Ming Tao

a case of

solicitude."

Now his

feelings were hurt by the question of his teacher, and the manifestation of his wounded feelings in his countenance do not seem to fit in with solicitude What, then, did
"

.

Ming Tao mean Tyy his remark ? Chu Hsi. Let us discuss this question now.
he
"

"Why
"

did

call it

solicitude

"

and not

"

conscientiousness

?

Let

each one of you give his

own
:

opinion.

Li Li Ch eng answered

Probably he had in mind the

theory of consciousness of pain. 2 The Master did not accept this.
question being put to
:

The next day, the
:

him

again, the Master said

It

was

When Hsieh Hsien Tao heard what Ming simply this Tao said he was moved, and the fact that he was so moved was itself a good thing. But you must not say that all
students should desire to be
over,

moved in the same way.
solicitude,

More

the

four

Feelings

conscientiousness,

courtesy, and moral insight do not all come at once. In the narrow sense solicitude is one of Tour, in the wide
leense it includes the four.

When

one

is

moved then

all

follow.

spoke of solicitude, the other three conscientiousness, courtesy, and moral insight were all
48.
1

When he

included.

Chao Kung Fu asked
fj||
;

"

:

It is said,
s

Heaven

enters

See

J|c, pt. xiv,
cf.

f.

6.

Ming Tao

quotation

is

from the Shu Ching,

pp, 348-9
2

Legge

s

note on J^.

Cf. p. 323, n. 1.

350

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and there is nothing excluded from its Love enters into all actions, without
j

into all things,

operation, just as
exception."

there

is

Does this not mean that in every single thing; Divine Law, and in every deed there is Love ?
Yes, Heaven
is

f

Answer.
is

embodied in things, and Love

r

embodied in actions.

Moreover, to say that Heaven
;

d

enters into things and Love into actions, means essentially that the substance of a thing is Heaven, and the substance of an action is Love. The construction of the sentencei
arises

c

;|t

from the necessity of expressing the idea in terms
:

of the higher in each case. 1

Chih Tao asked
sentence
"

Is it the

same meaning

as in the
is

:

They
"

enter into all things and there

nothing

without them

? 2

Answer.

Yes.

You, Question. explain the phrase
"

to

manage

affairs

".

your Commentary on tlie Yi "enter into things" by the expression 3 What is the connexion ?
sir,

in

Answer.
1

The phrase
"to

same meaning as
is, ^C and therefore *|

manage affairs" has the have the management of affairs"*
"to

That

an(i

fc

m ^st

be the subject of the sentence in each

case,

has to be used as a verb and in a transitive sense.
"

It

is

thus equivalent to
"

tion,
2

makes itself the substance of or, inherent is embodied enters into,"
",
"

as in the transla
in."

in,"

"is

D.M., p. 261.

3

Cf.

Yi Ching,
"

p. 408.

4

The meaning
is
",

of

3f

j

^

as

it

occurs in the passage in the Yi, to

faculty oi made, is doubtless as Legge translates it action or the gift of managing affairs. But the quotation of it here is not because of its meaning but because of its construction, ijjfc Jf and and are parallel in construction to f| ff |jj j ffi to frame affairs It is as if in the one case the phrases were rendered

which allusion

^
"

,

^

^

.

"

and to be the framework of affairs", and in the other embodied in things" and to be the body of things
"

case,

"to

be

".

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
nd to say
>e

351
"

"

enter into

"

"things
.

is

the

same

as saying

to

ths substance of things

Kung Wen
>assage

asked

:

What
"

a6out

t"he

after-part of the

which says
.

:

It embraces

*

the three hundred

ceremony, and the three thousand rules of lemeanour 1 There is not a single thing without Love."
ules

of

"

embraces the three hundred rules Answer. and the three thousand rules of demeanour ceremony
"It

of
;,

ut Love
49.

must be recognized

as the

framework.
statement, is the

Question.

How
"

do you explain the

To be

sincere, earnest,
?

empty
empty

01"

self

and calm

foundation of Love

Answer. To be

sincere,

of self,

and calm

is

the

foundation of the practice of Love.

THIRTY-TWO SECTIONS FROM THE
1.
:<hintgs

"

COLLECTED WRITINGS

".

From the two statements, that to give birth to is the Mind of Heaven and Earth, and that nien
creatures each receive this
it

nd other

Mind

of

Heaven and

follows that to express the virtue of the mind, although the supremacy and unity of the [Mind are perfectly complete, one word will nevertheless
cover
it,

Earth as their mind,

and that word

think over this

Please none other than Love Mind of the of the For virtues carefully.
"

is

".

[Heaven and Earth are four

the
;

principles

iBeauty, Order, and Potentiality Origin unites and controls them

and In their operation and become they spring, summer, autumn, and winter
all.
;

of Origin, the Principle of

the vital ether of spring permeates the whol,e.
1

Therefore

D.M.,

p. 286.

352
in
the

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
mind
of

man

also there are four virtues, Love,

and all are Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom; included in Love. In their operation they become affection, and all are united respect, obligation, and discrimination
;

in the solicitous mind.
of

Therefore in discussing the Mind
"

Heaven and Earth, when indicated by. Gh ien" 1 and
indicated

The

"

The

Principle of Origin Principle of Origin

by

K

un"

2

is

mentioned, the

substance

and

operation of their four virtues are pausing to enumerate them in detail.

all^ implied, without When, in discussing

the mystery of man s mind, it is said, "Love is man s 3 the substance and operation of the four virtues mind," are again all included, without waiting to state them in

Love in the Moral Order is the life-producing Mind of Heaven and Earth present
detail.

For

the place of

as

in
its

everything. substance is there in
the Feelings
its

Before the movement of the Feelings
its

entirety, after the
is infinite,

movement

of

operation
it,

and
>us

if

we

can truly

all preserve the root of virtue. This what is is taught every goodness, by the school of Confucius; and for this reason we are

embody and

we have within

the spring of

bound to lead the student to be eager in his pursuit of Love. To master self The statements of the Sage arei First. and return to right principle, is Love" 4 teaching us that if we can conquer and eliminate our selfishness and return
"

:

:

j

to Divine

Law, the substance of
its

this

mind 5

will be in
active.

variably present, aind
1 3 6

operation
2

everywhere

See Yi Ching, p. 213. Mencius, p. 290.
"This

Ibid., p. 214.

4

Analects, XII,
"

i,

1 (p. 114).

mind

"

>

refers to

"

Love

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Second.
"In

353

private life to be sedate, in handling public be Business to serious, in intercourse with all to bo in1 these are the means by which we may preserve ennous To be filial in. serving one s parents, his inind. Third.
"

:

"

o be fraternal in serving one s oljder brothers, and to these also are the means extend kindness to animals"
:
>y

which we practice
2
it,"

this

mind.
a

Fourth.

"

To

seek Love
retire,
3

nd obtain

to

decline

kingdom and
4
:

to

these are the and perish by starvation To mind. lose this we do not neans by which Fifth. 5 this means that aerifies life in order to perfect Love here is something we desire more than life and something hat we hate more than death, and so we can avoid injury o this mind. What mind is this ? In Heaven and Earth t is that mind to produce things which fill^ the universe, man it is that gentle mind which loves men and is dud to other creatures. It includes the Four Virtues, mid mites the Four Terminals.

hoose death

"

"

:

"n

Some one
liove
is

Dh eng Tzii

According to your explanation, do 33 not statement that affection is a Feeling and the Nature, and that affection muslt not be regarded
:

md

s

Love, become erroneous

?

Answer.

Not

so.

What Ch eng

Tzii

deprecates

is

ipplying the term Love to the outflow of affection. What maintain is that the term Love should be explained as
.

the principle of affection.
1

For what are termed Feel.ing

8
|

An

Analects, XIII, xiv allusion to T ai
Cf. Analects,

(p. 135).

Po
;

the father of
4 *

King Wen XVI, xii,

2 Analects VII, xiv, 2 (p. 63). retirement in favour of his younger brother, see Analects, VII, i (p. 71), and Legge s note.

s

1 (p. 179).

Analects,

XV,

viii (p. 1GI).

Aa

354

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
is

and the Nature, although there

a distinction between

them, have nevertheless each of them their placo in one how then can they be sharply separated!, organic union and made to have no connexion with each other ? iWhat
;

I

student

was just now most anxious about was to prevent the from repeating Ch eng Tzu s words and not

stopping to find out his meaning, lest he should end in; leaving out of account altogether the feeling of affection,

and confine himself to the recognition of the love-principle. I have therefore purposely dealt with this point with a
view to explaining what he has omitted.

Do you

regard

that as differing from Ch eng Tzu s doctrine! ? Some one askedJ The, disciples of Ch eng Tzu give various explanations of Love. Some say that affection
:

is

as the substance of Love.

not Love, and regard the unity of all things with myself Others say that affection is not

Love, and explain the term as the Do you, explaining consciousness.
to

mind
it

s

possession of

as

you do, mean

imply that these are all wrong ? From the statement, "The universe is one Answer. with myself," we may learn how Love includes all things it does not tell us what within the sphere of its affection Love ,is in its real essence. 1 From the statement, "The mind possesses consciousness," we may learn how Love
:

includes
derives
1

Wisdom
its

;

it

does not

tell

us from what
to

it really,

name. 2

If

you
"

refer
"

Confucius

answer

is the answer to what some say as reported in the question. supported by the reference to Confucius answer to Tzu Kung. 2 as reported in the question. others say This is the answer to what It is supported by the reference to a statement by Ch eng Tzu. Cf. p. 323

This

It is

"

"

and

n. 1.

PHILOSOPHY
o
vide

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

355

Tzu Kung s question about conferring benefits far and and succouring the people, and to Ch eng Tzii s stateis

nent that Love
.ciousness,

not to be explained in terms of conHow then can you you ? these word as the Love Instead, with egard explaining about the substance, you confuse ague language unity of
will see that it is so.

d hinder people, while you give nothing that will have he effect of admonition such error is likely to result n regarding the object as subject. Those who lay em
;

phasis

on

"

Consciousness

"

induce in

men

self -display
;

ind irascibleness without
>rror

any suggestion of depth

such

is likely to result in

>n

the one

hand there

is

regarding desire as principle. the negation of the ego, 1 on
" "

he other the reinforcing of tho passions, 2 and both Consciousness j-e wrong. Furtner, the .theory does
"

ot accord
nig

with the picture presented by the sages of find3 and so being able to preserve pleasure in the hills e. How then can you regard this as explaining the
"

void Love

?

Because of the importance of the subject these sayings f the Philosopher are collected and formed into a treatise

n

Love. 4

(The Treatise on Love.)
Tzii
s

2.

Ch eng

xhaustive.

To sum up

exposition of Love throughout is very the main drift of his teaching a

ew sentences only
Love
1

are necessary.

is

the nature-principle of
"

For example, he says, life, and affection is its
"

The The

result of
"

regarding object as subject regarding desire as principle
s disciples,

;
"

Jg
;

=. ^gj

8
3

result of

{JJj

=

^
tfjfc

.

JJj

.

Analects, VI, xxi (p. 56).

*

Probably by one of Chu Hsi

such as

Wu

Pi Ta.

356

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
;

the filial and fraternal spirit is corresponding Feeling its operation while altruism is that by which it is made
;

and further, right principle is Love/
concrete
"

"

;

To master
In the

self

and return

to

1

first

three sentences

may learn the terminology and meaning of Love, and in the last sentence the method of putting forth effort in its practice. Modern scholars do not thoroughly
the student

meaning of Ch eng Tm s exposition as a whole. Looking solely at his distinction between the Nature and Feeling, they declare that affection and Love have absolutely no connexion with each other. Because
search into the

he regarded altruism as coming near to Love, they say that he defined altruism directly and most emphatically as the substance of Love. They do not realize that Love is the
virtue of the Nature

and the root of affection. It is because there is Love in the Nature that there can be affection among the Feelings. (In the same way, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom aret also virtues of the Nature.;
Righteousness is the root of the hatred of evil, Reverence is the root of courtesy, and Wisdom is the root of the know
ledge of good and evil. It is because there is Righteous ness in the Nature that there can be hatred of evil among!
the Feelings, it that there can
is
is

because there

is

Reverence in the Nature
Feelings,
it

be
is

humility

among the
e\vil

because there

Wisdom

in the

Nature that there can

be

knowledge
if

of

good and

among

the Feelings.)
th<

by the selfishness of egoism, of its substance and operation cannot be per mystery fected. It is only by the mastery of self and the returr
it

But

is

choked,

"

1

Analects, XII,

i,

1 (p.

114).

PHILOSOPHY
o right principle
Jtruism",
",

OFi
"

HUMAN NATURE
mind and

357
a high

by

broadness of

that

this

substance

Complete, its

operation brilliantly manifested,

can be comprehensively and activity
be united in organic
Tzii s statements,

tnd repose, the root

and

its

fruit,

mity.
10

This

is

the meaning of

Ch eng

hey do not mean that affection and Love have absolutely connexion with each other. (This point has been dealt
I beg again to dispose
f it in

vith in detail in previous treatises.

position is that the outflow f the Nature is Feeling, that Feeling has its root in he Nature, and that there is no such thing as Feeling

a word or two.

My

without the Nature or the Nature without Feeling, each separate entity, unaffected the one by the other. You

nay

see

here

the

correctness

or

otherwise
that

of

the
word!

wo

positions.)

Nor do they

mean
the

the
of

altruism"

refers directly to

substance

Love.

Examining closely your communication I find that you If altruism be extended to the whole universe so ay, hat the egoism resulting from the distinction between
"

ubject and object is entirely obliterated, then affection I am not sure in which of these nust be universal."
;wo sentences
ove.
it

is .that

yjou refer to the substance of

you regard the universality of affection as the! ubstance of Love, then you fall into the error of conbounding Feeling with the Nature, and with your
If

eminently clear insight you could not do that. If you egard the "extension of altruism to the whole universe
30

that the egoism resulting
is

from the distinction between
"

subject and object
)f

entirely obliterated

as the substance
"

Love, then I fear that

what you

call, "altruism

would

358

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
But
since in

be but a calm emotionless indifference.

animate wood and stone cannot, even in the case of things of the same species, have mutual affection, how can there

i

But neither can be such a thing as universal affection ? I in these two sentences discover a single word expressing
must bear in mind that Love exists originally as a nature-principle and as the creative mind, and finds its concrete expression only in altruism; and not that Love oomes after al&ruism. Therefore it is said Altruism as embodied in man is Love." If you
the substance of Love.
"

D

J

We

!

"

P

:

examine

this
"

statement carefully you will see that the
is

word

"

Love

implied in the word

"

man

".)

From
Love

the
as

time of the
affection

Han

dynasty, the error of defining

was because no distinction was made between the Nature and Feeling, and so Feeling was regarded as
the Nature.

To-day, in the endeavour to correct this
"

error,
"

Love the opposite error is incurred of making the word so vague that there is nothing to which it can be referred,
with each other.
to talk of
real

and so the Nature and Feeling come to have no connexion This is to go from one extreme to the 1 which is other, simply foolish. The error leads the student

Love

meaning. and the virtues of the Nature and Feelings are also in volved in the same obscurity. In my opinion Ch eng Tzii would never have meant anything of the kind. (Reply to Chanig Ch in Fu s 2 essay on Love.)
1

day long and yet never understand its Moreover, the Mind of Heaven and Earth
all

Lit.
it

that
2

"To correct a crooked thing beyond the straight becomes crooked in the opposite direction.
:

position,"

sc

Chang Ch

ih

()}j|

${)

;

see p. 191, n.

3.

PHILOSOPHY

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

359

3. Upon a further perusal of the three points contained n another communication of yours, it seems to me that

hough with your excellent insight you have realized the
aistakes of

your

first essay, still

in this fresh treatment of

bat

our subject, there are a few small errors which suggest you have not examined it with sufficient care. BeIt

pectfully, therefore, I discuss the matter once more.
ias

already become unnecessary and first informed Tessions,
"

to discuss
"

Mencius ex-

"

first

in

apprehension,"

rhich
aenit
lis

Kuang Chung quotes 1 to explain Shan g Ts ai sstatethat Mind has consciousness". 2 And as to
"the

talk about

"knowing

this
is

"

and

"

apprehending

this

",

do not know what
je
to

it

we

are to

know
is

or

what we

apprehend.
it

Indeed, seeing that he
it is

wrong in the

undamental part of the subject
ve discuss

immaterial whether

or not.

On
"

hat
1

you regard the and knowing this Love" and knowing
"

"this"

reading your treatise I find as Love>; that is, you take
"

apprehending this "apprehending Love

as

".

Now

meaning Love
is

s

o teach ion

really the virtue of me to know it and

my mind

;

who
it?

is it

then that

apprehend from Mencius, Gh eng Tzu has already explained
to

As
is

to the quota it

n

detail,

the effect that

"

to

know

"

to

know an
be

vent (to

know

that this particular

action ought to

1

Hu Kuang Chung

;

see p. 37, n. 2.
,

The passage
;

referred
323,
n. 1,

to

is

to

be found in the

^

gfc

pt. xlii,

f.

20

cf.

also p.

of this

volume.
2

For

his allusions to Mencius, see Mencius, p. 246.
"
"

is a compound expression The word consciousness and to perceive the two ideographs, $$ to know
"

consisting of
".

",

^

"

360
thus),

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and
"

"to

apprehend

is

to apprehend a

law

(to

know

the principle because of which this action ought to be thus). The meaning is already perfectly plain, and there
is

no niecessity to seek for some recondite mystery in the
Besides,

phrase.

Ch eng

Tzti

s

idea and that of

Shang
"Con

Ts

ai really
"

have no connexion with each other.

as used by Shang Ts ai is consciousness of and heat, hunger and repletion, and similar sensations, and although you extend its application to inter-

sciousness
cold

i
fi

course

with

spiritual

beings,

it

is

still
;

the

same
a

E
ii

[consciousness

and not a

different thing

it is

simply

which
forth

question of the difference in the importance of the thing to it is applied. This, however, is the operation put
;

t

by Wisdom alone but it is only the man of Love who can combine thefai. Therefore we may say that in the man of Love the Mind has consciousness, but we cannot say that the Mind s possession of consciousness is what we term Love. For when wq say that in the man of Love the Mind has consciousness we refer to the fact
Love includes the operation of the four virtues, as though you said that the man of Love knows the objects of conscientiousness and courtesy while if you say that the Mind s possession of consciousness is what we term Love, then I answer that this is not that from which Love derives its name. You, now, instead! of inquiring into what it derives its name from, point to what it includea as the substance of Lovo ajs has been said, "the man of Love is sure to possess courage," and "the man of Virtue is sure to have correct speech". 1 But how could you go
that
;
;

1

Analects,

XIV, v

(p.

140).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
>n

361

and correct speech as Virtue ? insisting upon regarding con[With reference to iiousness as Love, you, honoured friend, are opposed to and yet in your arguments on the degree of con scions [it,
to regard courage as Love,

Po Feng

s

you scarcely avoid proving! his contention for him, As position which I would not venture to commend. for Po Feng s further statement, that what Shang Ts ai means is simply the possession of mental energy, and ithat if we obtain this mental energy the operations of Heaven and Earth become our own operations, the theory,
less
j

know

indeed, is lofty and mysterious enough, but, as he does not the meaning of Shang Ts ai s terms, and as there is
1

no indication

as to the starting point, but only a sudden reference to this mental energy, it is a case in which the loftier the conception and the more mysterious the

language, the less foundation do we find for it when look into the constitution of our own personality.
[to

we As

what he says of the operations of Heaven and Earth becoming our own operations, I fear he has simply heard
or imagined these things, but has never attained to such 2 (Reply to Chang Ch in Fu s essay on

|

an experience.
Love.)
4.

thought for others in collating all the passages in Confucius and Mencius which treat of Love, with a view to a general statement on the subject, was
Tzti
s

Ch eng

most opportune. But to devote oneself exclusively to this kind of work I fear would unavoidably produce a tendency
to indulge in hasty
1

and short-cut methods, resulting in the
in obtaining the mental energy.

That
See

is,

2

p. 191, n. 3.

362

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

a tendency you must not fail to be on your guard against. Speaking generally, before the two Ch engs, scholars knew nothing of the word Love
evil of ill-digested theories,
;

the statements of the saints and sages concerning Love they simply construed in terms of affection. It was from

two Oh engs that scholars began to realize that the word could not be explained simply as affection.
the time of the

own attendent error. For by confining the attention to the discussion of Love there was neglect of the work of holding fast and preserving the 1 and of "nurture and maturity, V so that again mind" there was no satisfaction pr pleasure in the study, 3 nor any real mastery of .self and return to right principle Not only did this result in the beclouding which leads to foolish simplicity", 5 but there was a complete divorce from the word "affection". Thus, building upon empty
But
this idea did not escape its
" "

".*

"

guesswork without any real perception of the subject, their theories became wild and grotesque with all sorts of
fallacies, to the extent ,that it haid

been better to know

nothing of the deeper

meaning
it

of the
!

word Love

at

all,

and simply interpret
if there is is
1

as affection

I have said that

a genuine desire to seek Love, certainly there no way so near of attainment as the energetic practice
Mencius,
ilH
p. 285.
"

2

=

"

to nourish

;

^=
"
"

"

to

swim about
".

in

water",

immersed

in

it,
1

4
5

holding fast, Confucius mentions this as the result of
"

and revelling in it. The proper result of the The proper result of the

nurture

etc."
"

the love of being benevolent

without the love of learning

(

JJ

fc

^

Jf

^)

;

see

Analects,

XVII,

viii,

3 (p. 186).

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
>f

363

it. But to try and exhibit it without study means the inxious uncertainty of groping in the dark like a blind ian, the result of which is the beclouding of a foolish
"

are earnest and perfect our know ledge, each of these .supplementing the other, we shall ivoid this evil. If, again, we desire to understand the
simplicity".

If

we

content of the term
follow
/ove
ill

up the

comes to

we cannot do better than word "affection". If we understand how be affection and how the latter still cannot
"Love",

out the idea of Love, the meaning and content of the will stand out clearly before our eyes, and there will

no need
whether
it

to look for it wildly, in uncertainty as to
is

or

is

not a reality.

(Reply to Chang

o.
)f
(is

Looking carefully at your

"Preface

to

The Exposition
one
s

Love",

I find the statement,

"Though

desire

s utmost endeavour in the practice of Love, lack of clearness in the apprehension of goodthrough This is faults are more than can be enumerated." one |ness,

to use one
;,

issage dees not

appear satisfactory.
to
"

To have
".

Love,

it is

apprehend goodness clearly, but this Confucius meaning of the word Love |is In these therefore always contrasted Love with Wisdom. differentiate do not scholars in their explanation [later years
ue,

you need

not the chief

it

deeds of the minister Tzti
|the representation of
1

from Wisdom, so that in estimating the errors in the Wen and of Ch en Wen Tzii 2

them

is superficial
;

and not

like the

\to

Chang Ch ih (ijj| /jj^), style Ching Fu Chu Hsi and the Sung School, chap. iv.
Analects, V, xviii,
i,

see J. P. Bruce, Introduction

2

2 (pp. 43, 44).

361

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
I fear that the teaching

language and thought of the Sage.
of

your

"Preface",

from

beginning
error.

to

end

is

not

altogether free from this

same

(Reply to Chang

Ching Fu.}
6.

1

Love in terms of affection is like ascending from the lowlands in this way we can which lies close at hand, from that our search prosecute The modern theory, and come very near to attainment. which eliminates at once all connexion between the two is like going a long way off to find the path which lies This is how it is that your mind 2 went so n.ear at hand. far astray in your former essay, while you yourself were not
discuss
to the heights
;

To

aware of your
also

error. What you say about collating passages in order to arrive at a statement of the doctrine of Love

seems

to

me

to be

at faujfc.

It is just
is

what the
he
he seeks

modern scholar does disliking what chooses what is easy, and avoiding the
a short cut.

troublesome

difficulties

This custom has already increased to such

an extent that scholars everyday are taking the shortest and therefore the most dangerous routes. 3 If they continue
to

pursue this method, I

fear their spirit of impatience

for results

the

and eagerness for rapidity will grow still more, more urgent and more distracted, and so they will fall into the opposite of what they seek, and

mind

will be

be destitute
See above.
2

of

Love.

They have not
"

realized that in

(g [g =
1

"

small
.

"

and hence

the mind

"

;

it is

similar in

its

idea

to that of -sj
3

fy
"

Wt

lifc<
>

Dangerous and

shallow,"

and so

"

sparing of

trouble"

as the dangerous short-cut.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
)h eng

365

Tzu

s collection

of sayings, 1 there

is

the exhortation
2
",

from the study
f
t

of the lowly to understand high things

o that in his case his

method was

perfectly complete,

we thoroughly investigate it and energetically practice how can we fall into such error ? (Reply to Chang
7.

Dhing Fu.)

When selfishness is eliminated, there is say oroadness of mind and high altruism, there is living union
You
the
"

:

riih

whole

universe,

the

principle
is

of

affection

is

eoeived into the heart, its operation

manifested without,

ind in all the universe there is not a single thing
Loes

which

not come within the circle of
is

my

Love. 3

This means
(These few

hat the principle of affection

the original possession of
effort."

ny nature and

is

not achieved by

entences (again are not satisfactory.) 4 For when our elfishness is eliminated, the broadness of mind with its
iigh altruism majestically penetrates in all directions, Now ind there is nothing to hide the substance of Love.

vhen the principle

is

not hidden there

is

living unio,n

vith all things in the universe, and the operation of Love s universal. But what we call the principle of affection
s the possession of my original Nature. All that the Broadness of mind with its high altruism does is to bring

t into evidence
1

;

it is

not the cause of
XIV,

its

existence. 5

By

See

p. 361.

a

Analects,

4

There seems to have
if

3 Cf. p. 367. xxxvii, 2 (p. 153). been a lacuna here in the original text hence
;

;he sentence in brackets supplied

by the

editor.

The

sentence, however,
s criticism

should be read as

without the brackets as part of Chu Hsi

of the passage quoted. 5 Note the difference

between

j^*

an^ ^t
",

J

W

means

"

to exist

"

means

"

to exist and also to be present

i.e.

in evidence.

366

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

all but it directions, living union it penetrates in is not preserved by this living union. These few sentences I beg you, therefore, to examine are somewhat inexact
;

them again. The principle of affection towards men is Love. If Heaven and Earth and all things were non-4
into

principle would not bo lessened thereby. From this you may gather what is the substance of Love; after which you are in a position to assert the living union
existent, this

For this things and its aU-inclusive operation. 1 of is affection principle essentially conservative, and to
with
all

bring in

absurdity, as is

things in the universe is to reduce it to an, shown in the Master s reply to Tzu Kung s and aboutquestion conferring benefits far and wide 2 and in the sentence, "Do we "tsuccouring the people",
all
"
"

not seo in

Fu

the

Mind

of

Heaven and Earth

"

?

For

in

the return of the Positive

Mode

the

perfected and satisfied, look for it elsewhere. 3 Again, take Lien Hsi

Earth

is

Mind of Heaven and and we need not wait to
s

remark
:

about the grass having the same impulse as his own 4 if it be as is asserted in the present day, the words "the same as are all you can retain of this remark. What
"

then has become of the words
to

"

his

own impulse

"

?

(Reply

Chang Ch in Fu.)
$1

5

1 2
3

=

"

f& $f
p.

to

restrain."

Analects, VI, xxviii, 1 (p. 58).

Yi Ching,

"

233.
"

Fu

"

symbolizes the idea of strong line the positive
at the
4
5

returning

mode

twenty-fourth hexagram, In the preceding hexagram, thhere it "returns has reached the top
an<
".

is

the

;

of the figure. See p. 338.
p. 191, n. 3.

bottom

See

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

367

To look upon the world as not having a single this also is open to question. which is not Love thing For to say, To look upon the world as not having a single thing which is not within the sphere of my Love," is
8.
"

:

"

Allowable)
borrect. 1

;

but to say that things my Love is not are while Love how is mind For things things,
:

ARE

3an you say that a thing is mind ? (Reply to Chang ph in Fu.) 9. With reference to the meaning of the word Love Mind combines the |Mencius in his use of the word Substance with its operation, and uniting the Nature and he speaks of them both as one. Ch eng Tzu, in (Feeling account of the Nature makes careful distinctions ;; pia separating the substance from its operation, he contrasts
"
I

",

"

"

1

[hem one with the other.
10.

(Reply to Lii Po Kung.)
"Love

2

As

to

my

statement, that

is

the love of

Beating in the Mind of Heaven and Earth, and that men mid other creatures receive it as their mind", 3 although
t

was the extempore utterance of

Nevertheless, that it
s s

hypothesis, I contend, exactly expresses the truth that there
a.

no separation between Heaven and Man. The statement somewhat subtle, but if you understand it you will
that in the midst of their all-comprehensive unity there a natural distinction between Love and Mind, and that
is

see

s

hough there
part.
1

this fine distinction, they cannot be torn
to

(Reply

Ho Shu

Ching.)

*

Cf. p. 365. Lii Tsu Ch ien

(g

riend of
3

Chu

Hsi.
the

ff), elder brother of Lu Tzu Yo, a very close jjjjj. His style was Po Kung. See J. P. Bruce, Introduction
School, chap. iv.

Chu HH\ and
Cf. p. 351.

Sung

368
11.

PHILOSOPHY
Love
:

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
is all-

;

is all

penetrating, therefore solicitude

penetrating

this is precisely the mysterious inseparable-

ness of the substance

from

its operation.

If

Love were
BIT

all-penetrating, but there were limits to the penetrating power of solicitude, then we should have the substance

ill-i

great and

operation small, an all-round perfection in the substance and imperfection in its operation. You may
its

fl

istl

see the point in the incident in which Hsieh Tzti was hurt by Ch eng Tzii s words and turned red in the face while

:fc

the perspiration poured "the sense of shame",
said,
"This

is

down him it was what is termed but Ch eng Tzti referring to it solicitude (Reply to Ho Shu Ching.)
:

losi

die:

".1

Thf

kt

12.
ness,

As to the exposition of Love in terms of Ch eng Tzii has already exposed its error;

conscious1

^
m
.

;

for when! ^ e

you explain Love as consciousness, you have only expressed what is its operation, and even then you have not expressed
it all.

T or

It

is

best to use the

word

"affection"

as the most

^

correct explanation of the operation of Love, and one: which has an all-round completeness. 2 (Reply to Ho Shi

^
Lov

Ching.)
13.

In

your
of

latest

communication you say
is

"

:

Thd

\

t

original

Mind

man

invariably

Love,

but having

^
YOU

become submerged in creaturely dosire, it has lost thif, virtue. Hence we must use our most earnest endeavour then only can we regain the Love of the original Mind. Therefore the sentence in your former letter, Love is thi
"

fruit

of
1

earnest

endeavour,"

as

you see
2

it

now,

ontyi

See pp. 348-9.

Cf. p. 323.

PHILOSOPHY
"

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

369
;

l expresses the second half of your present statement rhile the sentence, The Mind originally is a perfect expresses only the first half of the statement. hing,"

3ut the two sentences are not wrong, they simply lack an .11-round completeness. If you sayj The Mind is that
"

:

3

ch connects the beginning with the end, while Love the original excellence of the mind-substance but since
;

iis

Mind, although we

still

possess

it,

has become sub-

lerged in creaturely desire,
Dst,

its

original excellence has been

and can only be regained by earnest endeavour;" hen you will come somewhat nearer to a true statement.
Mencius, it is true, is comprehensive, never been without this Mind, and if pertiance he comes to be destitute of Love, it is simply that
of

?he language

ut

man

lias

tie

original excellence of the

Mind has been
to be correct.

lost.

You
the,

lust still
fords
i-e

make some
and
"

distinction, however,
Love"

between

"Mind"

I recall that

Master Li
3
,

lind

said, "When Mencius said Love is man s he did not mean that Mind is the definition of
2

JOVQ":

this

statement has considerable force.

(Reply

3

Ho Shu
14.

Ching.)
"

Your statement,
"

roceed from

consciousness,"

Solicitude apparently does not But as to is very good.

The word consciousness is not our further assertion, I I only said never meant that it was tecessarily bad,"
:

hat
1
2

where we
Yen P

need to put

forth,

our

effort is

not in

The statement with which
Li
ing
;

this section opens. see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to

Chu Hsi and

the

Sung

>cloo1,

3

chap. iv. Mencius, p. 290.

Bb

370

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Shang Ts
ai said,
1

consciousness but im reverent care.
"

Seriousness

is

the method of constant

watchfulness,"

which is correct, but there may be a tendency to regard such watchfulness as in itself Love, and this would not be satisfactory. (Reply to Yu Ch eng Chih.)
15.

Although Mencius in
"

his discourses
"

on Love gave
"

1^
e

two interpretations man s mind r solicitude," and and Ch eng Tzii also used the word in both a narrow and H
:

;

a

comprehensive sense

;

nevertheless,

if

in the narrow

ma
bU

sense of solicitude

comprehensive use
substance.
this point 2

you can discern man s mind, then in the of the word you will perceive its entire

your understanding of you are not accurate that you fail to recognize its complete substance seeking to clothe your exposition in swelling words, and masking it with .your own vivid
;

It is only because in

a

imagination, you fail to realize that the bigger your language the less trenchant will your meaning be. In the
explanations given by Ch eng Tzii the most apt is the simile of the seed corn 3 but this does not represent altruism as Love and at the same time is particularly subtle. You
;
:

<

^

now

set

aside
obiter

alj

this,

and

insist

on

taking

some
.

laudatory

dictum! of tho Comm-eniaryi on the Yi

as a direct definition of the

meaning of the word, and so not only do you miss the meaning of Love, but you also
wrongly interpret the
"Commentary".

(Reply

toLu

p(

Tzu Yo.) 5
the 1

9^
See

*

pt-

xxiv

f-

9

-

For $h an #

Ts<ai

see P- 322

>

n 3 and
>

P-

323

n>1
>

belo

2 3 *

The point that Love
p. 235.

is

to be explained

by

solicitude.

By Ch

eng

I.

5

See

p.

207 and

n. 3.

l

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
16.

371

The word

f solely

"Loves", it is true, must not be thought from the point of view of its manifested operation,

ut neither

must we

lose sight of the fact that it is a

Otherwise the rinciple capable of manifested operation. rord would have no connotation at all, and would be in-apable of definition.
"

Note, too,
virtues" 1
2

ho

first

of

all

the

is

the Principle of Origin, the first step in the

the original substance capable of nanifested operation. You must not make the original ubstance of Love one thing and its manifested operation
tilings,
,

eginning of all

different thing.

(Reply

to

Lu Tzu

Yo.)

17. The meaning of the word "Love" must be sought long one line of thought and on one principle of definition, hen your doctrine will be in union with what has gone

become wliat we know of as everyJiinig being one soul, a hazy Buddha Mind, and the very vord "Love will have no application at all. (Reply to
efore.

If not,
"

it

will

jii

Tzu Yo.)

Question. Your kind criticism arid instruction with eference to my questionings I have now mastered. For n tho man of Love the Mind has consciousness, but we
18.

Qust not call
er tains to

consciousness Love, because consciousness

.Wisdom.

Law is

one, its functions are diverse,

there are degrees in the feeling of affection. Now he regulation of this diversity, and of these degrees,

nd

)elongs to Reverence, to

make them accord with what they
Righteousness.
2

ught to be belongs
1

to

Righteousness,
Ibid., p. 213.

Yi

Citing, p. 40S.

372

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
Wisdom
are
all

Reverence, and

Love

:

it is

Love alone

that

can include these three. But in respect of whence their names are derived each has its own province, and we must
investigate the distinctions between
will all be
i-lie-m
;

otherwise they

jumbled together, and there will be no means of knowing which is Love, which is Righteousness, or which is Wisdom. Answer. Your explanation of the word Love is very
gcod. It
is important to bring the four principles together and by comparison make them throw light on each other then we can see the distinctions between them clearly,
an<

;

in the midst of the distinctions see the union of al and headship of the one. This is the true presentation o:

the inclusion of

the

four in Love.

Scholars of

recen";

years have confined their attention to the word

"Love

and given no thought to the other three. Hence the un\ they start b; certainty and mistiness of their ideas asserting the inclusion of the four, but do not really knov in what sense they, are so included. Now that we hav
;

you, with your depth of thought and clear discrimination scholars will have someone on whom they can rely. (Repl;
to

Lu Tzu Chung.)
19.

In your communication you say: The similes
1

c

"

feeling t,he

1

pulse"

and

"observation

of the

chicken,"!

are certainly good, but at the very time of observation ther are numerous cross-currents in consciousness so that th

Mind

is

divided
1 2

in

its

operations and a hindrance

t

See p. 341-2 and notes. cf. n. 2 on the next page. See pp. 338-9
;

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
jtself,

373

|ivhat
13

with the result that not only can we not perceive Love is, but the strength and rapidity of the pulse,

che appearance of the
10

phenomenon

in the chicken,

we have

:;

:

time to properly observe. I have thought over these but the statements, by feeling pulse we .observe the
Circulation
r i

:.;

vj

1 through the body, and by watching oung chickens we can observe the manifestation of life 2 these two phenomena are used to teach men, jherefore

of blood

;

KJ

-

::

tzu

ust as the physicians saying about numbness 3 and Chou s not removing the grass from his house are used. 4

Reply
20.

to

Lin Tse Chih.)
"

In the study of the word

Love

"

you must from the

ne operation learn the fullness of its entire substance, nd from the entire substance you must learn the reality
then your understanding will be operation and have without ving unity, sluggishness or obstruction. Reply to Wang Tzii Ho.)
f its single
;

21

.

You must
"

mind orn. The expression "The principle of affection" is xactly what is meant when we say that Love is the feeling
f the
1

mind that the expression Virtue to Ch eng Tzu s simile of the seedbelongs
bear in
"

Love

()

permeates

all

things just as the blood permeates the
is

ntire body.
2

In the young chicken the skin

so thin

and transparent that you can

ctually see life at work, in contrast to the old bird when the skin is too hick for such observation. Similarly in spring, in all nature you can ctually see life springing to birth in contrast to late autumn and winter,

hen
)

life,

though present,

is

hidden. Spring

is

the season that corresponds
illustration of

(Love), hence the use of the
8

young chicken as an
4

ove.

See

p. 323, n. 1.

See

p.

338 and

n. 1.

374

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATUEE
it is

of affection before

put forth, and that affection

is

the

tJi

You must keep your love-principle after it is put forth. reasoning in lino with this thought and not import

th

:io

extraneous ideas, involving the subject in confusion and If your understanding of Love is in accord $ indistinctness.

tea

with this, there is no objection to the assertion of union with all things in the universe but if you do not grasp this, and still make union with all things in the universe m
;

ace

COE

to be Love,

you

will find,

on the contrary, that there

is

no
I

not

connexion at
22.

all.

(Reply to Chou Shun Pi.)

tie

phrases,
"The

In your instructive communication you quote the 1 "Fine words and insinuating appearance," and

firm, the enduring, the simple,

and the

2

modest",
.

as indicating the

method of the practice of Love which the Sage taught and which men might thus obtain for them I have some doubt with reference to this, though, selves.

:

,

imr
;

in

my former communication, I did not touch upon it. For these two phrases exactly represent what the Sage
how men
as

,

in setting to work should guard If we can and establish their hearts. against calamity abstain from "fine words and insinuating appearance" and cultivate "simplicity and modesty the mind will no1 break loose from restraint, and we shall be near to Love The phrases were not intended merely to teach us Love is. For the most part the teaching hitherto has beer a sacrifice of heart and strength in seeking to understanc

teaches as to

2

the

"*

,

reft

di>(

wha"

(fit-

1

Confucius said, Confucius said
;

"

Fine words and an insinuating appearance are
"

seldoi

fur.

associated with Love
2
:

;
"

see Analects,

I, iii (p. 3).

are near to Love

The firm, the enduring, the simple, see Analects, XIII, xxvii (p. 138).

and the modes

PHILOSOPHY
lie
tie

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

375

word

"

Love",

explanation Love. To-day, upon investigating the gracious was that eaching of the sages, we find that their ai
is,

with the result that the more ingenious the more superficial is the representa-

ion of

m

aen should practise it in their own person and act in ccord with its doctrine, cultivate inward rectitude and

onquer

selfishness,

make

all

forms of

frivolity,

mean-

ess, self-exaltation, and contempt of others dissolve into thingness, and that we should preserve and never losa

honest and kindly, just .and upright character of our This is Love. Practice and effort in it riginal mind.
tie

nay differ according to
ait

its

degree in each
is

man s

disposition,

energetic practice and ripe to this we shall know we attain If can really naturity. ts meaning and spirit, for it is not to be known by

the important thing

magination and guesswork, nor are we to wait for magination and guesswork before we can know it. (Reply o Wu Hui Shu.)

From the point of view of the Nature, Love has not yet flowed forth, but its energizing principle includes he four principles. It is quite certain that it does not
23.
is

same thing as the word Truth. You fmusit liscriminate more clearly between them to be accurate. 1 Reply po Gheng Tzu Shang.)
efer to the

24.

Question.

With

reference

to

the

sentence
in a

Altruism as embodied in
ef erring to

man

is

Love",

Mr. Li
as
it

brmer question regarded the word

"Love"

mankind
1

as a race.
See
p. 5, n. 3.

I said that

wholly ought not

376

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Mr. Li understood you,
sir,

to be so explained, but-

to!

emphasis was to be placed on the say word "man". I have now received your criticism and instruction, from which it appears that this is not the
that

the

case.

I beg to submit

my own
is this:

opinion expressed to the
refers:
in|

best of

my
my
in

ability,

and ask you to determine the matter.
It differs
is

My

view of the passage
person.
"Love

to this

The word from the word

"man"

as used

the phrase,
man,"

the

the distinguishing characterisjtic of Doctrine, of the Mean* and should noi
"

be emphasized.
"Love is

the

The important word is embodied" for virtue of the mind^ it controls the Nature;
;

,

and the Feel ings, and rules all actions. It is essentially tin! most characteristic element in my personality. Altruism
is

|

simply the principle of Love.

If you speak of altruism;
j

per se you are speaking of a principle merely, which haej no reference to myself. Therefore it must be embodied in my person. Union is then established between my-, self and the principle, and this is called Love. This accorde
;

or

with the words of Mencius,
it is

"

As
it

united with

man
how

s

pcrsoi

Moral

is

to

Bat as be embodied, and how
Law."

2

to the question

altruisnj

the answer

is

that

it

is

no

comes to be termed Love, more than the complete
is
!

1

all-pervading; perfectly pure and bright, wholly characterized withou and within by the altruism of Divine Law, and springing Thei to birth again and yet again without any break.

elimination of selfishness until this mind

the

life-producing impulse of Heaven and Earth will: constantly abide. Therefore, in the state of stillness befon
1

D.M., p. 269.

2

Mencius, p. 361.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

377

manifestation, it is sparkling with intelligence and un clouded, like the virtue of the one Yuan, the Principle of

Fu in the midst of the Origin, brightly shining in the earth 1 with not a single event or thing which is not
"
(

"j

In its movement principle of life. in response to affection by the external world, the grief u like the positive ether of is combined with distress"

wrapped up in

this

my

"

"

2 spring developing in .the "Yii above the earth", with not a single event which is not united by this principle, and

not a single thing which is not provided for by this Vital Impulse. This is how the embodiment of altruism comles
to be Love.

By

it

we can

exercise sympathy,
it

can (manifest affection. Although
ness, or
is it
is

by it we become Righteous may

Reverence, or Wisdom, or Sincerity, wherever it I do not know if this is correct all-pervading.

or not.

Answer.

This statement
then
it

is correct.

If

it

were not as
s sacrifice

you
1

state

it,

would be
=

like the

Buddhist
107.

See the

Fu hexagram EE

in the Yi Ching, p.
;

The upper

the lower half is the half is the K un trigram EE EE symbol of earth The bottom line Chen trigram symbol of thunder or movement. whole hexagram the to which is strong and is the line gives returning which develops its name, and also its brightness symbolic meaning of ; from day to day and month to month as the strong line makes its way see Legge s note on p. 109. From this analysis of the hexagram we see that Chen, representing bright movement, is below K un, which repre

=

"

"

"

",

"

"

sents earth
2

hence the phrase Fu in the midst of the earth The Yii hexagram is the converse of the above. It has the Chen
"

".

;

trigram above the
Yii
"

K un,

thus
".

;

see Yi Ching, p. 91.
is

Thus the

is

above the earth

The Chen

symbolical of thunder which

begins to develop in the spring of the year.

378

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
it

of self to feed a tiger ; it may be altruism but 1 not Love. (Reply to Ch en An Ch ing.)
;

is

AYin

Question. Mr. Lii doctrine of solicitude 3
25.
:

2
"

says with reference to Mencius For if there is a real wounding

1

of

my

heart,

and not a mere

figure of speech, I shall then

,

f

recognize the universe as all of one substance with myself, the life-producing mind as all my own mind, the distress
of others as

my own

distress.

This

is

not achieved by

calculating thought or forced effort." expressions "all of one substance with

This use of
myself"

the
"

,

and

all

my own mind
Ch

"

means, does

it not,

nothing more than
"I
1

the assertion of the unity of Law ? Answer. Not unity of Law only, but of Ether as well.

(Reply to

en

An Ch ing.)
is

26. Altruism
affection.

without feeling, Love has the feeling of Altruism pertains to Law, and Love pertains

j

to personality.
self

What

is

altruism but
"

"the

mastery
is

of

and the return to right principle tion of every atom of selfishness.
";attachment

4

with the elimina

What
this

Love but
:

to parents, Ipve of the people,
"

and kindness you
will get

to other creatures

?

5

Reasoning from

the

the idea.

(Reply to Yang Chung Ssu.)
is

With reference to the passage beginning with the words, The principle of Origin, of the Four
27. Question.
"

1

Ch en Ch un
Probably
Lii

(fjjj

2

Tsu Ch ien

2. ff), one of Chu Hsi s disciples ; see p. 195, n. see J. P. Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hxi and
;

{he
3 5

Sung

School, chap. iv. Cf. Mencius, p. 78.

*

Analects, XII,

i,

1

(p. 114).

Mencius, p. 352.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Lttributes,
r

379

irtues,"

I

1

corresponds to Love in the Five Cardinal would say that taking the one virtue in the

rrow sense
>ur

we have

the operation of Love, taking the

in a comprehensive sense,

we have

the substance of
affection
;

;0ve.
>ut

The operation of Love
:

is

no other than

affection is not adequate to express the substance of

>nly

you must include the four in your statement, then do you get the substance of Love. Answer. Love as a single virtue is the very thing that

includes the four.
ler

You must not

leave this
to

and

find

some
Lao.)
:

Love

to unite the four. 2

(Reply

T eng Wei

28.
"Love

Question. How do you is the virtue of the
"

mincl,

explain the statement the principle of

[affection ?

3

Answer.

Love, as the virtue of the mind is like humidity as the virtue of water, or heat as the virtue of fire
;

of affection, it is like the root of a tree or jthe principle the spring from which water flows. Make a study of it
[with this idea in

mind.

(Reply to Tseng Tse Chih.)

29.
the
I

of
is

I

Your statement that when there is the absence from mind of selfish desire we have the complete substance but you must remember that there Love, is correct here an original Vital Impulse, presenting the
;

I

phenomenon
1

of

an overflowing joy

:

this is necessary to

J|jj,
3

Ch
is,

That

stance,

iung, refers to the speaker. is affection (gj), and if the sub the operation of Love In . l , comprises the four, then so also does its operation,

()

^

other words, what applies to the outflow, the transitive attribute.
5

immanent

attribute applies also to

its

See p. 381.

380

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
1

complete the idea.
affected.

Yen Tzu That is, when by

"

did not allow his joj^ to be his efforts he had attained

to Love, there was spontaneous joy, altogether indepen dent of poverty, or wealth, or high estate, or low estate,

virtuous

so that they could not affect it. In the case also of the and wise, with their joy and longevity, 2 when attainment is reached the result naturally follows. (Reply
to

Lin To Chiu.)
30. Question. On examining Confucius use of the word as when he said to Yen Tzu it is the "mastery
",

"Love

of self

and the return to right principle", 3 it seems as if the method of Love is perfectly set forth and nothing left unstated. When we come to Mencius, although he con tinually refers to Love as man s Mind/ yet his idea is that we should infer it from the feeling of solicitude, and his tendency is to emphasize the word affection. Although his teaching is subtle and incisive, yet it is not like that of tihe Sage 5 in breadth and completeness, and in its quality of leading men themselves to attain to it by devoting them selves to quiet thought and energetic practice. Is not this because Mencius lived in a time of battle and bloodshed, when the need was to find some way of saving men from lire and flood, or to give medicine to men stricken down by
disease
?

1

Yen Hui
is

(

jfj

|n|), style

Tzu Yuan

(^

called }J$), often
;

Yen Yuan-

This saying
2
s

part of a famous eulogy spoken by Confucius

see Analects,

VI, ix (p. 52),

and note.
i,

Of. Analects, VI, xxi (p. 56).

Analects, XII,
e.g.

1-2

(p.

114)

;

cf.

note above.
Confucius.

4

Mencius,

p. 290.

PHILOSOPHY
Answer.
i

OF,
said!

HUMAN NATURE
"

381

Ch eng Tzu

:

The Principle

of Origin

n the Four Attributes corresponds to Love in the Five In the narrow sense it is but one, in Cardinal Virtues.
!

;he
)f

solicitude

comprehensive sense it includes four. As the feeling it is used in the narrow sense, as the mastery

)f self it is

But it is used in the comprehensive sense." us one virtue which includes the four, for they are not
ro

things.

Therefore
**

in

the
"Love

Collected
is

Comments on
virtue
is

Analects
dnd,
the

it

is

said,

the

of

the

[pressed,
ly,

principle excellently You must not is well worth thinking over. however, that Mencius statements are not equal to

of

affection."

This

and

tose of
30

Confucius in all-round completeness.
of

Mencius
sense
2

speaks

Love

in

the

comprehensive
is

example, in the statement "Love ind Confucius speaks of it in the in the statement that it |or example,
for
ten".

man s
is

Mind"

narrow
to
"

sense
love
3

all

4

Your statement that Mencius used

the

word

olicitude because of the bloodshed of his time is also

Further, you should keep in view the fact that Confucius did not contrast Righteousness with lough he ve, constantly contrasted Wisdom with Love. (Reply
roiig.

Ou-Yang Hsi
31.
If in the

Hsiin.)
"Literary
"

Remains"

we

study the dis-

ussion

of
!

the

passage,

Filial

ubmission
1

Are they not

the

piety root of

and fraternal
all

benevolent

A

collection of

comments by various

writers,

compiled by Chu Hsi.

2

Mencius, p. 290. == the emotion love, or affection. jf
Analects, XII, xxii (p. 124).

4

382

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Dfl

actions?"

with the sayings, "Love is the Nature, filial ^ piety and fraternal submission are its operation", "Universa! affection is Love and the reply to the theory that .^
",

and then compare these m three sections with the words of the former saints and
"

the

Mind

is like

a seed-corn

",

cel

sages,

we shall find that there is nothing to call in question. The statement that solicitude cannot unite the three
"

sen

"

E0:

is

^ strongly questioned also by our friend Ho, and he cannot come to a decision upon it but it is not difficult ,to under- ^
;

stand.

If again
2

you carefully study the chapter in Mencius ^
1

on the

"commiserating

mind",

and, in the

"Additional
3

^
f

Remains",

remark on the philosopher Hsieh ^ that his memory was "the kind of familiarity by which one s aims are ruined", then it will all become clear. ^
JMing Tao
s

(Reply
32.

to

someone not named.)
one
:

Love is the life-producing Mind of Heaven and Earth which is received by all men as their
Question.

ani

sub

mind.
the

Hence
all

and unites

substance pervades heaven and earth things in the universe, its principle includes
its

so

cai

Four Terminals and

unifies all goodness, because

i sty
fl]

comprises all the virtues of the mind, and rules the Nature and Feeling. It is what is called the Principle of Origir
of

La
cut

Ch ien and

K un.

Therefore,
its

it is

from

this that wt
;

4 get our definition of

name and meaning

that

is!

1

Mencius, p. 79.

2

The

fy\*

=l
,

as stated in the preface to that work,
j|

was a compilatio

of the
3

Ch eng sayings supplementary to the see pp. 348-9. Hsieh Shang Ts ai
;

^.

4

li5 is a

verb

=

"

to define

".

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
rom
ess
its

883
mild-

transforming and nurturing influence,

its

and purity, its simplicity and liberality, its reprouctive life and deathlessness, it is termed Love. But len obscure it by their selfishness, and so its life-principle
eases,

Divine

Law

is

banished,

hardening-

and

in

visibility ensue,

and they become

cruel.

To embody Love

must cleanse themselves absolutely from selfish desire, broad-minded that there will be nothing to obscure he life-producing substance of heaven and earth their earts must be true and sincere, earnest and solicitous, Dvable as the gentle spring which we would fain retain Iways. Uniting the internal and external, the great and tie minute, the end and the beginning, it is wholly Divine
len
so
;

pervading activity, all -encompassing, reaching In the Ether flowing from the verywhere, all-uniting.
its

in

ne source

nd may

permeates everywhere without interruption, well be regarded as the all-comprehensive perfect
it

If there be one spot with never o small a defect, never so minute an event that its care annot reach, one short moment in which there is never so

ubstance without defect.

light a separation, then this

mind has become
is

selfish,

yhen

selfishness is in progress the life-principle ceases,

Jaw does not penetrate, and there
slitting off

numbnes%and the how can there be erfection ? Love is like our body: when the blood circuates perfectly throughout, we are absolutely free frojn
of affection
:

in such a case,

iisease

o reach,
for
1

which the blood fails Yen Tzu three months did not depart from Love"; 2 after
;

but
it

if

there be one finger

is

dumb and

destitute of Love. 1

Cf. p. 323, n. 1.

2

Analects, VI, v (p. 50).

384

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

the throe months there was some slight departure, but there was an immediate return, the obstruction melted

away, and once more there was no departure. It appears me that during the three months there was to the phenomenon of one "resting in Love". 1 After the
three

months it was attained by effort. 2 Is it so ? Answer. After attainment there would be no
it

effort,

but after a while
a departure.

might be that again there was

(Reply to
1
2

Ch en An Ch ing.)
ii

See Analects, IV,
Cf.

(p. 29).

D.M.,

p. 277.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
BOOK
VII
BEING BOOK XLVIII OF

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF CHU HSI

LOVE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS ,OVE, RIGHTEOUSNESS, REVERENCE, AND WISDOM ,OVE, RIGHTEOUSNESS, REVERENCE,
WISDOM, AND SINCERITY
SINCERITY

INGENUOUSNESS AND TRUTH INGENUOUSNESS AND SYMPATHY SEDATENESS AND SERIOUSNESS

cc

I

an

Big
no-

m
faiK

3,

I

suv

too
serv

acte

I
del

I.

-

L

Bll

VII LOVE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS
(FIFTEEN SECTIONS FROM THE
1.
"

BOOK

CONVERSATIONS

".)

Chao Chih Tao asked for an explanation of Love nd Righteousness from the point of view of substance and Deration, motion and rest. Answer. Love is the substance, and certainly the but and is Love ighteousness operation Righteousess are each of them both substance and operation in
;

herent aspects.
2.

Investigate this thoroughly yourself.

Love and Righteousness are reciprocally substance nd operation, motion and rest. The substance of Love
essentially inert-, but its operation is infinite in its persive
activity.
1

The

ssentially active, while
flexible.

its

operation of Righteousness is substance in every case remains

3.

The awful majesty pf Righteousness
2

is

the con-

erving
4.

aspect of Love.

say that Love pertains to the positive mode, nd Righteousness to the negative, the term Love refers

When we

outgoing activity, and the term Righteousness to conOn the other hand, Yang Tzii s saying "As ctuated by Love he is weak, as actuated by Righteousness
rvation.
1

,

operation, varies according to the innumerable dealt with, but, in each case, there is an flexible principle on which the phenomenon ought to be treated. 2 Lit. gathering in as in harvest. Righteousness is that element

1

Righteousness, in

its

irieties of

phenomena to be
"

"

Love which does not
lerance of wrong. are altruism.

let itself

It gathers itself in so that it is strong

go in wanton sentiment and weak and true in

388 he
is

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
1

2 The fact expresses a different idea. bo or other either one the it must you cannot say depends upon the point of view.

strong,"

is,

;

it

The Master, replying to the statement of some difficulties by Shu Chung, $aid: In Love the substance is in Righteousness the strong and its operation weak substance is weak and its operation strong.
5.
;

Kwang Ch
weak.

ing said

:

From

the point of view of the

is strong and Righteousness the point pf view of the Two Modes inherent in the individual thing, the operation of Love is weak and

Supreme Ultimate, Love

From

the operation of Itighteousness strong. Answer. It is so too. Love contains the idea of flowing

movement and activity put
and gentle.
tion as to
is

forth, but its operation is tender; Righteousness contains the idea of delibera
!

decisive

what is in accord with and distinct.

right, but its operator

;

Love and Righteousness! are like the Two Modes 6. which are two modes of the one Ether the positive is the ether in process of expansion, and the negative is the ether
:

,

after
is

the

process

of

contraction
as
it

has

set

in.

Lov(
birth

Righteousness

just

has

come

to

and Righteousness is Love in retrocession. The importan point is that Love cannot exhaust the whole meaning 0; Moral Law. Moral Law is universally diffused ii
See fj| ? 1=, pt. xii, f. 18. the egoisb. The "he" refers to the Yang Tzii has been, questioned.
2
"

1

^

Yang

Tzii

is

Yang Chu

(gj,

%]

"noble

man",

concerning whoc
"

refers to the negative mode, and strong the opposite of what is said in the preceding sentence.

Weak

"

"

to the positive

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
di things
;

389

Love cannot exhaust
its full

it,

but

it

can and does

mply

it

in

x>sitive

we know

substantive meaning. If we know the if we know Love we know the negative
;

Righteousness.
est.

When we know

the one

we know

all

the

Righteousness is the the Philosopher replied Righteousness to ias the meaning, *to cut it is the quality, f decision, after which it sends forth Love in abundance.
7.

Asked

abou,t the statement,

"

naterial of

Love,"

:

"

off,"

sever""

Not
r

do

to look at anything, listen to anything, say anything, 1 anything inconsistent with right principle," is the

quality of decision.
;an

The passage,
"

"

If for one

master

self

and return

to right principle, the
2

day a man whole
pervading

mpire

will return to Love,

expresses the

.ctivity of

Love.

8. the Question. Mencius regarded solicitude as erminal of Love, and conscientiousness as the terminal of

Righteousness.
o

Chou
is

Tzti said

:

"Affection is
3

right Righteousness." ubjective point of view, while it is true that solicitude and -ffection are the outflow of a mind actuated by Love, conientiousness
;

do what

is

Love, and But, from the

that is, it is shame at what is unrighteous a negative expression, and does not refer directly to he terminal of Righteousness. The word "right", again, efers to objective phenomena. What then is the actual

leaning of Righteousness as
1

it is

subjectively

?

Analects, XII,
Ibid., XII.
i.

1,

2 (p. 114)
114).
"

;

cf. p.

201 of this volume.
ii, f.

2 3

1 (p.

Quoted from the

T ung Shu

",

see Jp.

|g

,

pt.

4.

390

PHILOSOPHY

OF,

HUMAN NATURE

Subjective Righteousness is the determinate decision in favour of what is objectively right.

Answer.

Righteousness bonds.
10.

9.

is like

a sharp knife severing

many

Righteousness

is like

a sword held horizontally, by
is

which every phenomenon
two, as

as it presents itself
"

cut in

may

bo illustrated in the statements,

The

noble

man
r<

considers Righteousness to he essential," 1 "He con sidered Righteousness to be of the highest importance," 2 3 Righteousness requires that he should not eat,"
"

.[

r?f;

Righteousness
11

When we

4 requires that he should not ride," have a fine discrimination of the rightness of

C
ran:

5 things, so that we enter into the inscrutable and spirit- like in them, we attain to the largest practical application of 6 them." That is, to be perfectly practised in righteousness

us

t]

wk
\

exp

is to

perceive the practical use of things.
11.

ikt

From

the definition of Love as the virtue of the

mind

7

it

follows that Love includes the four virtues.

But

in the definition of Righteousness as the law of the mind the reference is to Righteousness only.

Answer.
1

That
XV,

is correct.

Analects,
Ibid.,

xvii (p. 163).

2
3

XVII,

xxiii (p. 193).

*
5

Yi Ching, p. 311. Ibid., p. 295. This rendering differs

from Legge

s,

but a gloss quoted in the Imperial

Commentary
3f
6

gives this meaning of
^|t
ifei-

j.

The

gloss

reads:;

^ ^

,

2H

&

The context hero

certainly requires this meaning
7

rather than that given by Legge.
Ibid., p. 390.
Cf. p. 328,

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE
12.
nind,"

391
the

Question.

The
"

"

expression,

The virtue

of

11

tho virtues, while

refers comprehensively to the entire substance of The principle of affection refers
"

)ariicularly to the single substance of

one virtue

;

and,

ilthough ncluded.

we use the word substance, operation is also The expression, Law of the mind," refers to
its
"
"

ubjective Righteousness, (and
>bjectiv

Oughtness of an
so

act"

to

Righteousness
1

;

and
"

the

subjective

and
also

Abjective are united.

Ansiu&r.
efers
to

The

expression,
"

Law

of the

mind,"

the entire substance of

Righteousness,

and

lOughtness of an act to the fact that in all the countless amifications of phenomena which present themselves to
is

vhich

there is inherent in every single thing the principle on Nor does the it to be dealt with. "ought"
;

,hat presents itself to us,
t
;

whatever it is xpression refer to external things only is some there duty embedded in

and [the performance of] that duty is Righteousness. The Philosopher then referred to I Ch uan s statement, from [From the point of view of the object, it is Law
;

;he point of

view of

my
2

conduct in relation to the object,
said

t is Righteousness."

The Philosopher farther
i

:

Righteousness

is

like

sharp knife,
:

which

will cut

through whatever presents

tself

it is

not the cutting of the knife but the knife itself

that is Righteousness.

13.

The universe

consists of one Ether
positive inode. 3,
2

which divides
it

into tho negative
1

and

and, because
-g-,pt. l,f.
6.

is

D.M.,p.283.

$?

392

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

by the interaction of these two modes that all things are produced, all phenomena assume the aspect of relativity. Heaven is contrasted with earth, life with death, speech with silence, activity, with repose, because the source 1 from
spring itself contains this principle of relativity. Hence of the four virtues two only are men and for; the tioned, corresponding to the Two Modes

which

they

;

same reason we find it stated that, In representing the Law of Heaven they used the terms Negative, and Positive/ and in representing. the Law of Man they used ,the terms Love and Righteousness
"

*

:

."

14.

With regard
"Weak
:

to the correlative

terms

"

Negative and

and Strong", "Love and Righteous ness it would seem as if the order should be Righteous ness and Love, "because Love should correspond to the
Positive",
"

positive.
it

If

Love be not

exercise so

much

creative

ness is strong

it is

and strong, how could power Although Righteous self -conserving, while Love is selfpositive
?

imparting.

This again

is

the negative enfolded within the

positive and the positive within the negative, each con taining hidden within it the root of the other. Or take the

manner in which men
:

act to-day in regard to rewards and

at

a case of reward the deed is done punishments once and without hesitation, but if it is a case of punishment by death there is delay, hesitation, and an unwilling
if it is

:

ness to decide.
positive
1

Thera is a case
Two

mode and the
source
"

of the self-imparting of the retraction of the negative, of the
Modes, which, as negative and
.

The

"

is

the
"

positive,

i

themselves contain the
2

principle of contrariety

Yi CUng.

p. 423.

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATUEE
iffinity

393

of

negative
i

Love and Righteousness modes respectively.
as fc e a
.

fotr

the positive and

15.

Gh en Chung Weii
it
2

Kuei Shan

said,

"As

Ine

in principle

is Love, as diverse in function

it

is

Doee this mean fhat Love is the suband Righteousness its operation ? jtance Answer. Love is simply the flowing forth Righteous|ligateousness."
!

;

less lias

in

its obligation to flow in a particular direction.

Like waiter, the flowing

movement of which

is

Love

;

its

as [ow as rivers, or its collect-ion in pools and ponds, is the of solicitude The Love, feeling ighteousness.

due to parents, 3 brothers, to neighbours, and to friends and acquaina,nces, is Righteousness., Again, respectfulness is but one,
ifference in the varying degrees of affection

ut there are

many

different
it is

ways of showing

1

respect,
"

ependent upon whether
r to elders, or to sages.

accorded to the sovereign, The So also with Reverence
:

ncestral temple of the Son of Heaven embraced seven irincs, the temple of the prince of a state embraced five

brines

"

3
;

this

was Reverence, but the question whether

five shrines belongs to Righteousness. the grace of Law, and Righteousness is the The meaning of uglitness of actions. Lii Yii Shu said he dictum, The Decree of Heaven is what we term the

should be seven or
is

everence

"

:

"

ature
1

"

4

may

be expressed thus.
style

:

That the nine

clans

Ch en Chung Wei,

Cheng Kuang

(^

J|), was a native of

hui

under the Government, {SJ|) ut, owing to an unsuccessful accusation against Chia Ssu Tao, a tyrannical nd traitorous Prime Minister, he retired into private life.

Yang (3^

;

he held important

offices

2

JL

H,

pt.

xxv.

f.

10.

3

Li Chi,

i,

223.

4

D.M..

p. 247.

394

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
I

have no regrets concerning the differing grades of mourning clothes or that from the palace to the lowest grade of 1
;

of

n

jjl

tffO

lictors, there are

none who venture to contend in regard

to

I Lov
I

the differing grades of ceremonial apparel, is because the Divinely conferred Nature is so." Again, take a home

toft

itn

with ten families

:

that every father

and every son filial respect them, is as it should be. The tenderness and the filialness are Love that each son is affectionate to his
;

tender to his son, to his father, and the neighbours alii
is
ij

op?r

Eigl

own.

father,

and
it is

each
.

child is Righteousness

father tender to his own These things cannot be separated.

;i

In

its

outflow

is called into

Love, but in the very moment that Love movement there are present Righteousness^

ofC

Reverence, and

Wisdom

;

it is

not that

when Love comes

ib

into operation Righteousness remains behind to be set free after a little while. In a word, it is one principle, but with

many well-marked

distinctions.

fe

(FIVE SECTIONS FROM THE

"COLLECTED WRITINGS".)

|

an(j

I have already said that the pervading activity and 1. manifested operations of the Nature as ordained by Heaven are manifest in daily life there is not a moment when it
:

Ma

-

not so, tiiere is not a thing into which they do nofcj and the great source, the complete substance, from enter which they proceed is what we term Love. But within
is
;
j

;

.

.

v,
**"

this,

every phenomenon has
;

its

own

natural distinctive

characteristics

for example, the four points of the
t

com

pass, with the zenith and nadir have their unchangeable: positions, from which they never err by a hair s-breadth. Law This is what we term Righteousness. The
"

PHILOSOPHY
>f

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
by these two

395

man" 1

is

"represented"

only, but these

wo are inseparable. Therefore the student in seeking jove and in perfecting Righteousness will not fail to use oth of them together. In his pursuit of Love his eliminaion,

of selfishness

and return to Divine

Law

will

be

In perfecting perative in the sphere of everyday life. his discrimination between the true and Righteousness
also

and between what

is

lawful and not lawful will be

pplied to every thought.
L

>f

nothing that does ot come within the scope of Divine Law and man s mind, substance and its operation, and which cannot be re
is

For there

Mencius said to the King we know what things are light and By weighing Ivhat heavy By measuring we know what things are long and what short. The relations of all things may be thus
garded
as having distinctions.
"

pf Cli i

:

.

Determined,
2
it."

and

it is

the motions of the

mind.
is

of the greatest importance to estimate I beg your Majesty to measure

Here indeed

the method by which to seek Love,
!

the foundation of the practice of Righteousness p,nd Mencius truly possessed the secret of knojwing the right

ping
!

to say

3
!

(Reply to Chiang Yuan

Sliih.)

2.

Question.

Yu

TZLI

considered

filial

piety

and

4 (fraternal submission to be the foundation of Love. Mencius regarded serving one s parents as Love and serving

one s

What is the Righteousness. ? to be found in Is not of it this xplanation discrepancy
older

brother

as

5

1 Referring to the passage in the Yi Ching quoted in the T ai Chi T u Shuo, see J. P, Bruce, Introduction to Chu Hsi and the Sumj School, chap. vi. 2

Mencius, p. 20.
Analects,
I, ii,

3

Ibid., pp. 65, 67.

*

2 (p. 3).

B

Mencius, p. 332.

393
this
:

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The school
of Confucius in their discussion of

Love

included the operation in the substance, and this is what is termed Love in its comprehensive sense while Menciua
;

when he used
its

the

word Love always contrasted

it

with

correlative Righteousness, that is, he used it in its narrow sense. In serving one s parents all that is needed

is to

be ruled by affection. Righteousness is the duty of affection. When we extend to our elders the affection with

|Hai
-

which we serve our parents, and so fulfil the duty of such affection, then the Law of Love is in operation. Answer. Your explanation is correct. (Reply to Wu Po
Feng.)
the principle of affection, it is evident that Righteousness is the principle of obligation,
3.
is

;

^

^

Seeing that Love

because both are the original substance preceding the mani festation and affection and duty are their operation. You,
the obligation of Law, 1 which is to make Righteousness the manifestation of the original substance, and comes near, does it not, to th e error of making Love subjective and Righteousness objec

however, say

.that

Righteousness

is

tive
4.

(Reply to Chiang Shu

Ch iian. )

practice of Righteousness is by the operation of Love, therefore the student must constantly preserve this

The
2
;

mind

the principles of things.
1

thus only will he be able thoroughly to estimate If net, there will be no controlling
" "

The word here translated Law is 33! ^t the same as that rendered above. Note the play upon the two words *gfc and %!|| in the principle expressions ^ the law or principle of obligation, Jj| and g{l and the obligation of Law or right principle. 2 That is, Love.
,
" "

^

.

,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
,

397

acuity in the mind and he will be unable to estimate right ,nd wrong or to fulfil his duty in life. This is why the
Tor
11

chool of Confucius always pu,ts the pursuit of Love first. Love is the source of all things and the foundation of

f

thing s, and therefore the understanding and nurture Love must be put before everything else then only;

hall

we secure our

starting point.

(Reply to Li Yiian

Ian.)
5. Question.

Yu Tzu considered filial
s

piety and fraternal

ubmission to be the root of Love. 1
etween serving one

Mencius distinguishes parents and obedience to one s elder rother, regarding the one as the fruit of Love, and the 2 Is respectful sub,ther as the fruit of Righteousness.

aission the determining factor in Righteousness, or the Inherent lightness of things ?
If right is made the determining factor, will be included in it. submission (Reply to jespectful

Answer.

jinTeChiu.)

LOVE, RIGHTEOUSNESS, REVERENCE,

AND
".)

WISDOM
(TEN SECTIONS FROM THE
1.
"

CONVERSATIONS

ess,

Love, Righteous Reverence, and Wisdom,, according ,to their substance
Question.
classification
;

How would you classify

nd operation ? Answer. Their
lation to the
ive,
1

may

be seen from their

Two Modes Love and Reverence are posithe former Righteousness and Wisdom are negative
;

Analects,

I,

i,

2 (p.

2

3).

Mencius, p. 189.

398
are

PHILOSOPHY

OF,

HUMAN NATURE
substance.

and winter are negative. of Love and According 1 the of season Righteousness, originating spring and the
,to

operation, the latter are summer are positive, autumn
this

Spring

and

dual

classification

growing season
season
are

of

summer

are Love, the gathering-in
1

of

autumn
Love,

and the storing season of winter
Described
in

Righteousness.
is

terms

of

the

four,
is

spring

summer

is

Reverence,

autumn

Righteousness, and winter is Wisdom. Love and Revorence are centrifugal and give out. Righteousness is stern and incisive, Wisdom s.tores up, as a man stores up many
things in his mind so that they are invisible, and the greater his wisdom the more deeply they are stored. This In repreaccords exactly with the passage in the Yi,
"
1

senting

the

Law
and
*

of

Heaven they
,

used

the

terms

Law representing of Earth they used the terms W.eak and Strong , in representing the Lav/ of Man they used the terms Love
Negative
Positive

in

the

and

regard Love

The commentators as a rule weak and Righteousness as strong but this is a mistake, it is Love that is strong and Righteousness weak. For .the movement of Love is outward, and so is inflexible and forceful Righteousness gathers in, its movement is inward, and so appears externally as weak.
Righteousness
as
2
."

;

irhi

t

ion

;

,

2.

ful
1

;

Question. Love and Reverence are positive and force Righteousness and Wisdom are negative and
equivalent to

ffi is

^,

"to

produce."

Spring

is

the season in which

life
2

has its beginning. Ft Ching, p. 423.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
lelding.

399
deter-

ained, its

Righteousness is divisive, idea is that of gathering

its

sphere

is

egative and yielding. Visdom ? Answer. Wisdom! is

But how
still

and naturally is could you describe
in,
its

more

devisive,
;

idea

of

athering-in is still more prominent now a .thing to be true or you know

for example, to be false.

you

it

You

it, it has no further function, from the other three. Wisdom .this respect and then hands on the matter to the other three, mows, so that its blicitucle, conscientiousness, and courtesy is more keen even than that athering-in quality

now

it

and that ends

iffering in

;

f

Righteousness.
3.

The

inclusion of the three in

Love

is

in this

way

:

Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom all have flowing and therefore are gradually evolved from Love.
1

povement Love and Wisdom, Origin and Potentiality, are the henomena of the beginning and end and these two are the in each, case most termini important of the four an and Chen, in rinciples. as we see in the diagrams
;

K

rhich

things take their rise and find their consummawhile Ken is tlae connecting point between them. 1 ion,
all

4.
1

Wei Tao 2 asked:
;

Love
Legge
s

includes
note on

Righteousness,

Yi Ching, pp. 425-6

see

p. 426.

Surnamed Yeh (3J|), style Chih Tao (0 jg), a native of Wen Chou ^ jjll). Yeh Wei Tao was a keen student of literature. After taking
2

is
!

Chou

degree of Chin Shih he accepted the post of teacher in a college at In response to inquiries made by the Emperor Li Tsung ( |H| W)-

oncerning Chu Hsi s pupils, Wei Tao was mentioned as one of the most rominent, and the title of Doctor of the Imperial Academy was conferred pon him. He was the author of several works on the Classics.

400

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
and

Reverence,

Wisdom

;

solicitude

includes
;

con

scientiousness, courtesy, and moral insight of Origin includes Beauty, Utility, and Potentiality, spring includes summer, autumn, and winter. What I

the Principl
an<

d

not understand

is

how, of the Five Agents,
is

Wood

include

Fire, Metal, and Water.

Answer.
life
;

Wood

the vital ether by which things hav

apart from

this vital ether, Fire,
;

Metal and Wate
it

could not possibly exist includes the other three.
5.

this is

how

is

that

Woo<

The Four Terminals are like the Four Virtues we take them individually there is a line of dema icatidj
;

i

!

classify them, Love and Righteous ness form the main divisions. Hence it is said Lov

between each

;

if

we

"

:

is

man

same

Mind, Righteousness is man s path." way the section on Ch ien in the
s
2
3

1
"

In th

Fourt

refers to them in one place as the "Fou and in another place says, "The Principl of Origin represented by Ch ien is what gives thei
Appendix"
Virtues"
;

beginning to
development.
refer to the
6.

all

things,

The

and secures their growth an principles of Utility and Potentialit
4

Nature and

Feelings."

of the four principles of th Nature, said that they alternately control and are sufc
sidiary to each other, but that they are united under th headship of Love and Wisdom. In the statement
"Respectfulness
1 3

Cheng Ch un, speaking

without
2

Reverence

becomes

laboriou.
Yi Chin

Mencius, p. 290.

The Fourth Appendix
Ibid., p. 415.

of the

Yi Ching,

p. 403.

*

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
1
.ustle,"

401

Reverence is regarded as the controlling principle.
"

n the

statement,

The

noble

man
2

in everything considers
is

Righteousness to be essential

",

Righteousness

regarded

the controlling principle. For the Four Virtues are never js 3parated. In contact with affairs they are severally manibsted as in reciprocal relation.
this
;

Let a

man silently meditate

and he will understand it. pon Answer. What you say is true.
7.

The word

"

Love

"

mus.t be taken in conjunction with
if
is

uighteousness, nders.tand its

Reverence, and Wisdom, true meaning. Love itself

we

would

the original

Love expressing itself in raceful form, Righteousness is Love in judgment, and Wisdom is Love discriminating. It is like the difference stween the four sea sons which all proceed from the Spring.
ibs.tance of Love,

Reverence

is

pring

is ,the

birth of the Vital Impulse,

summer

is

the

evelopment of the Vital Impulse, autumn is the conimmation and winter the storing up of the Vital Impulse.

puree. the one negative and the one positive ether ; the fito Negative and positive ethers resolve into the one Supreme
Hamate."
8

he four are resolved in,to two, and the two into one, and bus all are united under one head, and gathered into one Therefore it is said The Five Agents resolve
"

:

The Philosopher
1

said further

:

Love

is

the head of the

Principles, bu,t
Analects, VIII,
Ibid.,
3
ii,

Wisdom

can be both beginning and

1 (p. 72).

2

XV,

xvii (p. 163).

Cited from

Chu Hsi and

Chou Tzu s T ai Chi Tu Shuo the Sung School, chap, vii-

;

see J. P. Bruce, Introduction

Dd

402

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

end, just as the Principle of Origin is the head of thfl Four Attributes, but has its source not in the Principle of

;

^ ^
T(U

1 For unless UT Origin, but in the Principle of Potentiality. of influences the transforming the universe are gathered

into unity they cannot be sent forth

and

diffused.

In the

^
3

conjunction of Love and myriad transformations
are endless, the union

.

Wisdom 3 is the very pivot of the The revolutions of this principle
never dissolved.
Therefore,
if

T
J(V(

is

w;,

there were no Potentiality there could be no Origin.

the going forth of Love, Wisdom is the storing up of Righteousness. If we extend this thought to men s natural dispositions, we shall finTd that the gentle
8.

Reverence

is

!

W
idea
k<

and honest disposition is generally humble and courteous, while the man who knows everything is sharp and exacting.
9.

and

of
I

The
;

to

end

feeling of solicitude is solicitude from beginning the other three are solicitude in the beginning

r

but end as conscientiousness, courtesy and moral insight

Without solicitude these three are dead, respectively. because solicitude is the fountain-head from wliich the
other three proceed.
10.

out

Love and Reverence represent the idea of giving life, Righteousness and Wisdom represent the idea of
j

jfj

gathering in.

^
as
]

(THREE SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

"COLLECTED WRITINGS".)

Hsiao Shu, having noticed the Master s reply to Secretary Hwang s question on the classification of the
1 2

As the spring grows out of winter. Love grows out of Wisdom as spring out

;

j

of winter.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"our

403

Virtues according as they are forceful or yielding, 1 They are described both separately and altogether, [aid views on them separately I have already handed to [y
:

k)u.

them taken together, my them is that when in operation some *e active and some inactive, and from this point of view ;ove and Reverence are forceful, and Righteousness and isdom are yielding. But if we consider what really institutes them the Four Virtues, then Love is the mind
to the statement of
1

As

iderstanding of

r

tt

lea

of gentleness and yielding

cannot bear to see suffering, and seems to have the while Reverence has its
;

ixed

and unchangeable grades, and seems
two,
discriminating. a yielding
its

to 6e negative

id finely
|f

Is there not then, in the case

these

within
decisive

their

forcefulness.

ighteousness again in
jternness
r

2 judgment and rigid

seems to have the idea of strong; decision; isdom in its unimpeded comprehensive flow seems to Is ive the idea of the positive mode and of activity.
:e

not, in the case of these two, a forcefulness within

leir
id

yielding

?

Whence

it

may be

the positive modes are never separate.
I fancy that

seen that the negative I do not know

this is correct.

Answer.

what

I said at the time

[ividing them are four and uniting :pressed in your way the idea is the

was that them are two. But same it is the same
;

in the statement,

"

Water

is

negative and has

its

root

1 2

See
~Jj

p. 398, section 2.
"

is

square
"

",

and so

"

rigid

",

in that it

cannot be rolled along the

md

as a

round

"

object can.

404

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
its

in the positive, Fire is positive and has 1 negative." (Reply to Li Hsiao Shu.)
2.

root in the

The Nature
it

is

the

all -comprehensive
its

substance of the

Supremo
within

Ultimate, and in

essence

is

undefmable

;

but

up

are innumerable principles which are summed in four leading comprehensive principles. To these,

the names Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom) are given The school of Confucius did not
then,

give full expression^ to this aspect of the question ; it was Mencius who first elaborated it, the reason being that in the time of Confucius the doctrine of the goodness of the
1

Nature was not in question.
none the
sprang

But although Confucius

did

not enunciate the doctrine in detail, his statement was less complete. In the time of Mencius, heresies

-up like bees in swarms, and the goodness of the Nature was repeatedly denied. Mencius was concerned lest this truth should be obscured, and considered how he

might make
stance alone

it clear.

had been

If the all -comprehensive entire sub stated, the fear was that it would be
different

like a steel-yard

with no marks to indicate the

weights, or a foot-rule without inches, and in this way he would be unable to make the meaning clear to people

generally
truth,

;

he therefore found other language
off its

to express

th<

marking

fourfold distinctions.

This was

th(

beginning of the doctrine of the Four Terminals. For ever before their manifestation, the Nature, though "still anc without movement 2 is not a,vague empty nothingness, bir
",

comprises an orderly framework of principles, so that whei
1

See

J^

H, pt.

i, f.

7.

2

Yi Ching.

p. 370.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUKE
cted

405

upon by the external world there
;

is

an immediate
1

fall into ubjective response well * there is the response of the principle of Love, nd the feeling of solicitude assumes visible form. Or

as

when men

"see

a child

"

we appear at a temple, or before the Throne, there is he response of the principle of Ejeverence, and the feeling f respect assumes visible form. For from within, all and complete, each one xrinciples proceed, comprehensive
f

clear and distinct, so that whatever we meet with n our environment we are affected by it and respond tio t. Thus the Four Terminals in their going forth have ach its different manifestation. Mencius therefore uialysed the Nature into these four, and- taught Ihe student o recognize that within the all -comprehensive complete ubstanco there is a marvellous orderliness from which the goodness of the Nature may be known. But before the of the Four Terminals, the all -comprehen jnanifestation
>erfectly

sive

senses

complete substance how then can
;

is

its

imperceptible by, any of the marvellous orderliness be

[mown
pxists
}f

?

piples is

is, the investigation of these prinin their manifestation. Everything that possible

The answer

has its source and root. Although the principles the Nature are invisible, their manifestation in the
is

Terminals
solicitude

fully capable of investigation.

So that from

we may surely infer the existence of Love, and Similarly we can infer Bight eousness from conscientious ness, Reverence from respectfulness, and Wisdom from
-

moral insight.

If there

were no such inward principles,
?

how

could there be the visible terminals
1

From

the visible

Mencins, p. 78.

406

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
we

unhesitatingly infer the inward principle. we look at the Feelings Therefore Mencius said which flow from the Nature, we may know that they are

terminal

:

"If

constituted fo

the practice of what is good." 1 This is what Mencius meant in saying that the Nature is good, for we know it by tracing the Feelings back to their source.
clearly understood the distinction

Having

between these

four principles, it was necessary to understand further that, of these four, Love and Righteousness stand to one

but Reverence
ness

another in the position of correlatives. For Love is Love, is the manifestation of Love Righteous
;
,

ness is Righteousness *but
;

Wisdom
four

is

hidden Righteous
"but

just

as

there

are

seasons,
"

spring

and summer belong to the positive mode, and autumn and winter to the negative. Hence it is said In representing
:

the

Law

of
,
c

Heaven they used the terms
in representing the

Negative

and

Positive
the terms

Law
,

W,eak

Law
ness
7

of
."

Man
2

and Strong they used the terms Love
this

and

of Earth they used in representing the

and

*

Righteous
that
apart

From

we

may
;

know

from the principle of duality the Law of Heaven and Earth could not be set forth therefore, though

by the Love and thus stand although Righteousness to one another in the position off correlatives, and so we have the two, Love nevertheless permeates and unites all the four. For the narrow sense Love is only one,
two.

there

are

four

principles, they are represented

And

;

"in

but in

the comprehensive sense it includes the four". Therefore Love itself is tho original substance of Love,
1

Mencius,

p. 278.

2

Yi Ching,

p. 423.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
leverence
is

407

lighteousness
is criminating.

Love expressing itself in graceful form, is Love in judgment, and Wisdom is Love
It is like the four seasons
all

which, though from the spring, proceed is the birth of spring, summer is the growth of pring mng, autumn is its consummation, and winter is the
ley differ

one from another,

toring

up of spring. From the four we arrive at two, nd from the two at the one thus all are united under ne head and gathered into one source. Hence it is said
;
:

The Five Agents resolve into tlie one negative and the ne positive ether the negative and positive ethers resolve 1 This assuredly is the i\to the one Supreme Ultimate." aw of Heaven and Earth. 2 Love includes the four prin;

ples and the place of Wisdom is at the end of the four or winter is the storage season in which all things take
;
"

leir rise

and find their

consummation."

3

Wisdom

has

:he idea of storage,

together with that of the end and the
itself

eginning.
oes

Thus

solicitude, conscientiousness andrespect-

ulness, all have

something to perform, while wisdom
its

nothing tween what
expression

;

is

province is true and what
stores".

simply
is

to

distinguish

false

whence we get

Again, solicitude, concientiousness, and respectfulness each have but one aspect, rhile moral insight has two. Seeing that it distinguishes
10
"hidden

what
this

is true, it also

we have an image

and in distinguishes what is false of the consummation and th,e
;

1

luction to
2 8

Quoted from Chou Tzu s T ai Chi T u Shuo Chu H.si and the Sung School, chap. vii.
Referring to a later paragraph in the See p. 399.

;

see J. P. Bruce, Intro-

T

ai Chi

T

u Shuo

;

ibid.

408

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
all things.

beginning of
tlie

Therefore Love

is

the head

of

.,,-

four principles, while Wisdom can be both beginning and end.. 1 It is like the Originating Ether which, -although
the premier attribute, still does not spring from the prin for unless the ciple of Origin, but from Potentiality of Heaven and Earth are gathered transforming influences
;

1

into unity they cannot be sent forth

and

diffused.

This

is

,

an unmistakable principle. In the conjunction of Love and Wisdom is ,the very pivot of the myriad transforma
tions.

The
is

union

never dissolved.

revolutions of this principle are endless, the This it is that Ch eng Tzii refers

,

to when he speaks of Motion and Rest as alternating without an end, and of the two* Modes as alternating without a beginning. 2 (Reply to Ch en Ch i Chih.)

Of the four attributes of Ch ien, to regard as Potentiality corresponding to winter does not raise any in mind, but of man s four virtues to regard difficulty Wisdom as corresponding to winter seems to me not clear.
3.

Question.

my

ex
in

can the labour of the whole year, the consummation of all things, be fully represented in winter as the clear
discrimination of

How

Wisdom
ruling

?

F

Answer.
storing

The

characteristics
.

of

Wisdom

are

cs

s

:

up and discriminating it has intelligence but no activity, and this is the phenomenon of winter. (Reply to
;

r

MiuTzuHui.)
1 *

Cf. p. 401.

iff

f^pt.u.n.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
JOVE,

409

RIGHTEOUSNESS, REVERENCE, WISDOM, AND SINCERITY
"

(THREE SECTIONS FROM THE
1 f
.

CONVERSATIONS

".)

Someone asked

:

How

is it

that to the four virtues

the Nature, another, Sincerity, is added, the whole Lumber being .termed the Five Nature-Principles ?
1 the four, so that Sincerity gives reality to jovo has a real existence, and Righteousness has a real

Answer.

existence,
ine

and Reverence and Wisdom.
;

It is like Earth,

of the Five Agents if there were no Earth, there vould be nothing to contain the other four. 2 Again, it is
ike the sphere of
is

Earth in the Four Seasons

;

it

rules
if

3 sojourner for eighteen days in each of them, or

you

1
iJjlc

Hi
is

is

use d in a verbal sense,
field in
"
"

"

to

make

real."

2

Earth

the

xisten.ce,
3

the

which Water, Fire, Metal, and Wood, have their mother as it were of them all as of course is the case

n the physical sphere. o the Four Seasons, Spring,

The Four Agents Wood, Fire, Metal, and Water, correspond respectively Summer, Autumn, and Winter, and to the r Virtues, Love, Reverence, Righteousness, and Wisdom. In the ase both of the Virtues and of the Agents there is a fifth, viz Earth and But there is no fifth season. How then is the analogy carried iincerity.
:
i

In the case of the Virtues, Sincerity qualifies all the rest, i.e. gives In the case of the Agents, similarly, Earth is regarded as the ground of existence for the rest and of the seasons, while they are ruled respectively by Wood, Fire, Metal, and Water, Earth enters into all as the ruling Agent for the last eighteen days each season. The summer
at
?

ealitt/

to them.

;

season, however,
its
"

own
"

rules

regarded as specially related to Earth and is called Thus while Earth special sphere (lit. original home. /f t[jf ) in all seasons, the Spring, Autumn, and Winter are not its
is

special sphere.

410

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUEE

Chi days, 1 that is say that it rules absolutely in the because its own special sphere is the summer, 2 and it is therefore more powerful in that season. The phrase in the
Yileh Ling,
this. 3
"

Wu

ai]

Ea

-^

Right

in

the middle

is

Earth,"

refers to

h
L<)

Recently, in your weighty instruction on the meaning of Love, you said You must neither put it in the place of, nor must you eliminate it from Righteous
2.

e

Question.

"

;

:

then you will Wisdom, and Sincerity; understand the sense in which it unites the Five Virtues."
ness, Reverence,
;

3

:

You, excellent

sir,

now

use the tree as an

illustration

;

but, while the vitality resides in the root of a tree, can you,

a

P

[

in view of the organic union prevailing throughout, say that the branches and twigs, flowers and leaves, are without
this vitality?

;

Answer. Certainly not,
Vital Impulse

It is just like the
is

Four Seasons.

;

Spring corresponds to Love, and
;

in the
;

permeating principle the fruit and in winter we
;

in the

Summer we Autumn we
see)

characterized by the see its persistent and
see
it perfecting correctness and

its

strength.

In

all

four
;

seasons

there

is

no cessation

of

the Vital Impulse even though the leaves fall and are Vital the scattered, Impulse is still there. The fact is,
there
1

is

but one

Law

in the universe, but

it

has various

They

There are certain days in which each Agent is specially powerful. are, in the case of each Agent, represented by those Celestial Stem? which form the combination to which their Agent specially corresponds
;

thus:
2
3

Wood

corresponds to

rp

^

Fire to

\iou chi]

Metal to jf
p. 409, n. 3.

^, and Water to
;

pj JL %$

~J~,

Earth to

See

See Li CM,

p.

2SO

and the note on pp. 281-2.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
lames
in

411

accordance with,

its

different manifestations,

^ach of the
1

Four Virtues corresponds

to one of the Five

Agents
(Sarth,
[jove,

but Sincerity is the one which corresponds to the one by which, we know that the Four Principles, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, have a real
;

and are not mere figments of the imagination. Igain, it is like the Four A ttrib utes of Ch ien, of which it is j)rigin is the chief, and next to Potentiality LS of the the end and revealing meaning beginning. Apart rom the Principle) of Origin there could be no birth, apart Tom the Principle of Potentiality there could be no end, ipart from an ending there would be no means of making beginning, and without a beginning the end could never ie consummated, and so on in endless revolution. This a what is referred to in the sentence, The sages grandly inderstood tlie connexion between the md and the
,-xistence
1

L

"

2

eginning."

3.

In the
,

"investigation

of
s

principles",

the principles

re to be sought for in

one

own

person.

They

are none

ther than Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom, jook at all the myriad transformations and you will find
LOthing without these four principles. You,
o
sir,

need only
will

examine the common affairs of daily nd that there is nothing without them.
Sincerity
is reality,

life,

and you

As
and

to Sincerity,

jfc

is so called as expressing the reality of

the existence
reality

f the other four.
1

means

and "five" are as in the original text, Virtues and Agents are said to be four or five ccording as sincerity and earth are included or not but the numbers re often, as here, used loosely. 2 See Yi Cking, p. 213.
"four"

The numbers

brictly speaking, the

;

412

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

that a thing IS. In terms of the substance, there reallj are Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom. Ii

terms of their operation, there really are solicitude, con it can scientiousness, respectfulness, and moral insight
;

not be that

they,

are

counterfeit.

Search the

univers<

and -where can you find counterfeit Love,

counterfei

counterfeit Reverence, or counterfei Righteousness, Wisdom ? Therefore Sincerity is defined as the expression
of the fact that they have a real existence
counterfeit.

and

arei

na

(THREE SECTIONS FROM THE
1
.

"

COLLECTED WRITINGS

".)

is

The assertion of distinctions between the Five Virtue show that the Five Agents in the Nature hav; each their own individual characteristics, which must b distinguished without separating them. You must not sa
to

no

that prior to being affected by the external world there ar distinctions, and that subsequently there are. You wil
get the true idea
"Void

;

from Ch eng

Tzii s
1

section

beginnin
to

like the boundless

desert".

(Reply

Lin

T

Chin.)
2.

My

former

letter dealt

with the doctrine that Lovi
seve:
is tl
n<

Righteousness, Reverence, and Wisdom correspond ally to the Five Agents and the Four Seasons. This

ancient doctrine of the early Confucianists, and is to be regarded lightly. Although your recent letter

do<

not go so far as to depreciate it, yet, fearing that my lett did not fully explain the most important part of this trut: I feel that I must exhaustively investigate the subje
1

V

See

p. 297.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
>r

413
one

you.

For in the whole universe there

is

but

]tlier,

dividing into the negative and positive modes, and becoming two entities the positive therefore is Love,
;

nd the negative
1 its
->

But the two modes Righteousness. gain divide each into two. The positive mode therefore
is

beg inning is Wood, Spring, and Love; in its fullness becomes Fire, Summer, and Reverence the negative lode in its beginning is Metal, Autumn, and Righteous ess at its extreme it becomes Water, Winter,
;
;

nd Wisdom. For no sooner does the solicitude of Love roceed from within than the respectfulness of Reverence no sooner iani,fests itself outwardly in all its fulness
;

oes the conscientiousness proceeding from Righteousness enetrate from without inwards, than Wisdom s moral
isight in its completeness conceals itself within. There3re, since the phenomena are of this nature, it is manifest
lat the

comparison

xaggerated.
lind
)

not false nor the generalization If you quietly think it over in your own
is
is so.

the

you will see that it Four Ultimata.

The same reasoning applies
collectively
still

If

you
be

examine

all

10 classical passages it will

more

obvious, and

ou
f

will see ,that it is not

merely the recent hypothesis

insignificant self. Of the Five Agents, he four avo each their counterpart, but earth placed at the centre l

my

Is

,the

rn
1

tha

ground of the other four agents, the ruling factor Four Seasons. This in man is Sincerity and has
409-10 and notes.
;
:

In the order of etherial production, Earth Agents thus Wood, Fire, EARTH, Metal, ter. These in the same order, with the exception of Earth, correspond the seasons, Wood to Spring, Fire to Summer, Metal to Autumn, and vater to Winter, while Earth rules in all.
Cf. p.

mes

in the centre of the Five

414

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

the meaning of reality ; it is the ground of the Four Virtues, the ruling factor in all good. (The five notes, five
colours, five flavours, five odours, five organs, and 1 creeping things, are all classified in the same way).
five

For

Heaven and
are one

Man

Law,

subjective and objective and flowing permeating in organic union so

are one,

,the

that there is no separating barrier. Not to realize this means that though living in the universe we are ignorant
of the law of that universe s existence of the
;

though possessed

form and countenance of a man, we are ignorant of tho very principles which make us to be man. This

doctrine therefore very closely concerns us, its importance is even greater than that of the doctrines discussed in my

former
items.
3.

letter

;

it is

not merely a collection of insignificant
of the Analects treats

(Reply to Yuan Chi Chung.) Ch eng Kung asked The Book
:

chiefly of

Love,

while Mencius

combines

Love

It seems to me that Confucius Righteousness. of fhe speaking primordial Ether, while Mencius spoke of its Two Modes, and I should say that Love is the substance

and was

and Righteousness
1

is

the operation.

The
$%.>

"

five
&>

notes
B5>

"

^>

$J>

which compose the Chinese musical scale are Cilio Ch ih, Kung, Shang, and Yii, corre

sponding to the notes of the Western scale with the omission of the sub-

dominant and leading notes.
||j,
6t>

The

"five

colours"

are
"five

^,

ffi,

^,
are
"five

J1L, blue, red, yellow, white,
??>
*tf>

and

black.

The

flavours"

^>

sour acrid
S8>

8weet

bitter,

and

salt.

The

odours"

are ^j|,

J, ^,
b
r

J]J[,

jfj,

rank, scorched, fragrant, frowzy,
jff,

and

rotten.

heart,
1lv>

The are )j!|, Jjj|j, |JJ, organs" The "five creeping liver, and kidneys.
"five

pf, spleen, lungs,
are
$$|,
ffl,

things"

^?

s ca
"^j

feathered,

bare-skinned, hairy, and shell -covered.

See the Yiieh Ling, Book
vol. xxvii.

IV

in the

Li Chi, Sacred Books of

the East,

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
The Master
JMencius had
said
its
:

415

The language
and

of

Confucius

similarities

dissimilarities

and which

But what we need to Bought certainly to be explained. concern ourselves -about now is to understand what Love
is,

and what Righteousness
terms,
1

is.

When we

understand these
their

two
|

clearly

distinguishing

respective

leanings,
[in

and so obtain the means

of using our efforts

the sphere of our own duty, then we shall be in a position discuss the similarities and differences in the language

)f

the two sages. If we do not understand these two terms, md are negligent of our duty, of what advantage will it be

us in the affairs of life to be able to talk oracularly
ibout the language of the sages, and how shall we expound LQ ethical In .principles embodied in these two words ?

substance the doctrine is this
ill

:

Heaven,
its
;

"in

the creation of

things,

endowed each with

own Nature.

But the

fature is not a material thing

it is

me.

Therefore that which
existence
consists

a principle inherent gives to the Nature a
Love, Righteousness,

substantive
Reverence,

of

Sincerity these five, and the of whole the are included in them. .universe, :inciples Wen Kung 2 said that there are five principles which

Wisdom, and

msfitute
tat his

man

s

Nature, and his statement was very true,

doctrine was by later teachers of philosophy mixed ith the doctrines of Buddhism and Taoism, and so the
i

ature

pd

be regarded as equivalent to "Consciousness Intelligence, differing from the original trend of the
to

came

pctrine of the Nature as taught by the saints and sages.
1

2

Si ^ ere means meaning and The Philosopher Han Yu.
"

^

principles

".

416

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
principle
foi

Of these five, that which we term Sincerity is the
of reality
enoe,
;

as in the case of Love, Righteousness, Rever-

and Wisdom, they are all real, with nothing false in them. Therefore there is no need to say anything further on the term Sincerity. But there are differences "between the
other four terms
is

fco:

|not

which must be distinguished.

"For

Love

jmo
jfoll

the principle of mild gentleness and kindly affection, Righteousness is the principle of judgment and decision ;
is is

sen

Reverence

the principle of respectfulness and reserve; \m
|Loi

Wisdom

the principle of discrimination between right and wrong. The possession of the whole of these four is what constitutes the original substance of the Nature.
Before their going forth they are illimitable and invisible
after their going
solicitude,
;

L ri

forth into

operation

Love

becomes
Reverence
tio;i

Righteousness

conscientiousness,

respectfulness, and Wisdom moral

insight, manifesting themselves according to circumstances, each having its ramifications, but without confusion. These are what we

is

?

Prii

LOT
isb

term the Feelings. Therefore Mencius

"

said,
is

Solicitude

is

the terminal of Love, conscientiousness

the terminal of

111
iai(

Righteousness, respectfulness is the terminal of Rever1 ence, and moral insight is the terminal of Wisdom."

Lovi

they are called terminals it is as though there were things within which are invisible, and it is only by means Lovt of threads put forth and manifested externally that we wn arc able to trace their existence. For within the one

When

lVi;<

mind the Four
tion
;

Virtues have each their lines of demarca-

^
;^;

.Rig|

and their nature-principles and feelings, substance and operation, also have their respective differences. These
1

lurtt

Meacius,

p. 79.

^

PHILOSOPHY OE HUMAN NATURE

417

nust bo clearly understood, and afterwards within these our we shall recognize the larger distinction between Love

nd Righteousness just as the creations and transformaHeaven and Earth, the course of the seasons, do one positive .ot really go beyond the one negative and node. After we have clearly apprehended this, we must
;

ions of

ollow

it

up

"by

ents the Vital

understanding the term Love, which repreImpulse permeating and flowing in the

oidst of the four.
jove,
G

Love
is

itself is

the original substance of

Righteousness

expressing itself

Love in judgment, Reverence is in graceful form, Wisdom is Love
:

iscriminating.
irth of life,

Just as in the case of the vital ether of which permeates the Four Seasons spring is the pring

autumn is the retracion, and winter the storing up of life. The idea, therefore, The 3 expressed exactly in Ch eng Tzu s statement
is its

summer

growth,

"

:

rinciple of Origin of the Foiur Attributes corresponds to in the narrow sense it ;0ve in the Five Cardinal Virtues
;

hut one, in the comprehensive sense it includes the four." Vhcn Confucius spoke only of Love he was speaking of it
3
a.

its

comprehensive sense,
other
three,

jove, the

Chough he spoke only of Reverence, and "Righteousness,
arid,

Visdom, were included in
x)ve

it. Mencius, in speaking of and Righteousness in combination, spoke in the arrow sense. But he did not import an additional concept he simply Righteousness into the teaching of Confucius
;

lade distinctions within the one principle. Again, the iirther combination of Reverence and Wisdom with these

wo is similar for Reverence is the manifestation of Love, nd Wisdom is the storing up of Righteousness, but Love
;

EG

418

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
all

pervades

the four.

With regard

to substance

and

operation, there are again two ways of expressing the relation, for from the point of view of Love as subjective,

and Righteousness as objective, it is said Love is man s * s man and BO Love and mind, and Righteousness is path,"
"

:

Righteousness ate regarded as reciprocally substance and operation. If we discuss it from the point of view of Love
corresponding to the feeling of solicitude

E;

and Bighteousness to conscientiousness, we shall with reference to the one principle, distinguish between before manifestation, when we have its substance, and after manifestation, when we
have
its operation.

If

we understand

this perfectly,
it

and

j

see it clearly, then, whether
objectively,
2

we

regard

subjectively or
rea

But we must in
devote time to
it.

or in any other way, everything will be clear. daily, life use exact investigation, and
further

me

Kung 3
Dynasties
fection".
6

asked
4

:

In

the
"

time
"

of

the

Three
"

5 and of Per they only spoke of the Mean In the replies of Confucius to his quostionerls

he discoursed on what Love is. How do you explain this ? Answer. The expressions "Mean" and "Perfection"
are to-day misunderstood as to their language and meaning, neither have I time just now to explain them in detail.
1

Mencins,
Lit.
"

p. 290.

elegant as fine carving/ i.e. carving on the surface, which represents the external or objective, as contrasted with "penetrating inwards or the subjective. Tn any other way." lit. is perpen
:]
"
"

2

j

",

:

dicularly, horizontally, right
3

way

up, or upside

down."
;

4
5

Ch eng Knng, named at the beginning of the section Referring to the Emperors Yao. Shun, and Yii. See Shu Ching, P 62.
.

see p. 414.
!

ti0n

am

<

Uat

6

Ibid., pp.

328

if.

*

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUBE
" "

419

But that it was not till the time of Confucius that the lerm Love was expounded is because the various sages passed on the truth from one to another, so, that it was only in his
time, and by gradual stages, that it could be expounded The superiority of Confucius to Yao and Shun clearly.

may

be seen in this

among

other things.

(The

Yii

Shan

Exposition.)

SINCEEITY i
(TEN SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

"CONVERSATIONS

.)

Han

and also guilelessness. From the downwards it was regarded solely as guiledynasty

Ch

enig is reality

eng Tzu appeared he interpreted it as reality, and the scholars who succeeded him dropped the of guilelessness, forgetting that in the Doctrine [meaning the both meanings occur we must not regard Mean \of
lessness.
;

When Ch

3h

eng

as

raiethinig
2.
Is

meaning only reality, different from Ch eng.

and

guileless-ness as

Question.
? i

What is meant by
is

Baying that the Nature

Truth

"Truth"

the name of a principle, the word of a quality. The Nature is like ds fan, Truth is as if to say, it is well made.
"

Answer. ie word

The Nature
Nature
the
"

substantive, Truth is abstract.

is

is

name

1

Ch eng (fljj|), though a different word from the fifth of the cardinal virtues,
is
"

phich

tion of

more
lat
"

hsin ( fg"), is similar in meaning, especially in its twofold interpreta truth and sincerity The word Ch eng, however, is used in profound sense than hsin. Ch eng is the absolute "Truth" ; it is
"

"

".

"

Sincerity
ft
;

which

is

the very foundation of Divine

Law>

^

Jjj},

see D.M., p. 277

and

note.

420

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
said further
:

The Philosopher
is

Wu

Feng 1

said,

"Truth

the ethical principle of the Decree, the Mean is the ethical principle of the Nature, Love is the ethical principle
of the
tion.
"

Mind."

This statement
"

is

excellent in

its

discrimina
to
"

I

would,
"

however, prefer the word
as

"virtue"

ethical principle

more

apt.
fit

principle
3.

does not perfectly

expression the meaning.

The

ethical

his pupils how they would between Sincerity and Seriousness. distinguish 2 each Oh They quoted eng Tzii s statement as the correct

The Master asked

answer.

The Master
ness.

said
is

:

Sincerity

Seriousness is the opposite of wanton the opposite of deception. Seriousness
is

4. Sincerity is reality.
5.
its

awe.

Someone asked:
?

Is

Truth the substance and Love

operation

Answer.
Truth.

Law

is

one.

As having

real existence it is

As

to substance, it is

the reality of the

four

principles

Love, Righteousness, Reverence, and "Wisdom; as to operation, it is the reality of the four feelings solici"

j

tude, conscientiousness, respectfulness and moral insight, Therefore it is said The Five Cardinal Virtues, and the
:

i

ope!

hundred varieties of conduct, apart from Truth have no existence, for thus they would have no reality, and so could
not even be
6.
named."

s

^ ^
acco

Some one asked:

Is it possible
?

by concentration
2

to

attain to Sincerity
1

and Seriousness

Hu Wu

Feng, see

p. 23, n. 2.

gee

p.

423.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
Answer.

421

Smceritjis^jeprinciiple whether before nien^s" facelToT behind their backs.
doing a thing, to do
partially,
it,

Sincerity and Seriousness axe not identical. of reality. It is to b e the same

_J^L
it

it

perfectly

is

Sincerity.

If

we do

while
it

all

and talk exaggeratedly about how we will do the time we are really indifferent as to whether

we do

in this particular

way
is

or not
"

of Sincerity.
hensive".

Seriousness

to be

that is the opposite cautious and appre

1

mind is what is termed Sincerity, wholeheartedness is what is termed Ingenuous I regard ingenuousness as in some respects the ness."
.

I Ch/uan said:

"

Singleness of

for example, when we say we operation of Sincerity, hate a bad smell, and love what is beautiful", 2 and in fact do so completely that is Sincerity. If we do so
;

to

of one -tenth do not,

the extent of only eight or nine-tenths and to the extent then there is an admixture of thd
false,

empty and
s to

and that
is

is

not Sincerity.

Ingenuousness
is

be wholehearted, and to be wholehearted
I

the same

as

the explanation of Sincerity ; saying therefore I say, Ingenuousness is in some respects the

what

am

operation of Sincerity.

Singleness of holeheartedness is
8.
;

Mind
what
it
is

is

what

is

termed Sincerity, termed Ingenuousness.
is

sincerity

is

spontaneous reality, apart from any action
it:
3

r

,

accompanying
1

subjective.

Ingenuousness, on

D.M., p. 248.
G.L., p. 230. Lit. but at this point
"

2 3

:

it is

as yet

unaccompanied by

action."

422

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
is

the other hand,
it is

seen in dealing with affairs and things

:

objective.
"

To be devoid of anything false is the 1 Is the way to seek Sincerity, then, path of Sincerity." not to allow any self-deception ?
9.

Question.

devoid of anything false is a saint. To say that the saint is devoid of anything false is all right, but you cannot say that the saint must not allow
is

Answer.

He who

self-deception.

passage

Question. Is not this just the same as Is expressed in the Sincerity is the law of Heaven, to ihink upon
"

:

Sincerity

and so attain to
to

it is

the law of

manT

? *

be devoid of anything false is spon Yes, taneous Sincerity, to allow no self-deception is Sincerity
acquired by
10.
effort.
"

Answer.

Wei Tao 3 asked about
is

the passage

:

To be
;

devoid

of anything false
self-deception
is

what is termed Sincerity
attainment."

not to allow

a lower

Answer.
phrase,

It is
;

of the false

not that Sincerity is because of the absence The the absence of .the false is Sincerity.
absence of the
false,"

"the

is all -comprehensive,

taking in the whole sphere of operation, leaving no room for anything else in opposition to it. The phrase, not to allow self-deception," implies two things in opposition
"

to each other. 4
1
* 3

&
That
is,

,pt. xxi,
2.

T,*

2.

D.M., p. 277. See p. 399, n.
I

have to make up my mind not to deceive natural spontaneous outcome of the perfect nature.

4

;

it is

not tha

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
(FOUR SECTIONS FROM THE
1.
"

423

COLLECTED WHITINGS

".)

Question.

Liu Ch

i

Chih asked

Wen Kung

1

about

Wen Kung replied: "Wo methods of Sincerity. should begin by sincerity of speech." Is this not what is meant by the passage in the Yi Ching which speaks of 2 attention to speech and establishing sincerity Answer. It is near it. (Reply to Ch eng Yiin Fu.)
the
"

"

"

".

1

me the question "In the Literary Remains it is said, Sincerity is followed and of the time before we have reached by Seriousness
2.

Queq&on.

A

student 3 asked

:

;

Sincerity

it

is

said,

By

Seriousness

w& can

attain

-

to

answer to the Sincerity/ suppose, then, ? would be that I How can to attain question Sincerity there is no way so good as to be wholly guided by Serious 5 I 4 replied, ness ? Sincerity is the law of Heaven
I

that the

:

"

"

;

it

perfected is a sage. rectify oneself and be inspired by a sense of awe may also bo regarded as Seriousness. The learner should use his

may man in whom
also
be.

expressed as the principle of reality
Seriousness
is

1

;.

The To

strength in both these directions." Answer. Seriousness is apprehension, as
is

if there were and the utter absence truth, something feared. Sincerity of anything false. The meaning of the two words is
1

Ssii-Ma Kuang, one of whose pupils was Liu
i

An Shih

(^

-J^), style

Ch
2 3

Chih see Giles Biog. Diet., Yi Ching, p. 410. One of Hu Chi Sui s pupils.
;

p. 489.

4

ft

i$f

(

Ta

Shih) refers to the questioner himself, viz.
;

:

Hu

Chi Sui,

whose ming was Ta Shih
5

see p. 22. n.

1.

D.M., p. 277.

424

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
"

The sentence, Sincerity is fallowed by Serious are sincere the heart "when the motives means ness," becomes upright. The sentence, By Seriousness we can attain to Sincerity," means although the motives as yet are not sincere, yet by constant apprehensiveness we shall become afraid to allow self -deception, and so attain, to Your This is what Ch eng TZU meant. Sincerity. a of was unable had this and idefr, glimmering questioner
different. 1
:
"

:

1

to

put

it

into words

;

but your answer misses the point.

(Eeply to
3.

Hu

Chi Sui.)

Question.
"Truth,

What

is

your opinion of Mr.
"

Lii
"

s

2

state

ment,

Answer. is reality, but its use in the classics differs in different places and can not bo expressed in one definition. For example, as Mr. Lii
uses
it

(Ch eng) is the reality of Law The meaning of the word Ch eng

?
"

here
"

it

saying,

What we speak
3

has the same meaning as in Chou Tzii s of as Truth is the foundation of
reality.

sainthood,"

where the word means
saint
is

In Chou Tzu
4
eng),"

s

saying,

"The

wholly

sincere

(Ch

the

meaning
"

is

that in this case the

man

really possesses this

principle; as in the phrase in the Doctrine of the Mean, The individual possessed of the most entire Sincerity

that can exist under
of as ch eng the phrase,
1

Heaven."
"The

5

What Wen Kung
"

6

speaks

is

what

Groat Learning

refers to in
7

"making

the thoughts

sincere";

that

is,

Hu

Chi Sui makes them parallel.
Lii Yii

2

Probably
See

Shu

;

see p. 60, n.

1,

but I have not been able to
4

find the passage quoted.
8 6

T ung Shu,

"fc

,

pt.
6

ii,

chap.

i.

D.M., p. 293.

Referred to on

p. 423.

7

Ibid., chap. ii. G.L., p. 230.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE
making
4.
,the

425

heart true and not allowing self-deception.
said, "To be devoid of any termed Sincerity not to allow selfa lower attainment. To be devoid of anything

(Reply to an unnamed questioner.)
Question.

Ch eng Tzu
is

thing false is

what

;

deception is false is the Sincerity of the saint, not to allow any self1 is What is your the of the learner." Sincerity leception
;

Dpinion

?

apparently a definition of the meaning of the term, and not intended ;o define the differing ranks of men. (Reply to Ch eng
is

Answer.

This section of

Ch eng Tzu s

Ymi Pu.)

INGENUOUSNESS AND TRUTH
(TWELVE SECTIONS FROM THE
1.

CONVERSATIONS Ingenuousness proceeds from within, Truth
,to

"

".)

2

has

reference

me
2.
1

s

Ingenuousness whole heart, Truth is perfect
true heart

actions.

is

the expression of accord with one s

>rinciples.

A

this is the citadel

3

for the learner.

*,pt.xxi, -f,f.2._ Chung (/jj) and hsin (f^) can neither of them be rendered conThe common rendering of Chung is istently by one English word. but it has a wider meaning than that word represents, and loyalty n most cases the better rendering is ingenuousness". Similarly with As has been seen already it is one of win, its use is very varied. he Five Cardinal Virtues, and as such is perhaps best rendered by the rord Here it is contrasted with loyalty or "ingenuoussincerity and explained as objective in this connexion its meaning is someless imes "faithfulness" or "fidelity", but most often or "truthift
2
",
"
"
" "

".

",

;

"truth"

ulness
3
!

".

*4* is

^s

*

-^ n

-

anc* JP!

P^I

*s

ormer capitals
tie

of the

Empire.
if

The
he
is

learner

Honanfu, the ancient Lo Yang, both must have a true heart as
" "

citadel of his personality

to be successful.

426

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

He must

first obtain this, then only can he succeed in the If lie has it not, to preserve tho of practice Sincerity. mind is toe same as to lose it; how then can fh ere be

jis

success

?

The saying,
a

"

He whose
1

goodness

is

part of

himself
3.

is

man
is

of truth/

exactly expresses this thought.

ness

Ingenuous 2 Manifested deeds it complete self-expression. becomes Truth, so that Ingenuousness is seen in Truth.
is
"in

Truth

the evidence of Ingenuousness.

4.

Ingenuousness and Tru,th are one and the same thing.
as

proceeding from the mind in complete selfexpression it is Ingenuousness; as tested by principle and found to be in accord with it, it is Truth. Ingenuousness
But,
;

is

the root of Truth. Truth

is

the outcome of IngenuousIP

ness.
6. Ingenuousness and Truth are one and the same thing but are related to each other, as the subjective and

objective, as the source

and issue, the root and

fruit.

Sub

jectively it is Ingenuousness, objectively it is Truth. You may describe them as one or separately; you will be equally
correct.
I

the

Question. Ingenuousness is truth in the heart. In the service of a father it is called filial piety, in the treat
6.

j

ment of friends
1

it is

called fidelity, it is only in the service
I
i |

%
&
of

Mencius,

p. 36(5.

2 Cf. section i. The expression ^ f/g j^i means an exhaustive expression of self, either in word or deed, and may be either loyalty, or as is more often tli3 ease here, ingenuousness. It is to be whole-selfed
"

",

if

the expression

may
".

be allowed, and

is

parallel to

"

j?

jjj,

whole-

L
)
!

hearted."

It is contrasted

with

t|gf

$[fy,

which mea,ns

"the

exhaustive;;^
j

representation of fact

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATUHE
of the sovereign that it
is

427

comes to be called loyalty. 1

Why

this ?

Answer. In the case of parents, brothers or friends, the essential principle of their duty is mutual affection,

;

whereas, in the case of serving a sovereign, the place of and whenever men in this duty is one of great awe position act under constraint, it is because their action does
;

not proceed from sincerity of heart. 2 Therefore this virtue is expressed by the Sage as Serving the sovereign with
"

3

loyalty."

What is the difference between Ingenuous and Sincerity ? Answer. Ingenuousness and Sincerity are both the principle of reality. Singleness of mind is Sincerity, and
Question.
ness

whole-heartedness

is Ingenuousness. Sincerity is the fundamental ruling factor of the mind Ingenuousness is but this the operation of sincerity, operation,
;

as Ingenuousness, is only subjectively manifested.
7.

Someone asked

:

How

are

we

to

compare the com
"

plete self-expression of
"

the

Ingenuousness in the learner with 4 in the saint ? indestructibility of perfect Sincerity

Answer. It is one and the same thing. But there are differences in degrees of perfection. There is the
Ingenuousness of the ordinary man, the Ingenuousness of the learner, the Ingenuousness of the wise man,
The same word as that rendered ingenuousness. Constraint means that the Minister s obedience to the sovereign is contrary to what he would do if his actions accorded with his own heart.
2
1

Constraint, therefore,

is

an evidence

of insincerity.
"

following sections the word translated 3 Analects, III, xix (p. 2-5).

sincerity" is

Note, in this and the ch eng (IJw)*

D.M.,

p. 283.

428

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

and the Ingenuousness of the holy man. In the ordinary man, even though it is no more than unaffected simplicity 1 and honesty, it is still Ingenuousness. Chih Ch ing 2 said: The word in the expression
"self"
"

"

"

self-expression
" "
"

corresponds to

complete
"

to

indestructibility
"

".

and perfect sincerity Perfect sincerity
",
"

"

corresponds to the expression
indestructibility
"

"The

Divine

decree",

and

to

how

profound

it

is

and

undying
8.

3

!

Wen Chen

asked about the statement

"

self -expression is

what

is

Complete termed Ingenuousness, to be
:

[;

|*

real is

what is tenned Truth." * Answer. Ingenuousness and Truth are one principle as proceeding from the heart it is Ingenuousness, as estab
by actual
fact it is Truth.

;

Ingenuousness may be described as stating a matter to others wholly and exactly as it is perceived by oneself if one only states the half and is not willing to state the whole, it is disingenuousness.
;

lished

a
j

acc
|

**

To say
is

a thing

is

when

p
^
I

it is,

and

is

not

when

it is
;

not,

They are one and the same principle as pro- m ceeding from the mind it is called Ingenuousness,
Truth.
it is

as evidenced in objective fact

Truth.

Wen Chen
impendence
1
1 1
\>

replied

:

"The

^ outgoing of oneself in com;

plete self-expression

is

with

object
r

Ingenuousness perfect correis The outgoing in Truth/
"unaffected."

|

|

f
.*%

=

**.

>jr

M
IJTC

"simple,"

|

2

Huang Kan
n/2.

(^ ^),
is

slyh Chih

Ch

ing, a disciple of

Chu Hsi

;

see

p. 246,
3
4

D.M., p. 285. The statement

by

I

Ch uan

;

se e p. 430.

PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE

429

to be whole-self ed. 1 Truth [complete self-expression is as perfect correspondence with object may be illustrated To call an incense burner an incense burner and [thus:

a table a table
to call
|

Itradict

is to be true, and not to contradict facJfc; an incense burner a table and vice versa is to confact and to be untrue.

Question.
*eal is

self-expression is

what
said

is

Complete termed Ingenuousness, to be termed Truth," since Truth is reality, and

With regard to the
what
is

"

statement,

sir,

the other day that Ingenuousness

is

reality

in

the heart, I

am

puzzled to

know what

constitutes the

lifference

between them.
Ingenuousness
is subjective,

Answer.

while Truth has
to do

in objective reference.

For example, the intention
;

as objectively thing has to do with Ingenuousness a asks you what is when man Or it Truth. Lccomplished
the property of
fire,

and you

say,

"It

is

heat"

that

is

That it is really heat is Truth. If there there will be corresponding objective subjective reality [s if is there not ?ality subjective reality, then objectively will as is expressed, in be absence of reality the fhere
Ingenuousness.
; ;

ie

2 Without sincerity there can be nothing the mind itself is unreal, what can there be in the way
" "

statement,

;

real things in its manifestation
1
s

? 3

See

p. 426, n. 2.

2

D.M.. p. 282.
"

In his notes on the passage just quoted from the Doctrine of the